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Harmonic Filters

4 Effects of Harmonics
4 IEEE-519
4 Solutions

Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

Typical VFD Harmonics


Without using any filtering techniques

Harmonic Suppressors

1 - 20 HP

> 100 %

25 - 40 HP

80 - 100 %

50 - 150 HP

60 - 80 %

200 HP and up

50 - 70 %

MTE CORPORATION

Typical VFD Harmonics


Depends on Input Line Impedance
Harmonic
Number
5th
7th
11th
13th
17th
19th
% THD - I
Amps
Increase

Harmonic Suppressors

INPUT IMPEDANCE
0.50%
0.8
0.6
0.18
0.1
0.073
0.06
102.5

1%
0.6
0.37
0.12
0.075
0.052
0.042
72.2

1.5%
0.5
0.3
0.1
0.06
0.04
0.03
59.6

2%
0.46
0.22
0.09
0.058
0.036
0.028
52.3

2.5%
0.42
0.2
0.08
0.05
0.032
0.025
47.6

3%
0.4
0.16
0.073
0.049
0.03
0.022
44.13

5%
0.32
0.12
0.058
0.039
0.022
0.008
34.96

43%

23%

17%

13%

11%

9%

6%

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Problems Caused by Harmonics

l
l
l
l

Elevated RMS current


Circuit Breaker Trips
Nuisance Fuse Operation
Reduced Equipment Life
Transformers, Conductors, Breakers, Switches

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l
l

Equipment Malfunctions
High Frequency Currents
Reduces Effective Power Factor

Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

IEEE - 519
< 11

11
h < 17

17 h < 23

23 h < 35

35 h

TDD

< 20

4.0

2.0

1.5

0.6

0.3

5.0

20 < 50

7.0

3.5

2.5

1.0

0.5

8.0

50 < 100

10.0

4.5

4.0

1.5

0.7

12.0

100 < 1000

12.0

5.5

5.0

2.0

1.0

15.0

> 1000

15.0

7.0

6.0

2.5

1.4

20.0

ISC/IL

Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

IEEE - 519
l

PCC = At Point of Metering

PCC = Point Where Non-Linear


Load Meets Linear Loads

Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

IEEE - 519
l

TDD = Magnitude of harmonic


distortion as a percent of
maximum demand current
THD = Instantaneous value of
harmonic distortion

Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

Harmonic Filtering
Techniques
TECHNIQUE

Low Pass (Broad Band)


Harmonic Filter

Series Passive
Harmonic Filter

Shunt Passive (Tuned)


Harmonic Filter

Series Passive
AC Input Reactor

* Specific Tuned Frequency


Example: 3rd Harmonic,
5th Harmonic

* Specific Tuned Frequency


Example: 5th Harmonic,
7th Harmonic,
11th harmonic

* All harmonic frequencies,


by varying amounts

INSTALLATION

HARMONIC
FREQUENCIES
FILTERED

ADVANTAGES

All Frequencies Above


Resonant Frequency

* Minimizes ALL harmonic


frequencies
* Supplies all harmonic
frequencies to load rather
than from AC source
* Does not introduce any
system resonance
* Does not import
harmonics from other
sources
* Does not require existing
power system analysis
* Improves displacement
power factor

* High Impedance to tuned


* Low impedance to tuned
* Low cost
frequency
frequency
* Popular for 1-phase
* Supplies specific harmonic
applications to minimize 3rd
component to load rather
* Improves True power factor
than from AC source
harmonic
* Does not introduce any
* Quite effective for the
* Small size
system resonance
specific tuned frequency
* Does not import
* Only required to carry
* Will not import harmonics
harmonics from other
harmonic current, not full
from other non-linear loads
sources
load current
* Does not require existing
* Improves displacement
* Will not create system
power system analysis
power factor
resonance
* Improves displacement
* Protects against power
* Improves True power factor
power factor
line disturbances

* Improves True power factor * Improves True power factor


* Must handle the rated full
load current
* Can supply non-linear
loads only

DISADVANTAGES

Harmonic Suppressors

* Must handle the rated full


load current
* Minimally effective other
than tuned harmonic
frequencies
* Can supply non-linear
loads only

* Only filters a single (tuned) * Must handle the rated full


harmonic frequency
load current
* Can only improve
* Can create system
harmonic current distortion
resonance
to 30-40% at best
* Can import harmonics
form other non-linear loads
* Multiple filters required to
* Slightly reduces
satisfy typical desired
displacement power factor
harmonic limits
* Harmonic analysis
required prior to adding this
filter to the power system

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Harmonic Mitigation
Alternatives
5 % Line Reactor

30 - 35 % THID

5% Line Reactor + 3% DC Choke

25 - 30 % THID

5th Tuned Harmonic Trap

20 - 30 % THID

5th + 7th Tuned Harmonic Traps

12 - 20 % THID

12 - Pulse Drive (balanced line currents) 15% THID


18 - Pulse Drive (balanced line currents) < 5 % THID
Broad Band Harmonic Filters
Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

8 - 12 % THID
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Shunt Filter (Traps)


Disadvantages
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System Resonance

Import Harmonics

Overvoltage at light load

Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

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Shunt Filter (Traps)


Disadvantages
l

Multiple Sections Required to


Meet IEEE - 519
(5th, 7th, 11th)

System Analysis Required

Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

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Broad Band Harmonic Filter

Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

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Broad Band Harmonic Filter

Non Linear
Load

Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

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Broad Band Harmonic Filter

Guarantees < 12% THID at Input


< 8% Available at Premium

No System Analysis Required


l No System Resonance
l No Harmonics Imported
l

Filters All Harmonic Frequencies

Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

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Where to Use Broad


Band Harmonic Filters
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AC Variable Frequency Drives


Variable Torque Applications
6-Diode Input Rectifier Bridge
Fan & Pump Applications

For Non-Linear Loads Only

Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

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Broad Band Harmonic Filter


70

Harmonic Distortion (%)

60
50

No Filter

40

W ith Filter

30
20
10

5th

7th

11th

13th

17th

19th

Harmonic Order

Actual Application Data - 10HP / 460 V


Harmonic Suppressors

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Linear Load Mitigation


PCC
THID=3%
THID=3%

THID=12%
THID=12%

Harmonic Suppressors

NL

25%

25%

25%

25%

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Broad Band Harmonic


Filter Performance

VFD Input Current


Without Filter

VFD Input Current With


Filter (9.1% THID)

Actual Application Data - 10 HP / 460 Volts


Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

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Broad Band Harmonic


Filter Performance

THVD = 1.6 %

THID = 9.8 %

Actual Application Data: 1000 Hp, 600 V


Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

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IEEE - 519 Solutions


Desired %
THID at
PCC (IEEE519)

3% Line
Reactor

5% Line 3% Line + 3% 5% Line + 3% BBHF


Reactor DC Reactors DC Reactors (12% Max)

BBHF
(8% Max)

11

14

15

18

42

63

8
12
15
20

18

23

24

29

67

100

27

34

36

43

100

100

34

43

45

54

100

100

45

57

61

71

100

100

Maximum VFD Load if all VFD's use same Harmonic Mitigation Method

Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

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Harmonic Filter Costs


Solution

Expected
THD - I

Cost of 150HP
VFD + Solution

5% Line Reactor

25-35%

$15K

5th Harmonic Trap

15-30%

$20K-$21K

5th + 7th Traps

10-20%

$22K - $24K

12-Pulse Drive

* 15%

$22K

18 - Pulse Drive

* < 5%

$23K

Broad Band Filter

8 - 12%

$17K - $19K

* Based on balanced line voltages.


Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

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MTE Gives You...

MTE guarantees < 12% THID

No adverse system interaction

Best performance to cost ratio

No system analysis required

A global delivery system

Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

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Harmonic Filters
Each variable frequency drive (VFD) supplied for fan and pump or other variable
torque loads must be supplied with a harmonic suppressor to reduce the total
harmonic current distortion to 12% or less at the filter input terminals. The
suppressor operation must be independent of and it must not interact with the
power system or source impedances including power factor correction
capacitors. The suppressor must not import harmonics from any other sources.
The suppressor must not create a system resonance condition. The suppressor
must not increase facility electrical system voltage under any loading conditions.
The suppressor must improve true power factor to 90% minimum (lagging or
leading). Leading power factor is acceptable provided that it does not cause the
system voltage to be elevated. The watts loss of the suppressor must be no
more than 4% of the load for which it is rated. The harmonic suppressor must be
MTE Corporation type DBF Broad Band Harmonic Filter.

Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

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Harmonic Suppressors

MTE CORPORATION

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