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How To Cite References - Vancouver Style

The Vancouver (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors) Style is used


primarily for publications in medicine, biomedicine, medical technology and allied
health sciences.
When using EndNote bibliographic software, please use the following output style Vancouver.
Please remember to check with your unit co-ordinator or tutor before submitting
your assignments, as their style preference may vary from the guidelines presented
here.

Updated February 2008


Contents

Citation Within The Text


o Indicating the Relevant Reference in the Text
o Citing More Than One Reference at a Time
o Including Page or Figure Numbers
o Personal Communications
The Reference List or Bibliography
o Print Documents
Books
Parts of a Book
Journal Articles
o Electronic Documents
E-Books
E-Journals
Internet Documents
o Non-Book Formats
Podcasts
Other Formats
o A Reference List: what should it look like?
o Abbreviations
o Other sources of information

The Vancouver style was first defined by a meeting of medical journal editors in
Vancouver, Canada, in 1978. These guidelines follow the principles given in the
Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals:
Writing and editing for biomedical publication published by the International
Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) in 2004 and the American
Medical Association Manual of Style, 9th edition, 1998. These publications
constitute authoritative international guides to Vancouver publication standards
and style.

Vancouver Style uses a notational method of referencing when referring to a


source of information within the text of a document. In its simplest form, a
citation is given consisting of a number in superscript format or enclosed by
round brackets.
[Contents]

Citation Within The Text


Indicating the Relevant Reference in the Text

A number in superscript format eg. 6 or enclosed in round brackets, eg. (1) or


(26), placed in the text of the essay, indicates the relevant reference. Citations
are numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and
each citation corresponds to a numbered reference containing publication
information about the source cited in the reference list at the end of the
publication, essay or assignment. Once a source has been cited, the same number
is used in all subsequent references. No distinction is made between print and
electronic references when citing within the text.
Here are some examples of this kind of referencing :
Superscript Format

The largest lesion in the first study was 10 cm. 13


The theory was first put forward in 1987. 1
Scholtz2 has argued that...
Several recent studies3,4,15,16 have suggested that...
For example, see 7.
Bracket Format

The largest lesion in the first study was 10 cm (13).


The theory was first put forward in 1987 (1).
Scholtz (2) has argued that...
Several recent studies (3,4,15,16) have suggested that...
For example, see (7).
It is not necessary to mention either the author(s) or the the date of the reference
unless it is relevant to your text.
It is not necessary to say "in reference (26) ...", "In (26) ..." is sufficient.
Citing More Than One Reference at a Time

When citing more than one source at a time, the preferred method is to list each
reference number separately with a comma or dash (without spaces) between
each reference:

Superscript Format
1,3,5
1-5
2-5,9,13

Bracket Format

(1,3,5)
(1-5)
(2-5,9,13)
Including Page or Figure Numbers

Page number references are rarely included when citing within the text of an
assignment or essay when using Vancouver style. However, if you wish to be
specific regarding the source of information, quotations or statistics, page or
figure numbers may be given in the following format:
Westman5(pp3-5),9 reported 8 cases where vomiting occurred.
These patients showed no sign of nausea. 3(p21),4
The incidence of the syndrome was rare. 12(fig4)
[Contents]

Personal Communications

Personal communications should be included in the text of your document, but


they should not be included in your reference list. It is recommended that
permission is sought from the source/author of a personal communication if you
wish to include quotes in your text. The details you need to include when
referencing in text are:
o
o
o

the date of the communication;


whether the communication was in oral or written form;
the affiliation of the person might also be included to better establish the
relevance and authority of the citation (recommended).

Conversation

In a conversation with a colleague from the School of Population Health


(Jameson LI 2002, oral communication, 7th August)...
Letter

As stated in a letter from B.J. Samuels, MD, in July 2002...

E-mail

Smith P. New research projects in gastroenterology [online]. E-mail to Matthew


Hart (mh@hospital.wa.gov.au) 2000 Feb 5 [cited 2000 Mar 17].
[Contents]

The Reference List or Bibliography


A numbered list of references must be provided at the end of the paper. The list
should be arranged in the order of citation in the text of the publication,
assignment or essay, not in alphabetical order. List only one reference per
reference number. It is very important that you use the correct punctuation and
that the order of details in the references is also correct.
The following examples demonstrate the format for a variety of types of
references. Included are some examples of citing electronic documents. Such
items come in many forms, so only some examples have been listed here.
Print Documents
Books

Note: Only the first word of in the title of a book or conference should be
capitalised, except for proper nouns or acronyms. Capitalise the "v" in Volume
for a book title.
Standard format
#. Author/editor AA. Title: subtitle. Edition(if not the first). Vol.(if a
multivolume work). Place of publication: Publisher; Year. p. page
number(s) (if appropriate).
Single author or editor
1. Hoppert M. Microscopic techniques in biotechnology. Weinheim: WileyVCH; 2003.
2. Storey KB, editor. Functional metabolism: regulation and adaptation.
Hoboken (NJ): J. Wiley & Sons; 2004.
Two or more authors or editors
3. Lawhead JB, Baker MC. Introduction to veterinary science. Clifton Park
(NY): Thomson Delmar Learning; 2005.
4. Gilstrap LC, Cunningham FG, Van Dorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics.
2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

No author
5. The Oxford concise medical dictionary. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University
Press; 2003. p. 26.
Later edition
6. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobyashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology.
4th ed. St Louis: Mosby; 2002.
Multiple volumes
7. Lee GR, Bithell TC, Foerster J, Athens JW, Lukens JN, editors. Wintrobes
clinical hematology. 9th ed. Vol 2. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1993.
Series
8. Unwin E, Codde JP, Bartu A. The impact of drugs other than alchohol and
tobacco on the health of Western Australians. Perth: Dept of Health;
2004. Epidemiology occasional papers series, No. 20.
Corporate author (ie: a company or organisation)
9. American Veterinary Medical Association. National Board Examination
Committee. North American Veterinary Licensing Examination : bulletin
of information for candidates. Bismarck (ND): The Committee; 2001.
Conference (complete conference proceedings)
10. Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings
of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK.
New York: Springer; 2002.
Government publication
11. Australia. Commonwealth Department of Veterans' Affairs and Defence.
Australian Gulf War veterans' health study 2003. Canberra:
Commonwealth of Australia; 2003.
12. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Disability, ageing and carers: summary of
findings. Canberra: ABS; 1999. ABS publication 4430.0.
Scientific / Technical report
13. Lugg DJ. Physiological adaptation and health of an expedition in Antarctica:
with comment on behavioural adaptation. Canberra: A.G.P.S.; 1977.
Australian Government Department of Science, Antarctic Division.
ANARE scientific reports. Series B(4), Medical science No. 0126.

Patent / Standard
14. Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible
endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly.
United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.
Thesis or dissertation
15. Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic
Americans. PhD [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Micihigan
University; 2002.
16. Hincks CL. The detection and characterisation of novel papillomaviruses.
Biomedical Science, Honours [thesis]. Murdoch: Murdoch University;
2001.
[Contents]

Parts of a Book

Note: These examples are for chapters or parts of edited works in which the
chapters or parts have individual title and author/s, but are included in
collections or textbooks edited by others. If the editors of a work are also the
authors of all of the included chapters then it should be cited as a whole book
using the examples given above (Books).
Capitalise only the first word of a paper or book chapter.
Standard format
#. Author of Part, AA. Title of chapter or part. In: Editor A, Editor B,
editors. Title: subtitle of Book. Edition(if not the first). Place of
publication: Publisher; Year. p. page numbers.
Article/chapter in a book
1. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid
tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of
human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
2. Ford HL, Sclafani RA, Degregori J. Cell cycle regulatory cascades. In: Stein
GS, Pardee AB, editors. Cell cycle and growth control: biomolecular
regulation and cancer. 2nd ed. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley-Liss; 2004. p. 4267.

Conference or Seminar Paper


3. Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort
statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan
C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002:
Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming;
2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.
Study Guides and Unit Readers
Note: You should not cite from Unit Readers, Study Guides, or lecture notes,
but where possible you should go to the original source of the information. If
you do need to cite articles from the Unit Reader, treat the Reader articles as if
they were book or journal articles. In your citations refer to the page numbers
from the Reader, if given, not the original page numbers (unless you have
independently consulted the original).
4. Lynch M. God's signature: DNA profiling, the new gold standard in forensic
science. Endeavour. 2003;27(2):93-7. Reprinted In: Forensic
Investigation (BIO373) unit reader for forensic DNA component.
Murdoch: Murdoch University; 2005.
[Contents]

Journal Articles

Note: Capitalise only the first word of an article title, except for proper nouns or
acronyms. List the first six authors followed by et al. The titles of journals
should be abbreviated as they appear in the MEDLINE Journals Database.
Volume, issue and page numbers are given but not labeled. To indicate a page
range use 123-9, 126-34 or 111-222. If you refer to only one page, use only 111.
Standard format
#. Author of article AA, Author of article BB, Author of article CC. Title
of article. Abbreviated Title of Journal. year; vol(issue):page
number(s).
Journal article
1. Drummond PD. Triggers of motion sickness in migraine sufferers. Headache.
2005;45(6):653-6.
2. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIVinfected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(7):284-7.
3. Geck MJ, Yoo S, Wang JC. Assessment of cervical ligamentous injury in
trauma patients using MRI. J Spinal Disord. 2001;14(5):371-7.

More than six authors


4. Gillespie NC, Lewis RJ, Pearn JH, Bourke ATC, Holmes MJ, Bourke JB, et
al. Ciguatera in Australia: occurrence, clinical features, pathophysiology
and management. Med J Aust. 1986;145:584-90.
Organization as author
5. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and
proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension.
2002;40(5):679-86.
No author given
6. 21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ.
2002;325(7537):184.
Volume with supplement
7. Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan
with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in
comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.
Issue with supplement
8. Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology.
2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6-12.
Volume with part
9. Abend SM, Kulish N. The psychoanalytic method from an epistemological
viewpoint. Int J Psychoanal. 2002;83(Pt 2):491-5.
Issue with part
10. Ahrar K, Madoff DC, Gupta S, Wallace MJ, Price RE, Wright KC.
Development of a large animal model for lung tumors. J Vasc Interv
Radiol. 2002;13(9 Pt 1):923-8.
Issue with no volume
11. Banit DM, Kaufer H, Hartford JM. Intraoperative frozen section analysis in
revision total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop. 2002;(401):230-8.
Newspaper article
12. O'Leary C. Vitamin C does little to prevent winter cold. The West
Australian. 2005 Jun 29;1.
[Contents]

Electronic Documents

Note: When you cite an electronic source try to describe it in the same way you
would describe a similar printed publication. If possible, give sufficient
information for your readers to retrieve the source themselves.
If only the first page number is given, a plus sign indicates following pages, eg.
26+. If page numbers are not given, use paragraph or other section numbers if
you need to be specific.
An electronic source may not always contain clear author or publisher details.
The access information will usually be just the URL of the source. As well as a
publication/revision date (if there is one), the date cited is included since an
electronic source may change between the time you cite it and the time it is
accessed by a reader.
[Contents]

E-Books

Standard format
#. Author A, Author B. Title of e-book [format]. Place: Publisher; Date of
original publication [cited year abbreviated month day]. Available
from : Source. URL.
1. van Belle G, Fisher LD, Heagerty PJ, Lumley TS. Biostatistics: a
methodology for the health sciences [e-book]. 2nd ed. Somerset (NJ):
Wiley InterScience; 2003 [cited 2005 Jun 30]. Available from: Wiley
InterScience electronic collection.
2. Sommers-Flanagan J, Sommers-Flanagan R. Clinical interviewing [e-book].
3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2003 [cited 2005 Jun 30].
Available from: NetLibrary.
Article in an electronic reference book
3. Widdicombe J. Respiration. In: Blakemore C, Jennett S, editors. The Oxford
companion to the body [e-book]. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2001
[cited 2005 Jun 30]. Available from: Oxford Reference Online.
http://www.oxfordreference.com.
4. Lee HC, Pagliaro EM. Serology: blood identification. In: Siegel J, Knupfer G,
Saukko P, editors. Encyclopedia of forensic sciences [e-book]. San
Diego: Academic Press; 2000 [cited 2005 Jun 30]:1331-8. Available
from: Science Direct Reference. www.elsevier.com.
[Contents]

E-Journals

Standard format
#. Author A, Author B. Title of article. Abbreviated Title of Journal
[format]. year [cited year abbreviated month day];vol(no):page
numbers[estimated if necessary]. Available from: Database Name (if
appropriate). URL.
Journal article abstract accessed from online database
1. Leroy EM, Telfer P, Kumulungui B, Yaba P, et al. A serological survey of
Ebola virus infection in central African nonhuman primates. J Infect Dis
[abstract]. 2004 [cited 2005 Jun 30];190(11):1895. Available from:
ProQuest. http://www.umi.com/proquest/.
Note: Abstract citations are only included in a reference list if the abstract is
substantial or if the full-text of the article could not be accessed.
Journal article from online full-text database
Note: When including the internet address of articles retrieved from searches in
full-text databases, please use the Recommended URLs for Full-text Databases,
which are the URLs for the main entrance to the service and are easier to
reproduce.
2. Palsson G, Hardardottir KE. For whom the cell tolls: debates about
biomedicine (1). Curr Anthropol [serial online]. 2002 [cited 2005 Jun
30]; 43(2):271+[about 31 pages]. Available from: Academic OneFile.
http://find.galegroup.com.
3. Allen C, Crake D, Wilson H, Buchholz A. Polycystic ovary syndrome and a
low glycemic index diet. Can J Diet Pract Res [serial online]. 2005 [cited
2005 Jun 30];Summer:3. Available from: ProQuest.
http://il.proquest.com.
Journal article in a scholarly journal (published free of charge on the
internet)
4. Eisen SA, Kang HK, Murphy FM , Blanchard MS, Reda DJ, Henderson WG,
et al. Gulf War veterans' health: medical evaluation of a U.S. cohort?
Ann Intern Med [serial on the Internet]. 2005 [cited 2005 June
30];142(11):881+[about 12 pages]. Available from:
http://www.annals.org/.
Journal article in electronic journal subscription

5. Barton CA, McKenzie DP, Walters EH, et al. Interactions between


psychosocial problems and management of asthma: who is at risk of
dying? J Asthma [serial on the Internet]. 2005 [cited 2005 Jun
30];42(4):249-56. Available from: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/.
Newspaper article from online database
6. Dearne K. Dispensing with the chemist. The Australian [newspaper online].
2005 Jun 14 [cited 2005 Jun 30];[about 8 screens]. Available from:
Factiva. http://global.factiva.com.
Newspaper article from the Internet
7. Diseased organs may be used to deter smokers. Sydney Morning Herald
[newspaper on the Internet]. 2005 Jun 29 [cited 2005 Jun 30]; para. 4-5.
Available from: http://www.smh.com.au/.
[Contents]

Internet Documents

Standard format
#. Author A, Author B. Document title. Webpage name [format].
Source/production information; Date of internet publication [cited
year month day]. Available from: URL.
Professional Internet site
1. Australian Insitute of Health and Welfare. Chronic diseases and associated
risk factors [document on the Internet]. Canberra: The Institute; 2004
[updated 2005 June 23; cited 2005 Jun 30]. Available from:
http://www.aihw.gov.au/cdarf/index.cfm.
Personal Internet site
2. Stanley F. Information page - Professor Fiona Stanley. Telethon Institute for
Child Health Research [homepage on the Internet]. Perth: The Institute;
2005 [cited 2005 Jun 30]. Available from:
http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/about/schools/.
General Internet site
3. Lavelle P. Mental state of the nation. Health matters [document on the
Internet]. ABC online; 2005 May 19 [cited 2005 Jul 1]. Available from:
http://abc.net.au/health/features/mentalstate/.
[Contents]

Non-Book Formats

#. Person AA, Responsibility (if appropriate). Title: subtitle [format].


Special credits (if appropriate). Place of publication: Publisher;
Year.
Podcasts

1. Brown W, Brodie K, & George P. From Lake Baikal to the halfway mark,
Yekaterinburg. Peking to Paris: Episode 3 [podcast on the Internet].
Sydney: ABC Television; 2007 June 4 [cited 2008 Feb 4]. Available
from http://www.abc.net.au/tv/pekingtoparis/podcast/pekingtoparis.xml.
2. Gary, S. Black hole death ray. StarStuff [podcast on the Internet]. Sydney:
ABC News Radio; 2007 Dec 23 [cited 2008 Feb 4]. Available from
http://abc.net.au/newsradio/podcast/STARSTUFF.xml.
Other Formats

Microform
3. Terry KW, Hewson GS, Rowe MB. Characterisation of inhaled dusts at
minesites [microfiche]. Perth: Minerals and Energy Research Institute of
Western Australia; 1998.
Video recording
4. Hillel J, writer. Out of sight out of mind: indigenous people's health in
Australia [videorecording]. Bendigo: Video Education Australasia; 2003.
Television Programme
5. Cohen J, reporter. Messing with heads. Four corners [television broadcast].
Australian Broadcasting Corporation; 2005 Mar 21.
[Contents]

A Reference List : What It Should Look Like


The reference list should appear at the end of your paper. Begin the list on a new
page. The title References should be either left justified or centered on the page.
The entries should appear as one numerical sequence in the order that the
material is cited in the text of your assignment.
Note: The hanging indent for each reference makes the numerical sequence
more obvious.

1. Hoppert M. Microscopic techniques in biotechnology. Weinheim: WileyVCH; 2003.


2. Drummond PD. Triggers of motion sickness in migraine sufferers. Headache.
2005;45(6):653-6.
3. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid
tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of
human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
4. Storey KB, editor. Functional metabolism: regulation and adaptation.
Hoboken (NJ): J. Wiley & Sons; 2004.
5. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIVinfected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(7):284-7.
6. Geck MJ, Yoo S, Wang JC. Assessment of cervical ligamentous injury in
trauma patients using MRI. J Spinal Disord. 2001;14(5):371-7.
7. Gillespie NC, Lewis RJ, Pearn JH, Bourke ATC, Holmes MJ, Bourke JB, et
al. Ciguatera in Australia: occurrence, clinical features, pathophysiology
and management. Med J Aust. 1986;145:584-90.
8. Lawhead JB, Baker MC. Introduction to veterinary science. Clifton Park
(NY): Thomson Delmar Learning; 2005.
9. Ford HL, Sclafani RA, Degregori J. Cell cycle regulatory cascades. In: Stein
GS, Pardee AB, editors. Cell cycle and growth control: biomolecular
regulation and cancer. 2nd ed. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley-Liss; 2004. p. 4267.
10. Gilstrap LC, Cunningham FG, Van Dorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics.
2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
11. The Oxford concise medical dictionary. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University
Press; 2003. p. 26.
12. Palsson G, Hardardottir KE. For whom the cell tolls: debates about
biomedicine (1). Curr Anthropol [serial online]. 2002 [cited 2005 Jun
30]; 43(2):271+[about 31 pages]. Available from: Academic OneFile.
http://find.galegroup.com.
13. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobyashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical
microbiology. 4th ed. St Louis: Mosby; 2002.
14. Barton CA, McKenzie DP, Walters EH, et al. Interactions between
psychosocial problems and management of asthma: who is at risk of
dying? J Asthma [serial on the Internet]. 2005 [cited 2005 Jun
30];42(4):249-56. Available from: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/.

15. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and


proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension.
2002;40(5):679-86.
16. 21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ.
2002;325(7537):184.
17. Dearne K. Dispensing with the chemist. The Australian [newspaper online].
Jun 14, 2005 [cited 2005 Jun 30];[about 8 screens]. Available from:
Factiva. http://global.factiva.com.
18. Diseased organs may be used to deter smokers. Sydney Morning Herald
[newspaper on the Internet]. Jun 29, 2005 [cited 2005 Jun 30]; para. 4-5.
Available from: http://www.smh.com.au/.
19. Allen C, Crake D, Wilson H, Buchholz A. Polycystic ovary syndrome and a
low glycemic index diet. Can J Diet Pract Res [serial online]. 2005 [cited
2005 Jun 30];Summer:3. Available from: ProQuest.
http://il.proquest.com/.
20. Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan
with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in
comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.
21. Banit DM, Kaufer H, Hartford JM. Intraoperative frozen section analysis in
revision total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop. 2002;(401):230-8.
22. O'Leary C. Vitamin C does little to prevent winter cold. The West
Australian. 2005 Jun 29; 1.
23. Lee GR, Bithell TC, Foerster J, Athens JW, Lukens JN, editors. Wintrobes
clinical hematology. 9th ed. Vol 2. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1993.
24. Australian Insitute of Health and Welfare. Chronic diseases and associated
risk factors [document on the Internet]. Canberra: The Institute; 2004
[updated 2005 June 23; cited 2005 Jun 30]. Available from:
http://www.aihw.gov.au/cdarf/index.cfm
25. Unwin E, Codde JP, Bartu A. The impact of drugs other than alchohol and
tobacco on the health of Western Australians. Perth: Dept of Health;
2004. Epidemiology occasional papers series, No. 20.
26. van Belle G, Fisher LD, Heagerty PJ, Lumley TS. Biostatistics: a
methodology for the health sciences [e-book]. 2nd ed. Somerset (NJ):
Wiley InterScience; 2003 [cited 2005 Jun 30]. Available from: Wiley
InterScience electronic collection.
27. Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort
statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan
C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002:

Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming;


2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.
28. American Veterinary Medical Association. National Board Examination
Committee. North American Veterinary Licensing Examination : bulletin
of information for candidates. Bismarck (ND): The Committee; 2001.
29. Sommers-Flanagan J, Sommers-Flanagan R. Clinical interviewing [e-book].
3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2003 [cited 2005 Jun 30].
Available from: NetLibrary.
30. Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings
of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK.
New York: Springer; 2002.
31. Australia. Commonwealth Department of Veterans' Affairs and Defence.
Australian Gulf War veterans' health study 2003. Canberra:
Commonwealth of Australia; 2003.
32. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Disability, ageing and carers: summary of
findings. Canberra: ABS; 1999. ABS publication 4430.0.
33. Lee HC, Pagliaro EM. Serology: blood identification. In: Siegel J, Knupfer
G, Saukko P, editors. Encyclopedia of forensic sciences [e-book]. San
Diego: Academic Press; 2000 [cited 2005 Jun 30]:1331-8. Available
from: Science Direct Reference. www.elsevier.com.
34. Lugg DJ. Physiological adaptation and health of an expedition in Antarctica:
with comment on behavioural adaptation. Canberra: A.G.P.S.; 1977.
Australian Government Department of Science, Antarctic Division.
ANARE scientific reports. Series B(4), Medical science No. 0126.
35. Widdicombe J. Respiration. In: Blakemore C, Jennett S, editors. The Oxford
companion to the body [e-book]. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2001
[cited 2005 Jun 30]. Available from: Oxford Reference Online.
http://www.oxfordreference.com.
36. Hincks CL. The detection and characterisation of novel papillomaviruses.
Biomedical Science, Honours [thesis]. Murdoch: Murdoch University;
2001.
[Contents]

Abbreviations
Standard abbreviations may be used in your citations. A list of appropriate
abbreviations can be found below:

ed

edition

et al

and others

No

number (series)

page/pages (book)

para

paragraph

Pt

part

rev

revised

Suppl

supplement

Vol

volume (book)
[Contents]

Other Sources of Information


Note: This list of examples is in no way exhaustive. Only the most often-used
types of references are listed here. Refer to the following publications for more
information on citing references:
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Uniform
Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals:
Writing and editing for biomedical publication [document on the
Internet]. ICMJE;2003 [updated 2004 Oct; cited 2005 Apr 14]. Available
from: http://www.icmje.org/.
Iverson C, Flanagin A, Fontanarosa PB, Glass RM, Glitman P, Lantz JC, et al.
American Medical Association manual of style: a guide for authors and
editors. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998.
Link Level 3 R 808.06661 AME 1998