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Spiral Heat Exchanger

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Spiral-Plate

Heat Exchangers

Spiral-plate exchangers offer compactness, a variety of flow arrangements,

efficient heat'transfer, and low maintenance costs . These

and other features are described, along with a shortcut design method .

Spirall heat exchangers have a number of advantages over eonventional shell-and-tube exchangers :

centrifugal forces increase heat transfer ; the compactt

configuration results in a shorter undisturbed flow

length ; relatively easy cleaning ; and resistance to fouling: These curved-flow units (spiral plate and spiral

tube' ) are particularly usefuli for handing viscous

or solids-containing fluids .

water . Electrodes may also be wound into the assembly to anodically protect surfaces against~ corrosion .

Spiral-plate exchangers are norrnalNy designed, for,

the full pressure of each passage . Because the turns

of the spirall are of relatiively large diameter, each

turn must contain its design pressure ;, and plate thickness is some.vhat restricted-for these three reasons,

the maximum design pressure is 150' psi :, although

for smaller diameters the pressure may sometimes be

higher. Limitations of materials of construction govern design temperature .

Spiral-Plate-Exchanger Fabrication

Flow Arrangements and' Applications

A spiral-plate exchanger is fabricated from two

relatively long strips of plate, which ~ are spaced apart

and wound' around an openi split center to form a :

pair of concentric spiral! passages . Spacing is maintained uniformly along the length of the spiral by

spacer studs welded to the plates .

For most services, both, fluid-flow channels are

closed by alternate channels welded at both sides of

the spiral plate ( Fig ; 1) . In some applications, one

of the channels is left i:ompletely' open (Fig . 4),,

the other closed at both sides of the plate. These

two types of construction, prevent the fluids from,

mixing. .

Spiral-plate exchangers are fabricated from any

material that ean, be cold worked and welded ; such,

as : carbon steeli , stainless steels, Hastelloy B' and! C ;,

nickel and nickel allbys, aluminum alloys titanium

and copper alloys . Baked phenolic-resin coatings

among others, protect~ against corrosion from cooling

Althouyh the spirol-plate and spirai-tvbe exchangers are simiiar,

their appiicalions and methods of'f fabrication ara quite different

;Thisartcledvowhlytespi'ral-txchnger in

; an article

the May 18S issue of Chemical . Engineering will : takre up the spiralitube

exchan9er : .

For information on shdl-and-tube exchanyers, see Ref . 8, 9 .

The desipn method presented is ased!by Uition Carbide Corp. for the

thermal and hydraulic design of spiral-platee exchangers, and issomewh'at different from that used by the fabricator .

provide three flo.u patterns : (1) both fluids in spiral

flows ; (2)1 one fluid in spiral flow and! the other in

axial flow across the spiral;, (3) one fluid! in spiral

flow and the other in a combination of axial and

spirali flow .

For spiral flow in both channels, the spiral assembly includes flat covers at both sides (Fig . 1) . In

this arrangement, the fluids usually flow countercurrently, with the cold fluid entering at the periphery

and flowing towar& the core, and the hot fluid entering at the core and'i flowing toward the periphery.

This type of exchanger can be mounted with the

axis either vertical or horizontal . It finds wide

application, in liquid-to-liquid service, and for gases

or condensing vapors if the volumes are not too large

for the maximum flow area of 72 sq . in .

For spiral fioto in one channel, and axial flow in

the other, the spiral assembly contains conical covers,

di'shed heads, or extensions wi& flat covers (Fig. 2) .

IIl this design, the passage for axial flow is open on,

both sides, and the spiral flow channel is welded om

both sides :

Reprinted from CHEMICAL ENGiNEERING . May 4 1970. Copyright 1970, by McGraw-Hill Inc . 330 West 42nd St! . New York, N .Y . 10036

2030368834

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SPIRAL-PLATE EXCHANGERS . . .

of the two liquids . This includes liquid-liquid service,

.heating or cooling gases, condensing vapors, or as

reboilers. It may be fabricated' with one or more

passes on the axial-flow side . And it can be mounted

with the axis of the spiral either vertical or horizontal (usually vertically for condensing or boiling ) .

For combination flow, a conical cover distributes

the fluid into its passage (Fig . 3) . Part of the spirall

is closed at the top, and the entering fluid' flows

only through the center part' of the assembly : A flat

cover at the bottom~ forces the fluid to flow spirally

before leaving the exchangen

over the shell-and-tube exchanger :

(mounted vertically)s Vapors first flow axially untill

their volume is reduced sufficiently for finali condensing and subcooling in spiral flow.

A modification of' this type : the column-mountedd

condenser (Fig. 4) . A bottom extension is flanged

to mate with the column flange. Vapor flows upward

through a large central tube and'! then axially across

the spiral, where it is condensed . Subcooling may

be by falling-fllm cooling or by controlling a level

of condensate in the channel. In the latter case, the

vent stream leaves in spiral flow . This type is also

designed to allow condensate to drop ~ into an accumul'ator without appreciable subcooling ;

or heating sludges or slurries . Slurries can be processed in the spiral at velocities as low as 2 ft ./sec .

For some sizes and! design pressures, eliminating the

spacer studs enables the exchanger to handle liquids

having a high content of fibers .

channel .

(3) The spiral~plate exchanger generally fouls at

much lower rates than the shell-and-tube exchanger

because of the single-flow passage and curved-flowpath . If it fouls, it can be effectively cleaned chemically because of the single-flow path and reduced

bypassing. Because the spiral can also be fabricated!

with identicali passages, it is used for services in

which the switching of fluids allows one fluid to

remove the scale deposited by the other . Also, because the maximum, plate width is 6' ft .,, it is easily

cleaned with high-pressure water or steam .

(4) This exchanger i's well suited for heating or

cooling viscous fluids because its L/D' ratio is lower

than that'of tubular exchangers . Consequenkly,, lam+

inar-flow heat transfer is much higher for spiral plates .

1Nhen, heating or cooling a viscous fluid, the spiral

should be oriented with the axis horizontal . With

MAY

4,~(afiswSRING

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reduces heat transfer as much as 50% .

( 5) ~ W ith both fluids flowing spirally, flow can

be countercurrent (although not truly so, because,

throughout the unit, each channel is adjoined by an

ascending and a descending turn of the other channel# and because heat-transfer areas are not equal

for each side of the channel, the diameters being

different) . A correction factor may be applied ;' however, it is so small'it can generally be ignored .

Countercurrent flow and'i long passages make possible clbse temperature approaches and precise temperature control .

(6) The spiral-plate exchanger avoids problems

associated with differential thermal expansion in noncyclic service .

(7) In axial flow, a large .flow area affords a low

pressure drop, which becomes especially important

when condensing under vacuum .

(8) This exchanger is compact : 2 ;000 sq. ft. of'

heat-transfer- surface in a 58-in .-dia. unit with a 72in : wide plate.

In addition to the pressure limitation noted earlier,

the spiral-plate exchanger also has the following

disadvantages :

(11) Repairing it in the field is difHcult . A leak

cannot be plugged as in a sheTl+and-tube exchanger

(however, the possibility of' leakage in a spiral is less

because it is fabricated from, plate generally much

thicker than tube walls) . Should a spiral nee& repairing, removing the covers exposes most of the welding

CHEMICAL ENGINEERfNG/MAY 4, 1970

parts of the plates are complicated .

(2) The spirallplate exchanger is sometimes precluded from service in which thermal cycling is

frequent. When used in cycling services, its mechani- .

cal . design sometimes must be altered to provide for

much higher stresses . Full-faced gaskets of compressed' asbestos are not generally acceptable for

cycling services because the growth of the spiral'

plates cuts the gasket, which results im excessive

bypassing andi in some cases, erosion of the cover .

bdetal-to-metal : seals are generally necessary .

(3) This exchanger usually should not be used

when a hard deposit forms during operation, because the spacer studs prevent su& deposits from

being easily removed by drilling . When, as for some

pressures, such studs can be omitted, this linnitation

is not present.

(4) For spiral-axial' flow,, the temperature difference

must be corrected . The conventional! correction for

cross flow applies . Fluids are not mixedt flows are

generally single pass . Axial flow may be multipass . .

The shortcut rating method for spiral-plate exchangers depends on the same technique as that

20303fiS83S

Source: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/jqgk0117

SPIRAL-PLATE D(CH'IINGERS . .

Eq . .

No, Mechanism or Restriction.

EmpiricallEquation-Heat Transfer

Spiral Flow

('1) No phase change (liquid) , N, > N,, .

(4) Condensing vapor, vertical, N'< < 2 ;100'

Axial! Flow

(6) Nophase change (iliquid), N,,, > 10,000,

h = 0 .023 c G (iNx,)`" . :

h=0 .0144cG,(D,)

Plate

(10) Plate, sensible heat transfer

h = 12 k,"J)p

h = 12 k,"/p

Fouling

(12) Foulingsensible heat transfer

h = assumed

li = assumed

Eq .

No . Mechanism or Restriction Empirical Equation- I'ressure Drop

Spiral Flow

(14) No phase change, NR, > NR,,,

~P = 0 ;001i s deHJ [(d, + 0 .125) \ W! + 1 .5 + L]

AP = 0 . 001 L

(17) Condensing

W 11 r

_

lir (l

GP- 3,385(d,) : : .( \y / `H/

OP = 0

(

:0005 s, L,fifJ 2 1 (d, + 0 .125)

) + 1!. 5 + L

W)t/ + 1.5 + L

AxiallFlow

('19) . Condensing

l

ie

,

;0115~z=a +I+0 .03H

dP= 2sd,o{ \L) [0

Notes :

1 . Nx,, = 20 ;000 ( D.1 D) ,"

2:, G = WaPLJ(AP)

3 . Surface-condition factor (Y') for copper and steel = 1 .0 ;,forstainleqs steel = 1 .7 ; for poliahedsurfaces = 2 :5. .

MAllr;~

EERING

Source: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/jqgk0117

Physical

Property Factor

Numerical

Factor

Work

Factor

Zo .aaMo .__o

s .'a'

-TY

r! ,

-~ r

= 19.6

-y

= 3.8

S"/ 'Ze o

.T

.,

Mr/nZr/3

cs,

d,

LH 21 ''

W1/3a

1

L'/'H

1

H' 1sL =/'

ATM ,

Za :44rM0 .222

so. ...

= 158

x.

.a y

r

T

- 16 .1

Z'/'M'/s

cs t

t Y

T'

.619

~Tr = 0

~-

500

x.

~ fM = 278

x

AT, = 6 ,

000,

-~Tr

AT.

= 3,333 ,

~Ty

Pr'o .?

cs, .o,,

pa

:s

c

k

1

k~.

d,

W2/'(TN-T,)

AT,

= 167

s 1/3

d.

LH . '

We .r(Trr-Tr.)

GT,, .

Mi/isZ}/ie

= 1 . 18

AT,

X

M=/' ( Z/ 1 ;Y .1,

'f . =32 . 6

W`' (,Ti ,- T a)

Mechanical .

Design Factor

X

x

W'/'(TN-Tc)

ATy

W .:(T,r-T,) :

AT

K!o . :(TN-Tc) .

AT,

x

x

See Note 1)

LH'

d, .

HL - =

d,

W'/'k

AT

Wo. :a

ATY

HL 1

L /sH

?

L;,H,,

W T-TL)

QTY

Wx

QTY

x

x

(See Note 1)

.

413

pLH

p

LH

c

h

W (Tir-Tc)

AT,

1

LH

1

h

W'k

mTy

1

LH

(See Note 1)

(See Note 1i)

2030368838

Source: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/jqgk0117

SPIRAL-FL/lTE EXCHANGERS . . .

for shell+andtube heat exchangers (which were discussed by Lord, Minton and Slusser9) .

Primarily, the method' combines into one relationship the classical! empirical equations for filim heattransfer coefficients with~ heat-balance equations and

with correlations that'describe the geometry of the

heat exchanger. 'Dhe resulting overalll equation is

recast into three separate groups that contain factors

relating to the p}iysical' properties of' the fluid, the

performance or : duty of' the exchanger,, and the

mechanical design or arrangement of the heat-transfer

surface. These groups are then multiplied together

with~ a numerical factor to obtain a product that is

equal' to ~ the fraction of the total driving force-orr

log mean temperature difference (eTr or LMTD)that is dissipated across each element of resistance

in the heat-flow path,

When the sum of the products for the individual

resistance equals 1, the trial design may be assumed

to be satisfactory for heat transfer . The physical

significance is that the sum, of the temperature drops

across ea& resistance is equal to the total available :

aTY : The pressure drops for both~ fluid'}flow paths

must be checke& to ensure that both are within

acceptable limits . Usually, several trials are necessary

to get a satisfactory balance between heat transfer

and pressure d:rop . .

Table I summarizes the equations used with the

method' for heat transfer an& pressure drop : The

columns on the left list the conditions to which each

equation applies, and'' the second columns gives the

standard forms of the correlations for film coefficients

that are found in texts . The remaining columns in

Table Ii tabulate the numerical, physical property,,

work and mechanical design factors-all of which

together form, the recast dimensional equation . The

product of' these factors gives the fraction of' total

temperature droplor driving force (nTI/oTY) across

the resistance .

As stated, the sum of oT),/oTy (the hot-fluid

factor), oL/oTy (the cold-fluid factor), oT,/OTY

(the fouling factor)', and oT ./nTy (the plate factor)

determines the adequacy of'heat transfer . Any combinations of OT1/eTm may be used, as long as the

orientation specified! by the equation matches that

of the exchanger's flowpath .

The units in the pressure-drop equations are consistent with those used for heat transfer . Pressure drop

is calculated' directly in psi .

For many organic liquids ;, thermal conductivity

data are either not available or difficult to obtain .

Because molecular weights (1Vl) are known, the

Weber equation,, which ; follows, yields thermal conductivities whose accuracies are quite satisfactory

for most design purposes : k - 0.86' (cs"'1Mua)

M = 0 .636 (c/k)Y

is reviewed and the conditions im which each equation applies, as well as its limitations, are given,

Im several' . cases, numerical factors are inserted, or

approximations made, so as to adapt the empirical

relationships to the design of spiral-plate exchangers .

Such modifications have beem made to increase the

accuracy, to simplify, or to broaden the use of the

method . Rather than by any simplifying approximations,, the accuracy of the method is limited by thatt

with which fouling factors, flui& properties and fabrication tolerances can be predicted .

Eq : (1):-No Phase Change (Liquid), N,e, > NR,,is for liquids with Reynolds numbers greater than

the critical Reynolds number . Because the term

(1 + 3 .54 D,/DH) is not constant for any given

heat exchanger, a weighted average of 1 .11 has been

used forthis method . If a design is selected with

a different value, the numerical factor can be adjusted

to reflect the new value.

Eq . (2)-No Phase Change (Gas), NR, > NR,,-is

for gases with Reynolds numbers greater than the

critical Reynolds number . Because the Prandtl number

of common gases is appromately equal to 0!78' and

the viscosity enters only as a,z; the relationship of

physical' properties for gases is essentially a constant .

This constant, when combined with the numerical

coefficient in Eq . (1) to eliminate the physical prop .

erty factors for gases, results in Eq. (2) . As in Eq . ('1),,

the term (1 + 3 .54 D,jDN) has been taken as 1 .1 .

Eq, (3)-No Phase Change (Liquid), NR . < NR,,is for liquids in laminar flow, at moderate oT and

with, large kinematic viscosity (L/p) . The accuracy

of the .correlation~decreases as the operating conditions

or the geometry of' the heat-transfer surface are

changed to increase the effect of natural' convection .

For a spiral plate :"

(D/L)1n - (121is Dl1(DHd,)1i:11 ri = 711 (d .ldw)1n .

The value of ( d,/dH ) ve varies from 0.4 to 0:6 . A value

of 05 for ( d,/dH )" has been used for this method .

Eq . (4)-Coruiensing Vapor, Vertical, NR . < 2,100

-is for film condensation of vapors on a vertical

plate with a terminal Reynolds number (4ir/p) of

less thaw 2,100 . Condensate loading (r) for veftical

plates is P- W/2L, For Reynolds numbers above

2,100 or for high Ptandtl numbers, the equation

should be : adjusted by means of' the Dukler plot,

as discussed by Lord, Iviintom and! Slusser .8 To use

Eq. (4) ~ most conveniently, the : constant in it should

be multiplied by the ratio of the value : obtained by

the Nusselt equation to the Dukler plot .

MAY 4~US .3Rllffdt

.7l,~~Rt,M(i

Source: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/jqgk0117

vapor decrease the film coefficient, the reduction

depending on the relative sizes of the gas-cooling

load' an& the total cooling and condensing duty. .

(A method for analyzing condensing in the presence

of noncondensable gases is diccussedd by Lord, Minton

and Slusser .P)

Eq . (5)-Condensate Subeoolfng,, Vertical,, Ns . <

2,I00-is for laminar films flowing in layer form down

vertical plates . This equation is used when the condensate from~ a vertical condenser is to be cooled

below the bubble point: Im such cases ; it is convenient to treat the condenser-subcooler as two

separate heat exchangers-the first operating only as

a condenser (no subcooling), and'the second as a

liquid cooler only . Fig. 5 shows the assumptions that

must be made to determine the height of each section,,

so as to calculate intermediate temperatures that will

permit im turn the calculation of the LMTD . .

Eq . (4)' is used in combination with appropriate

expressions for other resistances to heat transfer, to

caloulate the height of the subcooling section . In the

case of the subcooling section only (See Fig . 5),, the

arithmetic mean temperature difference [( Tr ;. T.)-}- ( TnL - T,L )]/2, of the two fluids should

be used instead of the log mean temperature difference:

Eq . (6)-No Phase Change (Liquid) ; Ns, > 10 ;000

-is for liquids with Reynolds numbers greater than

10,000 : .

Eq. (7)-No Phase Change (Gas), Ns . > 10,000is for . gases with Reynolds numbers greater than

10,000 . Again, because the physical property factor

for common gases is essentially a constant, this constant is combined with the numerical, factor in

Eq . (16) to get Eq; (7)' .

2,100-is for film condensation on spiral plates arranged : for horizontal axial flow with a terminal

Reynolds number of less than 2,100 : For a spiral

plate, condensate loading (r) depends on the length

of the plate and spacing between adjacent plates .

For any given plate length and channel spacing, the

heat-transfer area for ea& 380-deg : winding of the

spiral increases with the diameter of'the spiral . The

number of revolutions affects the condensate loading in two ways : (1) the heat-transfer area changes,

resulting im more condensate being formed in the

outer spirals ; and (2) the effective length over which

the condensate is formed is determined by the number

of revolutions and the plate width . The equations

presented' depend' on a value for the effective number

of spirals of'L/7 . Therefore, the condensate loading is given by:

r - W (1,000) 7 (12)/4HL - 21,000 W/HL

This equation can be corrected if' a design is obtained

with a significantly different condensate loading .

It does not include allowances for turbulence due

to vapor-liquid shearing or splashing ofthe condensate . At high condensate loadings, the liquid

condensate on the bottom of the spiral channels may

blanket part of the exchanger's effective heat-transfer

surface.

Eq . (9)-Nucleate Boiling,, Vertical-is for nucleate

boiling on vertical plates . In a rigorous analysis of

a thermosyphon reboiler, the calculation of heat'

transfer is combined with the hydrodynamics of the

system to determine the circulating rate through the

reboilbr. However, for most design purposes, this

calculation is not necessary. For atmospheric pressure : and higher, the assumptiom of nucleate boiling

over the full height of the plate gives satisfactory

results . The assumption of nucleate boiling over the

entire height of' the plate in vacuum service produces

overly optimistic results . (The mechanism of thermo-

SUBCOOUNG-ZONE calculations

depend on arithmetic-mean temperature difference of the two

fluids instead of' tog-mean temperature differences-Fg . 5 U,~~, ;ys. T `~~``' ~;,~ ;

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING/MAY 4, 1970

W30368840

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SPIRAL-PLATE D(CHANGERS . . .

syphon reboilers has bcen already discussed by Lord,

Minton and Slusser.g-s)

A surface condition factor, 1, appears in the empiri

cal correlations for boiling coefficients . This is a

measure of' the number of nucleation sites for bubble

formation on the heated surface. The equations for

aT f/oTY contain X ( the :reciprocaI of %), which, has

values of 1 .0' for copper and steel, 1.7 for stainless

steel or chromenickel alloys, and 2 .5 for polished

surfaces . .

Eq . (10) and (11)-Heat Transfer Through the

Plate-are for calculating the plate factor . The integrated form of the Fourier equation is Q/B -(k,pA

oT,a)'/X, with X the plate thickness . Expressed in

the form of a heat-transfer coefficient, h .- 12k./p .

Eq. (10)' is used whenever sensible heat transfer

is involved for either fluid . Eq . (11)' is used when

there is latent heat transfer for each fluid'~.

Eq. (12) and (13)-Fouling-is for conduction of

heat through scale or solids deposits . Fouling coefficients are selected by the designer, based upon

his experience . Fouling coefficients of 1,000' to 500

(fouling factors of'0 .001 to 0 .002) normalHy require

exchangers 10 to i 30% larger than for clean service :

The selection of'! a fouling factor is arbitrary because there is usually insufficient data! for accurately

assessing the degree of fouling that should be assumed

for a given design . Generally, fouling for a spiralplate exchanger is considerably less than for shelland-tube exchangers . Because fouling varies with

material, velocities and temperature, the extent to

which this influences design depends on operating

conditions and, to a great degree, the desigm itself .

Eq . (12) is used for sensible heat transfer for

either fluid, and Eq . (13) when latent heat is transferred' on both sides of~ the plate :

Nomenclature

A Heat-transfer area, sq . ft.

B Filtn thickness (A :00187, Z I%y, s')`o, ft.

C Core dia ., in .

c Specific heat, Btu ./(lb .) ('F.)

D . Equivalent dia., ft.

Da Helix or spiral dia ., ft.

D, Exchanger outside dia :,, in.

d . Channel spacing, in .

f Fanning friction factor, dimensionless

G Mass velocity, lb ./ (hr.) 1 (sq. ft)

p . Gravitationali constant, ft ./ (hr.)' (d .18 x

10')

H Channel plate width, in . .

h Film coefficient of : heat t'ransferr, Bt'u ./

(hr .) (sq. ft.) (F .)~

k Thermal conductivity, Btu./(hr.) (sq . ft.) .

(Faft .) .

L Plate length, ft.

M Molecular weight, dimensionless

P' Pressure, psia .

p Plate thickness, in .

AP Pressure drop, psi .

Q Heat transferred, Btu .

s Specific gravity (referred to water at

20 C.).

mTu Logarithmic mean temperature difference

-(LMTD), C :

U Overalll heat-transfer coefficient, Btu ./

(hr .) (sq . ft.),(F .).

W' Flo.vrat'e, (1'b./hr .)/1,000

r Condensate loading, lb ./ (hr .) (ft.)

Z Viscosity, cp.

8 Time, hr.

X Heat of vaporization, Btu :/lb .

F Viscosity, lb./(hr.) (ft.)

pZ Liquidldensity, lb./cuift.

p . Vapor d'ensity,,lb ./cu.ft .

E, 1' Surface condition factor, dimensionless

o Surface tension, dynes/cm .

Subscripts

b Bulk fluid properties

c Cold stream

f' Film fluid properties

H High temperature

h Eiot stream

L Low temperature

m Median temperature (see Fig . 5)

a Scale or fouling materiai

w Wall, plate material .

Dimensionless Groups

on equations proposed by Sander .* 12 Term A in

Sander's equation can be closely approximated by

the value of 28/(d. + 0.125) . Term B in Sander's

equation accounts for the spacer studs . The factor

1 .5 assumes 18 stud+s/sq . ft. and a stud dia . of 5/16 in.

Eq . (15)-No Phase Change 100 < Nit, < NR,,again is based upon the equation proposed by Sander .

For this flow regime, the term A can be closely

approximated by the value of 103 .5/(d, + 0.125) .

As in Eq. (14), the factor of 1 .5 accounts for the

spacer studs .

Eq . (18)-No Phase Change NR, < 100-also cis

based on the Sander equations . For this flow regime,,

term A can be closely approximated by the value :of

2,170 d,i76 : For this flow regime, the studs have

N. . . Critical Reynolds number

Nr. Prandtl number

is included, in the Sander equation.

Eq : (I7)-Condensing-is for calculating the pressure drop for condensing vapors and is identical to

that for no phase change, except for a factor of

0.5 used with the condensing equation. For total

condensers,, the weight rate of flow used in the

calculation should be the inlet flowrate. Because the

average flow for partial condensers is greater than

MAY 4,,1970/CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

2030368841

Source: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/jqgk0117

be 0.7 instead of 0:5. Because the estimation of' the

pressure drop for condensing vapors is not clear-cut,

the equation should be used' only to approximate

the . pressure drop, so as to prevent the design of

exchangers with excessive pressure losses .

Eq .(1'8)-No Phase Change Ns, > 10,000-is an

expression~ of the Fanning equation for noncompressible fluids, in which the friction factor f in~the Fanning

equation = 0'.046/NA,aT. The equation has been

revised to~ account for pressure losses in the inlet'

and outlet nozzles, and the inlet' and outlet heads .

The equation also includ'es the correcti'on for the

spacer studs in the flow channels. .

Eq. (19)-Condensing-again is identical to that

for no phase change, except for a factor of 0.5 . Again,

for partial condensers, a value of 0 .7 should be used

instead of 0.5 . For condensing pressure drop, only

approximate results shoul& be expected, which themselves should be used only to prevent designs that

would result in excessive pressure losses . .

For overhead condensers, the pressure drop in

the center tube must be added to the pressure drop

calculated from Eq. ('19) .

Col& Side

6,225

5,925

Inlet temperature, C . . . . . . . . . . . .

Outlet temperature, C. . . . . . . . . . .

200

120 :

3 .35

0 .71

200 .4

0 .843

1

stainless steel

60

150 .4

8

0 .66

200 .4

0 .843

1'

(k = 10) .

Molecular weight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,

Specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Allo~wable preasure drop, pai . . . . . . .

Material of conetruction . . . . . . . . . .

(WZ) ..r, : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

,,

Preliminary Calculations

Heat transferred = 6;225 X' (200-120) X 1 .8' x

0 .711 = 636,400 Btu./hr.

ATM (or LMTD) -(60 - 49.4)/In(60/49:4) - 54 .5 C.

For a first trial, the approximate surface can be

calculated'& using an assumed' overall heat-transfer

coefficient, U, of 50 Btu ./(hr.) (sq. ft .) (F.) :

A - 636,400/(50 X' 1 .8 X 54 .5) = 130 sq . ft .

Because this is a small exchanger, a plate width

of 24 in. is assumed. Therefore, L, = 130/(2 x 2) =

32'.5 ft . A channel spacing of % in. for both fluids

is alto assumed . The Reynolds number for spiral, flow

can be calculated from the expression :

NR . = 10,000 (Ti?/HZ) :

Heat-Transfer Calculations

Now, substitute values :

Hot side, Eq. (3) : ~

.6 ' ~3,-~

.m,ATex-32 I X

- 32 .6 X 3.775 X 4 .967 X 0.001387 - 0.848'

Cold side, Eq . (3) :

AT, 200.4a' 5 .925=n X',90.4' '

.6 0

ATM - 32

.8430' J L 54 .5 X

0 .375

24=n X 32 :5 ]

Fouling,, Eq . (12) :

design of a liquid-liquid spiral-plate heat exchanger

under the following conditions :

Viscosity, cp . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table I, the appropriate expressions for rating are :

Eq. ( 3) ~ for both fluids, Eq . (10) for the plate,

Eq, (12) for fouling and Eq . (15) for Qressure drop ..

.925~ 590.4

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

Cold side N ., -(10;000 X' 5 .925)/(24 x 8) - 309

JC

32:5 X 24,

- 6,000 X 0:00066 X 9 .828 X 0.001282 - 0.050

Plate, Eq . (10) :

o .

0 :66 5 .925X 90~4' 0 .125

ATM =~~ 10 J 54.5. ,C32.5X24]

= 500 X 0;066 X 9 .82&X 0 .0001603 :- 0 .052

Plate Outside Dia ., Cors

Widths,, Iln . Maximum, In . Dfa ., In.

4

32

8

6

32

8

12'

32

8

12

58

12

18

32

8

18'

58

12

24

32

8

24

58

12

30

58

12

36

58

12

48

58

12'

60

58

12'

72

58

12

l2Mannel spacings, in. : 3/16 (12 in. maximum vwidth),

1/ (48An . maximum width), 5/16, 3/e, 1%i, %, 3/s

and! 1 .

Plate thicknesses : stainless steel ; 14-3 U .S. gage; carbon steel, lyg, 3/16, y4 and 5/16 in .

Therefore :

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING/MAY 4, 1970

zo3o3sW42

Source: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/jqgk0117

SPIRAL-PLATE EXCHANGERS . . .

SOP = 0.848' + 0 .927 + 0.050 + 0 .052' = 1 .877'

Because SOP is greater than 1, the assumed! heat

xchanger is inadequate . The surface : area must

be enlarged' by increasing the plate width or the

plate length . Because, in all the equations, L applies

directly, the following new Iength is adopte&

1 .877 X 32.5 = 61', ft .

Pressure-Drop Calculations

Hot side, Eq . (15) :',

nP=I 0 0.~361~I 0.375X24JX

calculated with Table II and the following equation :

Ds =]15 :36 x L(d.a + d ;A + 2p)' + C=]1n'

Ds = {15,36 (41L$) f0 :25 + 0 :25 + 2 (0.125)1 + 82]"=

D$ = 23 .4 in .

often ~ that in which ~ the outside diameter approximately

equals the plate width .

Design summary :

Plate width . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Plate length . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Channel spacing . . . . . . . . .

Spiral diameter . . . . . . . . . .

Heattransfer area . . . . . . .

Hot-side pressure drop : . .

Cold+side pressure drop . . .

U.. . . .. ... . . .. . . . . . . . . .

. 24in . .

. 41 .8ft.

.. 1/4 in . (both sidee) .

. 23 .4 in .

. 167 sq . ft.

. 0 .607psi .

. 0 .861 psi .

. 38 .8'Btu . /(hr .) (pq .ft .) (F .)

(0.375 -}- 0 .125) 6 .2251 n-+ 1 .5' + 6 Jl

aP' = 0.07236 X 0 .6917 X 9 .202 = 01461' psi .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Acknowledgements

AP = C b .DO1~X3 61 I r 0

.925

.3755 X 24 ] X

L(0.375 + 0:125) :5.925"= + 11 5 + 6 J

aP = 0 .07236 X 0 .6583 X 13 .55 = 0 .645 psi .

the spacing can, be decreased . For the second trial,

1/4 in . spacing for both channels is adopted!

Because the heat-transfer equation for every factor

except the plate varies directly with d, ;, a new SOP'

can be calculated!

aT,/aT,v = 0.848 (0.25/0 .375)

aT,/aTm = 0 .927 (025/0 .375)

aT,/aTx = 0 .052'(0:25/0 .375)

aT/ATu = 0 .050

SOP = 0:565 + 0 .618' + 0.050 + 0.052

L=1 .285X32'.5=41 .8ft.

A=41 .8X2X2! =167sq .ft .

= 0 .565

= 0 .618

= 0 .035

= 1 .285

Hot side :

aP=I 0000

.8

.84341

r0 . 52X24]X

.5

0.375 X 6.225~rx -+ 1 + 41 .8 J

for providing figures and for permission to use certain

design standards . He is also grateful to the Union Carbide Corp, for permission to publish this article .

References

1l Baird, M. H. 1., MoCrae, W:, Rumford, F., and Slbssec,

C . G. M .,, Some ConsideraRiona on Heat Teanefer In .

Spi,ral Plate Heat Exchangers, Chem . Eng . Setence .,, 7,

1 and 2, 1957, p . 112 .

2 . Blasius, H :, Da whnlichkeitsgesets bel Rlebungavorgangzen in Flussigkeiten, ForschuupsheJt ; 131, 1913 .,

3 . Colburn ;,A. P . . A Method of Correlating Foraed'Convectlon Heat Transfer Data and a Comparison With Fluid

Fhiction ; AICAF. Trans .,,l9, 1933, p. 174 .

4 : HarRis; A . M.,, Beckmann, A. T. and Lotauona, J! J .,

Applications of Spiral! Plate Heat: Exchangers, Chefn .

Eng. Proyr ., July 1967 ; p . 62 .

5 . "Helifiow Coolers and Heaters," Bull . 58G} ; Gra.ham,

Mfg. Co: . Great Neck, N.Y.

6 . Ito, H . . Friution Factoa+s for Turbulent Flow'1n Curved

Pipes, Trana. ASME, 81, 2 ;, 1959, p. 123.

7 . Lamb, B. R., The Roaenblad Spiral Heat ExchangeT,

Trans. Inst, Chem . Engra . (London), June 1962, p . A10E .

8 : Lord, R . C ., Minton, P. E. and' Slusser, R . P.,, Design

Parameters for Condensers and Reboilers, Chem . Eng.,

Mar. 2:3, 1970, p . 127 .

9 . Lord, R . C :, Minton, P. E. and Slusser, R . P., Design

of Heat Exchangers, Chem . Eng., Jan, 26, 1970, p . 98 .

10 ., Noble, M . A . ., Kamlani, J . S . and McKetta, J: J., Hea.t

Transfer in Spiral Colls Petr . Eny ., Apr . 1962, p . 723 .

11 . Perry, J! H ., Ed ., "Chemical Engineers' Handbook ; ." 4th

ed .,, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963, 10, p . 24:

12 . Sand'er, J ., (unpubHshed),, A . B: Rosenbbadm, Patenter,

Stockholm Sweden, 1955 .

13. "Sptral,Heat Exchangers," Bu11 : S .A . 1410 3-69 HR5M,

American Heat' Reclaiming Corp ., New York.

14 . Tangad, N. N . and Jayaraman, R., Heat TransfeT on a

Spiral P1ate Hea4 Exchanger Trans . Inst. Chem . Engrs .

(London), 40, 3, 1962, p, 161L

15 . Thermal Handbook," Alfa-Laval/DeLaval Group,

Sweden, 1969 .

16 . Whlte, C. M ., Streamline Flow Through Curved Pipes,

Proceedings Royal Soc . (London) . Series A, 123 . 1929,

p: 645 .

Cold side :

.5 X 4 ] X

r/1 .035 X 8"' X 1! X 24112 16 : J

L 0 .375 X 5.9251r~ + 1 .5 + 41 .8

aP = 0.04958 X 0.987&X 17 .59 = 0,8611

allowable . The plate spacing cannot be less than

1/4 in. for a : 24~in . plate width ; decreasing the width

would result in a higher than allowable pressure drop .

Therefore, the design is acceptable .

engineer in, the engineering

department at : Union Carbide

Corp .'s Technical Center (P 0 .

Box 8361, So. Charleston,

W. Va . 25303), where he is a

part: of : the heat :transfer tech

nologX group. A graduate In

chemical engineering with a

B.S: degree from the Missouri

School of Mines and Metal

lurgy; he is a member of

AIChE.

2030368843 .

Source: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/jqgk0117

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