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Cocoa, an important commercial crop of the equatorial region, is extensively planted in
areas bordering the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa which include the countries of Ghana,
Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Togo and Dahomey. In this equatorial region,
Ghana and Ivory Coast are the most important producers. These two countries have been
the worlds leading producers of cocoa over the years with Ghanas cocoa emerging as
the best in quality against which other beans are measured Kishore (2010). Until Tetteh
Quarshie returned from Fernadopo in 1878 with some few pods of cocoa for cultivation, there
was little attention on cocoa cultivation in the country. Cocoa has been a very important cash crop
in these countries and as a result farmers try as much as possible to get the best returns out of it.
When they realize some unfavourable conditions that would hinder their ability to get the right
amount or returns they tend to smuggle the produce to the place of convenience where they
would feel not cheated. The main cause of cocoa smuggling from Ghana to Ivory Coast is

the difference in the pricing policy adopted by the two countries.

The main rural communities in the Bia district that share border with Cote DIvoire are Sefwi
Oseikojokrom, Sefwi Kwadwaba, Akaatiso and Sefwi Yawmatwa. They share borders with
communities such as Niable, Apenkuro, Baa Bonsu, and Manzaano in Cote DIvoire. They are all
major cocoa growing communities. This makes cocoa smuggling quite flexible and very
The Bia district is the highest cocoa producing district in Ghana as at 2011 and as a result
becomes the area that consumes more pesticides during the cocoa spraying exercises due to its
large rate of production, but these farmers do not seem bordered about the governments efforts.
Are they really aware of how much the government spends on their cocoa farms every year?

There are big billboards in almost all the communities in the district and all the border towns with
the inscription STOP COCOA SMUGGLING, IT IS PUNISHABLE BY LAW. But all these
have not really worked because it seems the local farmers could not even read these bills and are
not bordered what message at all it is trying to put across
This study seeks to assess the main motivators and the reasons why farmers still smuggle despite
the efforts put in by the government by using a historical approach that has not being explored in
the literature reviewed.

2.0 Research Objectives

The main aim of the study is to examine the continuous smuggling of cocoa between the two
countries despite the several attempts at curbing the phenomenon. This would be achieved by the
following specific objectives;

To identify the motivations behind the smuggling of cocoa in and out of that

region and how it is done;

To examine the reasons for failure of state interventions in stemming the practice;
To assess the effects of smuggling on the cocoa growing households and the

3.0 Research Hypotheses

Price differentials determines the direction of cocoa smuggling


This section focuses on the review of relevant literature on cocoa smuggling and other core
aspects of the topic under study. The chapter thus presents the conceptual and theoretical basis for
the study.


Kishore (2010) spelt out that, Cocoa production in Ghana dates back to the 19th century when the
Basel Missionaries set up an experimental farm in Akropong Akuapim and nursed cocoa seeds
imported from Surinam to be distributed for cultivation to farmers in Akuapim and Krobo. But
their experiment was less successful. Thus until Tetteh Quarshie returned from Fernadopo in 1878
with some few pods of cocoa for cultivation, there was little attention on cocoa cultivation in the
Michael, (2007) writing on Making a living in the cocoa frontier, explained that the production
of cocoa has sparked the development of frontier regions in Ghana. Now cocoa production is a
major crop income generating activity for most cash crop farmers in the country. Areas where
cocoa is mostly cultivated are the Eastern, Western, Ashanti, Central and the Brong Ahafo
Regions of this country.
According to Hutchful, (1995) as cited in Michael, (2007), the expansion of cocoa production
followed a distinctive geographical pattern whereby virgin forest land was planted and existing
regions were gradually hollowed out by diseases and shifting land use.
When West Africa replaced the Americas as the leading cocoa-producing region, Ghana was the
worlds largest producer. Ghanas importance as a producer subsequently peaked in the early
1930s, when it accounted for about 40 per cent of global production Fold (2002). There has been
tremendous increase in cocoa production over the years and below is a bar chart representing the
production of cocoa over a period of seven immediate full seasons.

Figure 2.0: Graph showing cocoa bean production in Ghana

Source: Ghana Cocoa Bard; **Post Projections

According to the annual cocoa report 2012, prepared by Elmasoeur Ashitey (GAIN Repot
Number 1202), the improved cocoa bean yield obtained in Main Year (MY) 2010/2011 season is
due to the concerted effort of the Government of Ghana (GoG) support to the cocoa sector,
farmers, major stakeholders and favorable weather conditions over several years, according to
GoG sources.

Cocoa Smuggling in Ghana

A story written by Yayra in the daily graphic dated, 6 th October, 2012 stated that, the Ghana
Cocoa Board (COCOBOD) confirmed that cocoa purchases for the 2009/2010 season went short
by 69,250 tons. Ghana lost about 100 metric tons of cocoa equivalents to 240 million Ghana cedis
during the 2009/2010 main cocoa season as a result of cocoa smuggling to neighboring countries.
This translates into over 1.1 million 64 kilogram bags. This therefore brought the purchases of
cocoa only a little over 630,000 tons. The loss translates into over GH165 million of revenue.

The Ghana government had introduced certain interventions for cocoa farmers such as the mass
spraying of cocoa, subsidized fertilizer and the consistent increases in the price of cocoa. In fact,
roads linking cocoa producing centres, usually called Cocoa Roads have been receiving
attention under all governments of the country. The government however, stepped in with a new
price that was expected to stem the smuggling. The 33.3 per cent improvement in prices of cocoa
for the 2010/2011 crop season, took effect from October 1. Farmers now receive GH3,200 or
GH200 per 64 kilogram bag of cocoa from the previous GH2,400 per ton or GH150 per a 54
kilogram bag of cocoa. This intervention somewhat reduced cocoa smuggling to Ivory Coast but
rather smuggling was reversed in 2011 when situations seemed better in Ghana than in Ivory
The political instability in the Ivory Coast and the higher cocoa bean price offered in Ghana has
encouraged the movement of cocoa into Ghana.

Figure 3.0: Conceptual framework
Price differentials between Ghana and cote
d Ivoire

Convenience (proximity)

Cocoa smuggling in the Bia





security supervision



growth in the country

Security threats on the borders

(border villages).

Post-harvest health hazards

(Source: Author)

Inefficient security personnel, convenience, pay as u go and price differentials are the main
causes of cocoa smuggling in the area. The proximity (convenience) of the smugglers makes it
easy for them to smuggle the cocoa to either countries in the first place. This is to say that,
individuals in the interior would not want to smuggle to either countries where their cost of
transportation would be high, in relation to their profit margin. The security force sent there are
also not loyal enough to the state. They take bribe from victims and allow them.This brings about
the three effects in figure 2.0, hinders economic growth, posses security threat and then put some
sort of security threat on the people living on the border towns. Where after the cocoa season
some of the partakers vomit blood due to over working during the season.

Methods of data collection

The primary data for the research was obtained through the administration of a structured
questionnaire and the conduction of in-depth interviews.
Secondary data was collected from Cocobod reports, books, journals, and the internet. These
reports were needed to establish the current state of cocoa smuggling in the Bia district.

The primary data were collected using structured questionnaires. The questionnaires contained
both closed and open-ended questions, and they were self-administered. In all, 50 questionnaires
were administered to farmers and non-farmers. Fifteen (15) females and thirty five (35) males
were selected. This distribution was used because it was observed that the females, mostly
mothers (food crop farmers), are not the heads of the households and would like you to talk to
their husbands as a sign of respect. In this setting, the males generally engage in the smuggling of

cocoa. The study themes included methods employed in smuggling the cocoa, the motivations
behind smuggling, their average income levels, and level of education, awareness of punishment
available, how cocoa smuggling is carried out, why the governments interventions had failed and
the way forward..

The authorities of the security personnel and purchasing clerks were also interviewed. Some
security personnel interviewed were the Immigration Service of Ghana, Ghana Police Service,
Ghana Revenue Authority and the Customs Preventive Service. The main themes these people
were interviewed on were; how culprits are caught, rules, regulations and punishment concerning
the act of smuggling and their recommendations they could suggest to help stem the situation.
Purchasing clerks from the Produce buying Company, Diaby Ghana Limited and Trans Royal
Buying Company were also interviewed on themes such as, how often farmers smuggle cocoa in
or out of the country, how it affect their business, whether something could be done about it and
their general comment about cocoa smuggling in the district. Some experiences by the security
personnel were shared verbally and I made some personal observations.

The data gathered from various sources were processed and analyzed using SPSS. Simple
descriptive statistical and analytical tools such as frequencies, percentages, and pie charts were
also employed in the analysis of the data. Relationships were established by cross tabulations.


1.1 Introduction /Problem statement

The Shea tree (vitellariaparadoxa) is a common wild tree that grows best in the savanna belt of
West Africa. It stretches from Senegal in the west to Sudan in the East. In Ghana, the Shea tree
grows extensively in the north covering a total land area of about 77670 square kilometers in
Upper East, Upper West and Northern region (FAO, 1988a In Fobill 2007). It also occurs
sparsely in Northern Brong-Ahafo, Ashanti, Eastern and Volta Region (Fobill 2007).
The economic importance of Shea nut and Shea product to the world has been emphasized in
many Shea growing localities, about 98% of Shea products produced in Ghana is by women in
the three Northern Regions (Dr. Shea Peter Lovel). The Shea tree and it products: Kernel and
butter have significant social and economic value for Ghana especially women in Northern
Region. The Shea season covers a period from May to July. Although farming is the predominant
occupation of most people, Shea nut collection and Shea butter extraction by women in the north
provide supplementary but valuable income. According to Abbiw (1990 in Lauvien et al 1996),
Shea butter which is the primary derivative from Shea nut is widely use for food preparation
(frying and making stews) which is the sole responsibility of women in Northern Ghana. Shea
butter is also used as cream for moisturizing the skin and protecting the hair especially among
women and children during the severe harmattan season. Most women in this area depend on
income generated from the sales of Shea nut and Shea butter to finance their basic needs
especially clothing,
According to the vice president and now the president of the republic of Ghana, John Dramani
Mahama, women numbering more than 900,000 in the three northern region collect over 130,000
tones of dry nut every year to process and use locally (daily graphic,16 th March,2010). This in
estimation will provide about $33 million annually and contribute significantly to household
income. But can they fully depend on the collection and processing of the nut as a major source

of employment. Or does the Shea business contribute indirectly in providing employment to those
The dominance of women in the Shea business in northern Ghana was due to the fact that, women
in the area are the most economically disadvantage group due to their limited access to assets.
Women in this area have no ownership and access to land and even those who has access to land
are food crop farmers operating only for family consumption living little for sale. This makes it
difficult for them to get a startup capital to engage in other business such as petty trading as a
source of livelihood. Most of them are not educated and are therefore lack the requisite skills that
will enable them to be employed in other job opportunities to earn a living. The neglect of
subsequent government in providing basic amenities in the northern part of the country which are
importance to human livelihood makes women in this area to be in abject poverty. However, the
presence of the Shea tree and its product in the area provide an opportunity for the women to use
it as alternative source of livelihood as income generated from it is specifically for women.
The potential of the Shea tree and its product in sustaining life especially among women in
northern Ghana cannot be underestimated, but the problem: is do women in northern Ghana really
consider the Shea tree as their golden egg producer?. As golden egg producer, it should provide
an opportunity for those women who engage in the business to empower themselves and also
equip them with the needed capital to invest in other income generating activities. However, most
studies carried out by earlier researches focus much attention on the potentials of the Shea tree in
serving domestic purposes (cooking oil, creams, medicinal purpose etc.) as well as its
contribution in providing income to the women. They however, failed to provide information with
regards to other income generating activities as associated with the Shea business, the
employment potential of the business in empowering women and also possible innovation
adopted by the women in enhancing the business. I therefore identify these as a missing link
which I will research into in other to build up to a state of knowledge of the potentials Shea tree.
The research seeks to answer the following questions:

1. What other income generating activities are associated with the Shea business?
2. Does the Shea business possess much potential in empowering women?
3. What innovations do women employ in enhancing the business?
1.2 Research objectives

The main objective of the study is to access the contributions of the Shea tree and its products to
different aspects of womens livelihoods.

The sub objectives include:

a. To examine income-generating activities associated with the Shea business.
b. To examine employment potentials of the Shea business in empowering women.
c. To examine possible innovations employed by northern women in enhancing the
Shea business.
Is the Shea tree considered as a golden egg producer?
1.3 Research hypothesis

If women are economically empowered and can invest in their lives, family and
communities by engaging in the Shea business, then the Shea tree is a Golden egg
Does the Shea business


generating activities are

possess much potential



in empowering women?






Shea business?

Quantifiable viable and general

information about Shea tree and
its products

Research methods




(In-depth interview)


Test of hypothesis


(Chi-square test)

Results and discussion

Summary, conclusion and recommendation



1.4 Literature review

All the Shea trees in West Africa including Ghana belong to the sub species paradox. They occur
from Senegal through Nigeria to the Central Africa Republic. The sub species niloticum is found
in Sudan and East African Countries such as Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo
(Booth and Wickens, 1988). The mature tree starts flowering by early November and yielding
fruits over a period of five months from April to August every year.
Some of the trees lose their leaves completely before peak flowering occurs whilst others lose and
grow new leaves gradually and thus maintaining a large amount of foliage during flowering.
Shea trees are cross-pollinated, the extended style and stigma receiving pollen from other trees
before the flower opens. Pollination is mainly by insects particularly bees. These are often found
in large population around flowering Shea trees at dawn. Ripe nut begins to drop in early April
and continue to do so until July or August for late bearing trees under their own weight and are
picked up by the local inhabitants (fobil, 2007). Peak collection of the nuts, mostly by women
and children occurs from late April or May to June or July depending on locality. Shea nut
collection during this period has been very importance to the rural communities because it
concise with annual hunger gab, April to July, when most families depend almost entirely from
Shea nut and parkia to meet daily foods supplies. Years in which Shea net yields are poor are
characterizes by widespread hunger and poverty in North Ghana especially among women.

In Africa, Shea nut is primary use as a source of cook fat, within its range in Southern Sahellan
and Sudan; it is probably the most affordable, available and extensively use oil (Lauvien et al
1996). According to Dogbevi, (2009), the matured kernel contains about 61% of edible fat can be
use for medicinal purpose as well as industrial purpose; it is also an important source of fat for
make soup and may be use as skin moisturizer.
Apart from the local use, Shea nut and Shea products provide valuable income especially for
women, according to Elias and Carney (2007), the uniqueness of the Shea tree is that in generate
income specifically for women as it is traditionally seen as women business. Most women in
North Ghana depend on income generated from the sales of Shea nut and Shea product as a
means of dearly sustenance, namely, supplementing the family food budget, medicinal and
education expenses. A report by Kwodi (2010) for feature article, in his personal interview with
one woman, AbduliaZuwera of Tungteiya Shea butter extraction women association of Gushiegu.
Show that it through the sales of Shea nut and Shea products that they were able to make the
living and supported their school going children.
The writers came out with uses of Shea nut as food, medicinal purposes, protection of the skin
and more importantly as a major source of income to women. My personal opinion of the above
is that they have done a lot and an extensive work on Shea nut, they have gone more into all the
above as well as many more. However, they did not provide information with regards to other
income generating activities that are associated with the Shea business, employment potentials of
the business in empowering women and other innovative measures adopted by the women to
enhance the business. This phenomenon is what I intends to research.
Population and sampling
The study was undertaken in three communities in the district, including Buipe, Yapei and
Mpahe. These are larger settlements where a lot of women are engaging in the Shea business.
Stratified and sample random sampling technique was used to select the sample size of
respondent in each community engaging in the Shea business.
The questionnaires were close and open ended. There were administered to women engaging in
the Shea business. In all Fifty (50) questionnaires were administered, twenty (20) in Buipe,
Fifteen (15) in Yapie, and Mpaha respectively. In other to get a general view of woman in the

area, only one woman is selected in each house. Answers of respondents were ticked or recorded
the space provided on the question sheet.
In-depth interviews were also carried out to acquire general information about the shea tree and
its products. Interviews were conducted with some women group leaders, NGOs and other
women who engage actively in the Shea business.

This was necessary because certain

information was not available and is not also captured in the questionnaires. Responses of
despondence were recorded on the field note book during interview.

2.3 Methods of Data Analysis / Methods for Testing, Hypothesis

Methods of analysis depending on the situation were used on the field to collect information that
ensures that, the most effective analytical tool were use to bring out a lot more details. Chisquare and statistical tables, charts and graph were use in analyzing the data collected through
questionnaires and interviews to bring out the nitty-gritty of the potentials of the Shea business to
women in Northern Ghana. It is important to note that, Shea nut and its products as a source of
income and gender has a lot of constraint and it is my hope that, this and many more will be
unfolded for the good of the industry.



Rivers are getting polluted globally due to the increasing pressure by Man. Every day, about two
(2) million tons of sewage and industrial and agricultural waste is discharged into the worlds
water (UN WWAP 2003), the equivalent of the weight of the entire human population of 6.8
billion people. The UN estimates that the amount of wastewater produced annually is about 1,500
km3, six times more water than exists in all the rivers of the world. (UN WWAP 2003).In Ghana,
water pollution is usually caused by human activities in the environment, (EPA, 2009). Different
human sources add to the pollution of water.
The Owabi River is a very important river for the people of Kumasi because, it houses the Owabi
Wildlife Sanctuary and Ghana Water Companys Owabi Head works which produces about four
million two hundred thousand liters(4.2 million liters) of treated water for the Kumasi Metropolis
and its environs. The increasing pollution of the river is affecting the potency of the river for
fishing and for water supply among its other functions. The Owabi reservoir is designed to
produce 20% of the total potable water requirement in the Kumasi metropolis and nearby
The streams that serve the Owabi reservoir have been encroached with various human activities
due to the high population density within the catchment area like, Sukobri, Akyeampomene,
Pumpunase, and Afu. According to the Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) it has witnessed
an increment in the treatment of portable water as a result of the indiscriminate and persistent
pollution of the Owabi River, the color and value of the raw water at the Owabi dam has gone
down over the years thus, requiring the usage of more aluminum sulphate for treatment. It has
been estimated that, a total of GH1,059,441 was spent on the procurement of chemicals for the
treatment of raw water in year 2009 as against GH952,886 in year 2008 in the Ashanti region
and this cost keeps rising. (GWCL). This research was driven by the need to improve the
understanding of the impacts of water pollution on lives of residents.

The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of pollution of the Owabi River on
the lives of people in the surrounding areas.
The sub-objectives included,
Assessing the level of pollution of the Owabi River.
Identifying the sources of pollutants of the river and the driving forces of the pollution.
Examining the effects of water pollution on the residents especially those along the

The Owabi River is a very important river in the Ashanti region because it houses the Owabi
Wildlife Sanctuary and Ghana Water Companys Owabi Head works which produces about four
million, two hundred thousand liters (4200000 liters) of treated water for the Kumasi Metropolis
and its environs. The increasing pollution of the river is affecting the potency of the river for
fishing and for water supply among its other functions. Also the lack of adequate research on the
pollution of the river and the impact of this pollution, on the lives of residents, justifies this study.
This study sought to help in educating people on the importance of protecting the Owabi River
for the general good of all.

Definitions and Origin of Pollution
The European Commission Directive on Integrated Pollution and Control defines environmental
pollution as the direct or indirect result of human activity, of presence of substances, vibration,
heat or noise into the air, water or land which may be harmful to human health or quality of the
environment and which may result in damage to material, property, or interfere with amenities
and other legitimate use of the environment. (Ganguly Prabir, Environmental Regulations and
Standard Setting, 2000).T.J McLaughlin (1999) defines pollution as, the introduction by man of
waste matter or surplus energy into the environment which directly or indirectly causes damage to
man and his environment other than himself, his household, those in his environment, and those
with whom he has a direct trading relationship.
Pollution is the introduction by man into the environment of substances or energy liable to cause
hazards to human health, harm to living resources and ecological systems, damage to structures

or amenity, or interference with legitimate uses of the environment. (Holdgate M.W., 1999)
(Alloway, 1993)Dix (1981) also defines pollution as, the deliberate or accidental contamination of
the environment with mans waste. He stipulated that, pollution started at a time when mankind
began to use the natural resources of the environment for his own benefit. His activities of
clearing trees, building shelters and cultivating crops altered the natural environment. Later, as
the human population increased there were increasing quantities of human and animal waste to be
disposed, this led to pollution.
Causes and impact of water pollution in Africa and Ghana
Causes of water pollution can be grouped into two thus; Anthropogenic factors and natural
factors. Letterman (1999) argued that, natural factors such as climate, watershed characteristics,
nutrients and wild fires could have significant impacts on water quality. Anthropogenic factors
such as agricultural development, population growth, urbanization, industrialization as well as
market policy failures have been identified as the root causes of water pollution (UNEP, 2006).
In less developed countries, many rivers and streams are heavily polluted due to anthropogenic
activities (Jonnalagadda and Mhere).
Sewage disposal from urban areas contribute significantly to nitrogen loadings in river systems
leading to eutrophication (Hayakawa et al., 2006). A recent study of the Nworie and Otamiri
rivers in Nigeria showed a strong relationship between nitrate concentration in rivers and
urbanization (Bichi and Anyata, 1999). The main impact of river pollution is the reduction in the
quality of water of the river. In Ghana most domestic waste dis-charged directly into drainage
systems that empty into water bodies such as rivers, lagoon and streams. About 80% of sewage
treatment facilities in Accra were not functioning thus placing a lot of pressure on the receiving
streams and rivers in the city (EPA, 2002). In Kumasi Nsiah-Gyabaah (2001), maintains that
inhabitants of the city pollute the rivers and streams used by inhabitants in the peri-urban
interface by dumping night soil and waste tips close to sources of water supply.

A simple but dynamic conceptual framework describing the links between population and the
environment, including mediating factors that ultimately shape the association between the two,
adopted from United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) is outlined in the figure below.

Source: Adapted from Mackellar et al. (1998) and Hunter, (2001).

This framework shows how the composition, growth and distribution of population influences
environment. Environmental factors like the quality and quantity of land, air and water resources.
Mediating factors are institutions, policy contexts, science and technology and cultural factors.
Population size and its distribution affect the distribution of environmental pressures. Rapid
urbanization poses environmental challenges such as generation of wastes which leads to land air
and water pollution. The mediating factors regulate the rate at which the environment is degraded.
The mediating factor also influences the size, distribution and composition of the population. For
instance, road construction policies can lead to degradation of forested areas. Also the
environment can be degraded as a result of the excessive application of science and technology.
Use sophisticated technology and heavy machineries which emit huge volumes of sulphur and
carbon dioxide into the air polluting it which eventually ends up in the water bodies. (UNFPA,
A mutual relation amongst the population, mediating factors and the environment illustrated by
the UNFPA (2001) framework has been adapted to explain the causes and impact of the pollution
of the Owabi River on the residents in the surrounding area. Rapid population growth coupled
with failure of the mediating factors like Institutional failures has led to the establishment of
illegal industrial activity and indiscriminate behavioural pattern and lack of regular inspection of
permits as well as poor enforcement of environmental laws affords individuals the opportunity to

use the river as a source of water for industrial purposes, refuse dump and as means of disposing
industrial waste. The interplay of rapid population growth and institutional failure has led to the
pollution of the Owabi River.

Research Approach
Both the qualitative and quantitative methods were used in the collection of data for this research.
These approaches helped in the acquisition of the primary data for this research. While the
qualitative approach helped in the detailed understanding of the situation of the water pollution,
the quantitative approach also helped in the acquisition of data showing general trends.
Sources of Data
Data for the research were from primary and secondary sources. Primary data was gotten through
the administration of questionnaires to respondents sampled within the river basin also through
interviews of the Owabi water works official and opinion leaders whose inputs were relevant to
the research. Secondary data was also sourced from published journals articles, researched
articles and books. Also personal observation was used to gather some of the information.
Types of Data Collected
Data for the research included background information of residents such as age, sex, income and
occupation. Data was collected on the driving forces of the pollution, thus; on availability of
drainage system, toilet facilities and mode of liquid and solid waste disposal as well as where
refuse and human excreta were deposited was investigated. Also data was collected on the
physical features of the river such as colour of water from the river.
Mode of Data Collection
Structured questionnaire survey of fifty respondents along the Owabi river basin was conducted
for the acquisition of the primary data. Then an in depth interview of five residents along the
Owabi basin was conducted and three personnels from the Owabi water works were also
interviewed for the secondary data collection.
Sampling Techniques
In order to achieve the objectives of this research the sample frame was chosen from residents
living in villages through which the Owabi River flows. The technique adopted for sampling is
described as follows: To aid in easier analysis and identification of the sections of the Owabi
River basin that was being polluted, communities on the river course were divided into two

sections- Upstream and Downstream communities. Two major communities that lay in the river
basin were chosen. Where twenty five people from each community was chosen by simple
random method.
Data handling
Data collected on the field was inputted into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)
software and analysed through the use of correlation and chi test. To support data analysis, output
data were presented in bar graphs, tables, line graphs and in addition relevant pictures were used
to support the analysis.