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Prepared by JAY CADACIO

LET REVIEWER JULY 2014 : PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES OF TEACHING


PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES OF TEACHING

For effective classroom management, when should the teacher undertake the task
of setting up routing activities?
1. every homeroom day
2. everyday at the start of the session
3. as soon as the students have adjusted to their schedules
4. On the very first day of school
The laboratory method is an example of a process approach because:
1. The teacher has to provide all the materials for the activity.
2. The students directly experience the learning process
3. The students are required to follow a series of goal-oriented steps.
4. There is always a product produced at the end of the period.
During recitation, the teacher should not:
a. correct her students grammatical and pronunciation errors.
b. make fun of her student mistakes
c. discourage answers in class
d. Let another teacher substitute for her that day
I want to teach concepts, patterns and abstractions. Which method is most
appropriate?
a. indirect instruction
b. discovery
c. direct instruction
d. problem solving
Why should a teacher not use direct instruction all the time?
a. It requires much time.
b. It requires use of many supplementary materials
c. It is generally effective only in the teaching of concepts and abstractions
d. It reduces student's engagement in learning.

In the traditional method of teaching, the classroom teacher was the sole
transmitter of knowledge. In the modern method, the teacher serves as the :
a. Facilitator of knowledge
b. surrogate parent
c.friend to the pupils
d. defender of children's rights
If the teacher does not know anything about the lesson she should:
a. resign because she has no business being a teacher.
b. try to look up information about the topic
c. bluff her way out
d. let another teacher substitute for her that day
The laboratory method is an example of a process approach because:
a. The teacher has to provide all the materials for the activity.
b. The students directly experience the learning process
c. The students are required to follow a series of goal-oriented steps.
d.There is always a product produced at the end of the period.
During recitation, teacher should be reminded that....
a. practice makes perfect
b. promoting should never be allowed
c. emphasis must be given to grammar more than the content of the students
answer.
d. Only the answer of the brighter students should be considered
Which of these techniques is being featured teacher A encourages her students to
participate actively in class discussion by making them answer questions allow
student to call on one another recite and wait for their turn to ask or answer?
1. socialize recitation
2. graded recitation
3. open forum
4. panel discussion
The social studies teacher plans to present a political situation that is very close to
reality particularly the role of mayor and counselor or a barangay captain. What
strategy is the most appropriate?
a. Lecture
b. Discussion
c. Reporting

d. Simulation

a.

What encourages the child to think, rationalize and make proper decisions?
drill

b.

Appreciation lesson

c.

Memorization

d.

Problem- oriented strategies

2.
The following except one are the factors that determine the choice of a
method. Which is the exception?
a.

nature of the learners

b.

school equipment and facilities

c.

educational background of the teacher

d.

Subject matter

3.

How well a teacher tells a story depends on:

a.

Techniques

c. the method used

b.

the plot

d. classroom

4.

Which of the following statements is correct?

a.

Method is synonymous with technique

b.

A device is a teaching method

c.

Method can be standardized

d.

There is no single best method

5.

When a teacher reviews a lesson, she is utilizing the law of:

a.

Readiness

b.

exercise

c. effect
d. multiple response

6.

In which situation is the law of readiness best applied?

a.

The teacher gives the aims of the lessons to be taken up

b.

The teacher announces he subject matter at the start of the period

c.

The teacher waits or the children to be ready before teaching her lesson

d.

The teacher presents a song, related to the lesson

7.

Which of the glowing is not an in the inductive method

a.

To delay judgments until truth is given

b.

To enable pupils discover important truths for themselves.

c.
To help student/pupil to carry out an investigation by themselves independent
of the teacher
d.

To make relationship of ideas clear to pupils

8.
In the inductive method, what does the child do during the comparison and
abstraction step?
a.
b.

Recalls information and directs himself to the activities to be accomplished


Perceives the common element present in the cases given

c.

Applies the principles learned to other problems or exercises

d.

Draw conclusion in his own words

9.

The deductive method uses the following steps:

a.

statement of the problem, generalization, inference, verification

b.

statement of the problem, inference , generalization, verification

c.

inference, statement of the problem, generalization, verification

d.

inference, statement of the problem, verification, generalization

10.

In reality, the type of study method is:

a.

an inductive procedure

b.

a deductive procedure

c.

a traditional method

d.

a question and answer method

Which one will most likely increase student participation?


1. Feeling or emotions are not permitted in the classroom
2. The group leader allows quiet members to remain silent.
3. The teacher models good listening habit.

4. Repeat directions over and over until everyone listens


Which is the best indicator of a well-managed class?
1. The listener pursue their tasks without inhibition
2. THe learners are controlled by the teacher
3. The learners blindly obey teacher's instructions
4. THe learners are earnestly engaged in an activity that leads them to
realize the stated goal
Which of the following teacher behaviors may not enhance the development of high
level thinking skill?
1. encouraging credibility as criterion
2. asking convergent questions
3. making students aware of their mental process
4. Teaching for meaning
For effective classroom management, when should the teacher undertake the task
of setting up routing activities?
1. every homeroom day
2. everyday at the start of the session
3. as soon as the students have adjusted to their schedules
4. On the very first day of school
Which is the ultimate aim of classroom management?
1. To remove the physical conditions in the room that distracts children's attention
2. To set up conditions that brings about effective teaching and learning.
3. To secure conforminty to rules with ease
4. To make children realize that they cannot doe everything they want
Which does not fall under extrapolation?
1. inferring
2. predicting
3. concluding
4. observing

LET Reviewer in Professional Education - Philosophical


Foundation of Education

ORIGINAL PHILOSOPHY

School of Thought
REALISM

Thinkers:
Aristotle
Harris Broudy
John Locke
John Comenius
Johann Henrich Pestalozzi
Jean Jacques Rosseu

Assumptions
Reality is what we observe.
Experience exists only in the physical world.
Mind is like a mirror receiving images only from the
physical world.
Nature is a primary self-evident reality, a starting
point in philosophizing.

Investigating and reasoning are important in any


effective adjustment to the real world in the control of
experience.

Role of Teachers
Help develop initiative and ability to control
experiences.
Help realize that they can enter into the meaning of
their experiences
The students would be taught factual information
for mastery.

Models/Strategies
The use of Scientific Methods
Defining the problem
Observing factors related to problem
Hypothesizing
Testing the hypothesis

Educational Aim
Gives direction and form to individuals basic
potentialities.
Determines the direction of the individuals
inherited tendencies.

Provide an education that could produce a good


individual and a good society by meeting 4 principal need
of an individual.
Aptitude needs
Self-determination needs
Self-realization needs.
Self-integration needs

Curriculum Emphasis
Study habits
Research skills
Library skills
Evaluation
Observation
Experimentation
Analytical and critical thinking

School of Thought
IDEALISM

Thinkers:
Plato
Socrates

Rene Decartes

Assumptions
Emphasize the importance of mind, soul and spirit.
Believes in refined wisdom. Based on the view that
reality is a world within a persons mind.
Schools exist to sharpen the mind and intellectual
processes.
One of the oldest school of thoughts with its origin
traced back to Platos ideas.

Role of Teachers
Transmitter of knowledge
Chief source of inspiration
Creator of educational environment (teachercentered).

Models/Strategies
Lecture-Discussion Method
Excursion
Question Method
Project Method

Educational Aim

To develop the individual spiritually, mentally, and


morally.

Curriculum Emphasis
Subject Matter of mind:
literature
history
philosophy
mathematics
arts

School of Thought
PRAGMATISM / EXPERIMENTALISM / EMPERICISM

Thinkers:
John Dewey
Charles Sanders Peirce
William James
Richard Rorty

Assumptions
Conservative philosophy
Primarily an American philosophy.

Focuses on reflective thinking. The knowledge


process, the relationship of ideas into action.
Encourages people to find processes that work in
order to attain desired goals.
Makes use of experience as a source of knowledge

Role of Teachers
Keeps order in the class
Facilitates group work
Encourages and offers suggestions, questions and
help in planning
Curriculum planner.

Models/Strategies
Experimental Methods
Statement of the problem
Hypothesizing
Investigating or data gathering
Testing hypothesis
Forming conclusions
Creative and constructive projects
Field trips
Laboratory work
Activity-centered

Student-centered activities

Educational Aim
For social efficiency.
Train the students to continuously and actively
quest for information and production of new ideas needed
to adjust to the ever-changing society.

Curriculum Emphasis
Creation of new social order
Integrated and based on the problem of society
(NCBTS based).
Subjects are interdisciplinary.

TRADITIONAL/CONSERVATIVE PHILOSOPHY

School of Thought
PERENNIALISM

Thinkers:
Robert Maynard Hutchins
Mortimer Jerome Adler
Jacques Maritain

Assumptions
Most Conservative philosophy
Education focuses on developing rationality.
Education is preparation for life, and the students
should be taught of the worlds permanencies through
structured studies.
Truths are constant and universal.
Students must acquire knowledge of unchanging
principles.

Role of Teachers
Known Master of Discipline.
Source of knowledge (teacher-centered).

Models/Strategies
Subject-centered.
Methods of disciplining the mind through reading
and discussion
Memorization to develop mastery.

Educational Aim
To develop power of thought, internalize truths that
are universal and constant.

Curriculum Emphasis

Great ideas or universal principles.


Focused on arts and sciences.

School of Thought
ESSENTIALISM / TRADITIONALISM / CONSERVATISM

Thinkers:
Plato
Karl Popper
John Stuart Mill
William Bagley

Assumptions
Assumes that values are embedded in the universe
waiting to be discovered and understood.
Learning is relatively static, since there is only one
way to understand the world that is already written in the
book (textbook approach to learning).
Study of knowledge and skills based on the book is
imperative to become productive member of the society.

Role of Teachers
Base the lesson to the book.

Prepare well-organized lesson to prove that he is an


authority of instruction.

Models/Strategies
Deductive method
Drill method
Recitation
Memorization

Educational Aim
Provide sound training of the fundamental skills.
Develop individual to perform justly, skillfully and
magnanimously.

Curriculum Emphasis
Emphasis on essential skills in reading, writing and
counting.
Hard sciences and vocational courses.
CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY

School of Thought
PROGRESSIVISM

Thinkers:

William Heard Kilpatrick


John Dewey

Assumptions
Exactly opposite of perennialism.
Assumes that the world changes.
Learner must be taught to be independent, selfreliant thinker, learn to discipline himself, be responsible
for the consequences of his actions.
Emphasize on the concept of progress which asserts
that human beings are capable of improving and
perfecting their environment.
Curriculum must be derived from the needs and
interests of the students.

Role of Teachers
Acts as a resource person
Guide or facilitator of learning (student-centered).
Teaches students how to learn and become active
problem solvers.
Teachers provide experiences that will make
students active and not passive.

Models/Strategies
Cooperative learning strategies.

Reflective strategies
Problem solving strategies.

Educational Aim
To provide the learner the necessary skills to be
able to interact with his ever changing environment.

Curriculum Emphasis
Activity and experience centered on life functions.

School of Thought
EXISTENTIALISM / EXPERIMENTALISM

Thinkers:
Soren Aabye Kierkegaard
Jean-Paul Sartre

Assumptions
Man has no fixed nature and he shapes his being as
he lives.
Man exists of his own choice.
Reality is what you experience.

School exists to discover and expand society we live


in. Students study
social experiments and solve problems.
Existence precedes essence.

Role of Teachers
Good provider of experiences.
Effective questioner.
Mental disciplinarian.
Creates an atmosphere for active interaction.
Discuss the different situations based on each
individual experiences.

Models/Strategies
Inquiry Approach
Question-Answer Method

Educational Aim
To train an individual for significant and meaningful
existence.

Curriculum Emphasis
Subject-centered.
Arts for aesthetic expression

Humanities for ethical values.

School of Thought
RECONSTRUCTIONALISM

Thinkers:
Theodore Brameld
George Sylvester Counts
Paulo Reglus Neves Freire
Ivan Illich

Assumptions
Man to a significant degree plan and control his
society.
Society is in need of constant reconstruction.
Social change involves a reconstruction of education
and the use of education in reconstructing society.
Mankind has the intellectual, technological, and
moral potential to create a world civilization of
abundance, health and human capacity.

Role of Teachers
Lead the learners in designing programs for social,
educational, practical and economic change.

Primary agent of social change.


Initiates lively discussions on controversial issues,
political and educational.
Enables the learners to critically examine their
cultural heritage.

Models/Strategies
Community-based projects
Problem-oriented method

Educational Aim
Education is based on the quest for better society.
Education enlivens the students awareness of
different societal problems.

Curriculum Emphasis
Stresses learning that enable the individual to live
in a global milieu.
Controversial national and international issues.
Emphasis on social sciences and social research
methods; examination of social, economic and political
problems.
Focused on present and future trends

Seven Philosophies of Education

1.

Essentialism

Why Teach this philosophy contends that teachers teach for learners to
acquire basic knowledge, skills and values. Teachers teach not to radically reshape
society but rather to transmit the traditional moral values and intellectual
knowledge that students need to become model citizen.

What to Teach? Essentialist program are academically rigorous. The


emphasis is on academic content for student to learn the basic skill or the
fundamental rs reading, riting, rithmetic, right conduct as these are essential to
the acquisition of higher or morecomplex skills needed in preparation for adult life.
The essentialist curriculum includes the traditional disciplines such as math,
natural science, history, foreign language, and literature. Essentialist frown upon
vocational courses. Or other courses with watered down academic content. The
teachers and administrator decide what is most important for the student to learn
and place little emphasis on student interests, particularly when they divert time
and attention from the academic curriculum.

How to Teach Essentialist teachers emphasize mastery of subject matter.


They are expected to be intellectual and moral models of their students. They are
seen as fountain of information and as Paragon of virtue, if ever there is such a
person, to gain mastery of basic skills, teachers have to observe core
requirements, longer school day, a longer academic year

2.

Progressivism

Why Teach progressivist teachers teach to develop learners into becoming


enlightened and intelligent citizens of a democratic society. This group of teachers
teaches learners so they may live life fully NOW not to prepare them for adult life.

What to teach the progressivists are identified with need based and
relevant curriculum. This is a curriculum that responds to students needs and that
relates to students personal lives and experiences.
Progressivists accept the impermanence of life and inevitability of change. For the
progressivists , everything else changes. Change is the only thing that does not
change. Hence, progressivists teachers are more concerned with teaching facts or
bits of information that are true today but become obsolete tomorrow, they would
rather focus their teaching on the teaching of skills or processes in gathering and
evaluating information and in problem solving. The subjects that are given
emphasis in progressivists schools are the natural and Social sciences. Teachers
expose students to many new scientific, technological, and social development,
reflecting the progressivists otion that progress and change are fundamental.

3.

Perennialism

Why Teach We are all rational animals. Schools should, therefore, develop
the students rational and moral powers. According to Aristotle, if we neglect the
students reasoning skills, we deprive them of the ability to use their higher
faculties to control their passions and appetites.

What to Teach the Perennialist curriculum is a universal one on the view that
all human beings possess the same essential nature. It is heavy on the humanities,
on general education. It is not a specialist curriculum but rather a general one.
There is less emphasis on vocational and technical education. Philosopher Mortimer
Adler claims that the Great Books of ancient and medieval as well as modern times
are a repository of knowledge and wisdom, a tradition of culture which must initiate
each generation. What the Perennialist teachers teach are lifted from the Great
Books.
How to Teach the Perennialist classroom are centered around Teacher. The
teachers do not allow the students interest or experiences to substantially dictate
what they teach. They apply whatever creative techniques and other tried and true
methods which are believed to be most conducive to disciplining the students
minds. Stuents engaged in Socratic dialogues, or mutual inquiry sessions to develop
an understanding of historys most timeless concepts.
4.

Existentialism

Why Teach the main concern of the existentialists is to help students


understand and appreciate themselves as unique individuals who accept complete
responsibility for their thoughts, feelings and actions Since existence precedes
essence the existentialist teachers role is to help students define their own
essence by exposing them to various paths they take in life and by creating an
environment in which they freely choose their own preferred way. Since feeling is
not divorced from reason in decision making, the existentialist demands the
education of the whole person, not just the mind.

What to Teach In an existentialist curriculum, students are given a wide


variety of options from which to choose. Students are afforded great latitude in
their choice of subject matter. The humanities, however are given tremendous
emphasis to provide students with vicarious experiences that will help unleash
their own creativity and self-expression. For example, rather than emphasizing
historical events, existentialist focus upon the actions of historical individuals, each
of whom provide possible models for the students own behaviour.

How to Teach existentialist methods focus on the individual. Learning is selfpaced, self-directed. It includes a great deal of individual contact with the teacher,

who relates to each student openly and honestly. To help students known
themselves and their place in society, teachers employ values clarification strategy.
In the use of such strategy, teachers remain non-judgmental and take care not to
impose their values on their students since values are persona.

5.

Behaviorism

Why Teach Behaviorist school are concerned with the modification and shaping of
students behaviour by providing for a favourable environment, since they believe
that they are a product of their environment. They are after students who exhibit
desirable behaviour in society.

What to Teach Because behaviourists look at people and other animals as


complex combinations of matter that act only in response to internally or externally
generated physical stimuli, behaviourist teachers teach students to respond
favourably to various stimuli in the environment.

How to Teach behaviourists teachers ought to arrange environmental


conditions so that students can make the responses to stimuli. Physical variables
like light, temperature, arrangement of furniture, size and quantity of visual aids
have to be controlled to get the desired responses from the learners. Teachers
ought to make the stimuli clear and interesting to capture and hold the learners
attention. They ought to provide appropriate incentives to reinforce positive
responses and weaken or eliminate negatives ones. (Trespeces, 1995)

6.

Linguistic Philosophy

Why Teach to develop the communication skills of the learner because the
ability to articulate, to voice out the meaning and values of things that one obtains
from his/her experiences of life and the world is the very essence of man. It is
through his/her ability to express himself/herself clearly, to get his/her ideas across,
to make known to others the values that he/she has imbibed, the beauty that
he/she has seen, the ugliness that he rejects and the truth that he/she has
discovered. Teachers in the learner the skill to send messages clearly and receive
messages correctly.

What to Teach Learners should be taught to communicate clearly how to


send clear concise messages and how to receive and correctly understand
messages sent. Communication takes place in three (3) ways verbal nonverbal,
and paraverbal. Verbal component refers to the content of our message, the choice

and arrangement of our words. This can be oral or written. Nonverbal component
refers