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Differential Calculus

Partial Differentiation
(Partial Differential Coefficient)
Prepared by:
Dr. Sunil
NIT Hamirpur (HP)
(Last updated on 26-08-2008)
Latest update available at: http://www.freewebs.com/sunilnit/

(37 Solved problems and 00 Home assignments)

Introduction
Partial differentiation is the process of finding partial derivatives. A partial
derivative of several variables is the ordinary derivative with respect to one of the
variables when all the remaining variables are held constant. All the rules of
differentiation applicable to function of a single independent variable are also
applicable in partial differentiation with the only difference that while
differentiating (partially) with respect to one variable, all the other variables are
treated (temporarily) as constants.

Differential Coefficient:
If y is a function of only one independent variable, say x, then we can write
y = f(x).
Then, the rate of change of y w.r.t. x i.e. the derivative of y w.r.t. x is defined as
dy
= Lim
δy
= Lim
(y + δy ) − y = Lim f (x + δx ) − f ( x )
dx δx → 0 δx δx → 0 δx δx → 0 δx
where δy is the change or increment of y corresponding to the increment δx of the
independent variable x.
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 2

Partial Differential Coefficient:


Let u be a function of x and y i.e. u = f(x, y).
Then the partial differential coefficient of u (i.e. f(x, y) w.r.t. x (keeping y as constant)
is defined and written as
∂u f (x + δx , y ) − f ( x , y) ∂f
= Lim = u x = fx = .
∂x δx → 0 δx ∂x
Similarly, the partial differential coefficient of u (i.e. f(x, y) w.r.t. y (keeping x as
constant) is defined and written as
∂u f (x , y + δy ) − f ( x , y) ∂f
= Lim = u y = fy = .
∂y δy →0 δy ∂y
Similarly, we can find

∂ 2u ∂  ∂u  ∂ 2 u ∂  ∂u  ∂ 2 u ∂  ∂u  ∂ 2 u ∂  ∂u 
=   , 2
= 
 
 , =   , =  .
∂x 2 ∂x  ∂x  ∂y ∂y  ∂y  ∂x∂y ∂x  ∂y  ∂y∂x ∂y  ∂x 

∂ 2u ∂ 2u
Also, it can be verified that = .
∂x∂y ∂y∂x
Notation:
∂u ∂f
The partial derivative is also denoted by or f x ( x, y, z) or fx or Dxf or
∂x ∂x
f1 (x, y, z) , where the subscripts x and 1 denote the variable w.r.t. x which the partial
differentiation is carried out.
∂u ∂f
Thus, we can have = = f y (x, y, z ) = f y = D y f = f 2 (x , y, z ) etc.
∂y ∂y
The value of a partial derivative at a point (a, b, c) is denoted by
∂u ∂u
= = f x (a , b, c ) .
∂x x =a , y = b ,z =c ∂x (a ,b,c )
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 3

Geometrical Interpretation of partial derivatives:


(Geometrical interpretation of a partial derivative of a function of two variables)
z = f ( x , y ) represents the equation of surface in xyz-coordinate system. Let
APB be the curve, which is drawn on a plane through any point P on the surface parallel
to the xz-plane.
As point P moves along the curve APB, its coordinates z and x vary while y
remains constant. The slope of the tangent line at P to APB represents the ‘rate at which z
changes w.r.t. x’.
z-axis B z-axis D
P P

A C

x-axis y-axis
O O

y-axis x-axis

Figure 1 Figure 2
∂z
Thus = tan α = slope of the curve APB at the point P (see fig.1).
∂x
∂z
Similarly, = tan β = slope of the curve CPD at the point P (see fig.2).
∂y
Higher Order Parallel Derivatives:
Partial derivatives of higher order, of a function f(x, y, z) are calculated by
successive differentiate. Thus, if u = f(x, y, z) then
∂ 2u ∂ 2f ∂  ∂f  ∂ 2u ∂ 2f ∂  ∂f 
= =   xx = f = f , = =   = f yx = f 21 ,
∂x∂y ∂x∂y ∂x  ∂y 
11
∂x 2 ∂x 2 ∂x  ∂x 

∂ 2u ∂ 2f ∂  ∂f  ∂ 2 u ∂ 2f ∂  ∂f 
= =   = f xy = f12 , = =   = f yy = f 22 ,
∂y∂x ∂y∂x ∂y  ∂x  ∂y 2 ∂y 2 ∂y  ∂y 

∂ 3u ∂  ∂ 2 f  ∂  ∂  ∂f 
= =    = f yzz = f 233 ,
∂z 2 ∂y ∂z  ∂z∂y  ∂z  ∂z  ∂y 

∂4u ∂  ∂ 3 f  ∂  ∂  ∂ 2 f 
= =   = f zzyx = f 3321 .
∂x∂y∂z 2 ∂x  ∂y∂z 2  ∂x  ∂y  ∂z 2 
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 4

∂f
The partial derivative obtained by differentiating once in known as first order partial
∂x

∂ 2f ∂ 2f ∂ 2f ∂ 2f
derivative, while , , , which are obtained by differentiating twice
∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂x∂y ∂y∂x

are known as second order derivatives. 3rd order, 4th order derivatives involve 3, 4, times
differentiation respectively.

∂ 2f ∂ 2f
Note 1: The crossed or mixed partial derivatives and are, in general, equal
∂y∂x ∂x∂y

∂ 2f ∂ 2f
= .
∂y∂x ∂x∂y
i.e. the order of differentiation is immaterial if the derivatives involved are continuous.
Note 2: In the subscript notation, the subscript are written in the same order in which
differentiation is carried out, while in '∂' notation the order is opposite, for example

∂ 2u ∂  ∂u 
=   = f xy .
∂y∂x ∂y  ∂x 
Note 3: A function of 2 variables has two first order derivatives, four second order
derivatives and 2nd of nth order derivatives. A function of m independent variables will
have mn derivatives of order n.

Now let us solve some problems related to the above-mentioned topics:

 y ∂ 2 u ∂ 2u
Q.No.1.: If u = tan −1  , then prove that + = 0.
x ∂x 2 ∂y 2

 y
Sol.: Here u = tan −1  .
x
∂u
Since = the p. d. coefficient of u w. r. t. x (keeping y as constant)
∂x
1  y  −y
= − 2  = 2 .
y  x  x + y2
2
1+
x2


∂ 2u
=  =  =
(
∂  ∂u  ∂  − y  x 2 + y 2 .0 − (2x )(− y ) )
=
2xy
....(i)
∂x 2 ∂x  ∂x  ∂x  x + y 
2 2
x 2 + y2
2
( )
x 2 + y2 ( )2
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 5

∂u
Similarly, = the p. d. coefficient of u w. r. t. y (keeping x as constant)
∂y

1 1 x
=  = 2 .
y  x  x + y2
2
1+
x2


∂ 2u
=
∂  ∂u  ∂  x  x 2 + y 2 .0 − (2 y )(x )
  =  2 = =
− 2xy( ) ....(ii)
∂y 2 ∂y  ∂y  ∂y  x + y 
2
x 2 + y2
2
x 2 + y2 ( ) ( ) 2

Adding (i) and (ii), we get

∂ 2u ∂ 2u 2xy 2xy
+ = − = 0.
∂x 2 ∂y 2 (x 2
+y 2 2
) (x 2
+y )
2 2

This completes the proof.


∂ 2u ∂ 2u
Q.No.2.: If u = f (x + ay ) + φ(x − ay ) , then prove that =a .2
.
∂y 2 ∂x 2
Sol.: Here u = f (x + ay ) + φ(x − ay ) .

∂u ∂ 2u
∴ = f (x + ay ) + φ (x − ay ) and
′ ′ = f ′′(x + ay) + φ′′(x − ay)
∂x ∂x 2
∂u
Also = f ′(x + ay)(a ) + φ′(x − ay)(− a )
∂y

∂2u
( ) 2
and 2 = f ′′ ( x + ay ) a 2 + ϕ′′ ( x − ay )( −a ) .
∂y

∂ 2u 2
2 ∂ u

∂y 2
= (a 2
)[f ′ ′( x + ay ) + φ ′ ′( x − ay )] = a .
∂x 2
.

∂ 2u ∂ 2u
⇒ = a 2. .
∂y 2 ∂x 2
This completes the proof.
xy3
Q.No.3: Show that Lim does not exist.
(x , y )→(0,0 ) x 2 + y 6

xy3 xy3 0.y3


Sol.: Now Lim = Lim = Lim = Lim 0 = 0 . ...(i)
(x , y )→(0,0 ) x 2 + y 6 x → 0 x 2 + y 6 y →0 0 + y6 y→0
y →0
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 6

xy3 xy3 x .0
Again Lim 2 6
= Lim 2 6
= Lim 2 = Lim 0 = 0 ....(ii)
(x , y )→(0,0 ) x + y x →0 x + y x →0 x + 0 x →0
y →0

Let (x, y ) → (0,0) along the curve x = my3 , where m is a constant.

xy3 my3.y3 y6 m m
∴ Lim 2 6
= Lim 2 6 6
= m Lim 6 2
= 2 Lim1 = 2 . (iii)
(x , y )→(0,0 ) x + y y →0 m y + y y → 0 y ( m + 1) m + 1 y →0 m +1

From (i) and (ii) given limit is zero as (x , y ) → (0, 0 ) separately.


But from (iii) limit is not zero, but is different for different values of m.
Hence the given limit does not exist.
x2y
Q.No.4: Show that Lim does not exist.
(x , y )→(0,0 ) x 4 + y 2

x2y x2y 0.y


Sol.: Now Lim = Lim 4 = Lim = Lim 0 = 0 . ...(i)
4
(x , y )→(0,0 ) x + y 2 x →0 x + y 2 y →0 0 + y 2 y→0
y →0

x2y x2y x 2 .0
Again Lim = Lim 4 = Lim 4 = Lim 0 = 0 . ....(ii)
(x , y )→(0,0 ) x 4 + y 2 x →0 x + y2 x →0 x + 0 x →0
y →0

Let (x, y ) → (0,0) along the curve x = my ,where m is a constant.

x2y my.y y2 m m
∴ Lim 4 2
= Lim 2 2 2
= m Lim 2 2
= 2 Lim1 = 2 (iii)
(x , y )→(0,0 ) x + y y →0 m y + y y → 0 y ( m + 1) m + 1 y →0 m +1
From (i) and (ii) given limit is zero as (x , y ) → (0, 0) separately.
But from (iii) limit is not zero, but is different for different values of m.
Hence the given limit does not exist.
y2 + x 2
Q.No.5: If f (x, y ) = , find the limit of f(x, y) when approaches origin (0, 0) along
y2 − x 2
the line y = mx, where m is constant.
Sol.: Let (x, y ) → (0,0) along the curve y = mx where m is a constant.

y2 + x 2 m 2 x 2 + .x 2 m2 + 1 x2 m2 + 1 m2 + 1
∴ Lim = Lim = Lim = Lim1 = . Ans.
(x , y )→(0,0 ) y 2 − x 2 x →0 m2x 2 − x 2 m 2 − 1 x →0 x 2 m 2 − 1 x →0 m2 − 1
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 7

1 ∂ 2 u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u
Q.No.6.: If u = , where r 2 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 . Show that + + = 0.
r ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2

Sol.: Since r 2 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 .
∂r ∂r x
Differential partially w. r. t. x , we get 2r = 2x ⇒ = .
∂x ∂x r
1
Now here u = ,
r
∂u 1 ∂r 1 x x
Differential partially w. r. t. x , we get =− 2 =− 2. =− 3 .
∂x r ∂x r r r
∂r x2
r 3.1 − x.3r 2 . r 3 − 3r 2 .
∂ 2u ∂x = −
3 2 2
r = − r − 3rx = 3x − 1
∴ =− ...(i)
∂x 2 r6 r6 r6 r5 r3
∂ 2u 3y 2 1
Similarly, = − ...(ii),
∂y 2 r5 r3

∂ 2u 3z 2 1
2
= 5
− ...(iii)
∂z r r3
Adding (i), (ii) and (iii), we get
∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u
∂x 2
+
∂y 2
+
∂z 2
=
3
r5
[x 2
]
+ y2 + z2 −
3
r3
=
3
r 5
.r 2 −
3
r3
=
3
r3

3
r3
= 0.

This completes the proof.

Q.No.7: If u = xyz, find d 2u .


Sol.: We know that if u = f(x, y, z), then

∂u ∂u ∂u  ∂ ∂ ∂ 
du = dx + dy + dz =  dx + dy + dz u
∂x ∂y ∂z  ∂x ∂y ∂z 

∴ d 2 = d(du )
2
 ∂ ∂ ∂  ∂ ∂ ∂   ∂ ∂ ∂ 
=  dx + dy + dz  dx + dy + dz u =  dx + dy + dz  u
 ∂x ∂y ∂z  ∂x ∂y ∂z   ∂x ∂y ∂z 

 2 ∂
2
2 ∂
2
2 ∂
2
∂2 ∂2 ∂2 
= (dx ) + (dy ) + (dz ) + 2dxdy + 2dydz + 2dzdx u
 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ∂x∂y ∂y∂z ∂z∂x 
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 8

∂ 2u 2 2
∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u
= 2
(dx )2 + ∂ u2 (dy)2 + ∂ u2 (dz )2 + 2 dxdy + 2 dydz + 2 dzdx (i)
∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x∂y ∂y∂z ∂z∂x

Here u = xyz
∂u ∂u ∂u
= yz , = zx , = xy .
∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u
= = = 0.
∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2

∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u
= z, = x, = y.
∂x∂y ∂y∂z ∂z∂x

∴ From (i), we have d 2u = 2zdxdy + 2xdydz + 2 ydzdx .

∂u ∂u
Q.No.8: Evaluate and , when (a) u = x y and (b) xy + yu + ux = 1 .
∂x ∂y

Sol.: (a) Given u = x y . ...(i)


Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. x and y separately, we get
∂u
=
∂x ∂x
∂ y
( )
x = yx y −1 and
∂u
=
∂y ∂y
∂ y
( )
x = x y log x . Ans.

1 − xy
(b) Given xy + yu + ux = 1 ⇒ u (x + y ) = 1 − xy ⇒ u = ...(ii)
x+y
Differentiate (ii) partially w. r. t. x and y separately, we get
∂u
=
∂  1 − xy  (x + y )(− y ) − (1 − xy ).1
  = =−
1 + y2 ( )
∂x ∂x  x + y  (x + y )2 (x + y )2

and
∂u
=
∂  1 − xy  (x + y )(− x ) − (1 − xy ).1
  = = −
1 + x2 (. Ans.
)
∂y ∂y  x + y  (x + y )2 (x + y )2
∂ 2u ∂ 2u
Q.No.9: Verify that = , where u is equal to
∂x∂y ∂y∂x

 x 2 + y2 
(i) log(y sin x + x sin y ) , (ii) log ,
 xy 
 
x y x
(iii) log tan   and (iv) x 2 tan −1  − y 2 tan −1  .
 y x  y
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 9

Sol.:(i) Here u = log(y sin x + x sin y ) . ...(i)


Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. x, we get
∂u
=
(y cos x + sin y ) . ....(ii)
∂x (y sin x + x sin y )
Differentiate (ii) partially w. r. t. y, we get
∂ 2u ∂  ∂u  (y sin x + x sin y )(cos x + cos y ) − (y cos x + sin y )(sin x + x cos y )
= = . (iii)
∂y∂x ∂y  ∂x  (y sin x + x sin y )2
Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. y, we get
∂u
=
(sin x + x cos y ) . (iv)
∂y (y sin x + x sin y )
Differentiate (iv) partially w. r. t. x, we get
∂ 2u ∂  ∂u  (y sin x + x sin y )(cos x + cos y ) − (sin x + x cos y )(y cos x + sin y )
=  = . (v)
∂x∂y ∂x  ∂y  (y sin x + x sin y )2
∂ 2u ∂ 2u
Hence from (iii) and (v), we get = .
∂x∂y ∂y∂x
This completes the proof.
 x 2 + y2 
(ii) Here u = log . ...(i)
 xy 
 
Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. x, we get
∂u
= 2
1
.
(
xy(2 x ) − x 2 + y 2 y
=
1) .
x 2 y − y3
=
x 2 − y2
. (ii)
∂x x + y 2 (xy )2 x 2 + y2 xy (
x x 2 + y2 )
xy
Differentiate (ii) partially w. r. t. y, we get

∂ 2u
= =
( ) (
∂  ∂u  x 3 + y 2 x (− 2 y ) − x 2 − y 2 (2xy ))= −
4x 3y
=−
4xy
. (iii)
 
∂y∂x ∂y  ∂x  x3 + y2x ( 2
) (
x3 + y2x
2
) (
x 2 + y2 )2

Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. y, we get


∂u
= 2
1
.
(
xy(2 y ) − x 2 + y 2 x
=
1) .
xy 2 − x 3
=
y2 − x 2
. (iv)
∂y x + y 2 (xy )2 x 2 + y2 xy (
y x 2 + y2 )
xy
Differentiate (iv) partially w. r. t. x, we get
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 10

∂ 2u
=   =
( ) (
∂  ∂u  yx 2 + y3 (− 2x ) − y 2 − x 2 (2xy )
= −
) 4xy3
=−
4xy
. ..(v)
∂x∂y ∂x  ∂y  yx 2 + y3
2
( ) (
yx 2 + y3 )2
(x 2
+y )
2 2

∂ 2u ∂ 2u
Hence from (iii) and (v), we get = .
∂x∂y ∂y∂x
This completes the proof.
x
(iii) Here u = log tan  . ....(i)
 y
Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. x, we get
x
sec 2
∂u 1 x 1 y
= . sec 2 . = . ....(ii)
∂x tan x y y y tan x
y y
Differentiate (ii) partially w. r. t. y, we get
x ∂  x x ∂  x
2
y tan .  sec 2  − sec 2 .  y tan 
∂ u ∂  ∂u  y ∂y  y y ∂y  y
=   =
∂y∂x ∂y  ∂x  x
y 2 tan 2
y
x x x x
x sec 2 tan − 3x sec 2 tan 2
y y y y
= .
3 2 x
y tan
y
(iii)
Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. y, we get
x
sec 2
∂u 1 x x  x y
= . sec 2 . − 2
=− 2. . (iv)
∂y tan x y y  y tan x
y y
Differentiate (iv) partially w. r. t. y, we get
x ∂  x x ∂  x
y 2 tan .  x sec2  − x sec2 .  y 2 tan 
∂ u2
∂  ∂u  y ∂x  y y ∂y  y
=  =−
∂x∂y ∂x  ∂y  x
y 4 tan 2
y
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 11

x x x x
x sec 2 tan − 3x sec 2 tan 2
y y y y
= . (v)
3 2 x
y tan
y

∂ 2u ∂ 2u
Hence from (iii) and (v), we get = .
∂x∂y ∂y∂x
This completes the proof.

 y x
(iv) Here u = x 2 tan −1  − y 2 tan −1  . (i)
x  y
Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. x, we get
 
 
∂u 1  y   −1 y 1  1 
= x2 . −  + 2x tan − y2 .  
 y 
2 2
∂x y  x  x x2
1+  1+ 2
x2  y 

x2y y y3 −1 y x 2 y + y3 y
=− + 2 x tan −1 − 2 = 2 x tan − = 2x tan −1 − y .
x 2 + y2 x x +y 2 x x +y 2 2 x

(ii)
Differentiate (ii) partially w. r. t. y, we get

∂ 2u ∂  ∂u  1 1 2x 2 2x 2 − x 2 − y 2 x 2 − y 2
= = 2x.   − 1 = − 1 = = 2 (iii)
∂y∂x ∂y  ∂x  y2  x  x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2 x + y2
1+
x2
Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. y, we get
 
 
∂u 1 1  −1 x 1  x 
=x 2
. − 2 y tan + y 2
. − .
∂y y2 x  y x2  y 2 
1+ 2  1+ 2  
x  y 

=
x3
− 2 y tan −1
x
+ 2
xy2
=
x 3 + xy 2
− 2 y tan −1 x
=
x x 2 + y2
− 2
(
y tan
)
−1 x
x 2 + y2 y x + y2 x 2 + y2 y x 2 + y2 y

∂u x
∴ = x − 2 y tan −1 . (iv)
∂y y
Differentiate (iv) partially w. r. t. x, we get
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 12

∂ 2u ∂  ∂u  ∂  x 1 1 2y2 x 2 − y2
=   =  x − 2 y tan −1  = 1 − 2 y . = 1− 2 = . (v)
∂x∂y ∂x  ∂y  ∂x  y x2 y x + y2 x 2 + y2
1+
y2

∂ 2u ∂ 2u
Hence from (iii) and (v), we get = .
∂x∂y ∂y∂x
This completes the proof.
2
 ∂ ∂
( 3 3 3
)
Q.No.10:If u = log x + y + z − 3xyz , show that  +

+  u =
−9
(x + y + z )2
.
 ∂x ∂y ∂z 
2
 ∂ ∂ ∂  ∂ ∂ ∂  ∂u ∂u ∂u 
Sol.: Since  + +  u =  + +  + +  .
 ∂x ∂y ∂z   ∂x ∂y ∂z  ∂x ∂y ∂z 

(
Here u = log x 3 + y3 + z3 . ) .(i)
Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. x ,y and z separately, we get
∂u
= 3
(
3 x 2 − yz
,
)
∂u
=
3 y 2 − xz
and
(
∂u
=
)
3 z 2 − xy
,
( )
∂x x + y3 + z3 − 3xyz ∂y x 3 + y3 + z 3 − 3xyz ∂z x 3 + y3 + z 3 − 3xyz

∴  + +  =
(
 ∂u ∂u ∂u  3 x 2 + y 2 + z 2 − xy − yz − zx
=
3
.
)
 ∂x ∂y ∂z  (
x 3 + y3 + z3 − 3xyz )
(x + y + z )
 ∂ ∂ ∂  3  ∂  3  ∂  3  ∂ 3 
Hence  + +   =   +   +  
 ∂x ∂y ∂z  x + y + z  ∂x  x + y + z  ∂y  x + y + z  ∂z  x + y + z 
−3 −3 −3
= + +
(x + y + z ) 2
(x + y + z ) 2
(x + y + z )2
−9
= .
(x + y + z )2
2
 ∂ ∂ ∂ −9
Hence  + +  u = .
 ∂x ∂y ∂z  (x + y + z )2
This completes the proof.
∂ 3u
Q.No.11: If u = e xyz , show that
∂x∂y∂z
(
= 1 + 3xyz + x 2 y 2 z 2 e xyz . )
Sol.: Here u = e xyz . Now
∂u
=
∂z ∂z
∂ xyz
e ( )
= e xyz xy .
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 13

∂ 2u ∂  ∂u  ∂ xyz
∴ = =
∂y∂z ∂y  ∂z  ∂y
[ ] (
e xy = xy e xyz xz + e xyz x = x 2 yze xyz + e xyz x = x 2 yz + x e xyz ) ( )
∂ 3u ∂  ∂ 2u  ∂ 2
And hence =  =
∂x∂y∂z ∂x  ∂y∂z  ∂x
[(
x yz + x e xyz = [2xyz + 1]e xyz + x 2 yz + x e xyz yz ) ] [ ]
[
= 2xyz + 1 + x 2 y2z 2 + xyz e xyz = x 2 y2z 2 + 3xyz + 1 e xyz . ] [ ]
This completes the proof.

Q.No.12: If u = z = 1 − 2xy + y 2 ( )
−1 / 2
, prove that

∂  ∂u  ∂  2 ∂u 
(i) x
∂z
∂x
−y
∂z
∂y
= y 2 z3 , (ii) 
∂x 
1 − x2 + y  = 0.
∂x  ∂y  ∂y 
( )
Sol.: (i) Here (
z = 1 − 2xy + y 2 )
−1 / 2
.
....(i)
Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. x and y separately, we get
∂z
∂x
1
(
= − 1 − 2 xy + y 2
2
) −3 / 2
(− 2 y ) = y(1 − 2xy + y 2 )
−3 / 2
.

and
∂z
∂y
1
(
= − 1 − 2 xy + y 2
2
)
−3 / 2
(− 2 x + 2 y ) = (x − y )(1 − 2xy + y 2 )
−3 / 2
.

Hence x
∂z
∂x
−y
∂z
∂y
= x  y 1 − 2 xy + y 2

( ) −3 / 2 

 
(
− y (x − y ) 1 − 2 xy + y 2 )−3 / 2 


(
= 1 − 2 xy + y 2 ) [xy − xy + y ] = y z .
−3 / 2 2 2 3

This completes the proof.


∂  ∂u  ∂  2 ∂u 
(ii) To show: 
∂x 
(
1 − x2 + y )  = 0.
∂x  ∂y  ∂y 

(
Here u = 1 − 2xy + y 2 ) −1 / 2
. ....(i)
Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. x and y separately, we get
∂u
∂x
(
= y 1 − 2 xy + y 2 )−3 / 2
and
∂u
∂y
(
= (x − y ) 1 − 2 xy + y 2 ) −3 / 2
.

∂  ∂u  ∂ 
Now 
∂x 
(
1 − x2 ) =
∂x  ∂x 
1 − x 2 y 1 − 2xy + y 2 ( )( )
−3 / 2 

Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 14

 
(
= y 1 − x 2

)∂∂x (1 − 2xy + y ) 2 −3 / 2
(
+ 1 − 2xy + y 2 ) −3 / 2 ∂
∂x
(
1 − x2 

)

( ) − 32 (1 − 2xy + y ) 2 −5 / 2
(− 2 y ) + (1 − 2xy + y2 ) (− 2x )
−3 / 2
= y 1 − x 2
 
 3y 1 − x 2
= y
( ) −
2x   3y − 3x 2 y − 2 x + 4 x 2 y − 2 xy 2 
 = y 
 (
 1 − 2 xy + y 2 )5/2
(
1 − 2 xy + y 2 3/ 2 


) 1 − 2 xy + y 2 5/ 2
( 
 )

∂ 
1 (
− x 2 ∂u 
=) (
y 3y − 2 x + x 2 y − 2xy2
.
)
∂x  ∂x  1 − 2xy + y (
2 5/ 2
)
∂  2 ∂u  ∂  2
Again y = 
∂y  ∂y  ∂y 
y (x − y ) 1 − 2xy + y 2 ( )
−3 / 2 


=

∂y
( )(
xy 2 − y3 1 − 2 xy + y 2 )
−3 / 2

( ) (2xy − 3y )+ (xy − y ) − 32 (1 − 2xy + y ) (− 2x + 2y)


= 1 − 2 xy + y 2
−3 / 2 2 2 3 2 −5 / 2

2xy − 3y 3(xy − y )(x − y ) (2xy − 3y )(1 − 2xy + y ) + 3(xy − y )(x − y )


2 2 3 2 2 2 3
= + =
(1 − 2xy + y ) (1 − 2xy + y )
2 3/ 2
(1 − 2xy + y )
2 5/2 2 5/2

2xy − 4x 2 y 2 + 2xy3 − 3y 2 + 6xy3 − 3y 4 + 3y 2 x 2 − 6xy3 + 3y 4


=
(1 − 2xy + y ) 2 5/2

2
2xy − 3y − x y + 2xy − y(3y − 2x + x y − 2xy )
2 2 3 2 2
= =
(1 − 2xy + y ) (1 − 2xy + y )
2 5/ 2 2 5/2

∂  ∂u  ∂  ∂u 
or  y  = − (1 − x )  .
2 2
∂y ∂y ∂x 
 ∂x 

∂  ∂u  ∂  2 ∂u 
Hence 
∂x 
(
1 − x2 )
+ y  = 0.
∂x  ∂y  ∂y 

This completes the proof .


  ∂ 2u
Q.No.13: If u = tan −1 
xy
 1+ x + y 
2 2
 , prove that
∂x∂y
= 1 + x 2 + y2 ( )
−3 / 2
.
 
 xy 
Sol.: Here u = tan −1  . ...(i)
 1 + x 2 + y2 
 
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 15

Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. y, we get

∂z ∂  xy 
= tan −1  
∂y ∂y  1 + x 2 + y2
 ( ) 

1
1 + x 2 + y 2 .x − xy. .2 y
1 2 1 + x 2 + y2
= .
1+
x 2y2 (1 + x 2
+ y2 )
2 2
1+ x + y

=
(1 + x 2
+ y2
.
) =
(
x 1 + x 2 + y 2 − xy 2 ) x + x 3 + xy2 − xy 2
(
1 + x 2 + y2 + x 2 y2 1 + x 2 + y2 1 + x 2 + y2 )
1 + x 2 + y2 + x 2 y2 1 + x 2 + y2 ( )
=
x + x3
=
) (
x 1+ x2
(1 + x 2
+ y2 + x 2 y2 1 + x 2 + y2 ) {(1 + x )+ y (1 + x )} 1 + x
2 2 2 2
+ y2
x
= . ...(ii)
(1 + y ) 1 + x
2 2
+ y2
Differentiate (ii) partially w. r. t. x ,we get

∂ 2z ∂  ∂z  ∂  x 
=   =  
∂x∂y ∂x  ∂y  ∂x  1 + y 2 1 + x 2 + y 2 
  ( )
 
2 2 2
(
1 + x + y 1 + y .1 − x  1 + y .
2x 2
)  ( )
=
 2 1 + x 2 + y 2 
=
1 + x 2 + y2 1 + y2 − x 2 1 + y2 ( )( ) ( )
2
)(
1 + y2 1 + x 2 + y2) ( 2
1 + y2 1 + x 2 + y2 1 + x 2 + y2 ( )( )
=
(1 + y )(1 + x + y − x ) =
2 2
(1 + y ) 2 2 2 2
=
1
.
(1 + y ) (1 + x + y ) (1 + y ) (1 + x + y )
2 2 2 2 3/ 2 2 2 2 2 3/ 2
(1 + x 2
+y )
2 3/ 2

∂ 2z 1
Hence = .
∂x∂y 1 + x 2 + y 2 ( ) 3/ 2

This completes the proof.

Q.No.14: If z 2 + t 2 − 4x + y2 = 0 and z3 + t 3 − 2x 3 + 3y = 0 ;
∂z ∂t
Evaluate and .
∂x ∂x
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 16

Sol.: Here z 2 + t 2 − 4x + y2 = 0 and z3 + t 3 − 2x 3 + 3y = 0 .


Differentiate partially the given equations w. r. t. x, considering z and t as function of
x, we get
∂z ∂t
2z + 2t −4 = 0
∂x ∂x
∂z ∂t
and 3z 2 + 3t 2 − −6 x 2 = 0 .
∂x ∂x
∂z ∂t
Solve these equations simultaneously for and .
∂x ∂x
∂z ∂t
∂x ∂x 1
= = .
( )
2 t. − 6x 2 + 4.3.t 2 − 12z 2 + 12zx 2 6zt 2 − 6tz 2

∂z ∂t
∂x ∂x 1
⇒ = = .
(
12t t − x 2
) (
12z x − z 6tz(t − z )
2
)
∂z ∂t
∂x 1 ∂x 1
Considering = and = .
12t t − x (
2 6 tz(t − z ) ) 2
12z x − z 6tz(t − z ) ( )
We get =
(
∂z 12t t − x 2
=
2 x2 − t
and
) ( )
∂t 12z x 2 − z 2 x 2 − z
= =
(
. Ans.
) ( )
∂x 6tz(t − z ) z(z − t ) ∂x 6tz(t − z ) t (t − z )
−x2
2
ke 4a y ∂u ∂ 2u
Q.No.15: If u = , then prove that = a2 2 .
y ∂y ∂x
−x2
−x 2 −x 2
4a 2 y  2   
ke ∂u k 4a 2
y x  + k  − 1 .e 4a y
2
Sol.: Here u = , then = .e
y ∂y y  4a 2 y 2   2 y 3 / 2 
   
−x 2
4a 2 y
 x2 1 
= ke  2 5 / 2 − 3/ 2  .
 4a y 2 y 

−x 2 −x 2
∂u k 4a 2 y  − 2 x  kx 4a 2 y
Also = e  =− e
∂x y  4a y 
2 2 3 / 2
  2a y
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 17

−x 2 −x 2 −x 2
∂ u2
k 4a 2 y kx 
4a 2 y − 2 x  4a 2 y
 x2 1 
and ∴ =− .e − .e
 4a 2 y 
= ke  4 5/ 2 − 2 3/ 2 
∂x 2 2a 2 y 3/ 2
2a 2 y 3/ 2
   4a y 2a y 

∂ 2u
1 ∂u ∂u 2
2∂ u
⇒ 2 = 2 , hence =a .
∂x a ∂y ∂y ∂x 2
This completes the proof.
r2
− 1 ∂  2 ∂θ  ∂θ
Q.No.16: If θ = t n e 4t , find what value of n will make r = .
r 2 ∂r  ∂r  ∂t
r2

Sol.: Here θ = t n e 4t . ....(i)
Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. r, we get
 r2   − r2  r2
−  2r 
r2
∂θ ∂  n − 4 t  ∂ 1 −
= t e = t n . e 4 t  = t n .e 4 t  −  = − t n −1r.e 4 t .
∂r ∂r   ∂r    4t  2
   
r2
∂θ 1 −
r2 = − t n −1r 3.e 4t . ...(ii)
∂r 2
Differentiate (ii) partially w. r. t. r, we get
 r2  n −1  − r2 
∂  2 ∂θ  ∂  1 n −1 3 4 t 
− t ∂  3 4t 
r = − t r e =− r e
∂r  ∂r  ∂r  2  2 ∂r  
   

 r2 r2  n −1  4  −r 
2
t n −1  2 − 4 t −  2r  t  r 
+ r 3.e 4 t  −  = −  3r − e 4 t 
2
=− 3r .e
2   4t  2  2t  
   
 r2 
1 ∂  2 ∂θ  t n −1  2 r 4  − 4 t 
∴ 2 r  = − 2  3r − e  ...(iii)
r ∂r  ∂r  2r  2t  
 
 − r2  −
r2
 2  −
r2

r2
 r2 
∂θ ∂  n 4 t  r
Now = t e = t n .e 4 t  2  + nt n −1.e 4 t = e 4 t  t n − 2 + nt n −1 
∂t ∂t    4t   4 
   

r2
−  n −1 r 2 
=e 4t  t  + n   . ...(iv)
  4t  
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 18

 r2  r2
−  
1 ∂  2 ∂θ  ∂θ t n −1  2 r 4  − 4 t  n −1 
 r2
But 2  r = ⇒ − 2  3r − e  = e t
4 t + n 
r ∂r  ∂r  ∂t 2r  2 t   

 4t



 

1  2 r 4   r 2  1  r 2   r 2 


⇒−  3r −  =  + n  . ⇒ −  3 −  =  + n 
2r 2  2t   4t  2  2t   4t 
3 3
⇒− = n . Hence n = − . Ans.
2 2

Q.No.17: If u = Ae−gx sin(nt − gx ) , where A , g , n are positive constants, satisfies the

∂u ∂ 2u n
heat conduction equation = µ 2 , then prove that g = .
∂t ∂x 2µ
or

∂u ∂ 2u
The equation = µ 2 refers to the conduction of heat along a bar without radiation,
∂t ∂x
n
show that if u = Ae− gx sin( nt − gx) , where A , g , n are positive constants then g = .

∂u
Sol.: Here u = Ae−gx sin(nt − gx ) ,we have = Ae − gx cos (nt − gx )n .
∂t

Also
∂u
∂x
[
= A e − gx (− g )sin (nt − gx ) + e − gx cos (nt − gx )(− g ) ]
[
= A(− g ) e −gx sin(nt − gx ) + e −gx cos(nt − gx ) ]
= −Age−gx [sin(nt − gx ) + cos(nt − gx )]

∂ 2u
and
∂x 2
[
= −Ag e −gx {cos(nt − gx )(− g ) − sin (nt − gx )(− g )}

+ {sin(nt − gx ) + cos(nt − gx )}e−gx (− g ) ]


= −Age−gx (− g )[cos(nt − gx ) − sin(nt − gx ) + sin(nt − gx ) + cos(nt − gx )]

= −Age−gx (− g )[2 cos(nt − gx )] = 2Ag2e−gx cos(nt − gx ) .

∂u ∂ 2u
Also given = µ 2 ⇒ Ae−gx cos(nt − gx )n = µ2Ag2e−gx cos(nt − gx )
∂t ∂x
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 19

n n
⇒ g2 = . Hence ∴ g = .
2µ 2µ
This completes the proof.

Q.No.18: (a) Show that at the point for surface x x y y z z = const. , where x = y = z

∂ 2z −1
= .
∂x∂y x log(ex )

∂ 3u
(b) If u = e xyz ; find the value of .
∂x∂y∂z

Sol.: (a) Given x x y y z z = const. , where x = y = z.


Taking log both sides, we get
x log x + y log y + z log z = log c
Differentiating z partially w. r. t. x [keeping y as constant] , we get
∂z 1 + log x ∂z 1 + log y
(1 + log x ) + (1 + log z ) ∂z =0 ⇒ =− . Similarly, =− .
∂x ∂x 1 + log z ∂y 1 + log z

∂ 2z ∂  ∂z  ∂  ∂z  ∂z ∂  1 + log x   1 + log y 
Now =   =   = −  × − 
∂x∂y ∂y  ∂x  ∂z  ∂x  ∂y ∂z  1 + log z   1 + log z 

(1 + log z ).0 − (1 + log x ) 1


= z × 1 + log y  = − 1 (1 + log x )(1 + log y )
 
(1 + log z )2
 1 + log z  z (1 + log z )3
Since x = y = z,

∂ 2z 1 (1 + log x )2 1 −1 −1
∴ =− =− = = .
∂x∂y x (1 + log x )3 x (1 + log x ) x (log e + log x ) x log(ex )

∂ 2z −1
Hence = . This completes the proof.
∂x∂y x log(ex )

(b) Here u = e xyz .

Now
∂u
=
∂z ∂z
∂ xyz
e ( )
= e xyz xy .

∂ 2u ∂  ∂u  ∂ xyz
∴ =   =
∂y∂z ∂y  ∂z  ∂y
[ ] ( )
e xy = xy e xyz xz + e xyz x = x 2 yze xyz + e xyz x = x 2 yz + x e xyz ( )
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 20

∂ 3u ∂  ∂ 2u  ∂ 2
And hence =  =
∂x∂y∂z ∂x  ∂y∂z  ∂x
[( ) ] [
x yz + x e xyz = [2xyz + 1]e xyz + x 2 yz + x e xyz yz ]
[ ] [ ]
= 2xyz + 1 + x 2 y2z 2 + xyz e xyz = x 2 y2z 2 + 3xyz + 1 e xyz . Ans.

∂ 2 z ∂ 2z ∂ 2z
Q.No.19: If z = xf (x + y ) + yg(x + y ) , show that −2 + = 0.
∂x 2 ∂x∂y ∂y 2

Sol.: Since z = xf (x + y ) + yg(x + y ) .


...(i)
∂z
∴ = xf / (x + y ) + f (x + y ) + yg / (x + y ) .
∂x

∂ 2z
and ∴ 2
= f / (x + y ) + xf // (x + y ) + f / (x + y ) + yg// (x + y ) . ...(ii)
∂x
∂z
Also = xf / (x + y ) + yg / (x + y ) + g (x + y ) .
∂y

∂ 2z
and ∴ 2
= xf // (x + y ) + yg // (x + y ) + g / (x + y ) + g / (x + y ) . ...(iii)
∂y
∂z
Now since = xf / (x + y ) + f (x + y ) + yg / (x + y ) .
∂x
∂ 2z
∴ = xf // (x + y ) + f / (x + y ) + g / (x + y ) + yg // (x + y ) . ...(iv)
∂x∂y

∂ 2z
∂ 2z ∂ 2z
Putting these values in −2 + , we get
∂x 2 ∂x∂y ∂y 2

∂ 2z ∂ 2 z ∂ 2z
−2 + = 0 . This completes the proof.
∂x 2 ∂x∂y ∂y 2

y z x ∂u ∂u ∂u
Q.No.20: If u = + + , then show that x +y +z = 0.
z x y ∂x ∂y ∂z
y z x
Sol.: Since u= + + .
z x y
...(i)
Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. x, y and z separately, we get
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 21

∂u  1 z  ∂u  1 x  ∂u  1 y 
=  − 2  , =  − 2  and =  − .
∂x  y x  ∂y  z y  ∂z  x z 2 

∂u ∂u ∂u  1 z  1 x   1 y 
Hence x +y +z = x − 2  + y − 2  + z − 2  = 0 .
∂x ∂y ∂z y x  z y  x z 
This completes the proof.
∂u ∂u
Q.No.21: If u = eax + byφ(ax − by ) , then prove that b +a = 2abu .
∂x ∂y

Sol.: Since u = eax + byφ(ax − by ) . ....(i)


Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. x and y separately, we get
∂u
= e ax + by a.φ(ax − by ) + eax + by .φ / (ax − by )a ,
∂x
∂u
and = e ax + by b.φ(ax − by ) + eax + by .φ / (ax − by )(− b )
∂y
∂u ∂u
Now b +a = 2abeax + byφ(ax − by ) = 2abu .
∂x ∂y
This completes the proof.
Q.No.22: If x = r cos θ , y = r sin θ , then show that
∂x ∂r ∂θ 1 ∂x
(i) = , (ii) r = .
∂r ∂x ∂x r ∂θ

Sol.: (i) Given x = r cos θ , y = r sin θ ⇒ x 2 + y 2 = r 2 ......(i)


Differentiating (i) w. r. t. x partially (keeping y as constant), we get
∂r ∂r ∂r
2 x + 0 = 2r ⇒r = x = r cos θ ⇒ = cos θ ......(ii)
∂x ∂x ∂x
∂x
Also since x = r cos θ ⇒ = cos θ . ....(iii)
∂r
∂x ∂r
Comparing (ii) and (iii) ,we get = . Ans.
∂r ∂x
This completes the proof.
∂θ 1 ∂x
(ii) To show : r = .
∂x r ∂θ
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 22

y y
Now since x = r cos θ , y = r sin θ ⇒ tan θ = ⇒ θ = tan −1
x x
∂θ 1 −y −y
∴ = . 2  = 2 .
∂x y  x  x + y2
2
1+
x2
 −y 
 = r.
∂θ −y −y
Now r = r. 2 2 2
= . ...(i)
∂x  x + y   r  r

∂x 1 ∂x y
since x = r cosθ ∴ = − r sin θ ⇒ = − sin θ = − . .....(ii)
∂θ r ∂θ r
∂θ 1 ∂x
Comparing (i) and (ii) ,we get r = . This completes the proof.
∂x r ∂θ
Q.No.23: If x = r cos θ , y = r sin θ , prove that

1  ∂r   ∂r 
2 2
∂ 2r ∂ 2r
(i) + =   +   
∂x 2 ∂y 2 r  ∂x   ∂y  

∂ 2θ ∂ 2θ
(ii) + =0 (x ≠ 0, y ≠ 0)
∂x 2 ∂y 2
Sol.: (i) Given x = r cosθ , y = r sin θ .
[By looking at the answer we find that we need partial derivative of r w. r. t. x and y.
Therefore, let us express r as an explicit function of x and y]
Squaring and adding x = r cos θ , y = r sin θ ; we find that

r 2 = x 2 + y2 i.e. r = x 2 + y 2 . ...(i)
Differentiating (i) w. r. t. x partially (keeping y as constant), we get
∂r 1 2
= x + y2
∂x 2
( ) 1 / 2.2x = (x 2 + y2 ) 1 / 2.x =
− −
2
x
2
=
x
r
. ...(ii)
x +y
Similarly, differentiating (i) w. r. t. y partially (keeping x as constant), we get
∂r 1 2
= x + y2
∂y 2
( ) 1 / 2.2y = (x 2 + y2 ) 1 / 2.y =
− − y
=
y
r
.
x 2 + y2
.(iii)
Again differentiating(ii) w. r. t. x partially (keeping y as constant), we get
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 23

∂ ∂ ∂r x
r (x ) − x (r ) r − x r − x.
∂ 2r ∂ x ∂x ∂x ∂x =
2 2 2
r = r −x = y .
=   = =
∂x 2 ∂x  r  r2 r2 r2 r3 r3
Again differentiating(iii) w. r. t. y partially (keeping x as constant), we get

2 (y ) − y ∂ (r ) r − y ∂r r − y. y 2 2 2
r
∂ r ∂ y ∂y ∂y ∂y r = r −y = x .
=   = = =
∂y 2 ∂x  r  r2 r2 r2 r3 r3

∂ 2r ∂ 2r y2 x2 x 2 + y2 r2 1
L.H.S.= 2
+ 2
= 3
+ 3
= 3
= 3
= .
∂x ∂y r r r r r

1  ∂ r   ∂ r   1  x 2 y 2  1  x 2 + y 2  1  r 2  1
2 2
R.H.S.=   +    =  2 + 2  =  =  = .
r  ∂x   ∂y   r  r r 
 r  r 2  r  r 2  r
 
∴ L. H.S.= R. H.S. This completes the proof.
y
(ii) It is given that x = r cos θ , y = r sin θ . Dividing ,we get tan θ =
x
y
∴ θ = tan −1 . ...(i)
x
Differentiating (i) w. r. t. x partially (keeping y as constant), we get
∂θ ∂ y 1 ∂  y 1  y  y
= tan −1 =  =
2 − 2  = − 2
2
. ...(ii)
∂x ∂x x y ∂x  x  y  x  x + y2
1+ 1+
x2 x2
Again differentiating (ii) w. r. t. x partially (keeping y as constant), we get

∂ 2θ
=
∂ 
−
y  x 2 + y 2 (0 ) − (− y ).2x
= =
( 2xy ) . ...(iii)
 
∂x 2 2 2
∂x  x + y  x 2 + y2
2
x 2 + y2 ( ) ( ) 2

Differentiating (i) w. r. t. y partially (keeping x as constant), we get


∂θ ∂ y 1 ∂ y 1 1 x
= tan −1 =  =
2  = 2 . ...(iv)
∂y ∂y x y ∂y  x  y  x  x + y2
2
1+ 1+
x2 x2
Again differentiating (iv) w. r. t. y partially (keeping x as constant), we get

∂ 2θ
=
∂  x  x 2 + y 2 (0) − (x ).2 y
 =
(= −
2xy ) . ...(v)
∂y 2 ∂y  x 2 + y 2  x 2 + y2
2
(
x 2 + y2 ) ( )
2

Adding (iv) and (v), we get


Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 24

∂ 2θ ∂ 2θ 2xy 2xy
L.H.S. = + = − = 0 = R.H.S. This completes the proof.
∂x 2
∂y 2
(x
) (x + y ) 2
+y 2 2 2 2 2

Q.No.24: If u = f (ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 ) and v = ϕ(ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 ) , prove that

∂  ∂v  ∂  ∂v 
u  = u  .
∂y  ∂x  ∂x  ∂y 

(
Sol.: Given u = f ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 ) ...(i)

(
and v = ϕ ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 ) ....(ii)
Differentiating (ii) partially w. r. t. x and y separately, we get
∂v
∂x
( )
= ϕ / ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 .(2ax + 2hy ) = ϕ/ .(2ax + 2hy )

∂v
∂y
( )
= ϕ / ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 .(2by + 2hx ) = ϕ / .(2by + 2hx )

∂  ∂v  ∂
Now L.H.S.= u  =
∂y  ∂x  ∂y
f .ϕ/ .(2ax + 2hy ) [ ]
= f / .(2by + 2hx ).ϕ/ .(2ax + 2hy) + f .ϕ// .(2by + 2hx )(
. 2ax + 2hy) + f .ϕ/ .2h

= (2ax + 2hy)(
. 2by + 2hx ). f / ϕ/ + fϕ// + 2h.f .ϕ/ . [ ] ....(iii)

∂  ∂v  ∂
R.H.S.= u  =
∂x  ∂y  ∂x
f .ϕ/ .(2by + 2hx ) [ ]
= f / .(2ax + 2hy).ϕ/ .(2by + 2hx ) + f .ϕ// .(2ax + 2hy)(
. 2by + 2hx ) + f .ϕ/ .2h

= (2ax + 2hy)(
. 2by + 2hx ). f / ϕ/ + fϕ// + 2h.f .ϕ/ . [ ] (iv)

∂  ∂v  ∂  ∂v 
From (iii) and (iv), we have u  =  u  . This completes the proof.
∂y  ∂x  ∂x  ∂y 

( )
Q.No.25: If u = x 2 − y2 f (t ) , where t = x y, prove that

∂ 2u
∂x∂y
( )[
= x 2 − y 2 tf // (t ) + 3f / (t ) ]
( ) (
Sol.: Given u = x 2 − y 2 f (t ) = x 2 − y 2 f (xy) = x 2f (xy) − y 2f (xy) . ) (i)
Differentiating (i) partially w. r. t. x and y separately, we get
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 25

∂u
∂x
[ ][ ]
= 2 x.f (xy ) + x 2 .f / (xy )y − y 2 .f / (xy )y = 2 xf (xy ) + x 2 yf / (xy ) − y3f / (xy )

∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂  ∂u  ∂
∴ = =  
∂x∂y ∂y∂x ∂y  ∂x  ∂y
= [
2 xf (xy ) + x 2 yf / (xy ) − y3f / (xy ) ]
[ ][ ][
= 2xf / (xy)x + x 2 y.f // (xy)x + x 2 .f / (xy) − y3.f // (xy)x + 3y2 .f / (xy) ]
= [2x f (t )] + [x yf
2 / 3 //
(t ) + x 2f / (t )]− [y3xf // (t ) + 3y2f / (t )]
(
= 3x 2f / (t ) − 3y2f / (t ) + x 3 y − y3x f // (t ) )
( ) (
= 3 x 2 − y 2 f / (t ) + xy x 2 − y 2 f // (t ) )
( ) (
= x 2 − y2 tf // (t ) + x 2 − y2 3f / (t ) )
∂ 2u
Hence
∂x∂y
( )[ ]
= x 2 − y 2 tf // (t ) + 3f / (t ) . This completes the proof.

Q.No.26: If u and v are functions of x and y defined by x = u + e − v sin u ,


∂u ∂v
y = v + e− v cos u , then prove that = .
∂y ∂x

Sol.: Given x = u + e − v sin u and y = v + e− v cos u .


Differentiating both the equations partially w. r .t. x and y separately, we get
 ∂v 
1=
∂u
∂x
+ e − v cos u
∂u
∂x
+ e − v  −  sin u ⇒ 1 =
 ∂x 
∂u
∂x
∂v
[
1 + e − v cos u − e − v sin u
∂x
] (i)

 ∂v 
0=
∂u
∂y
+ e − v cos u
∂u
∂y
+ e − v  −  sin u ⇒ 0 =
∂u
1 + e − v cos u − e − v
∂v
[
sin u ] (ii)
 ∂y  ∂y ∂y

 ∂v 
0=
∂v
∂x
+ e − v ( − sin u )
∂u
∂x
+ e − v  −  cos u ⇒ 0 =
 ∂x 
∂v
∂x
∂u
1 − e − v cos u − e − v sin u
∂x
[ ] (iii)

 ∂v 
1=
∂v
∂y
∂u
+ e − v (− sin u ) + e − v  −  cos u ⇒ 1 =
∂y
∂v ∂u
1 − e − v cos u − e − v sin u [ ] (iv)
 ∂y  ∂y ∂y

[
Multiplying (i) by e− v sin u and (iii) by 1 + e− v cos u and then adding, we get ]
∂v e− v sin u
= (v)
∂x 1 − e − 2 v

[ ]
Multiplying (ii) by 1 − e− v cos u and (iv) by e− v sin u and then adding, we get
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 26

∂u e − v sin u
= (vi)
∂y 1 − e − 2 v
From (v) and (vi), we get
∂u ∂v
= . This completes the proof.
∂y ∂x
2
 ∂z ∂z   ∂z ∂z 
Q.No.27: If z(x + y ) = x + y , show that  −  = 41 −
2 2
−  .
 ∂x ∂y   ∂x ∂y 

x 2 + y2
Sol.: Since z(x + y ) = x 2 + y 2 ⇒ z = . ...(i)
x+y
Differentiating (i) partially w. r. t. x and y separately, we get
( )
∂z (x + y ).2x − x 2 + y 2 .1 x 2 − y 2 + 2xy
= =
∂x (x + y )2 (x + y )2
( )
∂z (x + y ).2 y − x 2 + y 2 .1 y 2 − x 2 + 2xy
= =
∂y (x + y )2 (x + y)2
2 2
 ∂z ∂z   x 2 − y 2 + 2xy y 2 − x 2 + 2 xy 
Now L.H.S.=  −  =  − 
 (x + y ) (x + y )2 
2
 ∂x ∂y 
2 2 2
 ( x 2 − y 2 + 2xy) − ( y 2 − x 2 + 2xy)   2x 2 − 2 y 2   2(x − y )(x + y ) 
=  =  2 
= 
 (x + y ) 2
  (x + y )   (x + y )
2

2
 2(x − y )  4(x − y )2
=  = . (ii)
 (x + y )  (x + y )2
 ∂z ∂z 
R.H.S.= 41 −

−  = 41 −
x 2 − y 2 + 2xy(−
) (
y 2 − x 2 + 2xy 

)
 ∂x ∂y   (x + y)2 (x + y )2 
 ( x 2 + y 2 + 2xy) − ( x 2 − y 2 + 2xy) − ( y 2 − x 2 + 2xy)   x 2 + y 2 − 2xy 
= 4  = 4 
 (x + y)2   (x + y )
2


4(x − y )2
= . (iii)
(x + y )2
From (ii) and (iii), we have L.H.S.=R.H.S. This completes the proof.
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 27

∂ 3u ∂ 3u
Q.No.28: If u = x y , show that = .
∂x 2∂y ∂x∂y∂x

Sol.: Since u = x y . (i)

∂ 3u
For , first differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. y and then twice w. r. t. x
∂x 2∂y
∂u
∴ = x y log x . Now differentiate twice w. r. t. x, we get
∂y

∂ 2u 1
= x y . + log x.yx y −1 = x y −1 + y log x y −1 = x y −1 (1 + y log x ) and
∂x∂y x

∂ 3u ∂  ∂ 2u  y
=  . y − 1)x y − 2 + x y −1. = x y − 2 [(1 + y log x )(y − 1) + y] .
 = (1 + y log x )(
∂x 2∂y ∂x  ∂x∂y  x

(ii)
∂ 3u
For , first differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. x , then y and then x
∂x∂y∂x
∂u
∴ = yx y −1 . Now differentiate partially w. r t. y, we get
∂x
∂ 2u ∂  ∂u 
= = y.x y −1 log x + x y −1 = (1 + y log x )x y −1 .
∂y∂x ∂y  ∂x 
Now again differentiate partially w. r. t. x, we get

∂  ∂ 2u 
 = x [(1 + y log x )(y − 1) + y] .
y−2

∂x  ∂y∂x 

(iii)
∂ 3u ∂ 3u
Hence from (ii) and (iii), = . This completes the proof.
∂x 2∂y ∂x∂y∂x

x2 y2 z2
Q.No.29: If + + = 1 , where u is a function of x , y , z ; prove that
a2 + u b2 + u c2 + u
2 2 2
 ∂u   ∂u   ∂u   ∂u ∂u ∂u 
  +   +   = 2 x + y + z  .
 ∂x   ∂y   ∂z   ∂x ∂y ∂z 
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 28

x2 y2 z2
Sol.: Since + + = 1.
a2 + u b2 + u c2 + u
Now differentiate partially w. r. t. x, we get
 ∂u   ∂u   ∂u 
(a 2
)
+ u .2x − x 2   − y 2   − z 2  
 ∂x  +  ∂x  +  ∂x  = 0
a2 + u(2
)
b2 + u
2
c2 + u
2
( ) ( )
 ∂u   ∂u   ∂u 
(a
) 2
+ u .2x − x 2   y 2   z 2  
 ∂x  −  ∂x  −  ∂x  = 0

( ) a2 + u
2
( ) ( ) b2 + u
2
c2 + u
2

(a + u ).2x − x  ∂∂ux  y  ∂∂ux  z  ∂∂ux 
2 2 2 2

⇒ = +
(a + u ) 2
(b + u ) (c + u )
2 2 2 2 2

 ∂u   ∂u   ∂u 
x 2   y2   z2  
⇒ 2
2x
=  ∂x  +  ∂x  +  ∂x 
a +u (
a2 + u
2
b2 + u) (
2
c2 + u
2
) ( ) ( )
2x  x2 y2 z2   ∂u 
⇒ =  + +  
(
a2 + u  a2 + u

) ( ) (b
2 2
+u ) (
2 2
)
c 2 + u   ∂x 

∂u 2x  x2 y2  z2
⇒ = 2 ÷ + + 
∂x (
a + u  a 2 + u ) ( ) (b
2 2
+u ) (
2 2 2
c + u  )
∂u 2y  x2 y2 z2
Similarly = 2 ÷ + + ,
∂y (
b + u  a 2 + u ) ( ) (b2 2
+u ) (
2 2 2
c + u  )
∂u 2z  x2 y2  z2
= ÷ + + 

(
∂z c 2 + u  a 2 + u ) ( ) (b
2 2
+u ) (
2 2 2
c +u  )
2 2 2
 2 x   2 y   2z 
 2  +  + 
2 2
 ∂u   ∂u   ∂u 
Now L.H.S.=   +   +   =
2
 a + u   b2 + u   c2 + u  ( ) ( ) ( )
2
 ∂x   ∂y   ∂z   x2 y2 z2 
 + + 
 a 2 + u 2 b2 + u 2 c2 + u 2 
  ( ) ( ) ( )
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 29

4
=
 x2 y2 
z2
 + + 
(
 a2 + u
 ) (b
2 2
+u ) (
2 2 2
c + u  )
 2x 2y 2z 
2 x. + y. + z. 
 ∂u
R.H.S.= 2 x
∂u ∂u   a2 + u 2
+ y + z  = 
b 2
+ u
2
c 2
+ u
2

 ( ) ( ) ( )
 ∂x ∂y ∂z   x2 y2 z2 
 + + 
 a 2 + u 2 b2 + u 2 c2 + u 2 
  ( ) ( ) ( )
4
=
 x2 y2 z2 
 + + 
(
 a2 + u
 ) (b
2 2
+u ) (
2 2
c 2 + u  )
= L.H.S.
2 2 2
 ∂u   ∂u   ∂u   ∂u ∂u ∂u 
Hence   +   +   = 2 x + y + z  . This completes the proof.
 ∂x   ∂y   ∂z   ∂x ∂y ∂z 

∂2v ∂ 2v ∂ 2v
Q.No.30: If v = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ( ) −1 / 2
. Show that
∂x 2
+
∂y 2
+
∂z 2
=0 .

Sol.: Since v = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ( )
−1 / 2
, we have
∂v
∂x
1
(
= − x 2 + y2 + z 2
2
)
−3 / 2
(
.2 x = − x x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) −3 / 2
.

and
∂2v  2  3 
2
=
∂ 

∂x 
(
− x x 2 + y2 + z2 )−3 / 2  2
 = − 1. x + y + z
2
( )−3 / 2
(
+ x −  x 2 + y2 + z 2
 2
)
−5 / 2
.2 x 
∂x  

(
= − x 2 + y2 + z 2 ) [x
−5 / 2 2
+ y 2 + z 2 − 3x 2 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ] ( ) (2x
−5 / 2 2
− y2 − z2 ) ..(i)

∂ 2v
Similarly,
∂y 2
(
= x 2 + y2 + z2 ) (− x
−5 / 2 2
+ 2y2 − z2 . ) ...(ii)

∂2v
and
∂z 2
(
= x 2 + y2 + z2 ) (− x
−5 / 2 2
− y 2 + 2z 2 . ) ...(iii)

Adding (i), (ii) and (iii), we have


Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 30

∂ 2v ∂ 2v ∂ 2v
∂x 2
+
∂y 2
+
∂z 2
(
= x 2 + y2 + z 2 )
−5 / 2
(0) = 0 .

This completes the proof.

Q.No.31: If V = r m , r 2 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 , then show that

Vxx + Vyy + Vzz = m(m + 1)r m − 2 .

∂r ∂r x
Sol.: Since r 2 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ∴ 2r = 2x ⇒ =
∂x ∂x r
∂V x
Now V = r m ∴ = mr m −1. = mxr m − 2 and
∂x r
∂ 2V  ∂r   x
∴ = m r m − 2 + x (m − 2)r m −3  = m r m − 2 + x (m − 2)r m −3 
2
∂x  ∂x   r

∂ 2V

∂x 2
[
= m r m − 2 + (m − 2)x 2r m − 4 . ] ......(i)

∂ 2V
Similarly,
∂y 2
[
= m r m − 2 + (m − 2)y 2r m − 4 ] ......(ii)

∂ 2V
and
∂z 2
[
= m r m − 2 + (m − 2)z 2 r m − 4 . ] .....(iii)

Adding (i), (ii) and (iii), we get

[ ] [ ]
Vxx + Vyy + Vzz = m 3r m − 2 + (m − 2 )r 2 r m − 4 = m r m − 2 (3 + m − 2 ) = m (m + 1)r m − 2 .

This completes the proof.


Q.No.32: If u = log(tan x + tan y + tan z ) , then prove that
∂u ∂u ∂u
sin 2 x + sin 2 y + sin 2z = 2.
∂x ∂y ∂z

Sol.: Here u = log(tan x + tan y + tan z ) . ....(i)


Differentiate (i) partially w. r. t. x, y and z separately, we get
∂u sec 2 x ∂u sec 2 y ∂u sec 2 z
= , = and = .
∂x tan x + tan y + tan z ∂y tan x + tan y + tan z ∂z tan x + tan y + tan z
∂u ∂u ∂u
Now L.H.S.= sin 2 x + sin 2 y + sin 2z
∂x ∂y ∂z
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 31

1 1 1
2 sin x cos x. + 2 sin y cos y. + 2 sin z cos z.
cos 2 x cos 2 y cos 2 z
=
tan x + tan y + tan z

2(tan x + tan y + tan z )


= = 2 = R.H.S.
(tan x + tan y + tan z )
This completes the proof.

Q.No.33: If u =
(
xy x 2 − y 2 ) ; u(0,0) = 0 , show that ∂ 2u

∂ 2u
at
x=0
.
x 2 + y2 ∂x∂y ∂y∂x y=0

Sol.: For (x, y ) ≠ (0,0) , u (x, y ) =


(
xy x 2 − y 2 ) ( given ) ....(i)
x 2 + y2
Differentiating (i) partially w. r. t. x, we get

∂u
=  2
(
∂  xy x 2 − y 2 
 = y
)
∂  x 3 − xy 2 
  = y 
( )( ) (
 x 2 + y 2 3x 2 − y 2 − x 3 − xy 2 .2 x 

)
∂x ∂x  x + y 2  ∂x  x 2 + y 2  

2
x +y 2 2
( 
)
 3x 4 + 2 x 2 y 2 − y 4 − 2 x 4 + 2 x 2 y 2   x 4 + 4x 2 y2 − y4 
= y  = y 

 (
x 2
+ y 2 2
) 


 x 2
+ y (
2 2 
 )
∴ For (x, y ) ≠ (0,0) ,
∂u
= u x (x , y ) =
(
y x 4 + 4x 2 y 2 − y 4
.
) ...(ii)
∂x 2
(
x +y 2 2
)
For
∂u
(0,0) , let us consider ∂u (0,0) = Lim u (δx ,0) − u (0,0) = Lim 0 − 0 = 0 .
∂x ∂x δx → 0 δx δx → 0 δx

∂u
which exists. ∴ (0,0 ) = 0 .
∂x
∂  ∂u 
For the existence of u yx (0,0 ) , i.e.
∂y  ∂x  (0,0 )

∂  ∂u  u (0, δy ) − u x (0,0 ) − δy − 0
Consider   = Lim x = Lim = −1 , which exists.
∂y  ∂x  (0,0 ) δy → 0 δy δy → 0 δy

∂  ∂u 
∴ = −1 . ...(iii)
∂y  ∂x  (0,0 )
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 32

Again because for (x, y ) ≠ (0,0) , u (x, y ) =


(
xy x 2 − y 2 ) ( given ) ....(i)
2 2
x +y
Differentiating (i) partially w. r. t. x, we get

∂u
= 
(
∂  xy x 2 − y 2 ) = x ∂  yx 2
− y3 
 = x 
( )( ) ( )
 x 2 + y 2 x 2 − 3 y 2 − x 2 y − y 3 .2 y 

∂y ∂y  x 2 + y 2  ∂y  x 2 + y 2  

2
x +y (2 2
) 

 x 4 − 2 x 2 y 2 − 3y 4 − 2 x 2 x 2 + 2 y 4   x 4 − 4x 2 y2 − y4 
= x  = x 

 (
2
x +y 2 2
) 



2
x +y (
2 2 
 )
∴ For (x, y ) ≠ (0,0) ,
∂u
= u y (x , y ) =
(
x x 4 − 4x 2 y 2 − y 4
.
) ...(iv)
∂y x 2 + y2( 2
)
For
∂u
(0,0) , let us consider ∂u (0,0) = Lim f (0, δy ) − f (0,0) = Lim 0 − 0 = 0 .
∂y ∂y δy → 0 δy δy → 0 δy

∂u ∂  ∂u 
which exists. ∴ (0,0 ) = 0 . For the existence of u xy (0,0) , i.e.  
∂y ∂x  ∂y  (0,0 )

∂  ∂u  u y (δx,0) − u y (0,0) δx − 0
Consider   = Lim = Lim = 1 , which exists.
∂x  ∂y  (0,0 ) δx →0 δx δy →0 δx

∂  ∂u 
∴   = 1. ...(v)
∂x  ∂y  (0,0 )

∂ 2u ∂ 2u x=0
∴ From (iii) and (v), we get ≠ at .
∂x∂y ∂y∂x y=0

i.e. u yx (0,0 ) ≠ u xy (0,0 ) .

This completes the proof.


r2
− 1 ∂  2 ∂θ  ∂θ
Q.No.34: If θ = t n e 4t , find the value of n which will make r = .
r 2 ∂r  ∂r  ∂t
r2

Sol.: Given θ = t n e 4t .
r2 r2
∂θ −  2r  1 −
= t n .e 4 t . −  = − rt n −1e 4 t
∂r  4t  2
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 33

r2
∂θ 1 −
∴ r2 = − r 3.t n −1e 4t
∂r 2
 r2 r2  r2
∂  2 ∂θ  1 n −1  2 4 t−
3 4 t  2r  
− 1 n −1 2 4 t  r 2 

 r  = − t 3r e + r e  −  = − t r e 3 − 
∂r  ∂r  2   4t  2  2 t 
 
r2
1 ∂  ∂θ  1 −  r2 
∴ 2  r 2  = t n −1e 4 t  − 3 
r ∂r  ∂r  2  2t 
 
r2 r2 r2
∂θ − −  r2  −  r2 
Also = nt n −1e 4 t + t n e 4 t . 2  = t n −1e 4 t . n + 2  .
∂t  4t   4 t 
  
1 ∂  2 ∂θ  ∂θ
Since r = is given
r 2 ∂r  ∂r  ∂t
r2 r2
1 −  r2  −  r2 
∴ t n −1e 4 t . − 3  = t n −1e 4 t . n + 
2  2t   4 t 
  

r2 3 r2 3
⇒ − =n+ ∴ n = − . Ans.
4t 2 4t 2
∂ 2u ∂ 2u 1
2 2
Q.No.35: If u = f ( r ) , where r = x + y , prove that2
2
+ = f ' ' (r ) + f ' (r ) .
2
∂x ∂y r

Sol.: Given r 2 = x 2 + y 2 . (i)


∂r ∂r x
Differentiating partially w. r. t., we get 2r = 2x ⇒ =
∂x ∂x r
∂r x
Similarly, = .
∂y r
∂u ∂r x
Now u = f ( r ) ∴ = f ' (r ). = f ' (r )
∂x ∂x r
Differentiating again w. r. t. x, we get
∂2u 1  1 ∂r  x ∂r
= f ' (r ) + x. − 2
2
f ' (r ) + f ' ' (r ).
∂x r  r ∂x  r ∂x

 ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ 
∵ − ∂x (uvw ) = vw ∂x (u ) + uw ∂x (v ) + uv ∂x (w )
 
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 34

1 x x x x 1 x2 x2
= f ' (r ) − 2 . f ' (r ) + .f ' ' (r ). = f ' (r ) − 3 f ' (r ) + 2 f ' ' (r )
r r r r r r r r
r2 − x2 x2 y2 x2
= f ' (r ) + f ' ' (r ) = f ' (r ) + f ' ' (r ) [using (i)]
r3 r2 r3 r2
∂ 2u x2 y2
Similarly, = f ' (r ) + f ' ' (r )
∂y 2 r3 r2

∂2u ∂ 2u x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2 r2 r2
∴ + = f ' (r ) + f ' ' (r ) = f ' (r ) + f ' ' (r )
∂x 2 ∂y 2 r3 r2 r3 r2

∂ 2u ∂ 2u 1
2
+ = f ' ' (r ) + f ' (r ) . Hence prove.
2
∂x ∂y r

Q.No.36: If x = er cos θ cos(r sin θ ) and y = er cos θ sin(r sin θ ) ,


∂x 1 ∂y ∂y 1 ∂x
prove that = . , = . .
∂r r ∂θ ∂r r ∂θ

∂ 2x 1 ∂x 1 ∂ 2 x
Hence deduce that + + = 0.
∂r 2 r ∂r r 2 ∂θ 2

Sol.: Given x = er cos θ cos(r sin θ ) .


∂x
∴ = e r cos θ . cos θ. cos (r sin θ ) − e r cos θ .sin (r sin θ ).sin θ
∂r

= er cos θ [cos θ cos(r sin θ ) − sin θ sin(r sin θ )]

= er cos θ cos(θ + r sin θ ) (i)


∂x
= e r cos θ .(− r sin θ ). cos (r sin θ ) − e r cos θ . sin (r sin θ ).r cos θ
∂θ

= −rer cos θ [sin θ cos(r sin θ ) + cos θ sin(r sin θ )]

= −rer cos θ sin(θ + r sin θ ) (ii)

Also y = er cos θ sin(r sin θ )


∂y
= e r cos θ . cos θ.sin (r sin θ ) + e r cos θ . cos (r sin θ ). sin θ
∂r

= er cos θ [sin θ cos(r sin θ ) + cos θ sin(r sin θ )]


Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 35

= er cos θ sin(θ + r sin θ ) (iii)


∂y
= e r cos θ .(− r sin θ ).sin (r sin θ ) + e r cos θ . cos (r sin θ ).r cos θ
∂θ

= rer cos θ [cos θ cos(r sin θ ) − sin θ sin(r sin θ )]

= rer cos θ cos(θ + r sin θ ) (iv)


∂x 1 ∂y
From (i) and (iv), we get = .
∂r r ∂θ
(v)
∂y 1 ∂x
From (ii) and (iii), we get =− . (vi)
∂r r ∂θ

∂ 2x
1 ∂y 1 ∂ 2 y
From (v), we get 2 = − 2 . + .
∂r r ∂θ r ∂r∂θ
∂x ∂y
From(vi), we get = −r
∂θ ∂r

∂ 2x
∂2y ∂2y
∴ 2 = −r = −r
∂θ ∂r∂θ ∂r∂θ

∂ 2x 1 ∂x 1 ∂ 2 x 1 ∂y 1 ∂ 2 y 1 ∂y 1 ∂ 2 y
+ + 2 2 = − 2. + . + . − . = 0.
∂r 2 r ∂r r ∂θ r ∂θ r ∂r∂θ r 2 ∂θ r ∂r∂θ


(x − a )2
1 4y
Q.No.37: Prove that if f ( x , y) = .e , then f xy = f yx .
y
2

(x − a )2 1 − (x −a )
1 −
4y 2 .e 4y
Sol.: Given f ( x , y) = .e =y .
y

1 (x −a )2
∂f − −
4y ∂  (x − a )2 
fx = = y 2 .e . − 
∂x ∂x  4 y 
2
1 − (x − a ) 3 (x − a )2
−  2 (x − a )  1 − −
=y 2 .e 4y
. −  =− y 2 (x − a ).e 4y
 4y  2
2 2
3 − (x − a ) 1 − (x −a )
∂f 1 −
4y

4y ∂  (x − a )2 
fy = =− y 2 .e +y 2 .e . − 
∂y 2 ∂y  4 y 
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 36

(x −a )2  3 1 2 3 − (x − a )
2

1 − −
= e 4 y .− y 2 + y 2 .
(x − a )  = 1 y 2 .e 4 y − 2 + y−1(x − a )2

[ ]
 2 4y2  4
 

∂  ∂f 
f xy =  
∂x  ∂y 

3  − (x − a ) 
2
(x − a )2
∂  (x − a )2  −
1
= y
4

2 e

4y
. −
∂x  4 y 
[ −1
. − 2 + y (x − a ) + e
2
] 4y −1 
.2 y (x − a )
 
 
2
3 − (x − a )
 2(x − a ) 
=
1
y

2 .e 4y
− [ ]
− 2 + y −1 (x − a )2 + 2 y −1 (x − a )
4  4y 
2
3 − (x − a )
=
1
4
y

2 .e 4y
.
x−a 1
y  2
−1
[ 2 
− − 2 + y (x − a ) + 2

]
5 (x −a )2
1 − −  (x − a )2 
= y 2 (x − a ).e 4y
3 − .
4  2 y 

 5 − (x − a )
2
3 − (x −a )
2
2
f yx
∂  ∂f  1  3 2−
=   = − (x − a )− y .e 4y

+ y 2 .e 4 y
.
( x − a ) 
∂y  ∂x  2

2 4 y 
2

5 (x −a )2
1 − −  (x − a )2 
= − (x − a ).y 2 .e 4y
 − 3 + 
4  2 y 

5 (x −a )2
1 − −  (x − a )2 
= y 2 (x − a ).e 4y
3 − .
4  2 y 

Hence f xy = f yx .

NEXT TOPIC
Partial Differentiation: Partial Differential Coefficient Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 37

Homogeneous Functions and Euler’s Theorem

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