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a) To prepare a ferric hydroxide solution
b) To study the general properties of a ferric hydroxide solution, starch
solution and some true solutions.
A colloid is a dispersion of particles of one substance (the disperse phase)
throughout a dispersion medium made of another substance. The
distributed substance is the disperse phase and the continuous substance
is the dispersion medium. In colloidal solution, particles are dispersed or
spread throughout the dispersion such as water. The size of colloid
particles is intermediate between the coarse suspension and ordinary
solution. Therefore, colloids are somewhere between a homogenous
solution and heterogeneous mixture. The size of particles is small where
random collisions keep them dispersed throughout the dispersion medium
and neither sinks to the bottom nor dissolves the solvent.
The particles of a course suspension can be seen under a microscope and
will settle under the action of gravity. The particles of a colloidal solution
are not visible under a microscope but can be detected under an electron
microscope. These particles of a colloidal solution may be very large
single molecules or aggregates of small molecules, atoms or ions.

Beaker or conial flask (1 dm3)

Test tubes
Boiling tube
Teat pipette
Bunsen burners
Tripod and gauze
Heat resistant mat
Filter funnel and filter paper
Cellophane membrane


Solid hydrated iron (III) chloride, FeCl3

Deionized water
5% starch solution
1% sugar solution
2% sugar solution
Sodium chloride solution (0.1 M)
Potassium chromate solution/ potassium dichromate solution

8. Fehling solution
9. Hexacyanoferum (II) solution
Dilute iodine solution
Silver nitrate solution
Sodium phosphate solution (0.1M)
Sodium sulphate solution (0.1M)
a) Preparation of ferric hydroxide solution
Was already prepared by the lab assistant
b) Tyndall effect
1. Five 100 cm3 of dry beakers was cleaned and labelled with A, B, C, D
and E.
2. Each beaker was filled with about 2/3 full with the following
Beaker A: 1% starch solution
Beaker B: 0.01% starch solution
Beaker C: ferric hydroxide prepared in Part A
Beaker D: 2% sugar solution
Beaker E: potassium chromate solution (K2CrO4)
3. The Tyndall effect of each solution was observed by using narrow
beam of light from laser pointer. The observation was recorded.
c) Dialysis
1. Five tests tube was dried and cleaned and then was filled with 5 cm 3
of the following solutions:
Test tube A: 5% starch solution
Test tube B: sodium chloride solution 0.2 M
Test tube C: ferric hydroxide solution
Test tube D: 2% sugar solution
Test tube E: potassium chromate solution (K2CrO4)
2. The mouth of all the test tubes was wrapped with pre-soak
cellophane membrane and fastened tightly by using thread. The
cellophane membrane was soaked in deionized water for at least 24
hour before the experiment was conducted.
3. The tests tubes were then inverted and dip in different small
beakers containing deionized water, clamped and leaved for 1 hour.

The water level in the beaker was make sure to always lower than
the level of the solutions in test tubes.
4. 3 cm3 of the deionized water in each beakers was then tested with a
few drops of the following reagents after 1 hour dialysis:
Starch solution: dilute iodine solution
Chloride solution: silver nitrate solution
Fe3+ ions solution: hexacyanoferum (II) solution
Sugar solution: Fehling solution
Chromate ion solution: ethanol solution
5. Record all the observations.
D. Stability of sol A
1. 3 test tubes were cleaned and dried.
2. All the test tubes was filled with 5 cm 3 of sol A and labelled with test
tube 1,2 and 3.
3. 2 drops of an electrolyte was then added to each of the test tubes
according to the table below:
Test tube No.
Type of electrolyte added
Sodium chloride, NaCl
Sodium sulphate, Na2SO4
Sodium phosphate, Na3PO4
4. After the addition of the electrolyte, the test tubes were shake and
leaved to stand for a few minutes. The observation was made from
time to time for any changes that may take place in the solutions.


b. Tyndall effect
Beaker A
Beaker B

Positive; light can be seen passing through the

cloudy white solution; scattered
Positive; light can be seen passing through the
cloudy white solution; scattered

Beaker C

Negative, light passes through without scattering

Beaker D

Negative, light passes through without scattering

Beaker E

Negative, light passes through without scattering

c. Dialysis
Test tube A

The solutions turn from colourless to yellow


Test tube B

The colourless solutions turns cloudy

Test tube C

No physical change

Test tube D

The solution turns from colourless to light blue

Test tube E

No physical change

d. Stability of sol A
Test tube 1

Clear solution

Test tube 2

Little amount of precipitate was present

Test tube 3

Higher amount of precipitate present


From the experiment, the Tyndall effect, dialysis and stability of sol A was
observed. Tyndall effect exists only in systems that are colloidal. The
colloidal particles that are suspended or dispersed in the system are
responsible for the scattering of the light. When a beam of light passes
through a colloidal solution, the path of the light beam can be seen as a
cone of light when observe at right angle. The particles in colloidal
solution are large enough to scatter visible light, with some of the light
being reflected in a direction perpendicular to the original beam path. The
Tyndall effect can also be used to differentiate between a colloid and true
solution. Through the experiment, only beaker A (1% starch solution) and
beaker B (0.01% starch solution) show positive result where the light was
scattered. While beaker C (ferric hydroxide), beaker D (2% sugar solution),
and beaker E (potassium chromate solution) show negative effect where
the light passes the solution without scattering.
On the other hand, dialysis is the process of separating the electrolytes in
the colloidal state from those present in the true solution by means of
diffusion through a semi-permeable membrane. Dialysis is based on the
fact that colloidal particles are retained by a semi-permeable membrane
while the ions of the electrolyte pass through it. Through the experiment,
only test tubes A (5% starch solution), test tube B (0.2 M sodium chloride
solution) and test tube D (2% sugar solution) show physical changes
where the solution turn it colour when tested with reagents. It shows the
process of dialysis was occurring in all of these test tubes. While test tube
C (ferric hydroxide sol) and test tube E (potassium chromate solution)
show no physical changes where the dialysis process was not occurred.
Besides that, the coagulation was shown in experiment D (stability of sol)
where coagulation is the irreversible collapse of the colloidal particles into
bulk phase and settles as precipitate. Besides that, lyophilic sols are more
stable and show greater resistance to coagulation than lyophobic sols
because most of lyophilic sols are neutral. Lyophobic sols are stable due to
repulsion between similarly changed particles. If this charge is removed
by adding electrolytes, coagulation occurs. The particles come together to
form larger masses, which settles under the action of gravity. Through the
experiment, the precipitate increases from test tube 1, 2 and 3. Test tube
C (Na3PO4) show greatest amount of precipitate, while test tube B (Na 2SO4)
show little amount of precipitate. This is due to the number of moles of Na
and the anions from each precipitant; the amount of precipitate was
affected. Each precipitant had the following reactions. After the reaction,
the colloidal particles coagulate, and precipitate out.

1. With an appropriate example, explain the
between true solution, suspension and colloid.


A true solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more

components. The dissolving agent is the solvent. The substance
which is dissolved is the solute. The components of a solution are
atoms, ions, or molecules, which makes them 10-9 m or smaller in
diameter. The example of a true solution is sugar and water.
Besides that, the particles in suspensions are larger than those
found in solutions. Components of a suspension can be evenly
distributed by a mechanical means, like by shaking the contents,
but the components will settle out. The example of suspensions is
oil and water.
While, colloid are particles intermediate in size between those found
in solutions and suspensions can be mixed such that they remain
evenly distributed without settling out. These particles range in size
from 10-8 to 10-6 m in size and are termed colloidal particles or
colloids. The mixture they form is called a colloidal dispersion. A
colloidal dispersion consists of colloids in a dispersing medium. The
example of colloid is milk.

2. What are gels and their types? For different type of gels
explain their differences on dehydration and soaking
Gels are the colloidal system constituting the liquid as the dispersed
phase and the solid as the dispersion medium. There are some sols
that have a high concentration of dispersed solid and change
spontaneously into semi solid form on cooling.
The types of gels are elastic and non-elastic gels. Elastic gels are
those gels which possess the property of elasticity; they change to

solid mass on dehydration which can again be converted into gel by

addition of water followed by heating and cooling. When they are
placed in contact with water they absorb water and swell. This
property is known as imbibitions. Examples of elastic gels are
gelatin, agar, starch and etc.

While, non-elastic gels are those gels which do not possess the
property of elasticity, they change to solid mass on dehydration
which becomes rigid and cannot be converted into the original form
by heating with water. They do not show the phenomenon of
imbibitions. The example of these gels is silicic acid.
The difference between dehydration and soaking properties are
dehydration is elastic gel leads to formation of elastic solid from
which the original sols can be regenerated by addition of water.
Dehydration of non-elastic gels leads to the formation of glass
powder. While, soaking properties is ability to take water where
elastic gel may take up water and swells, water is imbibed into the
gel and that is called imbibition process. Non-elastic gels do not
swell the liquid enter the pores of the gel but it do not swell because
of wall is rigid, therefore the volume of the gel does not change.
3. What kind of information can be obtained from light
scattering experiment in colloidal particles in aqueous
solutions? Explain your answer.
When light passes through a medium that contain no particles larger
than about 10-9 m in diameter, the path of the light cannot be
detected and the medium is said to be optically clear. When,
colloidal particle is present, some of the light is scattered and the
incident beam passed through weakened intensity. The scattering is
called Tyndall effect. While, the path of the light through the
medium, made visible as a result of scattering known as Tyndall
beam. Sunbeam is example of Tyndall beam when light is scattered
by fine dust particles. Analysis of the scattering as a function of the
angles provides valuable information about the sizes and shapes of
colloidal particles. When these are singles macromolecules, the
technique is therefore useful in determining molar mass.

In conclusion, the general properties of a ferric hydroxide solution, starch
solution and some true solutions was determined and identified.

Aniruddha R., (2010), Surface and Colloid Chemistry Principles and
Applications, Retrieved from
from Colloid-ChemistryPrinciples-and-Applications
A. M. Helmenstine, (2014), Solutions, Suspensions, Colloids,
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M. C. Dizon, T. G. Maglasang, Glenn M. T., (2009), Colloids, Retrieved from

November 23, 2014 from