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ECA 2

Project
proposal
TITLE :

Regulated 9V Power Supply &


Electromagnetic
Radiation Detector
Group Members:
hafiz M sHahnawaz

SP11-

BCE-005
JAMIL AHMED
SOHAIB HAFEEZ

SUBMITTED TO :

SP11-BCE-042
SP11-BCE-037

SIR WAHEED-UR-REHMAN

DATE:

NOVEMBER 2012

Comsats institute of information


technology Abbottabad.

19

MODULES

1- Regulated 9V Power Supply


2- Electromagnetic Radiation
Detector
Regulated Voltage Supply
Equipments Used:
230 to 24 V step down transformer
Silicon Diodes
C1=470uF
C2=0.01uF
C3=0.01uF
ICI 7809

Circuit Diagram:

Working:
Our 9V regulated voltage supply uses the popular 7809 IC. The 7809 is a 9V
voltage regulator IC with features such as internal current limit, safe area protection, thermal
protection etc. The step down transforer step down 220V to 24V. then a bridge rectifier
concerts the AC to Pulsating DC and give smoothness to pulsating i.e removes the ripples.
The capacitor C1 filter it and remove unwanted AC signals. The IC 7809 regulates it to
produce steady 9V DC output.

Electromagnetic Radiation Detector :Equipments Used:


L1=1mH
C1=100nF
C2=10uF
C3=15ouF
C4=220uF
C5=220uF
C6=100uf
R1=10k
R2=2.2M
R3=10k
R4=2.2k
R5=10
R6=1M
R7=10k
Op-Amp ICI LF 351
Z1= Walkman Head Phone
Am-meter
D1,D2=1N4148
BJT=Q1=BC107
9V DC Supply

Circuit Diagram:

Working of each indicated Module is described below.

Working:
This sensor is designed to locate stray electromagnetic (EM) fields. It will easily
detect both audio and RF signals up to frequencies of around 100 kHz. Note, however that
this circuit is NOT a metal detector, but will detect metal wiring if it conducting ac current.
Frequency response is from 50 Hz to about 100 kHz gain being rolled off by the 150 p
capacitor, the gain of the op-amp and input capacitance of the probe cable.
The low noise op-amp LF351 and associated components forms the pick up section.
1mH coil L1 is used for sensing the field and the IC1 performs the necessary amplification. If
the picked electromagnetic field is in the audio frequency range, it can be heard through the
head phone Z1.There is also a meter arrangement for accurate measuring of the signal
strength. Transistor Q1 performs additional amplification on the picked signal in order to
drive the meter.

Modules:
1- Sensing:
Here we use an inductor of 1mH inductance for sensing the
electromagnetic field nearby it. Inductance is directly proportional to voltage induced in the
circuit.
V=L.di/dt.
By increasing the value of inductor the induced voltage increased. Here we use 1mH
inductor because it is easily available.

2- Removal of Noise from Input Signal:


The capacitor C1 is used
for removal of noise, it blocks the DC particles which cause the distortion in input signal.

3- Amplification of Input Signal:


The signal generated in inductor is very
weak it cant be audible or sense-able at the output so we use operational amplifier for
amplifying the signal. For this purpose we use OP37 that is low noise amplifier. For keeping
its gain very very high we take Rg equal to zero.
4-

Adjustment of Frequency:

Here we use low pass filter for


grounding the high frequency signal, because high frequency signals are not audible to
human ear.
Frequency response is from 50 Hz to about 100 kHz gain being rolled off by the 150 pF
capacitor, the gain of the op-amp and input capacitance of the probe cable.

5- Removal of Noise from Amplified Signal:


The capacitor C4 is used for
removal of noise form output signal & for coupling purpose.

6- Audio Output of Audible Frequency Input:


For hearing the effect of
any change we use a set of head-phones, from which any signal can be heard properly. If
sensor circuit is placed near Transformer we will hear a noise hum. By this we can also listen
the conversation if the sensor is placed near a mobile phone or landline phone.

7- Further Amplification for Measuring Strength of Mag.


Field:
. The output signal from the op-amp is an ac voltage at the frequency of the
electro-magnetic field. This voltage is further amplified by the BC107 transistor, before being
full wave rectified and fed to the meter circuit. The meter is a small dc panel meter with a
FSD of 250 uA. Rectification takes place via the diodes, meter and capacitor.

8- Full wave Rectification for Taking Measurement by DC


Ammeter:

The ammeter used for indicating the strength of Magnetic Field is DC


ammeter so first we rectify the amplified signal then measure it. For this purpose we used two
diodes and one capacitor C5 of 220uF.

Applications:
> Power supplies are used commonly in all types of DC sources.
>We can detect hidden wires.
>We can listen telephonic conversation.
> The advanced form of this sensor is used in Selected Band Radio (SBR)set,
which can be used for military purposes, to hack the telephonic conversation
of enemies.
> By SBR we can also hack the mobile phone of any person, we can make
calls from his sim without alerting him.
>SBR can hack the telecommunication networks like Telenor, Jazz etc.
>By electromagnetic field sensor we can convert a signal that is in the form of
electromagnetic wave into audio signal, this is used in all mobile phones.