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Basis

Starter
Guide
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Written by Tim van Steenbergen
Monday, 02 July 2007
1
SAP R/3
This document is created to get a comprehensive list of all actions that I have taken
during the maintenance of the SAP. This to make sure that I forget as little as possible.
This document can be a good handle for basis consultants who are starting on the job.
1.1

Tables

DBSTATC
E070
E071
KNA1
MARA
PAT01,
PAT03
TBATG
TBTCO
TTZZ
USR01
~ ...12
1.2

status of statistics-information per SAP-table


Change-requests and their tasks and properties
Objects in change-requests
Necessary at sapscript-ABAPs
Materiallist
Supportpackages and their status, also see table TEPSIN
Holds runtime-transportinformation (dont know yet what it exactly
holds)
Batchjobinformation
Timezones.
Userdata

Transactions

Good advise: dont learn the transactioncodes by heart at first, but use the menu-paths.
This way you will sooner get an overview of the systems possibilities.
1.2.1

Daily maintenance

SM21
SM37
SM50/51
SM66
ST11
ST22
1.2.2

Systemlog
Check the batchjobs
Show all processes on one server / all servers
Show all active process on the system
Display developer-traces
ABAP-dumps

ABAP-related

SE11
SE16/SM30
SE37

ABAP dictionary
Data browser/Table editor (3.1xs SM31 is replaced by SM30)
Function builder

SE38
SE41
SE51
1.2.3

ABAP editor
Menu painter
Screen painter
Backgroundjob-related

RZ04
SM36
SM37
SM63
SM65
1.2.4

Operation modes
Create background job
Show background jobs
Operation mode calendar
Check backgroundjob-settings
Generally useful

AL11
DB02
PFCG
RZ10
SARA
SCC4
SE01
SE06 (4.x
up)
SE71
SM02
SMGW
SMLG
SMLT
SPAM
SPAU
SPDD
STFK
1.2.5

/$sync
/h
/n
/o

Maintain Layout-sets also known as sapscripts


System message
Gateway administration
Define logon-groups
Language administration
Support Package Manager
ABAP-dictionary assistant during supportpackage-import
Data-dictionary assistant during supportpackage-import
Search the customersystem that have an open connection to Walldorf

Functional transactions

MM01,2,3
PP01,2,3
VA01,2,3
1.3

SAP directories
Database performance: Tables and Indexes
Profile generator
Profile maintenance
Archiving
Client change options
Transport organizer, use SE09 for ABAP-transports, SE10 for
customizing transports
System change options, see SCC4 for Client change options.

Create, Modify, Display material data


Create, Modify, Display productionplant data
Create, Modify, Display sales order data

Commands
Synchronise the buffers. ABAPs on the application servers will be
refreshed, so possibly changed. Not recommended on
productionsystems in use.
Turning on the debugging mode
New command
New session

1.4

ABAP reports

RDDIMPDP
RDDNEWPP
RMMMPERI
RSCOLL00
RSDBTIME
RSEPSUPL
?RSSUPC??
RSPARAM
RSPO1041

Jobtriggerer. Starts the released batchjobs and tp-commands.


To schedule RDDIMPDP, run this as DDIC in each targetclient
Periodclosing for MM. Gives problems regularly.
Collector for system- and databasedata. Usually runs every hour.
Check and repair inconsistencies in the clocks of a system
Upload the patches available in /eps/in
31x
Generates the profiles and activitygroups
Shows the parametersettings of a running SAP-instance
Delete old spoolrequests. This abap used to be RSPO0041 in older
releases
RSTPTEST Tests the transporttool
RSUSRxxx User related reports (000 list active users, 002 userby comlex criteria,
etc)
TOUCHALL Generate all ABAPs. Takes about 24 hours!
1.5

Profileparameters

rdisp/*
gui-parameters
rdisp/gui_max_wait maximum time of no response (in 3.x: rdisp/gui_auto_logout)
1.6
1.6.1

Userids
Userids on SAP R/3 level

SAP*
in the OSS.

Sapsuperuser, has all authorizations. Its default password is available

DDIC

Its default password is available in the OSS.

CPIC

eh

1.6.2

Userids on databaselevel

SAPR3

User that connect SAP R/3 to the Oracle (or SQL or ..) database

OPS$
note 50088

Oracle-only. Used to change passwords of OS-level userids. see OSS-

1.6.3

Userids on OS-level

<SID>adm

os-administrator for unix-activities as creating logical volumes,


filegroups, smit, smitty, etc

ora<SID>

Oracle only: R/3-database administrator for SAPDBA-activities


as brarchive, sapdba-analyze, brrestore, etc.

SAPService<SID>
1.6.4

NT-only: OS-user used for running the service SAPOSCOL

Userid for applying Supportpackages

During applying supportpackages (aka. hotpackages) you need to be logged on to


client 000 with a userid other then SAP*, but with the same authorizations.
1.6.5

Userid for configuring and maintaining STMS

During changing the Transport Management System using STMS you need to be
logged on as TMSADM in client 000 on the transportdomaincontroller.
1.7

Logfiles

SAP logs almost any action and has a lot of trace-options. Here is a short listing for
them:

systemlog, viewed via transaction SM21, file stored in /work

developertraces, viewed via ST11 or SM50 and doubleclick the process (as of
4.x), stored in /work
dev_wX
log for workproces number X
dev_ms
log for workproces for the messageservice
dev_gw
log for workproces for the gateway
dev_disp
log for workproces for the dispatcher
dev_tp
log for workproces for the transports

startuplog, viewed via ST11

stderrx, viewed via ST11, 3 or 4 files, hold more errorstatements

trans.log, viewed via AL11, DIR_TRANS, transportlogfile

1.8

Traces

Tracefiles are very useful when analysing a problem.

ST05 (System, Utilities, Performance trace) allows you to set a trace per user,
transaction, program or process-id.

SM50. Here you see the processes. Per proces you can see its corresponding
tracefile via button Show file. The default trace-level is 1. You can change the
tracelevel via Process, Trace, Dispatcher, Change tracelevel (of all processes, not
per process).

2
2.1

Database
General databaseknowledge

Logging on to the database is done via:

Log on as ora<SID>

UNIX: svrmgrl (in Oracle 7.* this used to be sqlplus)

NT: sqldba72 (or svrmgr23, svrmgr30)

connect internal

2.1.1
2.1.1.1

Database-commands
SQL Select-statements

Select * from
dba_roles;
dba_tables

useful fields

what does it do?

where tablespace_name=
shows all systemtables
SYSTEM and
owner=SYS;
sys.dba_role_privs; where grantee like OPS$; show the roles of the OPS$-user,
should be: CONNECT,
RESOURCE and SAPDBA.
v$backup
shows which files are in backup
mode
v$datafile;
to verify the correct execution
v$datafile
where status not in
should be empty if SAP is online
('SYSTEM','ONLINE')
v$dba_rollback_segs
Data of all rollback segments
v$log;
shows all logfiles (4) and which
is active
v$logfile;
shows all physical logfiles
(mirrored, so: 8)
v$nls_parameters
where parameter =
returns the characterset with
'NLS_CHARACTERSET'; which the database is installed
v$recover_file;
should be empty if SAP is online
v$rollname
Name and number of all
ONLINE rollback segments
v$rollstat
Number, status, optimal size,
diff. capacity sizes etc. of all
ONLINE rollback segments
The V$-files contain the dynamic performance tables which hold the runtime
information of R/3. To see all V$-files listed, go to ST04, detailed analysis, button
display V$ values.
2.1.1.2

SQL Alter-statements

alter database open;

?alter database rename file '<device>:\<old path>\<old filename>' to '<device>:\<new


path>\<new filename>';
alter system switch logfile; (4 times to perform four logswitches)
alter tablespace <tablespacename> end backup; the tablespace will end its status of
being backed up.
2.1.1.3

SQL Other statements

analyze table <tablename> validate structure cascade;


drop tablename from ??; deletes the table from the database.
exit;

logging out

grant user1 to user2; copies the rights of user1 to user2


saposcol v
2.2
2.2.1

show the version of saposcol

Oracle
important files

init<SID>.ora
init<SID>.sap
init<SID>.dba
2.2.2

OSlevel-commands

exit

logging out

lsnrctl start

start the oracle listener

lsnrctl status

shows the status of the listener

tnsping <SID>

tests the TNS-connection to the database

smit (or smitty)


drives etc.

characterbased menu for handling of filesystems, logical volumes,

2.2.3

Brbackup/brrestore

BRRESTORE m file01/dir01 .. filen/dirn restore the backup and places the files in
the given directories instead of the original directories
2.3

MS SQL

Logging on to the database is done via:

Log on as <SID>adm?

svrmgr30 or svrmgr (as of oracle 8.0)

connect internal

checkdb to be added (or see microsoft/sql/ knowledgebase)


2.3.1

Services

SAP-Services that needs to be running on OS-level

SAP<SID>_<Instance-number>

SAPoscol

2.3.2

Stored procedures

sp_helpsort
2.4

DB 2/400

enddbmon
3
3.1
3.1.1
bin
get
ls l
put
pwd
3.1.2

show the SQL-servers sortorder and characterset (thus the codepage)

stop the databasecollector-program when it is running

Operating system
General
ftp
set transferring files to binary (as opposed to ascii)
download a file (mget doe not work on SAPSERVx)
list directory, -l to show filedetails
upload a file (mput does not work on SAPSERVx)
show current path
General commands

startsap r3 <SID>
<profile>
stopsap <SID>
tp connect <SID>
r3trans d v
r3trans l filename

Start SAP from the commandprompt


Stop SAP from the commandprompt
Tests if you can connect to the database of the system (start in
usr/sap/trans)
Tests if you can connect to the database
Checks if the file is consistent and correct and can be imported

3.2
3.2.1

UNIX
Simple commands

chgrp grp
filelist
chmod 777
filelist
chown user
filelist
cp file1 file2
cp /dev/null
file
errpt
ls ltr <dir>
more <dir>
mv file1 file2
ps ef
vi
3.2.2

Change the group that the file(s) belong to.


Change the rights of the file(s). 777: owner-world-user. 7: readwrite-delete (=111)
Change the owner of the file(s)
Copy file1 to file2
Clear all contents of file
Hardware error-report (IBM-unix)
Show filelist, parameters: l: show fileattributes , t: sort by time, r:
reverse sortorder
Move command
Show all running processes, -e, -f
The famous vi-editor

A little more complex commands

kill <PID>
kill 1 <PID>
kill 9 <PID>
kill USR2
<PID>
kill USR1
<PID>
lslv
lsvg
sappfpar check
pf=<profile>
set VAR VAL
printenv
ps ef |grep
xxx
ps u
<username>

Kill a process as if it is cancelled. Child processes are killed as well.


Kill a process as if the user is logging out. Child processes are killed
as well.
Kill a process as brutal as possible. Child-processes are not touched.
Increases TRACE by 1
Decreases TRACE by 1. When TRACE = 0 all open trace files are
closed and can be cleared using cp /dev/null filename.
Show the logical volumes
Show the volumegroups
Checks the profileparameter. Do they exist and do they have correct
values.
set environment variable VAR to value VAL
prints the environementvariables
Monitor processes with name containing xxx
Monitor processes run by user <username>

Crontab
To schedule tasks you have to edit file crontab. Every line starts with five numbers and
then a command. The numbers stand for minute, hour, day-of-month, month-of-year,
day of week (0 for sunday).

The easiest way to edit the crontab file with a text-editor.


Detailed UNIX-commandlist
To get detailed information about every UNIX-command available and lots of articles,
see site
AIX: www.rs6000.ibm.com/cgi-bin/ds_rslt
3.3

NT

at
hostname
ipconfig /all
ipcs m
ipcrm m
<process>
regedit /
regedt32
sapntchk
ntenv2reg
ntreg2env
4

Schedule anything.
Shows the hostname
Show all ip-addresses of the system
Show all IPC-processes
Kill ipc-process <process>
Edit the registry. (for instance HKLM, software, SAP)
Checks the system, its ip-adresses, running processes etc.
Copy the environmentsettings to the registry to secure them
Copy the registry to the environmentsettings

General issues

4.1

SAP Tools

4.1.1

dpmon

This tool allows you to check SAPs processes and to find out which one is killing the
performance. Especially useful when it is not possible anymore to log on to your
system.
(Oracle: use <SID>adm to start this tool)
dpmon
4.1.2

Start dpmon, type m for the menu


gwmon

This tool allows you to check if the gateway is running. It is an addition to transaction
SMGW.
4.1.3

R3load

R3load is used to:


-

import/export databases

4.1.4

R3setup

R3setup is used to:


-

install SAP-databases

import exported databases into existing databases

4.1.5

R3trans

R3trans is used to:


-

test databaseconnections

import the transports


r3trans d-v
r3trans l <filename>

4.1.6

Tests the connection to the database


Tests if the datafileis corrupt or not

sapdba, to be run as ora<SID>

Sapdba is run to collect the data for the optimizer. This is done in two steps: First
SAPDBA checkopt PSAP% checks which optimizerdata needs to be updated, then
SAPDBA analyze DBSTATCO gathers the data of the objects to be updated.
sapdba analyze DBSTATCO
sapdba check <parameters>
sapdba checkopt PSAP%
sapdba statistics
4.1.7

Gathers the optimizerdata that needs to be updated


Checks the objects that you specify with its
parameters
Checks which optimizerdata needs to be updated
Does all of the above in one run. See note 184513

saplicense, to be run from the ..\exe\run directory

saplicense test
pf=../../profile/default.pfl
saplicense get
saplicense install
saplicense show

Tests if the license is still valid


Gets the customer key (aka hardwarekey) need
for the license
To install the licensekey received from SAP
Shows the current license

Request the license for the system by sending the fax included in the installation-kit to
SAP.
4.1.8

saprouter

saprouter r R <saprouterfile>
profile
Table saprouttab

Start the saprouter.


p * * *(Permit/Deny, From-ip, To-ip, Service)

4.1.9

tp, to be run from the usr\sap\trans\bin

As of version 4.0 there is no more need for us to go down to the os-level. Everything
can be done with transaction STMS. Nevertheless the tp-commands are still be useful
and needed in some cases (yet). for detailed information on tp-command, see OSSnote 309711.
tp connect <SID>
tp locksys <SID>
tp unlocksys <SID>
tp showbuffer <SID>
tp
addtobuffer
<changerequest><SID>
tp
delfrombuffer
<changerequest><SID>
tp
import
<changerequest>
<SID> u.x

Tests the connection to <SID>


Lock the SAP-system for all users except SAP*
Unlock the SAP-system, giving access to all users
Show the buffer
Add the changerequest to the buffer. possible
par.: u1
Delete the changerequest from the buffer
Importcommand, parameter u:
u1: Import regardless if it is already imported or
not
u2: Overwrite the originals.
u6: Overwrite objects in unconfirmed repairs.
u8: Overwrite objects in open repairs

The returncodes for tp import command:


4

Warning

Error.

12/14/16 Fatal error


152
>1000

Nothing done
Returncode with extra information, but only the last three digits are relevant

The file TP_<DOMAIN>.PFL (used to be TPPARAM) in this directory holds the tpparameter-settings
filesplit=yes|true|on Export will be split into files of size 2147483647 (2GB-1).
(default=no)
Useful for OSs that can not handle files larger then 2GB.