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FLUID MECHANICS

Lichuanqi
Shandong University
AFD

EFD

CFD

Information and Introduction

Instructor

Li chuanqi
E-mail : lichuanqi@sdu.edu.cn
Tel:

13864163006

Textbook

Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Applications

E.John Finnemore

Joseph B. Franzini

Homework
One

of the best ways to learn something

is through practice and repetition
Therefore, homework assignments are
extremely important in this class!
Homework sets will be carefully designed,
challenging, and comprehensive. If you
study and understand the homework, you
should not have to struggle with the exams

Course Topics

Fluid Properties
Fluid Statics
Pressure at a Point
Force on Surfaces

Types of Flow

Laminar and Turbulent Flow

Steady Flow and Uniform Flow
Path Lines, Streamlines, and Streak Lines

Course Topics

The fundamental equations of fluid dynamics

Equation of Continuity
Bernoullis Equation
momentum equation
Pipe Flow

My Goals for the next 14 weeks

That each of you develop an intuition for
the fundamental principles of fluid
mechanics
That you leave this course saying,
Fluids makes sense and I can tackle
fluids problems.
That we have an enjoyable 14 weeks
learning together

CH 1

Introduction

Outline

What is Fluid Mechanics?

Why is Fluid Mechanics Important?
Applications of Fluid Mechanics.
Dimension systems and analysis.

Fluid Mechanics

Gas

Liquids

Statics

F = 0
i

Air, He, Ar,

N2, etc.

Compressibility Density

Chapter 1: Introduction

F > 0 , Flows

Stability
Pressure Buoyancy

Water, Oils,
Alcohols,
etc.

Viscosity

Dynamics
i

Compressible/
Incompressible

Surface

Laminar/

Tension

Turbulent

Vapor

Viscous/Inviscid

Pressure

Fluid Dynamics:
Rest of Course

Definition of Fluid Mechanics: Fluid mechanics is the

science of the mechanics of liquids and gases. It involves
many of the same principles of solid Statics and Dynamics,
but fluids is a more complex subject because solids involve
the study of forces on discrete bodies, while in fluids bodies
flow together.

mechanics, which relate continuity of mass and energy

with force and momentum.

engineering.

Used in the design of :

Water supply system

Dam spillways

Shock absorbers, brakes

-- automatic transmissions

ships, submarines

-- breakwaters, marinas

Aircrafts, rockets

-- computer disk drives

Windmills, turbines

-- pumps, HVAC systems

Bearings

-- artificial organs

Race cars

Scope of Fluid Mechanics

Science of the mechanics of liquids and gases
z Based on same fundamental principles as solid
Mechanics
z More complicated subject, however, since in fluids
separate elements are more difficult to distinguish
z We'll solve problems of fluids on the surface of
the Earth, within reasonable ranges of pressure and
temperature.
z

Scope of Fluid Mechanics

Branches:
Fluid statics: fluids at rest
Fluid kinematics: velocities and streamlines
Fluid dynamics: velocity & accelerations
forces
Classical hydrodynamics
Mathematical subject
Deals with ideal frictionless fluids
Classical hydraulics:
Experimental science
Deals with real fluids

Classical hydrodynamics and hydraulics are now combined into

FLUID MECHANICS
Modern Fluid Mechanics:
Combines mathematical principles with experimental data
Experimental data used to verify or complement theory or
mathematical analysis
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CDF)
Numerical solutions using computers
Methods:
Finite differences * finite elements
Boundary elements * analytic elements

Knowledge of fluid mechanics in needed

to properly design many engineering
projects, including water pipe systems,
storm water drainage systems, aircraft,
brake systems, heating and air conditioning
systems, golf balls, boats, and cars.
Therefore, most of you will use Fluid
Mechanics in your work.

Ancient civilizations: irrigation, ships

Ancient Rome: aqueducts, baths (4th century
B.C.)
Ancient Greece: Archimedes buoyancy (3rd
century B.C.)
Leonardo (1452-1519): experiments, research
on waves, jets, eddies, streamlining, flying

Newton (1642-1727): laws of motion, law of

viscosity, calculus
18th century mathematicians: solutions to
frictionless fluid flows (hydrodynamics)
17th & 18th century engineers: empirical
equations (hydraulics)
Late 19th century: dimensionless numbers,
turbulence

Prandtl (1904): proposes idea of the boundary layer

Flow fields of low-viscosity fluids divided into two zones:
A thin, viscosity-dominated layer near solid surfaces
An effectively inviscid outer zone away from boundaries
Allow analysis of more complex flows
20th century: hydraulic systems, oil explorations,
structures, irrigation, computer applications

Beginning of 21st century:

No complete theory for the nature of turbulence
Still a combination of theory and experimental data

History
Faces of Fluid Mechanics

Archimedes

Navier
(1785-1836)

Newton
(1642-1727)

Stokes
(1819-1903)

Leibniz
(1646-1716)

Reynolds
(1842-1912)

Bernoulli

Euler

(1667-1748)

(1707-1783)

Prandtl

Taylor

(1875-1953)

(1886-1975)

Significance

Fluid Mechanics is omnipresent

Weather & climate
Aerodynamics
Combustion
Energy generation
Geology
Hydraulics and Hydrology
Hydrodynamics
Ocean and Coastal Engineering
Water Resources
Sports & recreation
numerous other examples

Weather & Climate

Thunderstorm

Global Climate

Hurricanes

Aerodynamics

Energy generation

Geology

River Hydraulics

Hydraulic Structures

Hydrodynamics

Water Resources

Environmental

London Sewer

Environmental

Stream Habitat

Transportation

Culverts

Geotechnical

Structural

Structural

The theory of mathematical physics problem

formulation
Control volume & differential analysis
Exact solutions only exist for simple geometry and
conditions
Approximate solutions for practical applications

Linear
Empirical relations using EFD data

Definition and fluids properties

Fluid statics
Fluids in motion
Continuity, momentum, and energy principles
Surface resistance
Flow in conduits

Example: laminar pipe flow

UD
< 2000
Assumptions: Fully developed, Low Re =
Approach: Simplify momentum equation,
Schematic
integrate, apply boundary conditions to
determine integration constants and use
energy equation to calculate head loss

0
2
0
0
u 2u
p
Du
=
+ 2 + 2 + gx
y
x
Dt
x

Exact solution :

u(r) = 1 ( p )(R2 r 2)
4 x
8 du

8 w = dy w = 64
f
=
Friction factor:
V 2 V 2 Re
p1
p2
L V 2 32 LV
+ z1 =
+ z2 + h f
=
hf = f

D 2g
D2

Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD)

Definition:
Use of experimental methodology and procedures for solving fluids
engineering systems, including full and model scales, large and table top
facilities, measurement systems (instrumentation, data acquisition and data
reduction), uncertainty analysis, and dimensional analysis and similarity.
EFD philosophy:
Decisions on conducting experiments are governed by the ability of the
expected test outcome, to achieve the test objectives within allowable
uncertainties.
Integration of UA into all test phases should be a key part of entire
experimental program
test design
determination of error sources
estimation of uncertainty
documentation of the results

Applications of EFD

Application in research & development

Example of industrial application
NASA's cryogenic wind tunnel simulates flight
conditions for scale models--a critical tool in
designing airplanes.

Tropic Wind Tunnel has the ability to create

temperatures ranging from 0 to 165 degrees
Fahrenheit and simulate rain

Scales: model, and full-scale

Selection of the model scale: governed by dimensional analysis and similarity

CFD is use of computational methods for solving fluid

engineering systems, including modeling (mathematical &
Physics) and numerical methods (solvers, finite differences,
and grid generations, etc.).
Rapid growth in CFD technology since advent of computer

ENIAC 1, 1946

IBM WorkStation

Modeling (example)

z

Units needed to properly express a physical quantity

z Systems to be used:
S.I. (Systeme Internationale d'Unites)
Used by nearly every major country, except the U.S.
Likely to be adopted by the U.S. in the near future
B.G. (British Gravitational system)
Used in the technical literature for years
Preferred system in the U.S.

Basic dimensions used in fluid mechanics:

Length (L)
Mass (M)
Time (T)
Temperature ()
Dimensions of acceleration: [a] = LT-2
Newton's 2nd law: F = [m][a] = MLT-2
Only 3 of the four basic units can be assigned
arbitrarily, the fourth becoming a derived unit

Derived quantities (1)

Basic dimensions: mass (M), length (L), time (T)
Velocity = Length / Time
Acceleration = Velocity / Time = Length / Time2
Discharge = Volume / Time
Force = Mass Acceleration
Pressure = Force / Area (also Stress)
Work = Force Length (also Energy, Torque)
Power = Work / Time = Force Velocity
Angular Velocity = Angle / Time
Angular Acceleration = Angular Velocity / Time

Example
Newtons second law
F = ma = MLT-2
In this case, acceleration is a derived unit,
because it is derived from combining basic
units.

CH 2 Properties of Fluids

Section Goals
1. What is the differences between solids, liquids and gases?
2. Learn definitions that specify basic fluid properties (density,
specific weight, specific volume, and specific gravity) and
how to use these definitions for solving problems.
3. Understand the concept of compressibility and how it applies
to fluid mechanics.
4. Understand the concept of Newtonian fluids and viscosity
and how to solve for forces in a Newtonian fluid.
5. Understand the concept of surface tension and vapor pressure
and how to find the capillary rise of a fluid.

A fluid is a substance in the gaseous or liquid form

Distinction between solid and fluid?
Solid: can resist an applied shear by deforming. Stress is
proportional to strain
Fluid: deforms continuously under applied shear. Stress is
proportional to strain rate

Solid

F
=
A

Fluid

F
V

A
h

What is a fluid?

Stress is defined as the force per

unit area.
Normal component: normal
stress
In a fluid at rest, the normal
stress is called pressure
Tangential component: shear
stress

What is a fluid?

A liquid takes the shape of the

container it is in and forms a free
surface in the presence of
gravity
A gas expands until it
encounters the walls of the
container and fills the entire
available space. Gases cannot
form a free surface
Gas and vapor are often used as
synonymous words

What is a fluid?

solid

liquid

gas

liquids,

or gases!

Continuum

All materials, solid or fluid, are composed of molecules

discretely spread and in continuous motion.
However, in dealing with fluid-flow relations on a
mathematical basis, it is necessary to replace the actual
molecular structure by a hypothetical continuous
medium, called the continuum.

Continuum

In a continuum, the physical variable at a point in space

is the averaged value of the variable in a small sphere.
How good is the assumption?

10-3cm

Solid: intermolecular forces larger than in fluid

Elastic solid
recovers original state when unloaded

Plastic solid:

deforms under sufficient load

continues deforming as long as load is applied

Distinction between a solid and a fluid (2)

Intermolecular forces in fluid not large enough to hold
elements together
Fluid flows under slightest stress and continues flowing
as long as stress is present

Fluids: gases or liquids

GAS:
Molecules farther apart
Very compressible
Tends to expand indefinitely
LIQUID:
Relatively incompressible
If external pressure removed, does not expand
May have a free surface (subject to its own vapor
pressure)

2.3 Density, Specific Weight, Specific

Volume, and Specific Gravity
Density
Density of a fluid, ,
Definition: mass per unit volume,
slightly affected by changes in temperature and pressure.

= mass/volume
Units: kg/m3
Typical values:
Water = 1000 kg/m3;

Air = 1.23 kg/m3

2.3.1 Density
The density of a fluid is defined as mass per unit volume.

m
=
v
m = mass, and v = volume.
Different fluids can vary greatly in density
Liquids densities do not vary much with pressure and temperature
Gas densities can vary quite a bit with pressure and temperature
Density of water at 4 C : 1000 kg/m3
Density of Air at 4 C : 1.20 kg/m3

Alternatively, Specific Volume:

Specific weight
Specific weight of a fluid, [gamma]
Definition: weight of the fluid per unit volume
Arising from the existence of a gravitational force
The relationship and g can be found using the following:
Since
therefore

= m/V
= g

Units: N/m3
Typical values:
Specific weight of water at 4 C : 9.80 kN/m3
Specific weight of air at 4 C : 11.9 N/m3

Specific gravity

The specific gravity (or relative density) can be defined in two ways:
Definition 1: A ratio of the density of a substance to the density
of water at standard temperature (4C) and
atmospheric pressure, or
Definition 2: A ratio of the specific weight of a substance to the
specific weight of water at standard temperature
(4C) and atmospheric pressure.

SG =

s
w @ 4C

Unit: dimensionless.

s
w @ 4C

2.3.2 Viscosity

Viscosity is a measure of a
fluid's resistance to flow..

The force a flowing fluid

exerts on a body in the
flow direction is called the
drag force, and the
magnitude of this force
depends, in part, on
viscosity.

(a) Deformation of material placed between two parallel plates.

(b) Forces acting on upper plate.

The shearing stress is increased by P, the rate of shearing strain is increased

in direct proportion,

Viscosity

Problem
Three black marbles are dropped at the
same time into three different fluids - oil,
water, and glycerol. Will they all fall at
the same rate of speed?

The marble will drop the fastest in the water

and slowest in the glycerol.
The reason is due to the different viscosities
of the fluids.

Viscosity: Kinematic Viscosity

Definition: Ratio of absolute viscosity to the density;

= /

Appears in many problems in fluids.

Called kinematic viscosity because it involves no force
(dynamic) dimensions
Units: m2/s
Typical values:
Water = 1.14x10-6 m2/s;

Air = 1.46x10-5 m2/s;

In general,
viscosity of liquids with temperature, whereas
viscosity of gases with

in temperature.

Toothpaste
Latex
Paint

Corn
Starch

Newtonian Fluids are Linear Relationships between stress and

strain: Most common fluids are Newtonian.
Non-Newtonian Fluids are Non-Linear between stress and strain

Fluid

obey

Newtons law
of viscosity

refer

Newtons law of viscosity is given by;

du
=
dy

(1.1)

= shear stress

= viscosity of fluid
du/dy = shear rate, rate of strain or velocity gradient

Newtonian fluids
Example:
Air
Water
Oil
Gasoline
Alcohol
Kerosene
Benzene
Glycerine

The viscosity is a function only of the condition of the fluid, particularly its
temperature.
The magnitude of the velocity gradient (du/dy) has no effect on the magnitude of .

Do not obey

Fluid

Newtons law
of viscosity

Non- Newtonian
fluids

The viscosity of the non-Newtonian fluid is dependent on the

velocity gradient as well as the condition of the fluid.
Newtonian Fluids

a linear relationship between shear stress and the velocity gradient (rate
of shear),
the slope is constant
the viscosity is constant

non-Newtonian fluids

Bulk Modulus(

Vapor Pressure

liquid

8000
7000
6000

water

5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0

10

20

30

Temperature (C)

40

Two non-mixing fluids (e.g., a

liquid and a gas) will form an
interface. The molecules below
the interface act on each other
with forces equal in all
directions, whereas the
molecules near the surface act
on each other with increased
forces due to the absence of
neighbors. That is, the
interface acts like a stretched
membrane

Surface Tension: Capillary Action

Capillary action in small tubes which involve a liquid-gas-solid interface is
caused by surface tension. The fluid is either drawn up the tube or pushed down.
Wetted

Non-Wetted

Cohesion
Cohesion

h is the height, R is the radius of the tube, is the angle of contact.

The weight of the fluid is balanced with the vertical force caused by surface
tension.

Review: Fluid Properties

Viscosity
Density and Specific Weight
Elasticity
Vapor Pressure
Surface Tension

du
=
dy