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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

What is personality? Well, we as human beings are all the same and we share the same human
nature with a common humanity. We have the same physical appearance such as
eyes, nose etc and human minds. In addition we share human minds and thoughts.
Yet in other ways, we are completely different and unique. No human being has the
same experience in life and share the same perspective. Somewhere between these
two - our common humanity and our unique individuality - lies personality. We act
differently and the way we present ourselves define who we are and differentiate us
from others.
Even identical twins has different personalities though both of them shared the same face
feature but twin number 1 will always be twin number 1 and twin number 2 will
always be twin number 2 as both has different perspective in life and have different
life experiences as they matured.
The main difference among individuals lies in their personality. One's personality consists in
his/her general profile or in the special combination of psychological traits of
character that refer to his/her unique nature. One's unique combination of
psychological features leads the way in which that specific person reacts and
interacts with the others or the environment. One's personality includes a set of
mental characteristics which reflect the way in which a person think, acts and feels
towards the surroundings and each has different approach in life aspects.
According to Kendra Cherry (2013,) personality can be defined as consistency in a persons
way of operating which is long-term consistency in their particular ways of
perceiving, thinking, acting and reacting as a person. Consistent patterns of thought
and feeling and behaviour. In other words, personality is an individuals unique
constellation of consistent behavioural traits. Common personality traits include
honesty, moody, impulsive and friendly.
To some extent, people generally do tend to operate in a similar way day after day, year after
year. Im not talking about specific behaviours being repeated again and again, but
about overall patterns, tendencies, inclinations. Someone who has tended to be quiet
and reserved up to now will probably still tend to be quiet and reserved in the future.
It is this individual consistency in thought patterns, behaviour patterns and
emotional patterns which defines personality.

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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
So, how does personality formed and developed?
Many specialists have asked themselves which is the main factor that determines personality:
Is personality genetically inherited or developed gradually through experience?
I am sure all of us have repeatedly heard some remarks such as: "He acts exactly like his
father!" or "He behaves like that because this is how he was brought up!" And this is
when the controversy appears: which is more important when developing your
personality - human nature or education? Does one's personality depend on heredity
through genetic inheritance or on the environment in which someone leads his/her
life?

According to Chavan (2010), the most reasonable answer of all is none of the abovebut the
interaction of the two - the genetic and the environmental/educational/experience
factor formed during childhood and adolescence which is the nature vs nature
personality.
By nature, heredity explains about 50 per cent of behavioural tendencies and 30 per cent of
temperament. Furthermore, Minnesota studies shown that most of the twins had
similar behaviour patterns. As for nurture, ones personality isnt stable at birth
because as they grow up, they will be exposed to everyday life experiences which
taught them good and bad lessons. In other words, they learned for themselves.
However, they are most likely being influenced by socialisation. Their personality
will stabilise throughout adolescences stage.
The concept of the "Big Five" personality traits is taken from psychology and includes five
broad domains that describe personality. These factors are assumed to represent the
basic structure behind all personality traits. These five factors were defined and
discovered by several different researchers during multiple periods of research
throughout the years.
Employees are sometimes tested on the Big Five personality traits in collaborative situations
to determine what strong personality traits they can add to the group dynamic.

4231473 NUR ANISA HADZMAN

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
The Big Five model is a five- factor model of personality which consists of extraversion,
agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability and openness to experience.
The extraversion dimension captures ones comfort level with relationships.
Extraverts tend to be sociable and assertive while the opposite of extraversion is
introverts. Introverts tend to be timid and quiet. The agreeableness dimension refers
to an individuals propensity to defer to others. Highly agreeable people are
cooperative, warm and trusting. People who score low on agreeableness are cold and
antagonistic.
The conscientiousness dimension is a measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is
responsible, organised and persistent. Those who score low on this dimension are
easily distracted and unreliable. The emotional stability dimension often labelled by
its converse, neuroticism taps a persons ability to withstand stress. A person with
positive emotional stability tends to be calm, self-confident and secure. Those with
the negative results tend to be nervous, anxious and insecure. The openness to
experience dimension addresses ones range of interests and fascination with
novelty. Extremely open people are creative curios and artistically sensitive. Those
at the other end of the openness category are conventional and find comfort in the
familiar.
The question is how does The Big Five Model related to job outcomes?
The results shows that individuals who are dependable, reliable, careful, thorough, able to
plan, organised, hardworking and persistent tend to have higher job performance in
most if not all occupations. In addition, employees who score higher in
conscientiousness develop higher levels of job knowledge because highly
conscientious people exert greater levels of effort on their jobs in which contributes
to huger levels of job performance.
Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability will be valid predictors of all job performance
criteria for all jobs. Conscientiousness criticized to be related to job performance
because it assesses the personal characteristics such as persistent, planful, careful,
responsible, and hardworking, which are important attributes for accomplishing
work tasks in all jobs (Digman & Takemoto-Chock, 1981; Smith, 1967)

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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Such occupations that involve frequent interaction and cooperation with people, Extraversion
and Agreeableness is valid in the context. These two personality predicted to suits
the criteria for occupation as management and sales but not as a production or an
engineer.

In similar context, Openness to Experience will be a valid criteria to be a training


proficiency. This dimension is expected to be related to training proficiency because
it assesses personal characteristics such as curious, broadminded, cultured, and
intelligent, which are attributes associated with positive attitudes toward learning
experiences. We believe that such individuals are more likely to be motivated to
learn upon entry into the training program and, consequently, are more likely to
benefit from the training (Digman,1990)
In summary of the five dimensions of personality, Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability
are expected to be valid predictors of job performance for all jobs and all criteria
because Conscientiousness measures those personal characteristics that are
important for accomplishing work tasks in all jobs, while Emotional Stability from
the negative side, measures those characteristics that may hinder successful
performance. (Personnel Psychology 1991).
Conclusion, Extraversion and Agreeableness are expected to correlate with job performance
for two occupations, sales and management, because interpersonal dispositions are
likely to be important determinants of success in those occupations. Finally,
Openness to Experience is expected to correlate with one of the criterion types,
training proficiency, because Openness to Experience appears to assess individuals
readiness to participate in learning experiences.

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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

References list
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The Big Five Personality Dimension and Job Performance
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Big Five Personality Traits - Personality
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Nature vs. Nurture
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Nature vs nurture
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Princeton.edu
Nature versus nurture

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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
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Essayforum.com
nature or nurture which one have influence on personality and development ?
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Personality: Nature vs. Nurture or something in between?
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What Is Personality?
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Edge.org
How Is Personality Formed ? | Edge.org
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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
Growth-development.knoji.com
How Human Personality is Formed and How It Shapes Our Identities
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4231473 NUR ANISA HADZMAN