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How Variable Speed Drive For Pump Motors Improve Groundwater Management Efficiency International Center for Water Technology
How Variable Speed Drive For Pump Motors
Improve Groundwater Management Efficiency
International Center for Water Technology
2014 Water Technology Conference
Prepared by Vahan Bagdasarian
Variable Frequency Drives What is a “Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)”? Variable Speed Drive (VSD) Its like
Variable Frequency Drives
What is a “Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)”?
Variable Speed Drive (VSD)
Its like the throttle in your car, the faster you want to go you apply more
gas.
Without it would be like a standard motor where you would have it going full
speed and apply the breaks when you want to slow down without slowing down
the motor. In your irrigation system you can use a throttling valve, pressure
regulating valve or bypass valve. Not the most energy efficient method but it
works.
VFD or VSD brings the motor speed down to match the
actual demand needed by the application which can
reduce energy consumption.
Variable Frequency Drives
Variable Frequency Drives
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) Why are they used? • • Reduce energy consumption Lower Carbon emissions
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD)
Why are they used?
Reduce energy consumption
Lower Carbon emissions
Government, consumers, legislators demanding
more energy efficient products
Rising energy prices
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) When should they be use to better your water management? • Various
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD)
When should they be use to better
your water management?
Various flow rates required in irrigation zones
Depth of water level varies from start of irrigation
season to end of season
Pressure to inlet of current pump varies
Reduce flow to prevent over pumping on wells with
slow recharge and dynamic water drawdown
during pumping.
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) • An example: (constant pressure) A fixed speed water supply pump has
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD)
An example: (constant pressure)
A fixed speed water supply pump has a H nom = 45 psi at Q nom
The flow has to be controlled by a throttle valve
By reduced flow the pressure will increase to more than 75 psi
H
System
Pressure at Fixed
speed pump solution =
Fixed speed
75psi
Excess
pressure
Pressure
Required pressure = 45
psi
Nominal
flow Q nom
Q
Reduced
Flow
flow
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) An example: (constant pressure) •A speed controlled pump automatically adapt the pump
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD)
An example: (constant pressure)
•A speed controlled pump automatically adapt
the pump performance to the actual need.
•The flow is reduced by lowering the speed of the pump
•The pressure is constant 45 psi
H
Freq.
conv.
System
Motor
Pressure at Fixed
speed pump solution =
Fixed speed
75psi
Excess
pressure
Senso
Pressure at Variable speed
pump solution = 45 psi
r
Pressure
Required pressure = 45
psi
Variable
Nominal
flow Q nom
speed
Q
Reduced
Flow
flow
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) The approximate savings which can be obtained 100% Speed = 100% Load
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD)
The approximate savings which can be obtained
100% Speed
= 100% Load
= No
Savings
95% Speed
=
85.7% Load
= 14.3% Savings
90% Speed
=
72.9% Load
= 27.1%
Savings
85% Speed
=
61.4% Load
80% Speed
=
51.2% Load
75% Speed
=
42.2% Load
70% Speed
=
34.3% Load
= 38.6% Savings
= 48.8% Savings
= 57.8% Savings
= 65.7% Savings
65% Speed
=
27.5% Load
=
72.5% Savings
50% Speed = 50% flow rate
50% flow rate = 12.5% power
Savings 87 % on power
60% Speed
=
21.6% Load
55% Speed
=
16.6% Load
50% Speed
=
12.5% Load
45% Speed
=
9.1%
Load
40% Speed
=
35% Speed
=
6.4% Load
4.3 % Load
= 78.4% Savings
= 83.4% Savings
= 87.5% Savings
= 90.9% Savings
= 93.6% Savings
=
95.7% Savings
See “Affinity laws” the
relationship between the flow,
the rotational speed, the
pressure head and the power.
30% Speed
=
2.7%
Load
= 97.3%
Savings
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) Pressure The advantage of a frequency converter lays in controlling the speed
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD)
Pressure
The advantage of a frequency converter lays in controlling the speed of the pump in an intelligent
way, such that the speed corresponds to the actual demand in the application.
The actual demand could be:
Constant Pressure
Constant temperature
Constant differential pressure
Constant flow
Etc.
Flow
Example: Constant pressure
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) Pressure The advantage of the frequency converter is that it can make
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD)
Pressure
The advantage of the frequency converter is that it can make a fixed
speed pump into a variable speed pump with optimum performance in
all duty points.
Example:
QH curve, variable speed pump
Flow
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) When they should not be used? • When pumps have a constant
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD)
When they should not be used?
When pumps have a constant flow and pressure
requirement
When you only require a different flow rate for short
periods of time that will not save the required power
for a return on your investment. Keep in mind that
VFD units use 5% additional power so savings must
be more than 5%. In these cases it may be better to
use two pumps.
Variable Frequency Drives Perfect control of flow and head Protection of equipment Automatically adapts to changes
Variable Frequency Drives
Perfect control of flow and head
Protection of equipment
Automatically adapts to changes in
system.
Less risk for water hammer
(pipes,filters,valves)
and cavitation.
with "soft-start" function
Time
Included electric protection
Faster installation/commissioning
Integrated motor protection.
Less components that need to be
adjusted to each other.
Direct input of control
parameters, less
calculations & manual settings.
Pressure
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) • Higher installation costs • VFD minimum speed: Start up to 30Hz
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD)
Higher installation costs
VFD minimum speed: Start up to 30Hz should not be
longer than 5 seconds. Below 30Hz is risk of
vibrations in windings and heating of motor
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) Before After
Variable Frequency Drives (VFD)
Before
After
Questions
Questions
0.1
0.1

WS Agriculture Irrigation

Variable speed – Affinity laws

Flow is proportional to pump speed :

H H 1 Rpm 1 H 2 Rpm 2 Q Q 2 Q 1 P P
H
H 1
Rpm 1
H 2
Rpm 2
Q
Q 2
Q 1
P
P
1
P
2

Q

Q 2

Rpm 2

 

=

Q 1

Rpm 1

 

Head is proportional to the square power of the pump speed

h 2

(Rpm 2 ) 2

 

=

h 1

(Rpm 1 ) 2

 

Power is proportional to the cube power of the pump speed

P 2

(Rpm 2 ) 3

 

=

P 1

(Rpm 1 ) 3

 

NPSH is proportional to the square power of the pump speed

NPSH 2

 

(Rpm 2 ) 2

 

NPSH 1

=

(Rpm 1 ) 2

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