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Dedication

UNIVERSITE DE YAOUNDE I

UNIVERSITY OF YAOUNDE I

ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE


POLYTECHNIQUE

NATIONAL ADVANCED SCHOOL


OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTEMENT DE GENIES ELECTRIQUE


ET TELECOMMUNICATIONS

DEPARTEMENT OF ELECTRICAL
AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A TOOLKIT


FOR THE PROCESSING OF FILES ISSUED FROM
RADIO MEASUREMENTS AND THE AUTOMATIC
ALLOCATION OF CELL Ids TO NEW CELLS
End of Course dissertation written by

CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA


In partial fulfilment of the requirements for a

MASTERS DEGREE IN ENGINEERING SCIENCES


In Telecommunications Engineering

Under the Supervision of


Pr. TONYE Emmanuel

E.N.S.P Yaound

Mr. MASSOGUE Vincent

Engineer Orange Cameroun SA

President:
Superviser :
Members :

Defended before the Jury composed of:


Pr. TIEDEU Alain
Professor (E.N.S.P)
Pr. TONYE Emmanuel
Professor (E.N.S.P)
Dr. Bell BITJOKA Georges
Senior Lecturer (E.N.S.P)
Dr. NGOHE Paul Salomon
Senior Lecturer (E.N.S.P)
Mr. MASSOGUE Vincent
Radio Engineer (Orange
Cameroun SA)

2010-2011 Academic year


Defended on the 25th of June 2011

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells.

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

Dedication

DEDICATION
To my lord JESUS CHRIST
I thank you lord for your constant intervention in all aspects of my life. I thank you especially
for your help during the period of my end of course dissertation. Father you gave me all the
strength and support I needed. You made available to me all the resources I asked for, be it
human or material. You nourished my spirit and that gave me the strength and courage to
breakthrough all difficulties. Lord, yours I am and yours I want to remain. Do with me
whatever you wish.

To my loving parents
My father CHEFUH James MUYAH and mother CHEFUH Patricia LUM. I thank you
very much for your love and care. I know you have always wanted to give me the best in all
situations. May the almighty reward all your efforts and grant your greatest desires.

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells.

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

Acknowledgments

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Thanks to everyone who assisted me to realise this work.
They include:


My Academic Supervisor, Pr. Emmanuel TONYE for all the advice and
encouragement during this internship and during my stay at ENSP. Also, to all the
other Lecturers of ENSP.

Pr. Alain TIEDEU, for accepting to preside over my jury

Dr. Bell BITJOKA Georges of Electrical and Telecommunications department, for


accepting to examine my work.

Dr. Paul Salomon NGOHE of the department of Mathematics and Physical sciences,
for accepting to examine my work.

My professional Supervisor, Mr. Vincent MASSOGUE (radio engineer OCM) for


all the help and contributions he made to make this work better.

The chief of service of the Littoral-West radio department, Mrs. NGO BIBOUM
Clmence for her constant encouragements and motherly care.

The Littoral-West radio engineers of Orange CAMEROUN SA, Mr. Anicet


KEMAYOU, Mr. Andr YOKO, Mr. Yves NYEMB, Mr. Charly YAMB, all the
technicians Mr. AMADIANG Charly, Mr. Eric MINE, Mr. Gerald HIOM and
Mr Christian MEKOUNDI for accepting me in their mist

The NSS Engineering department especially Mr. Freddy OYONO for the training I
received from them during my 2010 internship in Orange Cameroun SA.

All my classmates of GTEL promo 2011.

AYUNI SENGUM FAI, for being my friend, study mate, for everything

All my friends who have continually encouraged me, especially NJUMBE Divine.

All my Aunties and Uncles for the wonderful support they gave me.

My Brothers and sisters BISI, EMI, VAL, VEVE, NENE and JAY-JAY

My grandparents and all other relatives.

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells.

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

List of abbreviations

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
AUC
BSC
BSS
BSSAP
BTS
CEPT
CGI
CI
DCS
EIR
ETSI
GSM
HLR
IM
IMEI
IMSI
ISDN
LAI
MAP
MCC
MS
MSC
MSIN
MSISDN
MSRN
NPO
NSS
OCM
OMC
OSS
PCS
QoS
SIM
SMS
SS7
TDMA
TEMS
TMSI
TRAU
TRX
TUP
VLR
VSAT
WIMAX

Authentication Centre
Base Station Controller
Base station Subsystem
Base Station Subsystem Application Part
Base Transceiver Station
Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs
Cell Global Identity
Cell Identity
Digital Cellular System
Equipment Identity Register
European Telecommunications Standards Institute
Global System for Mobile Communication
Home Location Register
Interference Matrix
International Mobile Equipment Identity
International Mobile Subscriber Identity
Integrated Services Digital Network
Location Area Identification
Mobile Application Part
Mobile Country Code
Mobile Station
Mobile Station Controller
Mobile Station Identification Number
Mobile Station ISDN Number
Mobile Station Roaming Number
Network Performance Optimiser
Network Subsystem
Orange Cameroun
Operations and Maintenance Centre
Operations Subsystem
Personal Communication System
Quality of Service
Subscriber Identification Module
Short Message Services
Signalling System Number 7
Time Division Multiplexing
Test Mobile System
Temporal Mobile Subscriber Identity
Transcoder and Rate Adaptation Unit
Transceiver
Telephony User Part
Visitor Location Register
Very Small Aperture Terminal
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells.

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

ABSTRACT/RESUME

RESUME

ABSTRACT
In a cellular network, a good frequency

Dans un rseau cellulaire, un bon plan de

plan is a fundamental factor to reduce

frquence est ncessaire pour la rduction

interferences. Several applications have

des interfrences. Plusieurs logiciels aident

been designed to assist in the realisation of

la ralisation des plans de frquence telle

frequency plans, like the software ATOLL.

quATOLL. Ce logiciel sappui sur les

This

prediction

calculs de prdictions pour caractriser les

calculations to characterise interferences

interfrences entre les cellules. Ces calculs

between cells. Prediction calculations have

de prdictions sont bass sur les donnes

limitations since they rely on geographical

gographiques qui ne sont pas prcises

databases which are not accurate in some

dans certaines rgions. Alors, il est

regions. Thus, real field data is needed to

ncessaire de complter ces donnes de

complete that which is gotten from

prdictions avec celles du terrain.

software

relies

on

prediction calculations.

Pour fournir les donnes du terrain au

To supply field data into the frequency

processus

allocation process the approach here is to

lapproche consiste utiliser les fichiers

use log files issued from drive tests (radio

logs issus des mesures radio. Afin de

measurements) to generate interference

gnrer des matrices dinterfrences et les

matrices which are injected into Frequency

injecter aux Modules de Planification de

Planning Modules.

Frquences.

In this project, a toolkit was designed that

Dans le cadre de ce mmoire, un outil a

permits the generation of all ATOLL

t conu pour permettre la gnration des

compatible interference matrices. These

matrices

matrices were imported into ATOLL for

ATOLL. Ces matrices ont t importes

use in frequency planning, and they also

dans ATOLL o elles seront utilises pour

served as basis for interference analyses

la

between couples of cells.

constitueront

Another aspect realised in this project is

dallocation

dinterfrence

planification
les

de

de

frquences,

compatible

frquences,

donnes

de

et
base

danalyse dinterfrences.

the automatic allocation of cell identities to

Un autre volet de ce travail est lallocation

new cells.

automatique des CELL ID aux

nouvelles cellules.
Key Words: Interference matrix, Cell id, Drive tests, Frequency planning, QoS
Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells.

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

List of figures and tables

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Architecture of Generic GSM Network................................................................................. 14
Figure 2: The Orange Cameroon Network (May 2011)........................................................................ 16
Figure 3: Fields of LAI ......................................................................................................................... 18
Figure 4: Fields of CGI ......................................................................................................................... 18
Figure 5: Other transmitters emitting at the same frequency band as serving transmitter .................... 22
Figure 6: Other transmitters emitting at the adjacent frequency bands as serving transmitter ............. 22
Figure 7: Frequency reuse pattern........................................................................................................ 23
Figure 8: Inputs into the AFP module of ATOLL ................................................................................ 24
Figure 9: Some ATOLL modules ......................................................................................................... 32
Figure 10: Procedure for interference matrix generation ...................................................................... 34
Figure 11: Sample .im0 file format interference matrix ....................................................................... 36
Figure 12: Sample .clc file format interference matrix ......................................................................... 37
Figure 13: Sample .dct file format interference matrix ......................................................................... 39
Figure 14: Sample .im1 file format interference matrix ....................................................................... 40
Figure 15: Sample .im2 file format interference matrix ....................................................................... 42
Figure 16: Flowchart for generation of the .im0 file format interference matrix.................................. 45
Figure 17: Flowchart for generation of the .im2 file format interference matrix.................................. 46
Figure 18: Correlation analyses show highly reliable drive test based data. ........................................ 49
Figure 19: Correlation analyses show highly reliable drive test based data. ........................................ 50
Figure 20: Factors to consider during the allocation of new CI values................................................. 51
Figure 21: Steps to put in place mechanism for CI allocation .............................................................. 53
Figure 22: Sample BSS Configuration files in the directory ACME of the OMC-R............................ 54
Figure 23: Header of a sample BSSConf file (BSSConf.omcrdla1.20110510090500) ........................ 54
Figure 24: CELL_SECTION of sample BSSConf file ......................................................................... 55
Figure 25: Illustration of mechanism for CI attribution as in OCM ..................................................... 56
Figure 26: Flowchart for automatic allocation of CI values ................................................................. 58
Figure 27: Platform architecture ........................................................................................................... 59
Figure 28: Database conception ............................................................................................................ 60
Figure 29: Final database tables ............................................................................................................ 60
Figure 30: Toolkit arborescence ........................................................................................................... 63
Figure 31: Authentication page ............................................................................................................. 64
Figure 32: Application Home Page ....................................................................................................... 65
Figure 33: Generation of an Interference matrix................................................................................... 66
Figure 34: Sample of .im0 interference matrix generated from IM_CI Tool. ...................................... 67
Figure 35: Upload new log file to server. ............................................................................................. 67
Figure 36: Combining multiple log files ............................................................................................... 68
Figure 37: Loading interference matrix for comparison ....................................................................... 69
Figure 38: Example Results of evaluation ............................................................................................ 69
Figure 39: Interactive interference analyses. ........................................................................................ 70
Figure 40: C/I histograms for server-interferer couple. ........................................................................ 71
Figure 41: Channel information for frequency analyses. ...................................................................... 71
Figure 42: Input parameters for CI allocation. ...................................................................................... 72
Figure 43: Cell Ids generated for 3 cells of tri-sectorial site. ................................................................ 73
Figure 44: Mailing list .......................................................................................................................... 73

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

List of figures and tables

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: GSM key Interfaces and protocols.......................................................................................... 17
Table 2: logic channels ......................................................................................................................... 19
Table 3: Different RxLev ranges .......................................................................................................... 20
Table 4: Correspondences between BER and signal quality (RXQUAL) ............................................ 21
Table 5: Channel protection ratios ........................................................................................................ 23
Table 6: Comparison with NGAN TAFAM ......................................................................................... 30
Table 7: Comparison with NDEFO TAKA .......................................................................................... 31
Table 8: columns definition for .im0 files format interference matrices. ............................................. 35
Table 9: Columns definition for .clc files format interference matrices. .............................................. 37
Table 10: Columns definition for .dct files ........................................................................................... 38
Table 11: Columns definition for .im1 files format interference matrices............................................ 40
Table 12:Columns definition for .im2 files format interference matrices............................................. 41
Table 13: List of log-file information elements for IM generation and interference analyses ............. 44
Table 14: Interference matrices with high correlation .......................................................................... 48
Table 15: Interference matrices with low correlation ........................................................................... 49
Table 16: CI value ranges for GSM band per zone as used in Orange Cameroon................................ 51
Table 17: Ranges of CI values for DCS band per zone as used in Orange Cameroon ......................... 52
Table 18: Example of CI values for site with 3 cells ............................................................................ 52
Table 19: Programming Languages ...................................................................................................... 61
Table 20: Programming tools................................................................................................................ 61
Table 21: Template for exporting TEMS log file ................................................................................. 76

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENT
Dedication_________________________________________________________________ 2
Acknowledgements _________________________________________________________ 3
List of Abbreviations_________________________________________________________ 4
ABSTRACT _________________________________________________________________ 5
RESUME __________________________________________________________________ 5
List of figures ______________________________________________________________ 6
List of tables _______________________________________________________________ 7
Table of content ____________________________________________________________ 8
INTRODUCTION ___________________________________________________________ 10
CHAPTER 1:
1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4
1.1.5

1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2

CONTEXT AND PROBLEM STATEMENT ____________________________ 11

CONTEXT _______________________________________________________________ 13
General Presentation of GSM Network ______________________________________________ 13
The GSM Radio Interface _________________________________________________________ 19
Notions on Interferences _________________________________________________________ 21
Frequency Planning _____________________________________________________________ 23
Drive Tests (Radio Measurements) _________________________________________________ 25

Problem Statement ______________________________________________________ 26


Problem description _____________________________________________________________ 26
Objectives to be attained _________________________________________________________ 26

CHAPTER 2:

METHODOLOGY ______________________________________________ 28

2.1

State of the art __________________________________________________________ 30

2.2

Generation of Interference Matrices_________________________________________ 34

2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.2.5

2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4

2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3

Study of Formats of ATOLL Interference Matrices _____________________________________ 35


Study of Log-files from Drive Tests__________________________________________________ 42
Cross-compatibility between ATOLL Interference Matrices and TEMS Log-files ______________ 43
Transformation of Exported Log-file fields to Interference Matrices _______________________ 44
Evaluation of Generated matrices (Correlation Analyses) _______________________________ 47

Automatic Allocation of Cell Identities _______________________________________ 51


Obtaining list of existing Cell Ids ___________________________________________________ 53
Constraints for site being created __________________________________________________ 56
New mechanism for Cell Id allocation _______________________________________________ 56
Notification ____________________________________________________________________ 59

Toolkit Designing ________________________________________________________ 59


Toolkit Architecture _____________________________________________________________ 59
Database Modelling _____________________________________________________________ 60
Programming languages and tools used _____________________________________________ 61

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

Table of Contents
CHAPTER 3: RESULTS AND COMMENTS ________________________________________ 62
3.1

Results from the application _______________________________________________ 63

Conclusion AND PERSPECTIVES _______________________________________________ 74


Bibliography and Webography _______________________________________________ 75
Annex ___________________________________________________________________ 76

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

Introduction

INTRODUCTION
One of the major worries of a mobile phone operator is to insure a good quality of service to
its customers. This quality of service is principally linked to 2 parameters which are: good
signal coverage and good signal quality. But then, interferences arise due to frequency reuse.
These interferences degrade the signal quality, and hence cause a drop in the quality of
service. To reduce this, it was required to Design and Implement a toolkit for the
processing of files issued from radio measurements and the automatic allocation of Cell
Ids to new cells.
This project tackles two aspects, first supplying data issued from radio measurements into the
frequency allocation process. This will permit the amelioration of frequency plans and thus
reduce interferences. The radio measurement data could also serve as input for an interactive
interference analyses between couples of cells with the goal of detecting and reducing
interferences. Reducing interferences will improve on the QoS.
Secondly to put in place a mechanism for an automatic allocation of cell ids to new cells
integrated into the operators network.
This document presents details of all that was done to realise the project.
The first chapter of the document, Context and Problem statement, describes relevant
concepts to the project for a clear understanding. Here also, the problem at hand is described
with all its details.
The second chapter, methodology, is where the approach adopted to resolve the problem is
described clearly.
The third chapter, results and comments, shows screen shots of the developed toolkit and
comments on the screen shots.

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

10

CHAPTER 1:

CONTEXT AND PROBLEM


STATEMENT

The context starts with a brief description of the GSM norm: its
origins, architecture, main components and the radio interface. It
also mentions some notions on interferences.
It then goes on to give information on frequency planning and drive
tests, giving tools used for these in the company Orange Cameroon.
The Problem Statement outlines the Project specifications made by
Orange Cameroon.

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

11

Context

OUTLINE
CONTEXT

General Presentation of GSM Network


Origin of GSM and Definition of the Norm
The Network
Architecture
Generic Architecture
Orange Cameroon Network
Interfaces and Protocols
Cell identification in GSM networks

The GSM Radio Interface


TDMA Structures
Logic Channels
Radio Interface Performances

Notions on Interferences
Definition

Frequency Planning
Frequency Reuse Pattern
Frequency Planning in OCM (use of ATOLL)
Interference Matrices

Drive Tests (Radio Measurements)

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Problem description

Objectives to be attained

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

12

Context

1.1

CONTEXT

1.1.1 General Presentation of GSM Network


1.1.1.1

Origin of GSM and Definition of the Norm

Origin of GSM:
During the early 1980s, analogue cellular telephone systems were experiencing rapid growth
in Europe, particularly in Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, France and Germany. Each
country developed its own system, which was incompatible with everyone else's in
equipment and operation. This was undesirable; not only was the mobile equipment limited
to operation within national boundaries, but there was also a very limited market for each
type of equipment.
The Europeans realized this early on, and in 1982 the Conference of European Posts and
Telegraphs (CEPT) formed a study group called the Groupe Spcial Mobile (GSM) to study
and develop a pan-European public land mobile system. The proposed system had to meet
certain criteria, among which were:

good subjective speech quality,

low terminal and service cost,

support for international roaming,

ability to support handheld terminals,

support for range of new services and facilities,

spectral efficiency, and

ISDN compatibility.

Definition of GSM Norm:


GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is the first cell phone norm to be made of
an entirely digital system. This norm has two bands, each with a bandwidth of 25MHz: the
890-915 MHz band for the transmission from mobile stations to the network and 916930MHz Band for transmission from the network to mobile stations.
This norm also has a few variants, such as the DCS 1800 (Digital Cellular System), DCS
1900 and PCS 1900 (Personal Communication System). These are identical to the GSM
norm, and differ only in terms of the frequencies used in their exploitation. A network can
conveniently work with some of its equipment emitting and receiving on the traditional GSM
Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

13

Context
band and other equipment using the bands of one or more of its variants, with these different
equipments inter-functioning
functioning with each other.

1.1.1.1

The Network

Architecture
Generic Architecture

Apart from connecting subscribers to a network, the GSM, like all other mobile norms has
two other major challenges:

It must permit subscribers to be able to continue communication while moving around


without having any rupture or break in communication, this is the concept of
HANDOVER

It must also permit the subscribers to be able to call or receive calls and all other services
offered by the network from any point within the area covered by the network: this is the
concept of ROAMING.

Figure 1: Architecture off Generic GSM Network

As seen from the above diagram, the GSM network can be split into four main entities:
Mobile Station (MS), Base Station Subsystem (BSS), Network Subsystem (NSS) and
Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation
Allocatio of Cell Ids to New Cells

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

14

Context
Operation Subsystem (OSS). Note that depending on the interpretation, the MS can be
included in the BSS or considered as a separate entity.

The MS (Mobile Station):

This is the mobile part of the network. An MS is any physical equipment capable of
communicating with the network. It is characterised by two main entities:

The International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number, which is put in the memory
of the phone during its fabrication.

The SIM (Subscriber Identification Module) card: This is an electronic card containing
personal information of the subscriber (serial number, Pin code, PUK code, received
SMS, directory of phone numbers, IMSI, TMSI, etc). It provides personal mobility, so
that the subscriber can have access to all subscribed services regardless of the terminal
being used or location of that terminal.

The BSS (Base Station Subsystem):

It is also known as access network. It assures radio-electric transmissions and manages the
radio resources. The BSS is comprised of the BTS (Base Transceiver Station) and the BSC
(Base Station Controller).

The NSS (Network Subsystem):

The NSS is the part of the GSM system that assures establishment of calls and mobility. It
contains the switches and network databases. It is made up of the following entities: the HLR,
VLR, AUC, and MSC.

OSS (Operation Subsystem):

This permits the network operator to administer his network. The Operation and Maintenance
Centre (OMC) of the OSS is made of two parts: OMC_S (Operation and Maintenance Centre
Switching part) which supervises detects and corrects abnormalities of the NSS.OMC-R
(Operations and Maintenance Radio part) The OMC-R exploits and maintains the radio subsystem.

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

15

Context
Orange Cameroon Network
More than 730 GSM sites
01 Mobile BTS
46 WIMAX Sites
30 VSAT
02 Principal technical Platforms
04 Technique Centres (DoualaYaound
Yaound-Garoua-Bafoussam)
One High Bit rate Transmission loop
(Douala Yaound -Bafoussam)
(Douala-

Number of GSM sites

Number of WIMAX sites

DOUALA

147

13

YAOUNDE

178

09

WEST/NORTH WEST
W

110

04

LITTORAL/SOUTH WEST
W

106

03

CENTRE/EAST
ST

174

02

NORTH/ADAMAOUA/
/ADAMAOUA/ EXTREME NORTH
NOR

151

09

Figure 2: The Orange Cameroon Network (May 2011)

Interfaces and Protocols:


Protocols
The table below gives a summary of key interfaces in GSM and their descriptions plus
protocols used.

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation
Allocatio of Cell Ids to New Cells

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

16

Context
Table 1: GSM key Interfaces and protocols

Name

Position

Role

Protocol

Support

LAPDm

Electromagnetic waves

LAPD

2 Mbits/s links

(SS7 basic) +

2 Mbits/s links

Transport of :
- Voice at 13 Kbits/s for each communication
Um or

MS BTS

and encoded at 22.8Kbit/s


- Signalling for management of traffic and

Radio

mobiles
Transport of :
- Voice at 16 Kbits/s per communication.
Abis

BTSBSC

- signalling for traffic management.


- signalling for BTS maintenance and
exploitation.

Ater

BSC TC

Transport of :
-Voice at 16 Kbits/s used for communication
- signalling for traffic management.
-on

some

equipment

signalling

(BSSAP =
for

management of the TRAU


A

TC - MSC

BSSAP

Transport of :
-Voice at 64 Kbits/ used for communication.

BSSMAP+DTA
P)
(SS7 basic) +

2 Mbits/s links

BSSAP

- signalling for traffic management.


B

MSC - VLR

Signalling for Mobile Application Part


(MAP).

MSC - HLR

Signalling for Mobile Application Part


(MAP).

VLR - HLR

Signalling for Mobile Application Part


(MAP).

MSC-MSC

Transport of :
- Signalling for MAP.

(SS7 basic) +

2 Mbits/s links

MAP

(SS7 basic) +

2 Mbits/s links

MAP

(SS7 basic) +

2 Mbits/s links

MAP

(SS7 basic) +

2 Mbits/s links

MAP

- Voiceat 16 Kbits/s used for communication.


F

MSC - EIR

Signalling for Mobile Application Part


(MAP).

VLR - VLR

Signalling for Mobile Application Part


(MAP).

PSTN

(SS7 basic) +

2 Mbits/s links

MAP

(SS7 basic) +

2 Mbits/s links

MAP

MSC -

Signalling for Mobile Application Part

(SS7 basic) +

PSTN

(MAP).

TUP or ISUP

2 Mbits/s links

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

17

Context
1.1.1.2

Cell Identification in GSM Networks

LAI (Location Area Identity)


A GSM network is divided into Location Areas. Each location area is a collection of cells. A
location area is identified by a Location Area Code (LAC). The LAC is freely attributed by
the network operator.

MCC

MNC

LAC

Field

Meaning

MCC:

Mobile Country Code

MNC:

Mobile Network Code

LAC:

Location Area Code

Figure 3: Fields of LAI

CGI (Cell Global Identity)


Within a location area, a cell is identified by the Cell Global Identity (CGI). This is obtained
by doing a concatenation of the location area identity and a unique cell identifier called the
Cell Identity (CI). I.e. CGI = LAI + CI.
In Orange Cameroon, all cells of the network have a unique Cell Identity value.

MCC

MNC

LAC

CI

Field

Meaning

MCC:

Mobile Country Code

MNC:

Mobile Network Code

LAC:

Location Area Code

CI:

Cell Identity

Figure 4: Fields of CGI

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

18

Context
1.1.2 The GSM Radio Interface
1.1.2.1

TDMA Structures

Each of the frequency channels in GSM is divided into timeslots of approximately 577s
duration. These timeslots are grouped together in sets of 8 consecutive timeslots as one
frame. These frames are then grouped together in one of two ways as multiframes:
A 26-frame multiframe with duration of 120ms, comprising 26 TDMA frames; this
multiframe is used to carry traffic channels and their associated control channels.
A 51-multiframe with duration of approximately 235.4ms, comprising 51 TDMA frames; this
multiframe is exclusively for control channels.

1.1.2.2

Logic Channels

These are a set of slots in a multiframe permitting the transportation of either control or
signalling information with a given periodicity.
Logic channels have the advantages that:

They permit better usage of radio resources,


Limit scrutinizing efforts of equipments.

Logic channels can be classified into 2 big classes: dedicated channels, which are generally
duplex channels and non dedicated channels which are generally simplex channels. The table
below shows a list of all major logic channels and their primary functions:
Table 2: logic channels

Channel Category

Broadcast Channels (BCH),


Downlink

Common Control Channels


(CCCH), Uplink or
Downlink

Dedicated Control Channels,


Uplink and Downlink

Channel Name
Frequency Correction
Channel (FCCH)
Synchronisation Channel
(SCH)
Broadcast control channel
(BCCH)
Paging Channel (PCH)
(downlink)
Random Access Channel
(RACH) (uplink)
Access Grant Channel
(AGCH) (downlink)
Cell Broadcast Channel
(CBCH)
Stand-Alone Dedicated
Control Channel (SDCCH)
(uplink and downlink)
Slow Associated Control
Channel (SACCH) (uplink
and down link)

Major Functionality
Blocking on carrier
frequency.
Synchronisation and
Identification
Broadcast of System
information
Call of mobile
Random access of mobile
Allocation of resources
Diffusion of short messages
Signalling

Link supervision

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Context

Traffic Channels (TCH)

Fast Associated Control


Channel (FACCH) (uplink
and downlink)
Traffic Channel for coded
Speech (TCH/FS and
TCH/HS) (uplink and
downlink)
Traffic Channel for data
(user rate), 9.6kbit/s,
4.8kbit/s, less than 2.4kbit/s

Handover execution

Full rate and Half rate voice

User data

1.1.2.3 Radio Interface Performances (Notions of RXLEV and


RXQUAL)
To appreciate the quality of a radio link, there are 2 major parameters that are used. These
parameters are the RXLEV and the RXQUAL. They are both measured at the level of the
BTS and at the level of the mobile to appreciate both the uplink and downlink respectively.
RXLEV:
This is the signal strength received at the mobile from the BTS or inversely.
It is measured over 64 different levels, from 0 to 63. These 64 levels correspond to signal
strengths ranging from -110dBm to -47dBm, with steps of 1dBm. The table below
illustrates this.
Table 3: Different RxLev ranges

RXLEV
Deep Indoor

-47 dBm to -64 dBm

Indoor

-65 dBm to -75 dBm

Incar

-75 dBm to -85 dBm

Outdoor

-85 dBm to -95 dBm

Bad Service

-95 dBm to -110 dBm

RXQUAL:
This parameter is used to measure the quality of the received signal. It is obtained by doing a
quantisation of the Bit Error Rate (BER) according to the correspondence defined by the table
below (3GPP TS 45.008, section 8.2.4)

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Context

Table 4: Correspondences between BER and signal quality (RXQUAL)

RxQual

BER, Ranges

Representative Values

Interpretation

BER 0.2%

0,4%

Very good quality

0.2% BER 0.4%

0,28%

Good quality

0.4% BER 0.8%

0,57%

Good quality

0.8% BER 1.6%

1,13%

Average quality

1.6% BER 3.2%

2,26%

Average quality

3.2% BER 6.4%

4,53%

Average

6.4% BER 12.8%

9,05%

Bad quality

12.8% BER

18,10%

Very bad quality

1.1.3 Notions on Interferences


1.1.3.1

Definition

Interference is anything that alters, modifies or disrupts a signal as it travels along a channel
between a source and a receiver.
In radio-mobile networks, there are 2 major kinds of interferences:

Co-channel Interference
Adjacent channel interference.

Co-channel Interference:
It occurs when for the transmitter to which the mobile is accorded (called the serving
transmitter), emitting in a defined frequency band, there are other transmitters emitting in the
same frequency band such that:

 < 9
C/I = Carrier over Interference ratio,

(1)

C = Signal strength of serving transmitter,


Ij = Signal Strength of number j interferer.

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Context

Figure 5:: Other transmitters emitting at the same frequency band as serving transmitter

Adjacent channel Interference:


Interference
It occurs when for the transmitter to which the mobile is accorded (called the serving
transmitter), emitting in a defined frequency band, there are other transmitters emitting in
adjacent frequency bands such that:

 9

(2)

C = Signal strength of serving transmitter,


Ij = Signal Strength of number j interferer.

Figure 6:: Other transmitters emitting at the adjacent frequency bands as serving transmitter

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Context

The GSM norm (ETSI 05.05, ETSI = European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
defines protection ratios for a channel given by the following table:
Table 5: Channel protection ratios

Practical
Co-channel Interference

C/Ic

9dB

ACS

12dB

1st Adjacent channel

C/Ia1

-9dB

18dB

-6dB

2nd Adjacent channel

C/Ia2

-41dB

50dB

-38dB

3rd Adjacent channel

C/Ia3

-49dB

58dB

-46dB

An operator fixes a quality margin for practical uses. This quality margin is added to the cochannel protection ratio to get the practical margin (as in the table above). The value for the
quality margin is 3dB for Orange Cameroon. The Adjacent Channel Suppression (ACS)
ratio is defined as Ia/ Ic.

1.1.4 Frequency Planning


1.1.4.1

Frequency Reuse Pattern

In the GSM network like in other radio-mobile networks, there are predefined frequency
bands for usage. An operator cannot acquire the entire band. Only a fixed number of channels
are attributed to the operator by the Telecommunications Regulatory Board. For example
Orange Cameroon has 40 channels (ARFCN 85 to ARFCN 124) in the GSM 900 band and 60
channels (ARFCN 512 to ARFCN 571) in the DCS 1800 band.
These limitations in frequency imply that the operator must put in place a frequency plan
(define a reuse pattern) that will take into consideration co-channel and adjacent-channel
interferences.

Figure 7: Frequency reuse pattern.


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Context
D is called the reuse distance. It is calculated as:
 = 

(3)

Where R is the radius of a cell and N the number of cells in a cluster (in the above example
N=12)

1.1.4.2

Frequency Planning in OCM (use of ATOLL)

The frequency plan needs to be constantly ameliorated to take into account newly integrated
network cells. This is the optimisation of the frequency plan.
There exist several tools that permit the design and optimisation of frequency plans. Among
these is ATOLL which is used in Orange Cameroon.
Using ATOLL, there are 3 methods of frequency attribution to cells:

Assigning frequencies Manually,


Automatic Frequency Planning (AFP),
Interactive Frequency Planning (IFP).

Among these frequency assignment methods, those considered here are the AFP and IFP.
The Automatic frequency planning module of ATOLL has multiple input parameters as
shown on the figure below:

Interference
Matrices

Current
Frequency Plan

Network
Information

Cell Traffic Input

Separation
Constraints

Other
Constraints

Automatic Frequency Planning (AFP)


Figure 8: Inputs into the AFP module of ATOLL

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Context
1.1.4.3

Interference Matrices

Among the multiple inputs into the AFP module of ATOLL is the interference matrix.
Definition: In Atoll, the interference matrix is an array that stores the probability of
interference between a couple of cells (a victim cell and an interfering cell).

1.1.5 Drive Tests (Radio Measurements)


Drive testing is a method of measuring and assessing the coverage, capacity and Quality of
Service (QoS) of a mobile radio network.
The technique consists of using a motor vehicle containing mobile radio network air
interface measurement equipment that can detect and record a wide variety of the physical
and virtual parameters of mobile cellular service in a given geographical area.
By measuring what a wireless network subscriber would experience in any specific area,
wireless carriers can make directed changes to their networks that provide better coverage
and service to their customers.
Drive testing requires a mobile vehicle outfitted with drive testing measurement equipment.
These equipments are usually highly specialized electronic devices that interface to mobile
handsets. This ensures measurements are realistic and comparable to actual user experiences.
Drive test equipment typically collects data relating to the network itself, services running on
the network such as voice or data services, radio frequency scanner information and GPS
information to provide location logging.
The dataset collected during drive testing field measurements can include information such
as: signal intensity, signal quality, interference, dropped calls, blocked calls, anomalous
events, call statistics, service level statistics, QoS information, handover information,
neighbouring cell information and GPS location co-ordinates.
Drive tests are carried out in Orange Cameroon using the software TEMS Investigation that
will be described briefly in the next chapter of this document.

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Problem Statement

1.2

Problem Statement

1.2.1 Problem description


The problem faced by the company Orange Cameroun had two major axes.

On one hand, to use field data gotten from drive tests for the generation of
interference matrices that will serve:
 In the supply of AFP (Automatic Frequency Planning) and IFP (Interactive
Frequency Planning) modules of ATOLL (radio frequency design tool); these
ATOLL modules will use the matrices combined with others issued from
prediction calculations to produce better frequency plans. This in view of
minimising

co-channel

and

adjacent

channel

interferences

between

transmitters in the network.


 As data that will be used to do an interactive interference analyses between
couples of cells (victim cell and interfering cell). This in view of determining
if a given cell is suffering from co-channel or adjacent-channel interferences.
If its the case, to determine exactly which cells are interfering.

On the other hand, to put in place a mechanism for allocation of cell identities to
new cells integrated into the network. The access network of Orange Cameroon is
in a rapid extension phase and CI values are limited (to 65535). Thus the proposed
mechanism should be:
 Automatic
 Centralised and
 Not wasteful

1.2.2 Objectives to be attained


Based on the problem posed, some objectives were set. The major objective was to design
and implement a toolkit whose functionalities include the following:

Obtain log files gotten from the tool TEMS Investigation (a tool used to conduct drive
tests). These log files contain information that describes the state of the network
(precisely for the area covered during the drive tests).

Use these log files to generate ATOLL compatible interference matrices.

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Problem Statement

Offer the possibility to combine multiple log files to generate a single interference
matrix.

Use the interference matrices in an in-built module of the toolkit to perform an


interactive interference analyses.

Automatically attribute cell identities to new cells.

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Methodology

CHAPTER 2:

METHODOLOGY

The methodology starts with a state of the art that point out
previous work done in this domain.
After that, a step by step description is done to lead to a clear
comprehension of the procedure of generation of Atoll interference
matrices and for the automatic allocation of cell ids.
Finally, a description of the designing of the toolkit is done.

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Methodology

OUTLINE

State of the Art

Generation of Interference Matrices


Study of Formats of ATOLL Interference Matrices
Study of Log-files from Drive Tests (TEMS Investigations)
Cross-compatibility between ATOLL Interference Matrices and TEMS Logfiles
Transformation of Exported Log-file fields to Interference Matrices
Evaluation of Generated matrices (Correlation Analyses)

Automatic Allocation of Cell Identities


Obtaining list of existing Cell Ids
Constraints for site being created
New mechanism for Cell Id allocation
Notification

Toolkit Designing
Toolkit Architecture
Database Modelling
Programming languages and tools used

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Methodology

2.1

State of the art

A similar project was undertaken in the same company Orange Cameroon. This was
undertaken by NGAN TAFAM Aaron Achille on the occasion of his end of course
dissertation to obtain a Masters degree in Telecommunications Engineering (year 2009) at the
National Advanced School of Engineering Yaound Cameroon. The theme of the project
was: linteroprabilit des outils RNO et Atoll
Among other project specifications, the student had to:
-

Permit the production of frequency plans on Atoll by using interference matrices


issued from Radio Measurement Statistics (RMS). The RMS were gotten from a tool
called Radio Network Optimisation (RNO) used then for network optimisation (N.B.
as of the time of writing of this document, a more evolved version of RNO called
NPO was in use).

The table below compares the 2 projects in terms of their inputs and outputs:
Table 6: Comparison with NGAN TAFAM

NGAN TAFAM

CHEFUH Divine

Radio measurement Statistics Log files issued from Drive


issued from BSC counters

Tests

Taken from the tool RNO in Taken from the tool TEMS
Input Data:

the

form

of

interference Investigation as log files.

matrices
These

statistics

already Statistics not yet done. Log

contain C/I threshold values files contain signal levels


grouped in different ranges.

which are used to get C/I

Only one Atoll compatible Four output formats required:


interference matrix format IM0, IM1, IM2, CLC

Output Data

was

generated,

the

CLC

format

We notice from table 6 above that the two projects have different input data. As such,
although the required output is Atoll compatible interference matrices for both cases, the
methods of approach differ.
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Methodology

Another similar project was done by William NDEFO TAKA on the occasion of his end of
course dissertation to obtain a Masters degree in Telecommunications Engineering (year
2005) at the National Advanced School of Engineering Yaound Cameroon. The theme of the
project was: Rsolution du problme dinterfrence par la mise en oeuvre dun outil de
gestion de frquence CAS DORANGE CAMEROUN.
Among other project specifications, the student was expected to:
-

Generate interference matrices with data issued from drive tests.


Use these interference matrices to detect co-channel and adjacent-channel interference
problems.
Propose frequency modifications to be made in other to reduce these interference
problems.

The table below compares the 2 projects in terms of their inputs and outputs.
Table 7: Comparison with NDEFO TAKA

NDEFO TAKA

CHEFUH Divine

Log files issued from Drive Log files issued from Drive
Tests
Input Data:

Tests

Taken from the tool TEMS Taken from the tool TEMS
Investigation.

Investigation.

Output interference matrices All output formats of Atoll


are not Atoll compatible

Output Data

compatible

interference

matrices required

Table 7 above shows us that the 2 projects have different expected results. As such, the
methodology employed for each case is different.

Description of major tools


Here, a description of the each software that intervenes in the scope of this project is given.
They are: ATOLL and TEMS Investigation.
ATOLL
It is a powerful radio frequency design platform. It is also a multi-technology design platform
(i.e. used for several technologies like GSM, CDMA, WIMAX and UMTS). It supports a
wireless operator throughout the network lifecycle, from initial design to densification.
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Methodology
ATOLL has several modules. The figure below shows some of the key modules in the
software:

Network
Modelling
Support of Dual
Band Networks
Support for FH,
DTX and other
configurations

Service
planning and
analyses

Interference
matrix
generation

Automatic
Frequency
Planning

Cell couverage
analyses
Interference
analyses
Handover analyses

Prediction and
drivetest based
interference
matrices supported
Open format
allowing the editing
and modifications
of interference
matrices using third
party applications

Allocation of FH
parameters
Intergrate with 3rd
party AFP tools

2G/3G coplanning
Site sharing
Simultaneous
display and
analyses of 2G and
3G networks

Figure 9: Some ATOLL modules

ATOLL calculates Prediction based interference matrices.


How does ATOLL calculate its prediction
prediction based interference matrices?
In ATOLL, predictions calculations are performed in 3 phases:

ATOLL calculates path loss (Lpath) using selected propagation model

The propagation model used by Orange Cameroon is the Volcano Macrocell.


Macrocell This is a
model proposed by the company SIRADEL. The model is calibrated for Cameroon.
The formula used for path loss calculation is:

 =  "  " 

(4)

 : Path loss.

 : Transmitter receiver losses calculated through propagation model.


 : Transmitter antenna attenuation.


: Receiver antenna attenuation.

If shadowing is taken into consideration, ATOLL evaluates a shadowing margin


!
!#$%&'()
*$+)'( *-./01

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Methodology

The signal level at the receiver can then be calculated


234 = 5
2  *-./01 /6 + 7

38 

(5)

Where
234 : Signal level at receiver.

5
2: Effective Isotropic Radiated Power.

/6 : Indoor losses (for indoor coverage considerations).


7

: Receiver antenna gain.

38 : Receiver Losses.


Thus, the Signal level at the receiver for both the serving and interfering cells can be
calculated. These 2 signal levels are used to calculate the C/I.
The prediction based interference matrices calculated by ATOLL rely on
-

Propagation models
Digital Terrain Models (DTM)
Clutter height and class considerations.

These prediction calculations have some limitations since the geographical databases (DTM)
are not very precise in some regions, hence the need to complete them with real terrain data.

TEMS Investigation
It is an air interface test tool for cellular networks. It supports several wireless networks like
GSM and CDMA networks.
It has 2 major modules:
-

Data Collection

This module interfaces with the mobile phone and other measurement devices like the GPS.
It collects data and records them in log files. It also does analyses of single log files at a time.
-

Route Analyses

This module simply permits rapid analyses of multiple log files.

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Methodology

2.2

Generation of Interference Matrices

The first aspect treated was the generation of ATOLL compatible interference matrices. The
steps followed
llowed for this are illustrated by the figure below.

Study of the file


formats of
ATOLL
interference
histograms

Study of the log


files from drive
tests (log files
from TEMS
Investigation)

Definition of
fields from log
files needed for
generation of
interference
histograms

Transformation of
the fields from the
log file to the
ATOLL
interference
histogram proper

Figure 10:
10 Procedure for interference matrix generation

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Methodology
2.2.1 Study of Formats of ATOLL Interference Matrices
There are four different file formats for ATOLL interference matrices. These are:

One histogram per line (.im0) format

One value per line with dictionary file (.clc) format

One value per line (transmitter name repeated) (.im1) format

Only co-channel and adjacent-channel values (.im2) format

One histogram per line (.im0) format


This file contains one histogram per line for each interfered/interfering sub-cell pair. The
histogram is a list of C/I values with associated probabilities.
The .im0 file consists of 2 main parts:

The first part is a header used for format identification. It must start with and contain
the following lines:

The second part details interference histograms for each interfered sub-cell/interferer
sub-cell pair. The lines after the header are considered as comments if they start with
#. If not, they must have the following format:
<Column1><tab><Column2><tab><Column3><tab><Column4><newline>

The 4 tab-separated columns are defined in the table below:


Table 8: columns definition for .im0 files format interference matrices.

Column name

Description

Column1

Interfered transmitter

Name of the interfered transmitter

Column2

Interfering transmitter

Name of the interferer transmitter

Column3
Interfered TRX type
Column4
C/I probability

Interfered sub-cell. In order to save storage, all


sub-cells with no power offset are not duplicated
(e.g. BCCH, TCH)
C/I value and probability associated to this value
separated by a space character. This value cannot
be null.

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Methodology
Sample

Figure 11: Sample .im0 file format interference matrix

One value per line with dictionary file (.clc) format


CLC file
The .clc file consists of two main parts:

The first part is a header used for format identification. It must start with and contain
the following lines:

The second part details interference histograms for each interfered sub-cell/interferer
sub-cell pair. The lines after the header are considered as comments if they start with
#. If not, they must have the following format:
<Column1><tab><Column2><tab><Column3><tab><Column4><tab><Column5><newline>

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Methodology
The 5 tab-separated columns are defined in the table below:
Table 9: Columns definition for .clc files format interference matrices.

Column name
Column1
Interfered transmitter
Column2

Interfering transmitter

Column3
Interfered TRX type

Column4

C/I threshold

Column5
Probability C/I > Threshold

Description
Identification
number
of
interfered
transmitter. If the column is empty, its value
is identical to that of the above line
Identification
number
of
interferer
transmitter. If the column is null, its value is
identical to that of the above line
Interfered sub-cell. If column is null, its
value is identical to the one of the line above.
In order to save storage, all sub-cells with no
power offset are not duplicated (e.g. BCCH,
TCH)
C/I value. This column cannot be null.
Probability to have C/I the value specified in
column 4 (C/I threshold). This field must not
be empty.

Sample

Figure 12: Sample .clc file format interference matrix


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Methodology
Note: The columns 1, 2 and 3 must be defined only in the first line of each histogram.
DCT File (Dictionary file)
Description
The DCT file is divided into 2 parts:

The first part is a header used for format identification. It must start with and contain
the following lines:

The second part provides information about transmitters taken into account in the
AFP. The lines after the header are considered as comments if they start with the #
symbol. If not, they must start with and contain the following lines:
<Column1><tab><Column2 ><newline>
Table 10: Columns definition for .dct files

Column name

Type

Description

Column1

Transmitter name

Text

Name of transmitter

Column2

Transmitter identifier

Integer Identification number of the transmitter

Column3

BCCH during calculation

Integer BCCH used in calculations

Column4

BSIC during calculation

Integer BSIC used in calculations

Column5

% of vic coverage

Float

Column6

% of int coverage

Float

Percentage of overlap of the victim


service area
Percentage of overlap of the interferer
service area

.
The last 4 columns describe the interference matrix scope.
Note:


A dictionary file simply associates transmitter names to transmitter identifier for a


given CLC interference matrix.

When importing interference matrices with CLC format, you must specify the .clc file
to be imported. ATOLL looks for the associated .dct file in the same directory and
uses it to decode transmitter identifiers. If the .dct file is unavailable, ATOLL assumes

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Methodology
that the transmitter identifiers are transmitter names. In this case, the columns 1 and 2
of the .clc file must contain the names of the interfered and interfering transmitter
instead of their identifiers. Its like this that we generate our CLC interference
matrices. No associated DCT file is needed.
Sample

Figure 13: Sample .dct file format interference matrix

One value per line (Transmitter name repeated) (.im1) format


This file contains one C/I threshold and probability pair value per line for each
interfered/interfering sub-cell pair. The histogram is a list of C/I values with associated
probabilities.
The .im1 file consists of 2 main parts:

The first part is a header used for format identification. It must start with and contain
the following lines:

The second part details interference histograms for each interfered sub-cell/interferer
sub-cell pair. The lines after the header are considered as comments if they start with
#. If not, they must have the following format:
<Column1><tab><Column2><tab><Column3><tab><Column4><tab><Column5><newline

The 5 tab-separated columns are defined in the table below:

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Methodology
Table 11: Columns definition for .im1 files format interference matrices.

Column name

Description

Column1

Interfered transmitter

Name of the interfered transmitter

Column2

Interfering transmitter

Name of the interferer transmitter

Column3
Interfered TRX type
Column4

C/I probability

Column5
Probability C/I > Threshold

Interfered sub-cell. In order to save storage, all


sub-cells with no power offset are not
duplicated (e.g. BCCH, TCH)
C/I value. This column cannot be null.
Probability to have C/I the value specified in
column 4 (C/I threshold). This field must not
be empty.

Sample

Figure 14: Sample .im1 file format interference matrix

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Methodology
Only Co-Channel and Adjacent values (.im2) Format
In this case, there is only one .im2 file containing co-channel and adjacent channel
interference probabilities specified for each interfered transmitter, interferer transmitter pair.
Each line must have the following format:
<Column1><SEP><Column2>< SEP ><Column3>< SEP ><Column4><newline>

Where the separator (<SEP>) can either be a tab or a semicolon.


The 4 columns are defied in the table below:
Table 12:Columns definition for .im2 files format interference matrices.

Column name

Description

Column1 Interfered transmitter

Name of the interfered transmitter

Column2 Interfering transmitter

Name of the interferer transmitter

Column3 Co-Channel interference probability

Probability of having

Column4 Adjacent-Channel interference probability

: 6B

C corresponds to the required

9
:

9
:

*$<=99>,@9> A

: 6B

Probability of having


*$<=99>,@9> D
EF

6B

threshold. The value set at GHIJ for sub cells in OCM

F is the adjacent channel protection level


Note:
9

To obtain the value of F, we take A :

6B

C K!

Where ACS is the Adjacent Channel Suppression Ratio; for the first adjacent channel,
ACS = 18dB, thus
F = 12dB 18dB
F = -6dB

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

41

Methodology

Sample

Figure 15: Sample .im2 file format interference matrix

2.2.2 Study of Log-files from Drive Tests


Log-files can be exported from TEMS in the following formats:

Text file with tab delimited data (.FMT format)

MapInfo 3.0 (Interchange or Tab format)

ArcView Shape file

Marconi planet DMS 3.1

Ethereal

MDM (CDMA)

Among these different file formats, the one used by the application is the text export format.
The text export format for log-files uses an ASCII representation with tab delimited data. The
default file extension is the FMT.
The FMT file has 2 major parts:

The first part is a file header. The first line in the file contains column headers. Below
is a list of these headers, headers marked * are or can be excluded in a reduced
version of the text export file.
- Time

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

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Methodology
- MS
- Frame Number *
- Direction
- Message Type
- Message ID *
- Hexadecimal String *
- Event
- Event Info *
- One header for each information element component exported, composed
of: the device designation (or All, if the data is exported for all devices), the
name of the information element, and the argument if there is one. Examples:
All-RxLev Full, MS1-Neighbor BSIC [1]

The remainder of the export file contains log-file data. Each line of data represents
one message.

The part of the log files that is of interest is the information elements. During the exportation
of the log-file, only a desired number of information elements may be exported, based on the
need. The significance of all the different information elements were studied to know which
of them could serve for the generation of ATOLL compatible interference matrices. The next
section outlines the different information elements which were retained.

2.2.3 Cross-compatibility between ATOLL Interference Matrices


and TEMS Log-files
After detailed analyses of both the inputs (TEMS log-files) and the required outputs (ATOLL
interference matrices), what exactly was needed from the log files to generate the desired
interference matrices was pointed out.
The table below shows the different information elements that were retained both for the
generation of ATOLL compatible interference matrices and for interactive interference
analyses. The template used to export the FMT files from TEMS is given in the ANNEX. In
the next section, the different flowcharts used in the processing of the log-files for the
generation of the different interference matrix file formats are shown.

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Methodology
Table 13: List of log-file information elements for IM generation and interference analyses

Information Elements

Brief Description

Cell Name

Name of Serving cell (Transmitter)

Neighbour Cell Name (Sorted)

Names of Neighbouring cells sorted according


to decreasing signal strength

ARFCN BCCH

Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number of


Broadcast Control Channel.

Neighbour ARFCN (Sorted)

ARFCN of Neighbour Cells, sorted by signal


strength

RxLev Sub (dBm)

Received Signal level at mobile.

Neighbour RxLev (dBm) (Sorted)

Gives the Rx Levels of Neighbouring cells


sorted according to decreasing signal strength

Hopping

Use of Frequency Hopping (YES or NO)

Hopping List

ARFCNs of the channels in the


hopping frequency list,
Example 1, 10, 19, 28.

2.2.4 Transformation of Exported Log-file fields to Interference


Matrices
Now, the exact information elements from the log-file needed for the generation of ATOLL
interference matrices are known. In this section, an illustration of how to use these
information elements to obtain the desired outputs is made.
All 4 interference matrix file formats supported by ATOLL have been described (in above).
The following flowcharts illustrates the generation of .im0 and .im2 interference matrix file
formats. The other 2 (.im1 and .clc) are very similar to .im1

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Methodology
Generation of .im0 interference matrices
Start
Get chosen information elements from exported
TEMS log-file.

Step 1: Calculate C/I for all samples by using RxLev values.

Step 2: Make a list of distinct serving cells, this list is called the S_List.

Step 3: For a serving cell, Si S_List, get its distinct interferers in an I_List.

Step 4: For an interferer (Ij) taken from I_List, form the couple (Si, Ij). For
this couple, form its list of distinct C/I values and the occurrence
probabilities (p) corresponding to each C/I Value (this is the CIR_List).

Step 5: Use values of p to calculate cumulative probability (P) for each C/I
value from CIR_List. P is the probability to have a C/I value greater than
that taken from the CIR_List. Form another list, CIR_Final, of each C/I
value and its corresponding cumulative probability value (P).

Write the terms: Si, Ij and C/I _Final correctly


formatted in a file of .im0 extension.

NO

Is I_List
empty?
YES
Is S_List
empty?

NO

YES
End
Figure 16: Flowchart for generation of the .im0 file format interference matrix
Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

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Methodology
Generation of .im2 interference matrices (In red are the steps that differ from Figure16)
Start
Get chosen information elements from exported
TEMS log-file.

Step 1: Calculate C/I for all samples by using RxLev values.

Step 2: Make a list of distinct serving cells, this list is called the S_List.

Step 3: For a serving cell, Si S_List, get its distinct interferers in an I_List.

Step 4: For an interferer (Ij) taken from I_List, form the couple (Si, Ij). For
this couple, form its list of distinct C/I values and the occurrence
probabilities (p) corresponding to each C/I Value (this is the CIR_List).

Step 5: Use values of p to calculate the probabilities for co-channel (Pco) and
for adjacent interferences (Padj). Pco is the probability to have C/I values less
than 12dB and Padj is the probability to have C/I values less than -6dB.

Write the terms: Si, Ij, Pco and Padj correctly


formatted in a file of .im2 extension.

NO

Is I_List
empty?
YES
Is S_List
empty?

NO

YES
End
Figure 17: Flowchart for generation of the .im2 file format interference matrix
Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

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46

Methodology
2.2.5 Evaluation of Generated matrices (Correlation Analyses)
After generating the different interference matrices, their reliability has to be checked. This is
because the drive test data is sometimes inaccurate due to the fact that, the person
undertaking it may not follow proper procedure.
To check the reliability of the drive test based interference matrices, the parameter used is the
Correlation Coefficient.
Normally, if the geographical databases are well calibrated, the results obtained from
prediction calculations should reflect values obtained from field measurements. What this
means is, if prediction data suggests increasing probabilities of interferences between couples
of cells, field measurements should depict the same trends and if the prediction calculations
show the inverse, the measurement data should do same. In other words, the data sets
(prediction calculations and field measurements) should vary together.
The correlation coefficient is a measure of how 2 things vary together or inversely. On one
hand, if the two quantities co-vary positively and perfectly, their correlation coefficient will
be 1.00. On the other hand, if two things vary oppositely and perfectly, then the correlation
will equal -1.00. Two things have a zero correlation if they vary separately. That is, when the
magnitudes of one thing are high, the others magnitude is sometimes high and sometimes
low.
Consider 2 variables L and LM with </ being the number ' value of variable L while </M is

the number ' value of the variableLM . Lets define N/ and N/M as follows:
N/ =

N'R =

</ LPO 
Q

<'R SSS
LR 
QR

(6)

(7)

SSSM are the average values of the variables L and LM respectively. Q And QM
Where LPO and L

are the standard deviations (square root of the variance) of the variables L and LM

respectively. With these defined the correlation coefficient between the variables L and LM is
given by the following formula:
Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

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Methodology

Where T M

N/ N/M
(8)
(
is the correlation coefficient between L and LM and ( is the number of cases for
T M =

the variables.
The following example illustrates how the correlation coefficient is used to determine the
reliability of the drive test based interference matrices.
Case 1: high correlation
Table 14: Interference matrices with high correlation

Prediction based data (From Atoll)

Drive test based data

VW

VX

Victim

Interferer

Interference

Victim

Interferer

Interference

cell

cell

probability

cell

cell

probability

Bali_1

Bali_2

0.468

Bali_1

Bali_2

0.234

Bali_1

Bali_3

0.114

Bali_1

Bali_3

0.057

Bali_2

Bali_1

0.525333

Bali_2

Bali_1

0.266

Bali_2

Bali_3

0.18

Bali_2

Bali_3

0.09

Bali_3

Bali_1

0.205333

Bali_3

Bali_1

0.1025

Bali_3

Bali_2

0.169333

Bali_3

Bali_2

0.086

Consider the prediction based interference matrix with the corresponding drive test based
interference matrix (table above). The chart below makes it clear that these 2 datasets vary
together positively. Calculating the correlation coefficient here gives the value of 1, the
maximum possible value. So for this case, the drive test based matrix is highly reliable
(excellent) and should be considered during frequency planning with a high weight.

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Methodology

Figure 18: Correlation analyses show highly reliable drive test based data.

Case 2: low correlation


Table 15: Interference matrices with low correlation

Prediction based data (From Atoll)

Drive test based data

VW

VX

Victim

Interferer

Interference

Victim

Interferer

Interference

cell

cell

probability

cell

cell

probability

Bali_1

Bali_2

0.468

Bali_1

Bali_2

0.234

Bali_1

Bali_3

0.114

Bali_1

Bali_3

0.256

Bali_2

Bali_1

0.525333

Bali_2

Bali_1

0.266

Bali_2

Bali_3

0.18

Bali_2

Bali_3

0.09

Bali_3

Bali_1

0.205333

Bali_3

Bali_1

0.05

Bali_3

Bali_2

0.169333

Bali_3

Bali_2

0.086

In this second case, the 2 datasets do not vary perfectly together. The correlation coefficient
is small. It has a value of 0.56.

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Methodology

Figure 19: Correlation analyses show highly reliable drive test based data.

This analysis is implemented in the toolkit using the .im2 interference matrix. After the
generation of an interference matrix, check the correlation with the corresponding ATOLL
matrix and if the correlation is lower than 0.6, further investigations should be carried out to
verify which is not accurate, the drive test based interference matrix or that based on models
(from ATOLL). The investigations could either reveal that:
-

The geographical databases in the region taken in to consideration are totally


inaccurate. In such a situation, the drive test based interference matrices will introduce
a greater accuracy.

The geographical databases of the region in question are well calibrated and thus
provide accurate results. In such a situation, the drive test matrices should be put in to
question. There could have been a problem during the conduction of the drive test that
falsified the collected data. This problem could either be linked to the measurer or
defective equipments.

N.B: A correlation coefficient of 0.6 means that 36% of the variance is in common (that is
64% not in common).

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Methodology

2.3

Automatic Allocation of Cell Identities

The second aspect to be treated was the automatic allocation of CI values to new cells. A
mechanism had to bee proposed for this. This mechanism had to improve on the existing by
rendering it centralised, automatic and not wasteful.
During CI attribution to new cells, the radio engineer had to do a manual collection of a list
of all the existing CI values in the network. This by logging on to a tool called NPO
(Network Performance Optimizer) and copying this list. Then, with the list at hand there were
some consideration to be made in other to choose CI values not in use already. These
considerations are the following:
wing:

Frequency band
(900MHz or
1800MHz or dual
band)

The lastly
attributed CI value
in the considered
range

Zone where the site


is
found(Littoral/West
or Center/North)

Number of cells in
the site (1,2 or 3)

Figure 20:: Factors to consider during the allocation of new CI values

The frequency band in which the transmitters of the new site will operate, these
transmitters could work in the 900MHz or the 1800MHz bands. Based on these
the there
are segmented ranges from which CI values have to be gotten. These ranges are
shown in the following tables:
table
Table 16:: CI value ranges for GSM band per zone as used in Orange Cameroon

Frequency Band

Minimum value

Maximum value

GSM (Littoral/West)

13001

15153

GSM (Centre/North)

11500

12100

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation
Allocatio of Cell Ids to New Cells

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Methodology
Table 17: Ranges of CI values for DCS band per zone as used in Orange Cameroon

Frequency Band

Minimum value

Maximum value

DCS (Littoral/West)

30011

38396

DCS (Centre/North)

40300

40900

The zone of implantation of the new site is also taken into consideration. In OCM, the
radio department has 2 major services, the Littoral/West and the Centre/North
services. Each of these services manages a given section of the network over the
national territory. Based on the different zones, there are reserved ranges of CI values
to be used.

The number of cells in the site determines the number of CI values to be allocated. If
for example a site has 3 cells, then it will be allocated 3 consecutive CI values. The
table below illustrates this with an example of the site Bamenda-CRTV which has 3
cells.
Table 18: Example of CI values for site with 3 cells

Cell Name

Cell Id

Bamenda-CRTV_1

3341

Bamenda-CRTV_2

3342

Bamenda-CRTV_3

3343

The step is to get the last set of CI value in the identified range (range identified with
the help of the above constraints) and from it, an increment of 10 is made from the
smallest value in this set before the next set of consecutive CI values is attributed. E.g.
with the example of the Bamenda-CRTV site above, the next CI values attributed will
be 3351, 3352 and 3353 (for a site with 3 cells).

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Methodology
The steps followed to put in place a mechanism for CI allocation
allocation are shown in Figure21
below:

Obtain the list


of existing CI
values from
OMC-R

Define
Constrainss for
new site being
created

Define new CI
values
according to
new procedure
and constrains

Notify all
concerned
parties about
newly allocated
CI values

Figure 21:: Steps to put in place mechanism for CI allocation

2.3.1 Obtaining list of existing Cell Ids


The toolkit has to know CI values that are already in use in the network before attributing
new ones. Now for this, the option considered was to get these existing CI values from
the OMC-R.
The OMC-R
R is the primary control centre for the BSS. Its key functionalities
functionalities are:

Network configuration;

Network Maintenance;

Network supervision.

The operating system installed on the OMC-R


OMC
is Solaris, a UNIX operating system
originally developed by Sun Microsystems. The software 9953 MS-OMC
OMC is an Alcatel
software functioning
tioning on the server and permits to obtain generic information from the
network.
On the OMC-R
R server, the files used by the toolkit are the BSSConf files found in a directory
called ACME. These files contain information on the BSS configuration and are generated
ge
periodically with a period of 30minutes. The figure
igure below shows some of these files in the
Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation
Allocatio of Cell Ids to New Cells

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Methodology
given location on the OMC-R server. All the files contain the same information fields but the
most recent of them has the most updated information values.
Address to
directory that
contains required
files

Date and time of


generation of file

Figure 22: Sample BSS Configuration files in the directory ACME of the OMC-R

By establishing an ftp connection with the OMC-R server, the BSSConf files from it are
downloaded to the toolkit application server. Based on the date and time of generation of the
file, as is included in the file name (figure 22 above), the most recent file is chosen. This ftp
connection and file download process is done on demand (i.e. when allocation of CI values is
to be done).
The following is a description of the structure of a BSSConf file obtained from the OMC-R
(BSSConf.omcrdla1.20110510090500). It comprises of two major parts, a header and a
body (made up of several SECTIONS). The header contains information on generation time,
version and OMC_NAME as shown on the figure below.

Figure 23: Header of a sample BSSConf file (BSSConf.omcrdla1.20110510090500)

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

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Methodology

The body of the BSSConf file contains configuration information on different sections of the
BSS. These sections are fifteen in number and are:
BSC_SECTION; CELL_SECTION; BTS_SECTION; TRX_SECTION; N7_SECTION;
ADJACENCY_SECTION;
N7SL_SECTION;

AIC_SECTION;

X25_SECTION;

N7LS_SECTION;

TRXTS_SECTION;

LAPDA_SECTION;

ABIS_SECTION;

ABIS_BTS_SECTION; TC_SECTION.
Among these different sections, that which contains information on network cells is the
CELL_SECTION. Figure 24 below is a portion extracted from a sample BSSConf file. It
illustrates the different information fields in the CELL_SECTION and some values.

Information Fields

Sample
Values for
the fields

Cell Name
Figure 24: CELL_SECTION of sample BSSConf file

Cell ID

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Methodology
It is seen from figure 24 above that in the cell section of the BSSConf file, information on the
CI values for existing network cells can be gotten.
After downloading the BSS configuration file to the toolkit application server, a script will
extract from the file all the CI values for all network cells and load them to a table of the
database (database structure is defined in the section Toolkit Design). This table is upgraded
with the most recent state of CI values from the network each time the CI allocation process
is launched.

2.3.2 Constraints for site being created


The constraints considered by the application during the attribution of new CI values are the
same as on figure 20 above. The difference is that verifications done manually are now done
by a script on the application server (automatically). This leads to the definition of the correct
range from which the new CI values will be gotten.

2.3.3 New mechanism for Cell Id allocation

Unused
ranges in
former
mechanism

Figure 25: Illustration of mechanism for CI attribution as in OCM

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Methodology
Figure 25 above illustrates the mechanism for CI allocation. The new aspect is also included
in this figure. The new aspect reduces the wasteful nature of the previous. This reduction is
due to a modification made on the increment factor.
Consider the example given in figure 25 above. For an existing 2G 900 site, SITEA, with 3
cells named CELL A_1, CELL A_2 and CELL A_3, the attributed CI values are 1, 2 and 3.
Now, for the next site, SITED, integrated in the same 2G 900 band, the attributed CI values
are gotten by taking an increment of 10 from the first CI value in the lastly attributed set (i.e.
the last values are 1, 2 and 3 so 1+10 gives 11, thus the next set of values are 11, 12 and 13).
The same thing is done in the 2G 1800 band as is shown on figure 25 above.
Now, taking increments of 10 is wasteful and the limiting value for CIs is 65535. As such, for
future sites, a new mechanism is put in place that gives the possibility to go back and use the
CI values that were left behind. This is illustrated in figure 25 above. With this new method,
for a future 2G 900 site like SITEB, the values 4, 5 and 6 which were left behind are
attributed. If all values that were left behind are already taken, the new set of CI values is
gotten from the bottom of the given range.

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Methodology
Flowchart for the generation of CI values
Start
Get Site name, Frequency band, Zone of implantation of site,
Number of cells in site and the Increment (Inc).

Step 1: Establish ftp connection to OMC (username, password).

Step 2: On OMC, Change current directory to ACME (which contains BSSConf files).

Step 3: Transfer the most recent BSSConf file from OMC to toolkit application server.

Step 4: Get all CIs from CELL_SECTION of BSSConf file (make the CI_list_omc).

Step 5: Get all CIs locally defined in the application (make the CI_list_local).

Step 6: Make the final list of existing CI: CI_list = (CI_list_omc) Union (CI_list_local).

Zone =
LT-W?

YES

YES

Freq =
900?

Range= [13001; 15153]


CI_sub =
(Range) (CI_list)

NO (Freq= 1800)

Range= [30011; 38396]


CI_sub =
(Range) (CI_list)

NO (no here means the Zone is CE-NO)

YES

Freq =
900?

Range= [11500; 12100]


CI_sub =
(Range) (CI_list)

NO (Freq= 1800)

Range= [40300; 40900]


CI_sub =
(Range) (CI_list)

Step 6: Chose CI values from those which are in (Range) but not in (CI_sub), consider defined Inc

End
Figure 26: Flowchart for automatic allocation of CI values

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Methodology
2.3.4 Notification
Several departments in OCM are involved in the creation of new cells. The cell id is what all
these entities use to identify a cell so when it is generated, all concerned parties have to be
informed so that they carry on with the cell creation at their levels.
The notification done here is a mail notification via the intranet of OCM.

2.4

Toolkit Designing

Now, we will explain all that was done in order


order to put in place the toolkit whose
functionalities have been described above.

2.4.1 Toolkit Architecture


The application is a client-server
server application. The diagram below shows the main modules of
the application and the communication protocols between them.

Figure 27: Platform architecture

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation
Allocatio of Cell Ids to New Cells

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Methodology
2.4.2 Database Modelling
The data conceptual model is as shown on Figure 27. This model takes into account all the
different entity classes handled in the application and the associations between them.

Figure 28: Database conception

Figure 29: Final database tables

After modelling, the database has 7 tables as shown.


shown The table temp stores the list of cell
Ids from the OMC-R
R while localref stored those attributed by the tool.

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation
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Methodology
2.4.3 Programming languages and tools used
Table 19: Programming Languages

Language
HTML, CSS

JavaScript

PHP

Description
Web based languages interpreted by the web
navigator. Basic building blocks for web
pages
Client side language, easy to implement.
Embedded into HTML to do dynamic web
programming
Server side language, easy to implement.
Embedded into HTML to do dynamic web
programming
Table 20: Programming tools

Tool
Dream Weaver

EasyPHP5.2.0
Fusion Charts Enterprise
Adobe flash plug-in

Description
Advantage
Web
development Available for both Mac and
application.
Windows operating systems.
Incorporates several web
technologies
like
CSS
JavaScript
and
various
server-side
scripting
languages like PHP and ASP
Simulator of client-server Contains both APACHE and
applications
MYSQL servers and is free
Charting library
Easy to use and very
Dynamic
Plug-in for web browser to Fast to download, easy to
read flash videos. Needed to configure and free
view charts from Fusion
Charts Enterprise

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61

Results and
and Comments

CHAPTER 3: RESULTS AND COMMENTS

Results and Comments show screen shots from the web-based


application developed. Alongside these screen shots are comments
that aide for a better comprehension of results and interpretation of
results where necessary.

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Results and
and Comments

3.1

Results from the application

The following section contains some screen shots to demonstrate the key functionalities of
the toolkit developed in this project. The toolkit was named IM_CI Tool,
Tool, IM for Interference
Matrices and CI for Cell Identity generation.
generatio

Toolkit Arborescence

IM_CI Tool

Authentication

HOME PAGE

Export IM

Analyse IM

Allocate CI

Export all Atoll


compatible
interference matrices
from a single TEMS
log file.

Do interference
analyses for a chosen
victim cell and all its
possible interferers

Allocate Cell Identities


to the cells of a single
site

Combine multiple log


files to export a single
interference matrix.

Filter highly probable


co-channel or
adjacent channel
interferers for a
chosen victim cell

Allocate cell identities


to the cells of several
sites at once

Figure 30: Toolkit arborescence

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation
Allocatio of Cell Ids to New Cells

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63

Results and
and Comments
Authentication Page

Figure 31: Authentication page

1. The user enters his Username and Password.


2. The user validates by clicking on the GO button
Registration of new users can only be done by an administrator after he has logged into the

application. This option is not provided on the authentication page to prevent any kind
individual from subscribing to the application. There are default authentication parameters for
the first connection to the application and after this, these parameters can be changed.
!

To enhance security, the clear text of users authentication parameters is not directly
stored in the database. MD5 (Message Digest 5) hash values of both the username and
password are calculated before storing into the database.
As such, When the user attempts to login, the parameters which he enters are taken
and the MD5 hash values calculated. It is this hash values that are compared with the
values in the database.
Note here that for the MD5 hashing functions, an inbuilt algorithm exists in the
language PHP (like in many other languages) for this. It is this inbuilt function that
was exploited.

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64

Results and
and Comments
Home Page

Figure 32: Application Home Page

After authentication, the user has access to the applications home page. Here, a brief
description of the various modules is done. These modules include:
1. Export IM: In this module, the user has the possibility to load drive test data onto the
application server (in the form of FMT log files). The loaded drive test data can be
used to generate all Atoll compatible interference matrices. Also, several log files can
be combined for the generation of a single interference matrix.
2. Analyse IM: This module gives the possibility to do interference analyses between
couples of cells. For data from a given drive test, the user has the possibility to select
a server interferer couple and analyse the probabilities of co-channel and adjacent
channel interferences.
3. Allocate CI: Here, the user has the possibility to do an automatic attribution of CI
values to new cells.

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End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

65

Results and
and Comments
Generation of interference matrices
7

2
3
1

Figure 33: Generation of an Interference matrix

The labels 1 to 7 are explained below:


1. The list of all the drive test log files that have been uploaded to the server.
2. The list of interference matrices already generated from the given log files on the
server. The name of the matrix takes the name of the log file and concatenates with
the time and date of generation. They are grouped according to the file formats.
3. By passing the mouse cursor over a log file, we have a brief description of it.
4. When a log file is clicked, it is selected and can be used to generate an interference
matrix.
5. Before generating a matrix, an output format has to be chosen.
6. Clicking the GO button generates the interference matrix with the chosen output
format. This matrix locates itself with the others that have the same file format as it

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66

Results and
and Comments
Sample generated .im0 interference matrix generated from IM_CI Tool
Tool:

Figure 34: Sample of .im0 interference matrix generated from IM_CI Tool.

This generated matrix can be imported in Atoll


7. There is the possibility to upload a new log file by going to the File menu, then
choosing the option Upload File. A file name (Title) and brief description (File
Description) are required to facilitate usage by subsequent users

Figure 35: Upload new log file to server.


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67

Results and
and Comments
In IM_CI Tool, there is the possibility to combine multiple log files to generate a single
interference matrix.

Figure 36: Combining multiple log files

The labels 1 to 5 are explained below:


1. In the file menu, the user can choose to Combine Multiple Log files.
2. Then, he can select all the log files to combine for generation of a single interference
matrix. This selection is done from a list of all the log files on the server.
3. After selecting, the user should give a name for the interference matrix that will be
generated.
4. The user then chooses an output file format for the matrix to generate.
5. Finally, clicking the OK button will generate the desired output interference matrix.

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

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68

Results and
and Comments
Evaluation of matrices

Figure 37: Loading interference matrix for comparison

Figure 38: Example Results of evaluation

This is an example situation in which there is a low correlation between the drive tests
based matrix and the Atoll matrix. In such a situation, matrix sources should be investigated
to draw conclusions as explained in section 2.2.5 of chapter 2.

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69

Results and
and Comments

Interference Analyses

4
1

Figure 39: Interactive interference analyses.

The labels 1 to 4 are explained below:


1. The user can load all the serving cells that were detected during a given drive test.
Then he can choose a given serving cell from the list. The corresponding list of
interfering cells is constituted.
2. An interferer can be chosen from the list of interferers and for the server-interferer
couple, interference analyses can be made.
3. There is the possibility to filter only co-channel interferers by choosing the co
option or only adjacent interferers by choosing the adj option.
4. For a given server-interferer couple, the user can plot the histogram of C/I ranges.
This histogram shows different C/I ranges and the percentage of C/I values in each
range. Consider the example in the figure above. The histograms plotted are as in the
figure below.

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

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70

Results and
and Comments

C/I values that are less than 12dB (in this case, 100% of the C/I values are
less than 12dB)

C/I values greater


than or equal to
12dB, 0% in this case

Figure 40: C/I histograms for server-interferer couple.

This is an example of a situation where there is a high probability of co-channel interference.


(Recall that co-channel interference occurs when there are other transmitters emitting in the
same frequency band as the serving transmitter such that C/I < 9dB. 12dB is considered here
because Orange Cameroon has fixed a quality margin of 3dB which when added to the 9dB
proposed by the norm gives 12dB).
To complete the analyses, supplementary information on the frequency channels of both the
serving cell and the interfering cell is given (as shown below). For this case, we see that even
though all the C/I samples are below 12dB, the victim and interfering cells have different
frequency channels, hence there is no co-channel interference.

Figure 41: Channel information for frequency analyses.

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71

Results and
and Comments

Automatic Cell Id Allocation

Used to get the names of


the cells in the site
Number of cell ids
allocated based on this
Determines range of
values to allocate
Also determines range of
values to allocate (zone of
implantation of site)

Confirm choice

Figure 42: Input parameters for CI allocation.

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

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72

Results and
and Comments

Cell Ids for the 3 cells of


the given site here

Correspondence between
Cell Ids and Cell names

Figure 43: Cell Ids generated for 3 cells of tri-sectorial site.

Confirming the CI values saves them


and gives possibility to do mail
notification

Figure 44: Mailing list

Tick the names of individuals to notify and click on the send button. Mail notification is done
on the newly attributed CI values.
Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

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73

Conclusion and Perspectives

CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVES


Having arrived at the end of this work, it can be affirmed that, the design and implementation
of a toolkit for the processing of files issued from radio measurements and the automatic
allocation of cell ids to new cells was done.
This toolkit named IM_CI Tool permits: the amelioration of frequency plans in GSM and DCS
networks (case of Orange Cameroon), the detection of co-channel and adjacent channel
interferences between couples of cells via an interactive interference analyses and the
automatic attribution of cell identities to new cells that are integrated in the network (of
Orange Cameroon).
The usage of the IM_CI Tool will result in two comfortable situations; first of all the reduction
in interferences in the

GSM and DCS networks (of Orange Cameroon) hence an

improvement in the quality of service provided to clients and secondly the well structured and
organised identification plan for cells hence proper management.
This work is just a first mile stone among several, since there are other aspects that can be
done to ameliorate it. These aspects include: Considering other sources for drive test log files
(like QVOICE which is also used in Orange Cameroon), since only TEMS Investigation log
files where used here. Also, proposing local frequency changes to minimise interferences will
be very good. Finally, offering the possibility for the detection of interferences (co-channel
and adjacent channel) caused by signals from the transmitters of other operators will go a
long way for the improvement of this work.

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

74

Bibliography and Webography

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND WEBOGRAPHY


Other Works and Dissertations
 [1] Atoll User Manual version 2.8.1
 [2] Atoll Technical Reference Guide version 2.8.3
 [3] Ericsson AB 2007 TEMS Investigation 8.1 Information Elements and Events
Manual
 [4] NDEFFO TAKA William. Interface Radio GSM : Rsolution du problme
dinterfrence par la mise en uvre dun outil de gestion de frquence, ENSP
2005 70p
 [5] NGAN TAFAM Aron Achille. linteroprabilit des outils RNO et Atoll
ENSP 5GTEL 2009 110p
 [6] NGUE Luc Armel. Conception et ralisation d'un outil de planification de
frquences pour optimiser le fonctionnement des cellules du rseau MTN Cameroun,

ENSP 5GTEL 2010 96p


 [7] Xavier Lagrange, Philippe Godlewski, Sami Tabbane. Rseaux GSM 5e Edition
revue et augmente. 521p

Electronic Documents
 [8] EFORT, GSM : Global System for Mobile Communications Architecture,
Interfaces et Identits, EFORT 2008,
http://www.efort.com/r_tutoriels/GSM1_EFORT.pdf
 [9] M.R.L Hodges, GSM Radio interface, Br Telecom Technol J Vol 8 No 1 January
1990, www.telecom.cpehn.be/doc/fichiers/Hodges.pd
 [10] R J RUMMEL, THE CORRELETION COEFFICIENT, Honolulu:
Department of Political Science University of Hawaii, 1976,
http://www.mega.nu/ampp/rummel/uc.htm

Design and Implementation of a Toolkit for the Processing of files issued from Radio Measurements and the Automatic Allocation of Cell Ids to New Cells

End of course Dissertation written by: CHEFUH DIVINE NGWA June 2011

75

Annex

ANNEX
Table 21: Template for exporting TEMS log file

Order Information Elements


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

ARFCN BCCH
Hopping
Cell Name
HSN
RxLev Sub (dBm)
Neighbor Cell Name (Sorted)[1]
Neighbor Cell Name (Sorted)[2]
Neighbor Cell Name (Sorted)[3]
Neighbor Cell Name (Sorted)[4]
All-Neighbor Cell Name (Sorted)[5]
Neighbor Cell Name (Sorted)[6]
Neighbor RxLev (dBm) (Sorted)[1]
Neighbor RxLev (dBm) (Sorted)[2]
Neighbor RxLev (dBm) (Sorted)[3]
Neighbor RxLev (dBm) (Sorted)[4]
Neighbor RxLev (dBm) (Sorted)[5]
All-Neighbor RxLev (dBm) (Sorted)[6]
Neighbor ARFCN (Sorted)[1]
Neighbor ARFCN (Sorted)[2]
Neighbor ARFCN (Sorted)[3]
Neighbor ARFCN (Sorted)[4]
Neighbor ARFCN (Sorted)[5]
Neighbor ARFCN (Sorted)[6]
Hopping List

Hardware Configuration
For proper functioning, the application needs the following minimum hardware
configuration:




Processor of at least 1.5GHz


At least 1GB of RAM
Minimum free space on disk of 1.5GB

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76

Annex
Source codes for generation of .im1 interference matrices (others are
similar). The codes are in PHP.
<?php

if(array_key_exists(9,$row)){

$val = 0;

$server = $row[9];

set_time_limit($val);

ini_set('memory_limit',"512M");

for($i=1;$i<7;$i++){

function diff($n)

$j = $i + 17;

$k = $i + 11;
if(array_key_exists(11,$row) &&
array_key_exists($j,$row) &&
array_key_exists($k,$row)){

$a = abs(-12 - $n);
return($a);
}

$cir = $row[11] - $row[$j];

$Content = '# Calculation Results Data File.

$interferer = $row[$k];

# Version 1.2, Tab separated format. Commented


lines start with # .

}
if($interferer != '' && $server != ''){

# Remark: C/I results do not incorporate power


offset values.

$SERVER[] = $server;

# Fields are:

$INTERFERER[] = $interferer;

#-----------------------------------------------------------------------

$CIR[] = $cir;
}

#Transmitter
Interferer
Probability

Trx type C/I

#----------------------------------------------------------------------#

}
}
array_multisort($SERVER,$INTERFERER,$CIR);
$samples = count($SERVER);

# IM context line (indicates the type and some


quality indicators. do not edit this line.)

//make a list of all servers (distinct)

####0 7.0 4050 100 0

$unique = array_unique($SERVER);

##--------------------------------------------------------------------#';

$S_list = array_values($unique);

$file1 = fopen($chosenFMT, 'r');

$Sorter = array_values(array_flip($unique));

// Define content

//get each server from the list and form its


histograms

$contents = fgets($file1, 1024);

$condition1 = count($S_list);

while (!feof($file1)){

for($i = 0; $i < $condition1; $i++){

$contents = fgets($file1, 1024);

//filter out interferer list or I_list

$row = explode(' ',$contents);

if($i == $condition1-1){
$nbr = $samples-$Sorter[$i];

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Annex
$i_list =
array_slice($INTERFERER,$Sorter[$i],$nbr);

$Occurance_list[] =
$flipper[$CIR_list[$x+1]] $flipper[$CIR_list[$x]];

$cir_short_list =
array_slice($CIR,$Sorter[$i],$nbr);

}else if($i != $condition1-1){

$offset1 = count($cir_list);

$nbr = $Sorter[$i+1]-$Sorter[$i];
$i_list =
array_slice($INTERFERER,$Sorter[$i],$nbr);
$cir_short_list =
array_slice($CIR,$Sorter[$i],$nbr);

$offset2 = count($CIR_list)-1;
$offset3 = $CIR_list[$offset2];
$Occurance_list[] = $offset1 $flipper[$offset3];
//We now have CIR_list and occurances for given
server S_list[$i], interferer I_list[$k] and
$Occurance_list.

}
array_multisort($i_list,$cir_short_list);
$unique2 = array_unique($i_list);

//total number of samples. will be used to calculate


occurance probability.

$I_list = array_values($unique2);

$sum = array_sum($Occurance_list);

$Sorter2 =
array_values(array_flip($unique2));

$condition4 = count($CIR_list);
//calculate occurance probabilities

$samples2 = count($i_list);
$cumulative = 0;
//We now have I_list for given server S_list[$i]
for($p = 0; $p < $condition4; $p++){
$condition2 = count($I_list);
for($k = 0; $k < $condition2; $k++){
//filter out C/I list or CIR_list for server interferer.
if($k == $condition2-1){
$nbr2 = $samples2-$Sorter2[$k];
$cir_list =
array_slice($cir_short_list,$Sorter2[$k],$nbr2);
}else if($k != $condition2-1){
$nbr2 = $Sorter2[$k+1]-$Sorter2[$k];
$cir_list =
array_slice($cir_short_list,$Sorter2[$k],$nbr2);

$Occurance_list[$p] =
$Occurance_list[$p]/$sum;
$cumulative = $cumulative +
$Occurance_list[$p];
}
for($q = 0; $q < $condition4-1; $q++)
{
$cumulative = $cumulative $Occurance_list[$q];
$Occurance_list[$q] =
round($cumulative, 3);
}//end

}
sort($cir_list);
$unique_CIR = array_unique($cir_list);
$CIR_list = array_values($unique_CIR);
$flipper = array_flip($unique_CIR);
$condition3 = count($flipper)-1;

$cumulative = abs($cumulative
- $Occurance_list[$condition4-1]);
$Occurance_list[$condition4-1]
= round($cumulative, 3);
//start C/I filter here
if($condition4 > 24){

for($x = 0; $x < $condition3; $x++){


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Annex
$diff_list = array_map("diff", $CIR_list);

$i_list = array();

$min = min($diff_list);

$cir_list = array();

$index = array_search($min,$diff_list);

$Occurance_list = array();

$length = $condition4 - $index;


if($length >= 24){

$list = array_slice($CIR_list,$index,24)
$CIR_list = $list;

$vals = array_slice($Occurance_list,$index,24);
$file = fopen($outputIM, 'w');
$Occurance_list = $vals;

fwrite($file, $Content);

}else if($length < 24){

fclose($file);

$list = array_slice($CIR_list,$index,$length);
$CIR_list = $list;

//upgrade database based on the newlly generated


IM

$vals =
array_slice($Occurance_list,$index,$length);

include("includes/DBConn.php");

$Occurance_list = $vals;

$titleFile = $_GET['chosenFMT'];

$tempVariable = explode('.',$titleFile);

$nameMatrix = $tempVariable[0];

$newCount = count($CIR_list);

$nameMatrix .= $timeStamp;
$nameMatrix .= '.im0';

//end C/I filter here

$sizeMatrix = round(filesize($outputIM)/1024,3);
//file size in Kbytes

if($newCount > 5){


for($p = 1; $p <= $newCount; $p++)
{
$q = $p-1;
$Content .= "\r\n$S_list[$i]";
$Content .= "

$query2 = mysql_query("SELECT
MAX(`codeMatrix`)

";

$Content .= "BCCH,TCH";
$Content .= "

$query1 = mysql_query("INSERT INTO


interferencematrix(codeMatrix, nameMatrix,
sizeMatrix) VALUES('', '$nameMatrix',
'$sizeMatrix')");

";

$Content .= "$I_list[$k]";
$Content .= "

$date = date ("F d Y H:i:s.",


filemtime($outputIM));

";

$Content .= $CIR_list[$q];
$Content .= " ";
$Content .= $Occurance_list[$q];

FROM `interferencematrix`");
$result2 = mysql_fetch_row($query2);
$codeMatrix = $result2[0];
$query3 = mysql_query("SELECT `codeFile`
FROM `logfile`

}
}

WHERE `titleFile` = '$titleFile'");

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Annex
//$num = mysql_num_rows($query3);
//for($i=0; $i<$num; $i++){
$result3 = mysql_fetch_row($query3);
$codeFile = $result3[0];
$query4 = mysql_query("INSERT INTO
export(idExport, codeFile, codeMatrix, date)
VALUES('', '$codeFile', '$codeMatrix', '$date')");
//end of database upgrade.
$val = 30;
set_time_limit($val);
ini_set('memory_limit',"128M");
?>

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