Fluid Mechanics

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Fluid Mechanics

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- FLUID MECHANICS WITH LABORATORY MANUAL, SECOND EDITION By MAJUMDAR, BIRESWAR
- Advanced in Viscid Problems Solutions
- The Fluidity of Molten Metal
- Ch9 Differential
- G Scheme First Semester Curriculum All Branches 03012013
- Properties of fluids
- uncite
- a7605-Aerodynamics and Propulsion of Flight Vehicles
- 1 G
- Full Text
- CFD Finite Volume Report
- Pressure Drop Calculation
- Viscofwater&Steam
- Don't Forget Viscosity
- Chapter 13 - Viscosity and Specific Gravity
- Chapter 01
- Drag Forces in Polymer Dynamics
- Fundamental Concepts in Fluid Mechanics
- Course Desc
- Computational Techniques for Modeling Non-Newtonian Flow in Porous Media

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Lichuanqi

Shandong University

AFD

EFD

CFD

Instructor

Li chuanqi

E-mail : lichuanqi@sdu.edu.cn

Tel:

13864163006

Textbook

E.John Finnemore

Joseph B. Franzini

Homework

One

is through practice and repetition

Therefore, homework assignments are

extremely important in this class!

Homework sets will be carefully designed,

challenging, and comprehensive. If you

study and understand the homework, you

should not have to struggle with the exams

Course Topics

Fluid Properties

Fluid Statics

Pressure at a Point

Force on Surfaces

Types of Flow

Steady Flow and Uniform Flow

Path Lines, Streamlines, and Streak Lines

Course Topics

Equation of Continuity

Bernoullis Equation

momentum equation

Pipe Flow

That each of you develop an intuition for

the fundamental principles of fluid

mechanics

That you leave this course saying,

Fluids makes sense and I can tackle

fluids problems.

That we have an enjoyable 14 weeks

learning together

CH 1

Introduction

Outline

Why is Fluid Mechanics Important?

Applications of Fluid Mechanics.

Dimension systems and analysis.

Fluid Mechanics

Gas

Liquids

Statics

F = 0

i

N2, etc.

Compressibility Density

Chapter 1: Introduction

F > 0 , Flows

Stability

Pressure Buoyancy

Water, Oils,

Alcohols,

etc.

Viscosity

Dynamics

i

Compressible/

Incompressible

Surface

Laminar/

Tension

Turbulent

Steady/Unsteady

Vapor

Viscous/Inviscid

Pressure

Fluid Dynamics:

Rest of Course

science of the mechanics of liquids and gases. It involves

many of the same principles of solid Statics and Dynamics,

but fluids is a more complex subject because solids involve

the study of forces on discrete bodies, while in fluids bodies

flow together.

with force and momentum.

engineering.

Water supply system

Dam spillways

-- automatic transmissions

ships, submarines

-- breakwaters, marinas

Aircrafts, rockets

Windmills, turbines

Bearings

-- artificial organs

Race cars

Science of the mechanics of liquids and gases

z Based on same fundamental principles as solid

Mechanics

z More complicated subject, however, since in fluids

separate elements are more difficult to distinguish

z We'll solve problems of fluids on the surface of

the Earth, within reasonable ranges of pressure and

temperature.

z

Branches:

Fluid statics: fluids at rest

Fluid kinematics: velocities and streamlines

Fluid dynamics: velocity & accelerations

forces

Classical hydrodynamics

Mathematical subject

Deals with ideal frictionless fluids

Classical hydraulics:

Experimental science

Deals with real fluids

FLUID MECHANICS

Modern Fluid Mechanics:

Combines mathematical principles with experimental data

Experimental data used to verify or complement theory or

mathematical analysis

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CDF)

Numerical solutions using computers

Methods:

Finite differences * finite elements

Boundary elements * analytic elements

to properly design many engineering

projects, including water pipe systems,

storm water drainage systems, aircraft,

brake systems, heating and air conditioning

systems, golf balls, boats, and cars.

Therefore, most of you will use Fluid

Mechanics in your work.

Ancient Rome: aqueducts, baths (4th century

B.C.)

Ancient Greece: Archimedes buoyancy (3rd

century B.C.)

Leonardo (1452-1519): experiments, research

on waves, jets, eddies, streamlining, flying

viscosity, calculus

18th century mathematicians: solutions to

frictionless fluid flows (hydrodynamics)

17th & 18th century engineers: empirical

equations (hydraulics)

Late 19th century: dimensionless numbers,

turbulence

Flow fields of low-viscosity fluids divided into two zones:

A thin, viscosity-dominated layer near solid surfaces

An effectively inviscid outer zone away from boundaries

Explains paradoxes

Allow analysis of more complex flows

20th century: hydraulic systems, oil explorations,

structures, irrigation, computer applications

No complete theory for the nature of turbulence

Still a combination of theory and experimental data

History

Faces of Fluid Mechanics

Archimedes

Navier

(1785-1836)

Newton

(1642-1727)

Stokes

(1819-1903)

Leibniz

(1646-1716)

Reynolds

(1842-1912)

Bernoulli

Euler

(1667-1748)

(1707-1783)

Prandtl

Taylor

(1875-1953)

(1886-1975)

Significance

Weather & climate

Aerodynamics

Combustion

Energy generation

Geology

Hydraulics and Hydrology

Hydrodynamics

Ocean and Coastal Engineering

Water Resources

Sports & recreation

numerous other examples

Tornadoes

Thunderstorm

Global Climate

Hurricanes

Aerodynamics

Energy generation

Geology

River Hydraulics

Hydraulic Structures

Hydrodynamics

Water Resources

Environmental

London Sewer

Environmental

Stream Habitat

Transportation

Culverts

Geotechnical

Structural

Snow Load

Structural

Wind Load

formulation

Control volume & differential analysis

Exact solutions only exist for simple geometry and

conditions

Approximate solutions for practical applications

Linear

Empirical relations using EFD data

Fluid statics

Fluids in motion

Continuity, momentum, and energy principles

Surface resistance

Flow in conduits

UD

< 2000

Assumptions: Fully developed, Low Re =

Approach: Simplify momentum equation,

Schematic

integrate, apply boundary conditions to

determine integration constants and use

energy equation to calculate head loss

0

2

0

0

u 2u

p

Du

=

+ 2 + 2 + gx

y

x

Dt

x

Exact solution :

u(r) = 1 ( p )(R2 r 2)

4 x

8 du

8 w = dy w = 64

f

=

Friction factor:

V 2 V 2 Re

p1

p2

L V 2 32 LV

+ z1 =

+ z2 + h f

=

hf = f

Head loss:

D 2g

D2

Definition:

Use of experimental methodology and procedures for solving fluids

engineering systems, including full and model scales, large and table top

facilities, measurement systems (instrumentation, data acquisition and data

reduction), uncertainty analysis, and dimensional analysis and similarity.

EFD philosophy:

Decisions on conducting experiments are governed by the ability of the

expected test outcome, to achieve the test objectives within allowable

uncertainties.

Integration of UA into all test phases should be a key part of entire

experimental program

test design

determination of error sources

estimation of uncertainty

documentation of the results

Applications of EFD

Example of industrial application

NASA's cryogenic wind tunnel simulates flight

conditions for scale models--a critical tool in

designing airplanes.

temperatures ranging from 0 to 165 degrees

Fahrenheit and simulate rain

Selection of the model scale: governed by dimensional analysis and similarity

engineering systems, including modeling (mathematical &

Physics) and numerical methods (solvers, finite differences,

and grid generations, etc.).

Rapid growth in CFD technology since advent of computer

ENIAC 1, 1946

IBM WorkStation

Modeling (example)

z

z Systems to be used:

S.I. (Systeme Internationale d'Unites)

Adopted in 1960

Used by nearly every major country, except the U.S.

Likely to be adopted by the U.S. in the near future

B.G. (British Gravitational system)

Used in the technical literature for years

Preferred system in the U.S.

Length (L)

Mass (M)

Time (T)

Temperature ()

Dimensions of acceleration: [a] = LT-2

Newton's 2nd law: F = [m][a] = MLT-2

Only 3 of the four basic units can be assigned

arbitrarily, the fourth becoming a derived unit

Basic dimensions: mass (M), length (L), time (T)

Velocity = Length / Time

Acceleration = Velocity / Time = Length / Time2

Discharge = Volume / Time

Force = Mass Acceleration

Pressure = Force / Area (also Stress)

Work = Force Length (also Energy, Torque)

Power = Work / Time = Force Velocity

Angular Velocity = Angle / Time

Angular Acceleration = Angular Velocity / Time

Example

Newtons second law

F = ma = MLT-2

In this case, acceleration is a derived unit,

because it is derived from combining basic

units.

CH 2 Properties of Fluids

Section Goals

1. What is the differences between solids, liquids and gases?

2. Learn definitions that specify basic fluid properties (density,

specific weight, specific volume, and specific gravity) and

how to use these definitions for solving problems.

3. Understand the concept of compressibility and how it applies

to fluid mechanics.

4. Understand the concept of Newtonian fluids and viscosity

and how to solve for forces in a Newtonian fluid.

5. Understand the concept of surface tension and vapor pressure

and how to find the capillary rise of a fluid.

Distinction between solid and fluid?

Solid: can resist an applied shear by deforming. Stress is

proportional to strain

Fluid: deforms continuously under applied shear. Stress is

proportional to strain rate

Solid

F

=

A

Fluid

F

V

A

h

What is a fluid?

unit area.

Normal component: normal

stress

In a fluid at rest, the normal

stress is called pressure

Tangential component: shear

stress

What is a fluid?

container it is in and forms a free

surface in the presence of

gravity

A gas expands until it

encounters the walls of the

container and fills the entire

available space. Gases cannot

form a free surface

Gas and vapor are often used as

synonymous words

What is a fluid?

solid

liquid

gas

liquids,

or gases!

Continuum

discretely spread and in continuous motion.

However, in dealing with fluid-flow relations on a

mathematical basis, it is necessary to replace the actual

molecular structure by a hypothetical continuous

medium, called the continuum.

Continuum

is the averaged value of the variable in a small sphere.

How good is the assumption?

10-3cm

Elastic solid

deforms under load

recovers original state when unloaded

Plastic solid:

continues deforming as long as load is applied

does not return to original state

Intermolecular forces in fluid not large enough to hold

elements together

Fluid flows under slightest stress and continues flowing

as long as stress is present

GAS:

Molecules farther apart

Very compressible

Tends to expand indefinitely

LIQUID:

Relatively incompressible

If external pressure removed, does not expand

May have a free surface (subject to its own vapor

pressure)

Volume, and Specific Gravity

Density

Density of a fluid, ,

Definition: mass per unit volume,

slightly affected by changes in temperature and pressure.

= mass/volume

Units: kg/m3

Typical values:

Water = 1000 kg/m3;

2.3.1 Density

The density of a fluid is defined as mass per unit volume.

m

=

v

m = mass, and v = volume.

Different fluids can vary greatly in density

Liquids densities do not vary much with pressure and temperature

Gas densities can vary quite a bit with pressure and temperature

Density of water at 4 C : 1000 kg/m3

Density of Air at 4 C : 1.20 kg/m3

Specific weight

Specific weight of a fluid, [gamma]

Definition: weight of the fluid per unit volume

Arising from the existence of a gravitational force

The relationship and g can be found using the following:

Since

therefore

= m/V

= g

Units: N/m3

Typical values:

Specific weight of water at 4 C : 9.80 kN/m3

Specific weight of air at 4 C : 11.9 N/m3

Specific gravity

The specific gravity (or relative density) can be defined in two ways:

Definition 1: A ratio of the density of a substance to the density

of water at standard temperature (4C) and

atmospheric pressure, or

Definition 2: A ratio of the specific weight of a substance to the

specific weight of water at standard temperature

(4C) and atmospheric pressure.

SG =

s

w @ 4C

Unit: dimensionless.

s

w @ 4C

2.3.2 Viscosity

Viscosity is a measure of a

fluid's resistance to flow..

exerts on a body in the

flow direction is called the

drag force, and the

magnitude of this force

depends, in part, on

viscosity.

(b) Forces acting on upper plate.

in direct proportion,

Viscosity

Problem

Three black marbles are dropped at the

same time into three different fluids - oil,

water, and glycerol. Will they all fall at

the same rate of speed?

and slowest in the glycerol.

The reason is due to the different viscosities

of the fluids.

Definition: Ratio of absolute viscosity to the density;

= /

Called kinematic viscosity because it involves no force

(dynamic) dimensions

Units: m2/s

Typical values:

Water = 1.14x10-6 m2/s;

In general,

viscosity of liquids with temperature, whereas

viscosity of gases with

in temperature.

Toothpaste

Latex

Paint

Corn

Starch

strain: Most common fluids are Newtonian.

Non-Newtonian Fluids are Non-Linear between stress and strain

Fluid

obey

Newtons law

of viscosity

refer

du

=

dy

(1.1)

= shear stress

= viscosity of fluid

du/dy = shear rate, rate of strain or velocity gradient

Newtonian fluids

Example:

Air

Water

Oil

Gasoline

Alcohol

Kerosene

Benzene

Glycerine

The viscosity is a function only of the condition of the fluid, particularly its

temperature.

The magnitude of the velocity gradient (du/dy) has no effect on the magnitude of .

Do not obey

Fluid

Newtons law

of viscosity

Non- Newtonian

fluids

velocity gradient as well as the condition of the fluid.

Newtonian Fluids

a linear relationship between shear stress and the velocity gradient (rate

of shear),

the slope is constant

the viscosity is constant

non-Newtonian fluids

Bulk Modulus(

Vapor Pressure

liquid

8000

7000

6000

water

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

0

10

20

30

Temperature (C)

40

liquid and a gas) will form an

interface. The molecules below

the interface act on each other

with forces equal in all

directions, whereas the

molecules near the surface act

on each other with increased

forces due to the absence of

neighbors. That is, the

interface acts like a stretched

membrane

Capillary action in small tubes which involve a liquid-gas-solid interface is

caused by surface tension. The fluid is either drawn up the tube or pushed down.

Wetted

Non-Wetted

Adhesion

Cohesion

Adhesion

Cohesion

The weight of the fluid is balanced with the vertical force caused by surface

tension.

Viscosity

Density and Specific Weight

Elasticity

Vapor Pressure

Surface Tension

du

=

dy

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