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Chemistry for Geologists

1.Introduction, basic definitions. Physical and chemical properties, quantities, units of

measurement. Basic chemical and physical rules. Nomenclature. Basic calculations.
2.The structure of the atom, the nucleus, radioactivity, nuclear reactions. Electronic structure
of the atom, Bohr's theory of the hydrogen atom.
3.Multielectronic atoms, quantum numbers and quantum theory, periodic relationship among
the elements, periodic table, electron configuration.
4.Chemical bonding, electronegativity, polarity of the chemical bonding, hybridization,
molecular geometry, polarization, intermolecular interactions.
5.States of matter, crystals and types of crystals. Isomorphy, polymorphy.
6.Chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, equilibrium.
7.Solutions, electrolytes, acid-base equilibria, hydrolysis, solubility, redox processes, phase
8.Periodic table, metals, nonmetallic elements. s1 and s2 elements. Hydrogen.
9.p elements. (carbon, silicon, aluminium, silicates).
10.p elements. (chalcogens, halogens).
11.Transition metals, coordination chemistry, crystallohydrates. Nomenclature of the
coordination compounds.
12.Lantanides and actinides.

Mathematics 1
1. Standard functions and their plots: Real numbers, powers, inequalities. Trigonometric
functions. Inverse functions. Exponential, logarithmic and hyperbolic functions. Geometric
2. Differentiation: Definition and notation of derivative. Derivatives of standard functions.
Higher-order derivatives.
3. Taylor series and approximations: The index notation for derivatives. Taylor polynomials
and expansions. l'Hopital's rule.
4. Complex numbers: Complex numbers in exponential form.
5. Matrix algebra: Rules of matrix algebra. Special matrices.
6. Determinants: Properties of determinants.
7. Vectors: Position vectors and vector equations. Unit vectors and basis vectors. Tangent
vector, velocity and acceleration vectors.
8. Scalar product: Rotation of axes in two and three dimensions. Direction cosines.. General
equation of a straight line. Curvature in two dimensions.
9. Vector product: Definition and interpretation of vector product. Vector triple product.
10. Linear algebraic equations: Cramer's rule. Homogeneous sets of equations. Gauss-Seidel iterative method of solution.

11. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors: Eigenvalues of a matrix. Eigenvectors. Diagonalization of

a matrix.
12. Definite and indefinite integrals: Sum formula and its numerical illustration. Definite
integral and area. Indefinite-integral notation. Improper integrals. Definite integrals with
variable limits.

Mineralogy 1
1. Introduction to mineralogy - definition of minerals and their naming, history and economic
2. Physical properties of minerals in hand specimen - form, habit, lustre, colour, streak. Other
properties depending on light - transparency, translucency, opaque minerals and
3. Other physical properties - cleavage, parting, fracture, hardness, specific gravity,
magnetism, radioactivity and piezoelectricity.
4. Internal order and symmetry - symmetry elements, crystallographic axes and system,
selected point groups.
5. Crystallization of minerals - stability, polymorphism, exsolutions, metamict minerals.
6. Crystal chemistry - bonding, coordination, structure, composition variations, graphic
presentations of mineral composition.
7. Optical microscopy - polarizing light, nature of light, polarizing microscope.
8. Determination of minerals in polarizing light - isotropic, anisotropic, uniaxial and biaxial
minerals in polarizing light.
9. Uniaxial and biaxial minerals between crossed polars - extinction, interference colour,
accessory plates and symptoms of elongation.
10. Uniaxial and biaxial minerals in convergent polarized light, optic sign, apparent optic
11. Optical properties of opaque minerals - reflecting light microscope.
12. Determination of crystal structure and composition - selected analytical methods.

Palaeontology and Palaeoecology

1. Palaeontology terminology, general information;
2. Palaeoecology aims and position of field of study, autecology, synecology,
palaeoenvironments, primary production, trophic level and biodiversity, population dynamics,
diversity and systematic assemblage analysis;
3. Importance of fossils in stratigraphy (biostratigraphy, cyclostratigraphy, eventostratigraphy
and sequence stratigraphy);
4. Facies analysis - macro and microfossils utilization in palaeoecology, palaeobiogeography,
biostratigraphy, palaeoceanography and palaeoclimatology;
5. Palaeontology of Invertabrates I (Protozoa Sarcodinia, Ciliophora, Metazoa Poriphera,
Archaeocyatha, Metazoa Cnidaria, Acnidaria, Annelida, Arthropoda) Characteristics,

function morphology, fossil potential composition of skeletal elements or tests, systematics,

geological, stratigraphical and ecological potential;
6. Palaeontology of Invertebrates II (Metazoa Mollusca, Bryozoa, Brachiopoda,
Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Conodonta) Characteristics, function morphology, fossil
potential - composition of skeletal elements or shells, systematics, geological, stratigraphical
and ecological potential;
7. Palaeontology of Vertebrates overview of vertebrates evolution, impact to
biostratigraphy, palaeobiography and palaeoecology;
8. Palaeobotany, definition, taxonomy, rock-forming activity of algae;
9. Overview of fossil flora phylogeny and stratigraphical index taxons of plants;
10. Palynology, pollen analysis methods of pollen analytical data selection and collection;
11. Fossil flora and pollens tools for stratigraphy, palaeoenvironmental and
palaeoclimatological interpretations.

Geology 1
1. Introduction to Physical Geology.
2. Earth in Space. 3. The Earths interior.
3. Energy of geological processes.
4. Chemical and mineralogical composition of the Earths crust.
5. Magmatism.
6. Volcanism and extrusive rocks.
7. Sedimentation origin of sediments.
8. Metamorphism.
9. Time and Geology.
10. Weathering, soils and morphology.
11. Landslides and earthquakes.

Physics for Geologists

1. Mechanics: path, velocity and acceleration, free fall, rotational motion, Coriolis force,
Newtons laws of motion.
2. Newtons law of gravity, gravitational potential, basic laws of Kepler.
3. Energy and power, various kinds of energy, the law of energy conservation.
4. physical properties of gases, molecular kinetic theory of matter, state quantities, ideal gas.
5. Processes in ideal gases, thermodynamic equilibrium, reversible processes,
thermodynamic cycle of Carnot.
6. Thermodynamic notion of phase, Gibbss phase rule, evaporation, melting, freezing,
sublimation, phase transitions, phase diagram of water ice.

7. Internal structure of solids, binding forces in crystalline solids, mechanical properties of

solids, notions of strain and stress, the stress tensor, the Hookes law, stress-strain diagram,
crystalline defects.
8. Flow of liquids and gases, viscosity of liquids and gases, the viscous coefficients, the
laminar and turbulent flow, Bernoullis equation, Navier-Stokes equations, the theory of
9. Basic electromagnetism, polarization of dielectrics, electrostatic induction, system of
Maxwell's equations, Lorentz force, magnetic induction, electromagnetic field.
10. Electric and magnetic phenomena in technical praxis.
11. Use of electromagnetic phenomena in geology.

English 1
The purpose of this course is :
to introduce students to the content of Earth Sciences
to provide examples of authentic texts typical of the subject
to help students practise the skills they will need in order to study the subject via English
and to use it when they have learned it
Mathematics 2
1. Introduction to vectors and matrices in linear algebra.
2. Matrix transformations.
3. The determinants and their properties, systems of linear equations.
4. Important forms of matrices, accompanying vector spaces. The eigenvalues and
5. The vector projections application of matrix methods in statistics.
6. The general recapitulation, questions and answers.
7. Basics of the theory of probability. Random experiments. Probability. Frequency and
statistical probability of the phenomenon. conditional probability. Independence of random
experiments. Bayes' theorems.
8. Concept of random variables. Discrete and continuous random variable. Probability
distribution. Cumulative distribution function and probability density function. Random
variable, random choice, relation to statistics.
9. Examples of the probability distributions. Quantitative characteristics of the random
variables, measure of location, measure of statistical dispersion, measure of the shape.
10. Law of large numbers and limit theorems. Normal distribution. Parameters of the normal
11. Simple statistical set. Statistical distribution functions. Quantitative characteristics of the
statistical distribution. Determining the probability distribution. Using the data.
12. Point estimation. Confidence intervals for parameters of the normal distribution. Testing
statistical hypotheses. Nonparametric hypotheses tests. Correlation and regression.

Geology 2
1. Precipitation and morphology.
2. Ground water.
3. Karst geology.
4. Rivers.
5. Lakes.
6. Waves, beaches and coasts.
7. Glaciers and glaciation.
8. Deserts and wind action.
9. Geological structures.
10. Earthquakes.
11. Plate tectonics.
12. Orogenesis and mountain belts.
Mineralogy 2
1. Introduction to the study of minerals; economic importance of minerals, diagnostic features
of minerals. Mineral reactions; origin in an igneous regime, under metamorphic condition and
in a weathering environment.
2. Mineral classification; systematic descriptions of minerals physical properties,
composition, diagnostic features, occurrence, use. Native elements. Diamond synthesis.
3. Physical properties, composition, diagnostic features, occurrence and use of sulphides,
sulphosalts. Veins and vein mineralization, sulphide minerals as ores and as mining related
4. Physical properties, composition, diagnostic features, occurrence and use of oxides,
hydroxides. Ore minerals for the steel industry. Bauxite.
5. Physical properties, composition, diagnostic features, occurrence and use of halides,
carbonates, nitrates, borates. Evaporite minerals.
6. Physical properties, composition, diagnostic features, occurrence and use of sulphates,
chromates, tungstates, molybdates, phosphates, arsenates and vanadates. The source of
chemicals in fertilizers.
7. Classification and physical properties, composition, diagnostic features, occurrence and
use of rock-forming silicates; nesosilicates.
8. Physical properties, composition, diagnostic features, occurrence and use of sorosilicates,
cyclosilicates and inosilicates. The two most common crustal rock types: basalt and granite.
9.Physical properties, composition, diagnostic features,
phyllosilicates. Clay minerals and some of their applications.





10. Physical properties, composition, diagnostic features, occurrence and use of

tectosilicates. I0. Mineral dust in the environment.
11. Physical properties, composition, diagnostic features, occurrence and use of
tectosilicates. II. Minerals in pegmatites. Zeolites and their many unique properties.
12. Gem minerals. Gem qualifications, important gems, determination. Synthetic and treated

Physics of the Earth

1.Gravity field and the Earths figure, geoid; the Earths rotation and its relations to geological
2.The Earths magnetic field and palaeomagnetism.
3.The Earths thermal history, the internal heat and heat transfer.
4.Seismic waves; Physical background of earthquakes and other tectonic phenomena;
physical arguments for New Global Tectonics.
5.Stresses and strains.
6.Hookes Law; Modeling of states of stresses and strains after erosion, sedimentation,.
7.Elasticity and flexure.
8.Flexural phenomena in Lithosphere.
9.Fluid mechanics in geological applications; 1-D flows.
10.2-D flows; 2-D continuity equation, 2-D Navier-Stokes equation of motion.
11.Fluid mechanics models of some geological phenomena: postglacial rebound, diapirism,
12Thermal convection basic explanation of tectonics of the Earth and planets
1. Basic information on subject and scientific discipline, evolution of geomorphology, its basic
paradigms, theories, conceptions.
2. Definition and importance of basic morphometric characteristics, morphographicmorphometric relief types, hierarchy of landforms.
3. Geomorphic conditions and factors, processes and landforms principles of
geomorphological systematics.
4. Geomorphosystems systemic approach to investigation of geomorphic processes and
5. Investigation and mapping of geomorphic processes general principles.
6. Investigation and mapping of geomorphic processes on the example of runoff processes.
7. Investigation and mapping of landforms general principles.
8. Complex geomorphological mapping.
9. Geomorphological information system.
10. Geomorphic response to environmental changes in the landscape.
11. Georelief and assessment of natural hazards and potentials.
12. Regional geomorphology of Slovakia.

Geochemical Thermodynamics
1. State and non-state quantities; Laws and relationships for ideal gases.
2. Real gases and equations of state for real gases; P-V isotherms of real gases and critical
phenomena; Corresponding state theory; Thermodynamic system and surrounding;
Reversible and irreversible processes.
3. First and second law of thermodynamics and combined first and second law; Application
on main (geo)chemical processes.
4. Gibbs free energy as a criteria for equilibria of mineral reactions and for stability of mineral
phases at fixed conditions; Effects of temperature and pressure on enthalpy and entropy.
5. Phase equilibria in simple mineral systems; How to understand and read phase diagrams
(what is liquidus, solidus, solvus or lever rule?).
6. Effects of temperature and pressure on Gibbs free energy and calculations of simple
phase P-T diagrams for mineral reactions.
7. Brief introduction to thermodynamics of ideal solutions (partial molal quantities, GibbsDuhem equation, mixing functions).
8. Real solutions (fugacity f, activity a); Electrolyte theory (ionic strength I, activity
coefficients, consequences of ionic dissociation, equations for activity coefficients e.g.
Debye-Hckel equation, Davies and Truesdell-Jones equations); Activity coefficients in
highly concentrated natural solutions, such as sea waters, hydrothermal solutions, brines,
9. Equilibrium constant; Temperature dependence of equilibrium constant (e.g. calcite
solubility with temperature); Pressure dependence of equilibrium constant (e.g. quartz
solubility with pressure); Compositional dependence of equilibrium constant (e.g. equilibrium
between jadeite + quartz = albite).
10. Application of the equilibrium constant in solving different geochemical processes (pH of
acid rain, Ion-activity product IAP as an index of saturation degree in water solutions, stability
diagrams for minerals as a function of composition); Fundamentals of geothermobarometry
as a tool for determination of temperature-pressure conditions under which rocks are formed.
11. Redox equilibria; Electrochemical conventions (electrode reactions in the Daniell cell,
standard hydrogen electrode, standard electrode potential E); The Nernst equation, pe
12. pe-pH diagrams (construction of pe-pH diagrams, what do pe-pH diagrams tell us?);
Significance of pe-pH diagrams in solving environmental problems.

English 2
The purpose of this course is:
to introduce students to the content of Earth Sciences
to provide examples of authentic texts typical of the subject
to help students practise the skills they will need in order to study the subject via English
and to use it when they have learned it

Exploration, Mining, Drilling

Requirements for mining works. Methods of prospecting: geological, mineralogical,
geochemical. Geophysical investigation methods. Parameters and methods of mineral
resources calculation. Subsurface workings - shafts, mine adits, inlined shafts, chutes, trial
pits, boreholes. Requirements for geological works. Sampling, geological documentation,
laboratory works. Surface workings - quarries, surface stopes, prospecting pits, furrows,
boreholes. Drilling engineering - fundamental drilling methods, fundamental parameters and
drilling rigs components. Shallow Drilling investigation works - engineering, hydrogeological,
dewatering. Deep drilling investigation works - structural, geothermal, oil prospection.
Design, management and evaluation of drilling works.

1. Introduction to hydrogeology position of the subject within the system of geological
sciences, main research topics, internal division.
2. Subsurface hydrosphere groundwater origin, various classifications.
3. Groundwater regime and regime affecting factors endogeneous, exogeneous, relatively
static, dynamic.
4. Groundwater movement in the rock environment hydraulic parameters of the rock
environment, aquifers, aquitard, aquiclude, Darcy's law.
5. Hydrogeological structures they parts, types and classification. Spring occurrence and
6. Base flow definition and methods of estimation.
7. Factors and processes influencing qualitative properties of groundwater precipitation,
surface streams, soil, rock environment itself, gases, organic matters.
8. Physical properties and chemical composition of groundwater chemical analyses and
their parts, most frequent ions present in groundwater.
9. Mineral and geothermal waters occurrence, properties, importance.
10. Hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in hard rock
environment granitic, metamorphic, neovolcanic effusive rocks.
11. Hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in sedimentary
rock environment carbonatic rock environment, Palaeogene sedimentary rocks in IntraMountainous Depressions and Outer Flysch Belt, Neogene sedimentary complexes,
groundwater in different types of Quaternary sediments.
12. Basic water quantity and quality legislation (Slovakia, Europe)

Principles of Engineering Geology

1. Engineering geology (definition, scope) and the relation to other geological sciences.
2. Rocks classification for engineering purposes. Soils, their properties, laboratory and field
3. Hard and semisolid (soft) rocks properties. Rock mass and rock material properties.
Laboratory and field testing.

4. Groundwater, the role in engineering geological site assessment. Relief, forms and the
role in engineering geological site assessment.
5. Endogenous geological processes (seismicity, volcanic activity, neotectonic movements)
and their engineering importance.
6. Exogenous geological processes (weathering, erosion, piping-suffosion) and their
engineering importance, mitigation measures.
7. Exogenous geological processes (swelling, shrinkage, collapsibility, karst) and their
engineering importance, mitigation measures.
8.. Landslides, types, hazard assessment, mitigation measures.
9. Engineering geology in urban development. Foundation ground, foundations. Site
assessment according to Slovak (EU) Standards.
10. Urban constructions in different engineering geological environs.
11. Engineering geology in transportation engineering. Relief and the influence on
transportation routes. Engineering geological investigation related to optimum route

Hydrology and Hydroclimatology

1. Introduction to hydrology main research topics, internal division, research methods.
2. Precipitation classification, measurement, evaluation.
3. Evaporation and transpiration classification, measurement, evaluation.
4. Runoff compounds, conditioning factors, catchment characteristics.
5. Surface runoff parameters, measurement, and evaluation.
6. Surface-groundwater runoff relations.
7. Hydrological balance, the air-land water systems.
8. Introduction to hydroclimatology, global atmospheric circulation.
9. Worlds climate zones, space-time dependences, scales.
10. Weather patterns and hydrological extremes.
11. Climate change scenarios.
12. Climate change and water resources.

Mineral Deposits
1. Definitions of mineral deposits; basic types of the deposits: geological, commodity and
economy viewpoints.
2. Plate tectonics and origin of mineral deposits: continental rift-related processes.
3. Plate tectonics and origin of mineral deposits: subduction processes.
4. Plate tectonics and origin of mineral deposits: oceanic crust and mantle processes.
5. Mineral deposits and sedimentary processes.
6. Mineral deposits and weathering.
7. Origin of mineral deposits during Earths evolution
8. Selected mineral deposits: Au, Cu, Pt, Nb, Ta, REE.
9. Selected mineral deposits: Fe, Mn, Al, U.

10. Selected mineral deposits: industrial minerals.

11. Selected mineral deposits: coal, oil and natural gas.
Petrography of Sedimentary Rocks
1. Basic concepts and methodology, sedimentary environments and facies, mineral
components of sediments, global sediment discharge and earth recycling.
2. Environmental fluids dynamics and transport of sedimentary particles: siliciclastic
sediments I. conglomerates and breccias, sedimentary and non-sedimentary environment
and practical utilization.
3. Water-rock interactions, chemical and physical breakdown of catchments rocks:
siliciclastic sediments II. Sandstones, mudrocks and sedimentary environment and
practical utilization.
4. The inorganic and organic precipitation of sediments I.: carbonate sediments and
carbonate system in the oceans, dolomites, their sedimentary environment and practical
5. The inorganic and organic precipitation of sediments II.: evaporites, phosphates and
siliceous sediments, their sedimentary environment and practical utilization.
6. Diagenetic processes and lithification: formation of iron and manganese deposits, modern
and ancient organic deposits and genetic aspects.
7. Volcanoclastic deposits, hydrothermal alteration and diagenesis, practical utilization.
8. External controls on sediment derivation: climate and sedimentary processes, sea level
change and sedimentary sequences, tectonic control of sedimentation and provenance.
9. -12. Sedimentary rocks and volcanoclastic rocks under microscope.

Structural Geology
General part: introduction to structural geology, principles and aspects of deformational
processes. Systematic part: description of brittle deformations, semi-ductile and ductile
structures, non-tectonic deformational structures. Brief review of primary magmatic and
sedimentary structures focused on way up interpretation in stratified sequences.

Petrography of Magmatic and Metamorphic Rocks

1. Typical geodynamic environments of magmatic activity. Crustal and mantle sources of
magmatic melts origin of magmatic rocks. Physical characteristics and mechanical
behaviour of magmatic melts generation, rise and emplacement. Nomenclature of
magmatic rocks.
Applied Geophysics
1. Applied geophysics, definition, the role of geophysics in the frame of other geologic and
fundamental disciplines, exploitation of geophysical methods. Geothermal methods.
2.-4. Electrical and electromagnetic methods, review and principles of application of
geoelectric methods and their exploitation in geology.
5.-6. Seismic methods, review and principles of application of seismic methods and their
exploitation in geology.

7. Magnetic methods, review and principles of application of magnetic methods and their
exploitation in geology.
8. Gravimetric methods, review and principles of application of gravimetric methods and their
exploitation in geology.
9.-10. Radiometric methods and methods of nucleus geophysics, review and principles of
application of radiometric methods and their exploitation in geology.
11.-12. Geophysical methods in wells and integrated application of geophysical methods.
1. Geochemical research methods and presentation of geochemical information and data,
basic topic of study in geochemistry. Sampling principles of natural materials, chemical
composition of natural materials. Fundamental analytical methods applied in modern
2. Chemical elements in natural materials: nuclear properties of elements, nuclear reactions,
nucleosynthesis and distribution of chemical elements in the Cosmos, Solar system,
meteorites and planets.
3. Chemical properties and fractionation of chemical elements.
4. Chemical elements in geological processes: geochemical classifications of chemical
5. Fundamentals of isotopic geochemistry: geochemistry of stable isotopes, radiogenic
isotopes and cosmogenic isotopes.
6. Geochemical characterization of the Earth: composition of the Earths Core, Mantle,
oceanic crust and continental crust.
7. Evolution of the Earths chemical composition: differentiation and recycling, geochemical
cycles of chemical elements.
8. Geochemistry of hydrosphere and atmosphere: origin and chemical composition.
9. Weathering - chemical weathering reactions and chemical elements in weathering.
10. Biogeochemistry - chemical elements in biogenic processes, geochemically relevant
biochemical processes, organic mass in soils, waters and sediments, geochemistry of coal
and petroleum.
11. Anthropogenic influence on composition of natural materials: global anthropogenic
problems and local anthropogenic impacts.
12. Practical application of geochemistry in the mineral deposit exploration and environment.

Landuse Planning Management

1. Land use vs commercial reality. Principles of landuse planning process in Slovakia.
2. Mineral resources management. Economic minerals. Construction resources.
3. Water resources occurrence, evaluation and management.
4. Threats for groundwater quantity and quality. Basic principles of groundwater protection.
5. Mapping for planning development. Thematic maps. Geohazards and risk maps.
6. GIS derived maps for planning purposes.

7. Waste management. Maps for waste disposal site location.

8. Water site investigation and site operation.
9. Sludge, mine tailing, ash fly repositories, radioactive waste.
10. Environmental monitoring (rocks and soils).
11. Environmental monitoring (water, agricultural soil).
12. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).

Methods of Field Geological Research

Procedures of field observation and documentation, collecting and evaluation of rock
samples and structural data, mapping of lithological and tectonic units, compilation of
geological maps and construction of geological sections, analyzing of geological evolution
from geological maps.
1. Introduction to cartography, maps, map projections, history, map scales, coding of map
2. Topographic maps, the ways of visualization of topgraphic surface in maps, introduction to
geomorphology, map symbols, cartographic and geographic coordinates in maps
3. Localization of point in map, description of GPS technology
4. The cut of plane through the topographic surface, constroction of topographic profile
5. Construction of geological boundaries from structural measurements and three points
6. Geological maps, construction of geological cross sections
7. Etaps of geological mapping, official rules of geological mapping performed by state
8. Styles of geological architecture in gaeological maps
9. Explanations to geological maps, lithostratigraphic column
10. Final mapping report
11. Introduction to geology and tectonics of area mapped during the Field course of
geological mapping
12. Application of modern techniques and technologies in edition of geological maps (GIS)

Historical and Stratigraphical Geology

1. Introduction to stratigraphical and historical geology what is historical geology, overview
of its evolution, principal rules of stratigraphy and stratigraphic terms. Methods of dating
relative and absolute age of rocks.
2. Stratigraphic scales - chronostratigraphic and regional lithostratigraphic units,
biostratigraphic units, principle of stratotypes, methods of stratal correlation. Facies analysis
division of facies, distinguishing facies in fossil state.
3. Palaeoclimatology, palaeomagnetics, palaeogeography, recapitulation of principles of the
plate tectonics. The oldest stages of the Earths evolution, evolution of the atmosphere,
geological aspects of the life origin.
4. Beginning of the systematic part - Precambrian - division, life in Precambrian, Earths crust
evolution in Precambrian, classical areas with Precambrian rock occurrences. Cambrian division, main fossils, palaeogeography, climate, tectonic processes and regional overview.
5. Ordovician - division, main fossils, palaeogeography, climate, tectonic processes and
regional overview. Silurian - division, main fossils, palaeogeography, climate, tectonic
processes and regional overview.
6. Devonian - division, main fossils, palaeogeography, climate, tectonic processes and
regional overview. Carboniferous - division, main fossils, palaeogeography, climate, tectonic
processes and regional overview.
7. Permian - division, main fossils, palaeogeography, climate, tectonic processes and
regional overview. Mesozoic - Triassic - division, main fossils, palaeogeography, climate,
tectonic processes and regional overview of the Germanic Triassic. Overview of the
geological structure of the Alps and the Western Carpathians and Triassic of the AlpineCarpathian system and the rest of the world.
8. Jurassic - division, main fossils, palaeogeography, climate, tectonic processes. Jurassic regional overview.
9. Cretaceous - division, main fossils, palaeogeography, climate, tectonic processes.
Cretaceous regional overview.
10. Tertiary - Palaeogene - division, main fossils, palaeogeography, climate, tectonic
processes. Palaeogene - regional overview.
11. Neogene - division, main fossils, palaeogeography, climate, tectonic processes. Neogene
regional overview.
12. Quaternary.

1. The use of Word editor at intermediate level.
2-3.Tabular data processing with Excel at intermediate level.
4.Presentation of results with PowerPoint software at intermediate level.
5.The basics of database systems.
6-7. Utilisation of database Access.
8.The basics of graphics.
9.The creation of graphs (GS Grapher).
10.The creation of 2D maps (GS Surfer).
11.Digitalisation of maps (GS Surfer, GS Didger).
12. The creation of 3D maps (GS Surfer, GS Voxler).

Basic geological forms, mineral resources, hydrogeological phenomena, karst bodies and
karstic springs, weathering forms, natural and man-induced hazards and their impact on the

Field Course of Geological Mapping

It comprises: geological mapping of limited field area supervised by instructor, interpretation
of geological structure in the mapped area. Cameral works: compilation and edition of own
geological map, construction of geological profiles and compilation of mapping report are
included in the course. Defence of geological map and report checked by a pedagogical
commission at the end of the course.

Geology of the Western Carpathians

1. Introduction, purpose of the course, literature, boundaries and regional-geologic and
tectonic division of the Western Carpathians, definition of principal tectonic units;
2. Internal Western Carpathians, Transdanubian, Bkk and Slan Belts (Slovak Karst Mts.),
Zempln Mts.;
3. Central Western Carpathians, tectonic superunits, pre-Alpine basement complexes,
Gemer Belt;
4. Central Western Carpathians, Vepor Belt;
5. Central Western Carpathians, Tatra-Fatra Belt;
6. Central Western Carpathians, Tatra-Fatra Belt (Povask Inovec and Mal Karpaty Mts.),
geological structure of the Alpine-Carpathian junction;
7. Povaie-Pieniny Belt, Klippen Zone;
8. External Western Carpathians, Magura Belt;
9. External Western Carpathians, Silesian-Krosno Belt, Carpathian Foredeep;
10. Central Carpathian and North Hungarian Palaeogene Basins;
11. Neogene Basins of the Pannonian basin system: Vienna, Danube and East Slovakian
12. Neogene volcanics.

Engineering Properties of Rocks

1. Classification of rocks in engineering geology. Genetic dependence of rock properties.
Terms and definitions.
2. Rock mass and rock material. Sampling. Point and general values of rock properties
3. Identification and description of rock (identification, colour, fabric, grade of weathering,
carbonate content, stability in water, strength).
4. Physical properties of rocks, methodology of their determination in the laboratory.
5. Strength and deformation properties of rocks, methodology of their determination in the
6. Rock mass. Description (general, structure, discontinuities, block shapes). Weathering of
rock masses and their groundwater conditions. Confrontation of Slovak technical standard
STN 72 1001 and the international one EN ISO 14 689-1.
7. Properties of rocks important for their using in construction and as a building stone.
8. Identification and description of soils.
9. Physical properties of soils and methodology of their determination in the laboratory.
10. Properties of soils in contact with water.
11. Deformation properties of soils, methodology of their determination in the laboratory.
12. Strength properties of soils, methodology of their determination in the laboratory.
13. Technical properties of soils.

Groundwater Hydraulics
Properties of liquids. Aquifer properties. Groundwater flow. Boundary conditions of
groundwater flow. Hydrodynamic tests - steady flow. Hydrodynamic tests - unsteady flow.
Evaluation of pumping tests with boundary conditions. Evaluation of recovery and recharge
tests. Well systems. Groundwater modeling. Migration in groundwater.
Geophysical Survey Methods
1.Principles of the field geophysical works, measuring networks: density, orientation, classes
of measuring networks; ground, aircraft, satellite, and underground (mines, wells)
geophysical measurements. Procedures of the field geothermic methods, principles of
geothermic instruments construction.
2-4.Procedures of the field geoelectric methods, principles of geoelectric instruments
5-6.Procedures of the field seismic methods, principles of seismic instruments construction.
7.Procedures of the field magnetic methods, principles of magnetic instruments construction.
8.Procedures of the field gravimetric methods, principles of gravimetric instruments
9-10.Procedures of the field radiometric methods, principles of radiometric instruments
11-12.Procedures of the field well-log geophysical methods, principles of instruments

Methods of Hydrogeological Investigation

Designation of hydrogeological works. Hydrogeological mapping - field measurements,
documentation and evaluation. Preparation of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical maps.
Fundamentals of digital maps production and GIS. Utilization of GIS in hydrogeology.
Groundwater budget, interpretation of outflow and depletion curves. Non-standard estimation
of hydraulic parameters for regional investigation. Hydrogeological wells - locating of
investigation working and well-drilling methods. Hydrogeological wells - hydrogeological wells
construction. Project, types and pumping tests evaluation. Geophysical methods in
hydrogeology. Groundwater protection and proposal of protection zones. Realization of
hydrogeological works.

Geohazards Mitigation
1.Socio-economic significance of geohazards, terminology.
2.The most frequent geohazards and their classification.
3. Recent tectonics and earthquakes, earthquake forecasting, risk mitigation.
4. Volcanic activity, prediction of volcanic activity, risk mitigation.
5. Slope movements and the causes of their generation.
6. Landslide prevention and remedial measures.
7. River and wind erosion, floods, river and erosion control.
8. Piping, liquefaction, dissolution of rocks, prevention and remediation.
9. Coastal processes (abrasion) and coastal protection.
10. Volume changes in expansive soils, collapse in loess, remediation and corrective
11. Ground subsidence and roof collapse of cavities, remedial measures.
12. Evaluation and interpretation of geohazards in various hazard maps, GIS tools in hazard

Basin Analysis and Geology of Mountain Belts

1) Basin opening in various geodynamical settings, sedimentary facies of basins infill.
2) Architecture of basin infill, seismostratigraphy, basic knowledge of reflex time lines
processing and interpretation related to kinematical corrections, amplification, summarisation
and migration.
3) Depositional systems, various transport mechanisms of deposits, sequence stratigraphy.
4) Field and laboratory methods used for basin structures study; application to oil geology.
5) Subsidence history and organic matter maturation.
6) Geological aspects of sedimentary organic matter study, basic terminology.
7) Geological environment in relation to origin, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons.
8) Geodynamic types of orogens; construction of orogens.

9) Orogen structural-tectonic levels pre-Variscan, Variscan, Alpine.

10) Mountain forming processes in pre-collision and in collision stage of an orogen evolution.
11) Collapse of orogens in late- to post-collision evolution stage; crust-mantle interaction and
12) Field and laboratory investigation methods in geology of collision orogens.

Groundwater Chemistry
1. Basic terminology. Water chemical analysis, units of analysis. Water chemical
composition, factors influencing water chemical composition. Sources of groundwater
matters composition.
2. Ways of chemical composition succeeding. Graphical methods, hydrogeochemical maps,
maps of natural water quality. Classification of groundwater chemical composition.
Groundwater genetic types.
3. Rain water, surface water and groundwater sampling.
4. Chemical composition of atmosphere, rain water and their influence on surface and
5. Chemical composition of surface water and their influence on groundwater.
6. Chemical composition of groundwater containing petrogenic mineralization and dissolved
solids of surface water origin.
7. Basic processes of water chemical composition creation (gases dissolution, minerals
dissolution, carbonates and sulphates dissolution).
8. Basic processes of water chemical composition creation (silicate weathering, sorption and
ion exchange, oxidation and reduction, mixing of waters).
9. Natural waters composition (main components, secondary components, main ions,
secondary ions, gases, microbiological composition, new legislation.
10. Trace elements in waters. Organic compounds in waters. Standards, orders and
regulations for surface water and groundwater.
11. Natural mineral waters and natural healing waters and legislation in force.
12. Environmental isotopes in waters.

Environmental Geochemistry of Pollutants

1. Chemical oxidative weathering acid mine drainages and their environmental impacts.
2. Reductive dissolution of rocks and minerals consequences for soil and water pollution.
3 and 4. Adsorption and desorption of heavy metals in soils and sediments theory, effects
of soil properties on adsorption and desorption and environmental implications (e.g.
5. Adsorption and desorption of metalloids in soils and sediments.
6. Dredging of the bottom sediments from rivers and water reservoirs and its environmental

7 and 8. Factors affecting sorption-desorption behaviour of organic pollutants in soils and

9. Bioconcentration of organic pollutants in lipid water systems.
10. Uptake of organic pollutants by plants from soil and water.
11. Biological degradation of organic pollutants in soil water systems.
12. Combining sorption and degradation to assess leaching potential and water pollution by
organic chemicals.

Methods of Engineering Geological Investigation

1. Introduction, factors influencing the selection of investigation methods, difference between
regional engineering geological investigation and site investigation.
2. Engineering geological maps. Definitions, classification, basic principles of geologic data
interpretation in different map types.
3. Geoenvironmental maps. Definitions, classification, basic principles of geologic data
interpretation in different map types.
4. Preparations for mapping, preliminary data acquisition and retrieval data sources,
5. Field reconnaissance and observation of geologic phenomena.
6. Visual field identification, description and sampling of rocks and soils according to
technical standards.
7. Preparation of engineering geological maps and application of GIS tools in engineering
geological mapping.
8. Geophysical exploration for engineering geological investigation. Subsurface
investigations: major uses in engineering geology, location, boring and sampling methods
overview. 9. Principles of site mapping. Selected express/low cost field test methods.
10. Detailed site investigation overview of field tests and the role of the engineering

Theses work
Supervision and guidance of student regarding the diploma thesis to be carried out. 1.- 3.
Literary review, the work with bibliographic databases, selection and implementation of
literary sources in written form. 4. - 6. Individual work in the field or in laboratory. 6. -10. Data
analyses, graphic outputs preparation, finalisation of thesis in accordance with supervisors

Theses Seminar
1. - 3. Principles of scientific work preparation according to STN ISO 690 guidelines.
Citations, the principles and ethics. The form of oral presentation, improvement of individual
4. - 10. Individual oral presentation directed at: definition of the topic to be studied, specific
research questions, review of relevant literature, review of the current state of knowledge on

the topic, outline of appropriate methods for analysis of data. Discussions and
implementation and conclusions to be implemented in the final written form.

Course of Geodesy
1. Basic concepts and relations in Geodesy.
2. Length measuring.
3. Angle measuring.
4. Position measuring.
5. Vertical measuring.
6. Tacheometry.
7. Geodetic ranging.
8. Photogrametry.
9. Spatial point determination.
10. Fundamental cartography.
11. Geodetic surveying in geology.
12. GIS - fundamentals.
Introduction to GIS
1. Introduction to GIS - definitions, history, utilization, legal aspects of GIS.
2. Data collection, selection and storing.
3. GIS data formats and standards - raster data, raster images and vector data, conversion.
4. Data entry - scanning, vectorization.
5. Georeferencing.
6. GIS database - history, concepts, utilization.
7. Hardware and software for GIS. 8. till 12. Practical training.
Mathematics Seminar 1
Extension and completion of the lectures given in Mathematics 1.

Physics Seminar
Extension and completion of the lectures given in Physics for Geologists.

Mathematics Seminar 2
Extension and completion of the lectures given in Mathematics 2.

Chemistry Seminar
1.Symbols of the elements, nomenclature.
2.Amount of substance, calculations.
3.Stoichiometry, empirical and molecular formulas.
4.Redox equations. The structure of the atom, nuclear reactions.
5.Electron configurations, building-up principle.
6.Chemical bonding, molecular geometry.
7.Solutions, solubility, concentration units. The ideal gas equation.
8.pH calculations, hydrolysis.
9.Crystal structures. Thermodynamics and kinetics.
10.s- and p- elements.
11.Transition metals.
12.Coordination compounds.
Rocks under Microscope
1.-4. lectures: Magmatic rocks: structures, crystallisation and mineral contents, postmagmatic
mineral alterations.
5. - 8. lectures: Metamorphic rocks: structures, index minerals, facies and mineral contents.
9.-12. lectures: Sedimentary rocks: structures and characteristic mineral contents, diagenetic

Applied Mathematics
1.-2. Riemans definition of definite integral, upper and lower Riemans summations, NewtonLeibnitz formulae, basic properties of definite integrals, relation between definite and
indefinite integrals.
3.-4. Evaluation of lengths, areas and volumes of different geometrical forms and shapes,
applications of integral calculus in natural sciences, focused on geology.
5.-6. Simple linear differential equations of first order. Homogeneous differential equations.
Method of constant variation. Differential equations of second order with constant
coefficients. Characteristic equations.
7. Non-homogeneous linear equations of second order with constant coefficients. Systems of
linear differential equations.
8.-9. Functions of several variables (multi-variable functions), examples from physics,
geometry and geology. Graphs, slices of graphs, contours. Local extremes of twodimensional functions.
10.-11. Definition of function limit for the case of a multi-variable functions, transformation of
the limit of multi-dimensional function to the limit of one-dimensional function. Continuity of
multi-variable function, defined by means of a limit.
12. Partial derivatives of multi-variable functions.

Geochemical Thermodynamics Seminar

1. Using test for exactness to determine whether a thermodynamic function is a state
function or not.
2. Calculations of state quantities, pressure, temperature and volume, as fundamental
properties of gases.
3. Enthalpy and entropy changes of mineral reactions and effects of temperature and
pressure on reaction enthalpies and entropies.
4. Evaluation of relative stability of mineral associations under standard conditions using
calculated changes in free energy of a reaction.
5. Free energy changes with temperature and pressure and calculations of equilibrium
pressure and temperature of some mineral reactions.
6. How to solve phase univariant equilibria for some mineral reactions.
7. Calculations of simple phase diagrams including equilibrium with a melt.
8. Ion activity and ion activity coefficients in natural waters of all types.
9. Solving effect of temperature on mineral solubilities in water.
10. Degree of saturation of natural waters by a mineral considered.
11. Examples on redox reactions occurring in soils and waters.
12. Redox equilibria at high temperatures.

Professional English 1
The course will help students acquire basic communication skills (speaking, reading, writing
and listening). Passing this course should prove a universal tool for fellowships and
conferences abroad. This module is in the form of a project, which shows how to cope with
the process of preparation for the situations mentioned above. It will help students learn how
to behave and express themselves correctly. From the first contact with a foreign partner,
through meetings, the preparation of the presentations and how to present them. It will also
teach students various tricks on how to avoid cross cultural collisions.

Professional English 2
The purpose of this course is to teach students:
how to write abstracts and summaries
how to fill out different forms, application forms, questionnaires
how to write a CV (rsum) in English
how to write cover letters and other basic correspondence
how to improve professional writing skills in English
how to differentiate between formal and informal writing
how to understand how to choose a topic, use proper writing techniques, organize and edit
how to improve critical reading and writing skills

how to improve expressing oneself in the English language

Soil Science
1. Soil evolution: Soil-forming process and its factors. Relationships of pedosphere to
atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere.
2. Soil morphology: soil colour, space arrangement of the soil matter (structure), grain size
and skeleton content (texture), moisture content, consistency, pedofeatures, occurrence of
carbonates, root content, transition between horizons.
3. Inorganic components of soil solid phase: Classification according to solubility. Examples
of clay minerals in soils, aluminosilicate weathering, origin of clay minerals.
4. Organic components of soil solid phase: Specific and non-specific humus compounds,
structure of humic compounds, laboratory fractionation of humus.
5. Properties of soil colloids: Sorption complex of soils - Components of soil sorption
complex, origin of permanent and pH-dependent charges, electric double-layer, adsorption of
cations, preferences, ion fixation, chemical characteristics of soil sorption complex.
6. Partial soil forming processes I: Peptization and coagulation of soil colloids
electrokinetic potential, significance in development of luvisols. Podzolization processes
existing theories of origin of podzolic horizons.
7. Partial soil forming processes II: Oxidation-reduction processes in soils - the role of water,
electron donors and acceptors, sequence of reduction reactions, elements sensitive to redox
potential. Gleyic ang pseudogleyic processes.
8. Soil micromorphology: Sampling of undisturbed soil samples, preparation of soil thin
sections, basic micromorphological terminology. Main types and kinds of pedofeatures. Thin
section observations using polarizing microscope.
9. Principles of soil classification: Partial soil forming processes and soil diagnostic horizons.
Morfogenetic classification system of soils of Slovakia soil groups and soil types.

Geophysical Data Processing

1.-2.Visualisation of line-graphs and maps by means of software products from Golden
Software (Grapher, Surfer). Quality control (QC) of acquired geophysical field data,
elimination of heading error, micro-levelling. Creation of databases in the frame of Geosoft
Oasis Montaj workspace.
3.-4. Interpolation methods (creation of grids). Blanking, extracting and basic mathematical
operations of grids. Role of anisotropy during interpolation procedure. Methods of data fitting,
linear regression, least-squares method (LSQ).
5.-6. Basic operations with maps, digitalization, definitions of standard global orthogonal
coordinate systems. Geographical coordinates ellipsoids Krasovsky 1940 and WGS84,
transformations among various coordinate systems and GPS systems.
7.-8. Numerical vs. analytical Fourier spectra evaluation, based on model data
transformation. Spectral and harmonical analysis, different kinds of spectra, analysis of
simple model signals and practical data (profile data and time sequences from

9.-10. Filtration in space (time) domain numerical realisation of convolution integral

evaluation. Low-pass filters and their role in signal-to-noise improvement, smoothing of
measured and processed geophysical data.
11. Construction of more complicated filters, median filters, de-spiking filters, high-pass and
band-pass filters. 12. Correlation analysis. Multi-dimensional regression.

1.Introduction and definition, position of rock physics in geological and other related
disciplines, application of petrophysical methods, thermal properties of rocks.
2-4. Electrical properties of rocks, application principles of electrical properties in geoelectrics
and geology.
5-6.Elastic properties of rocks, application principles of elastic properties in seismics and
7.Magnetic properties of rocks, application principles of magnetic properties in magnetics
and geology.
8.Density of rocks, application principles of density properties in gravity and geology.
9-10.Natural radioactivity of rocks, application principles of radioactivity in radioactive survey
and geology.
11-12.Physical properties of rocks used in well logging and by complex interpretation of

Hydrogeology of Mineral Deposits

Introduction to the Mineral Deposits Hydrogeology items and goals of the survey. Factors
of the mineral deposits watersaturation. Hydrogeological classifications (assorts) of mineral
deposits. Hydrogeochemistry of mine waters. Mine waters drainage of mineral deposits.
Methodology of the mineral deposits hydrogeological survey. Mining activity impact upon the
environment. Mineral deposits regional overview.

Geophysical Practice
Introduction to geophysical practice. Geothermal measurements. Geoelectrical methods,
principles of geoelectrical measurements realisation. Seismic methods, principles of seismic
measurements realisation. Magnetic methods, principles of magnetic measurements
realisation. Gravimetric methods, principles of gravimetric measurements realisation.
Radiometric methods and methods of nucleus geophysics, and their measurements
realisation. Well-log geophysics and principles of realisation its measurements.
GIS in Geology
1. GIS data quality - digital geological data in Slovakia.
2. Quality of input data, sources of errors.
3. Input data reclassifications in geology.
4. Map algebra.
5. Statistical analyses.
6.Digital elevation model - data sources, creation of DEM, DEM analyses.
7. Map layouts - visualization.

8. till 12. Practical training.

Dynamic Geology 1
1. Origin of sedimentary basins. Sedimentary environment and facies,
2. Aeolian sediments (wind transported clastic material, types and forms of aeolian deposits
in arid regions of deserts, in sea and ocean coastal regions strand dunes, continental
aeolian deposits, and origin of loess. Glacial sediments (glacier transported clastic material,
types and forms of continental and mountain range glaciers deposits, glacio-fluvial and
glacio-lacustrine sediments)
3. Fluvial deposits, type of rivers and geomorphology of river valleys, development of river
terraces, authocyclicity of fluvial deposition. Cave sediments, development of cave systems,
autochtonous and allochtonous deposits of caves.
4. Sediments of lake and sea deltaic systems. Types and hydrodynamic regime of deltas,
basic architecture of deltaic deposits, constructive and destructive phase of a delta.
5. Shallow water sea environment, dynamics of sea coastal & shelf depositional systems,
wave action, currents, tempestites, tidal flat deposits, sand barriers, lagoons.
6. Deep sea environment, gravitational transport, turbidites, dynamics of siliciclastic and
carbonate depositional systems.
7. Fluid Dynamics: transport and settling, sediment grains in fluids: (laminar and turbulent
behaviours; boundary layer, shear velocity, bed roughness, bed shear stress and flow power;
shear flow instabilities, flow separation and secondary current; path of grain motion;
deposition and erosion).
8. Sedimentary Structures: (bedding, graded bedding, cross-bedding, channels; gravity
flows; bed forms and structures formed by unidirectional water flows and oscillatory water
waves; surface markings and imprints, scour marks, tool marks; penecontemporaneous
deformation structures; liquefaction, liquefaction and other soft sediments deformations; bed
forms and structures formed by atmospheric and glacial flows; biogenic structures).
9. Principles of morphostructural analyses of siliciclastic sediments: (grain-size distribution,
sorting, roundness, shape, textural maturity, surface texture of sediment grains, porosity and
permeability, cement and matrix, compaction, etc.)
10. Climate and sedimentary processes (solar radiation, climate and the water cycle, global
climate change, Earths re-radiation and greenhouse/icehouse effect; the climate:
mountains and plateaus; climate change and general atmospheric circulation;
sedimentological evidence for palaeoclimate).
11. Weathering processes (water-rock interaction: physical and chemical breakdown of
catchments bedrock to soil and clastic grains; tectonics and rate of denudation; the rates and
mechanism of chemical weathering; simple index of chemical alteration).
12. The inorganic and organic precipitation of sediments: chemical, biochemical and
biological (marine and freshwater composition; the carbonate system in the oceans;
carbonate reaction kinetics and its significance; organic productivity, sea level and
atmospheric controls of biogenic CaCO3 and deposition rate; oceanic CaCO3 compensation
mechanism and CaCO3 dissolution in deep water ocean; inorganic precipitation of
evaporites; silica and pelagic sediments; Fe-minerals and biomineralizers; phosphate cycle).

Monitoring of Natural and Sewage Waters Quality

1. Environmental situation and its evaluation means.
2. Monitoring systems, water sampling, evaluation of natural waters quality.
3. Monitoring system of surface water according to WFD.
4. Monitoring system of groundwater according to WFD.
5. Monitoring of atmosphere.
6. Monitoring of rain water.
7. Monitoring of surface water.
8. Monitoring of groundwater in Slovakia.
9. Monitoring of groundwater of itn ostrov area.
10. Monitoring of sewage water.
11. Monitoring of soils.
12. Monitoring system on the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute.

Hydrogeochemical Calculations
1. Water solutions of solid substances. Acid-base equilibria.
2. Ionic and non-ionic substances in water. Total dissolved solids.
3. Chemical analysis of water types, basic terminology, accuracy of chemical analysis,
units, special terms in hydrogeochemistry.
4. Gases in water, oxygen, CO2 species, hardness of water.
5. Ideal and real solutions, ionic strength, activity coefficient, activities.
6. Main mineralization processes. Solubility product.
7. Equilibrium thermodynamics, Gibbs free energy, saturation indexes.
8. Water-carbon dioxide system, CO2 pressure.
9. Water-carbon dioxide-carbonates system.
10. Water-sulphates system.
11. Silicate system.
12. Oxidation-reduction system.
13. Laboratory practice.

Introduction to Construction Engineering

1. Introduction to rock and soil mechanics, addition of forces, graphical determination of
centre of gravity.
2. Normal and buckling pressure, eccentric loading, tension, strain.
3. Simple beam and its design.
4. Construction materials.
5. Building and industrial constructions, basic types and terminology.
6. Transportation and infrastructure constructions.
7. Underground constructions (excavated/driven).
8. Hydrotechnical constructions (weirs, dams).
9. Waterways (rivers, canals).
10. Water supply and treatment facilities.

Methods of Laboratory Research in Natural Materials

1. Introduction, short review and classification of analytical methods; Sampling; Sample
conservation, pretreatment and treatment.
2. Separation and preconcentration
Electrochemical analysis.





3. Methods for determination of some mineral characteristics; Manometric Analysis;

Thermogravimetric (TG) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA); X-ray diffraction analysis
4. Optical Emission Spectrography (OES); Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively
Coupled Plasma (ICP OES).
5. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (Flame, Graphite Furnace, Hydride Generation and Cold
Vapour AAS); Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV/VIS Spectrophotometry).
6. Mass Spectrometry (MS); Mass Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP MS).
7. Transmission, Scattering and Conversion Electron Mossbauer Spectrometry; Ion Beam
Analysis (IBA).
8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Continuous-wave Technique, Fourier Transform
Technique, Two-dimensional NMR, Multi-dimensional NMR, Solid-state NMR; Infrared (IR)
9. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA).
10. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy
(STEM), Energy Dispersive Microanalysis (EDMA), Wave-length Dispersive Microprobe
Analysis (WDMA)

Remote Sensing in Geology

1. Introduction: What is it, the remote sensing? Electromagnetic radiation and spectrum,
interaction with atmosphere.
2. Sensors: satellite characteristics, Pixel size and scale, spectral, radiometric and temporal
resolution, cameras and aerial photography, multispectral scanning, thermal imaging.
3. Microwave remote sensing: radar basics, viewing geometry and spatial resolution, radar
image distortions.
4. Image analysis: elements of visual interpretation, digital image processing, pre-processing,
image enhancement, image transformations, image classification and analysis, data
integration and analysis.
5. Applications: agriculture, forestry, geology, hydrology, land cover.
6. Aerial photography: aerial photographs, aerial photography and method and technical
parameters of the processing.
7. Stereoscopic photographs, and method of photogeological research and interpretation:
stereoscopic observation of aerial photographs.
8. Processing of satellite images: geometric processing of multispectral satellite data,
improving of satellite image contrast, radiometric and geometric classification.
9. Interpretation of primary endogenous geological structures: interpretation of magmatic
geological structures.
10. Interpretation of primary exogenous geological structures: interpretation of sedimentary
geological structures.
11. Interpretation of secondary geological structures I.: interpretation of tectonic structures.
12. Interpretation of secondary geological structures II.: interpretation of exogeneous

Laboratory Methods in Engineering Geology

1. True density - pycnometric method. The determination of the apparent density of rocks
unstable in water.
2. Determination of the compressive strength by indirect methods.
3. Deformational tests with using of PC.
4. Slake durability test, micro-Deval test.
5. Determination of the liquid limit by the Fall cone test.
6. Using of triaxial apparatus in the soil testing (compressive tests, permeability tests).
7. Determination of rock swelling by oedometer.
8. Proctor standard test.
9. Software GEOLAB using in the evaluation of basic classified laboratory tests.
10. Excursion to the commercial laboratory.

Applied Mineralogy and Petrology

Structure of lectures:
1. lecture: Mineralogy of fly-ash pollutants, asbestos and its owing to vital environment,
2. lecture: Petrurgy and melted rocks.
3. lecture: Technical mineralogy.
4. lecture: Toxic elements bounded to iron ochres.
5. lecture: Fireproof materials: glasses, ganister, chamotte, magnesite, Cr-magnesite and
graphite fireproof materials.
6. lecture: Ceramics and carthenware: technical, employed and decorative.
7. lecture: Mortars: composition, raw materials and utilization; cements, their chemical
composition and technical minerals.
8. lecture: Concrete: composition of ballasts and matrix.
9. lecture: Concrete degradation under weathering conditions.
10. lecture: Clinker: composition, production and utilization.
11.- 12. lecture: Natural and artificial decoration stones, production of artificial minerals,
biological deterioration of stones, maintenance of historical monuments.

Dynamic Geology 2
1. Geotectonic cycle and geological environment of sedimentation, magmatism and
metamorphism and their reflex in orogen belts.
2. Lithosphere (essential characterisation), its mechanics and thermal regimen.
3. Kinematics of lithospheric plates.
4. Geotectonic regimens: divergent (extension) system.
5. Geotectonic regimens: convergent (compression) system.
6. Geotectonic regimens: transform systems.
7. Magmatism - mechanisms of magma origin, ascent and emtplacement.
8. Geological environs and types of magmatism and volcanism.
9. Metamorphic process (fundamental thermodynamic concepts and functions of mineral
10. Metamorphic environs and types of metamorphosis.
11. Mineral deposit-forming processes.
12. Geological environs of characteristic mineral deposit types formation.

Application of Geophysics in Geological Survey

1.-2. Application of Geophysics for various deposits prospecting.
2.-4. Applications in Engineering Geology (exploration, monitoring, ): foundation of
buildings and linear structures,
landslides and slips, seismic hazard and seismic
microzoning, ecology of building material, monitoring in mines, characteristics of rock failure,
bulk density and its variations, geotechnical variations, rock massif-strain/stress
5.-6. Application in Hydrogeology: prospecting of hydrogeological structures: water
movement, contamination, buildings; drinking, mineral and geothermal waters; localizations
of water-saturated structures and medium movement in water-saturated structures;
determination of physical properties of collector; mapping of head-water channel and damwall surroundings; monitoring of sealing wall quality; monitoring of movement.
7.-8. Application in environmental practice: prospecting of waste dumps new, unwarranted,
buried in environment with stable and varying ground-water table; evaluation and monitoring
of waste dump tightness; investigation, surroundings; radon risk; nuclear waste deposits;
monitoring of movement contaminant in rock environment; seismic loading of ecological
buildings; natural and artificial harmful electromagnetic radiation pollutants.
9.-10. Application in Archaeology: potential of geophysical methods in survey of
archaeological sites.
11.-12. Geophysical investigation of deep-seated structure and geodynamics of the Crust,
Lithosphere and Upper Mantle.

Biotechnical Slope Stabilization

1. Introduction purpose and scope, objectives, history of soil bioengineering, legislation;
2. Erosion and mass movements on slopes brief repetition;
3. The role of the vegetation in the slope stabilization, benefits and limitations;
4. The vegetation types and species most effective in the slope stabilization;
5. Site evaluation for project planning; site and material preparation;
6. Bioengineering techniques: a) surface covering methods;
7. Bioengineering techniques: a) surface covering methods;
8. Bioengineering techniques: b) live staking, live fascines, brushlayering;
9. Bioengineering techniques: c) willow fencing, live cribwalls, live gully repair;
10. Combined technical/bioengineering techniques: Krismer, vegetated geotextile reinforced
earth, STEBO, vegetated gabions, vegetated concrete cribwalls.
11. Monitoring and maintenance.

1 Introduction to Quaternary studies, main features, Quaternary view of research.
2 Geological and geographical processes during Quaternary in glaciated and non-glaciated
3 Quaternary sediments volcanites, colluvial deposits, piedmont deposits, tropical and
subtropical grounds.
4 Lacustrine sediments, swamps, moss, fluvial sediments, carst filling, freshwater
5 Regional survey of sediments and shape in Slovak territory.
6 Quaternary stratigraphy, classification of Pleistocene and Holocene periods.
7 Life during Quaternary, basic sorts of flora, fauna and evolution of humans.
8 Palaeobiological aspect of Quaternary and palaeoecology.
9 Reconstruction of Quaternary palaeoenvironments, significance of oxygen isotope for the
reconstruction of the marine environment.
10 Pleistocene and Holocene, regional geology,
palaeogeography of human influence on environment.



11 Last glacial epoch, extinction of some large mammals.

12 View of Holocene to-date vegetation, animals community, extension of vegetation and

Rock Mechanics 1
Determination of rock physical and mechanical characteristics by laboratory and field tests;
the flow of water in soils - Darcys law, coefficient of permeability; model measurements of
the water flow in the soils, stress due to gravity and stress due to surface load from
structures; the theory of deformation of rocks, Youngs modulus, oedometer and deformation
modulus; the bearing capacity 1st group of the limit states and settlement, differential
settlement 2nd group of the limit states.

Geochemistry of Technosphere
1. Pollution and environmental problems. Risk factors industry, transportation, agriculture,
urban areas, population, natural disasters, war events. Role of geochemistry in
environmental issues.
2. Composition and behavior of the atmosphere. Atmospheric photochemistry, reactions in
the upper atmosphere and troposphere. Atmospheric pollution, interactions with the
hydrosphere, acid rains.
3. Energy and climate, energy balance of the Earth. Climate history of the Earth, causes of
global climate changes.
4. Pollution in aquatic environment, transportation and fate of pollutants within the
components of the hydrological cycle continental surface water, marine environment,

5. Petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment. Fate and transport of petroleum

hydrocarbons in marine environment and continental surface water. Fate and transport of
petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater. Investigation and remediation of sites polluted by
petroleum hydrocarbons.
6. Fate and migration of contaminants in soil, heavy metals, haloorganics and pesticides.
Sources of soil pollution. Interaction of polluted soil with natural waters, atmosphere and
7. Waste handling as a pollutions source. Landfills, mine tailings, sludge deposits, deep well
injections of hazardous wastes and pollution risk factors. Landfill leachate generation and
composition. Importance of geological conditions for waste disposal design and pollution risk.
8. Radioactivity and ionizing radiation. Naturally occurring of radioactivity and its distribution
in the environment. Fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment.
9. Radioactive ore mining and processing, nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons.
Radioactive waste types, methods of disposal. Radioactive accidents and incidents involving
release of radionuclides into the environment operation of nuclear facilities, waste
disposals. Using of nuclear weapons.
10. Urban geochemistry. Industrial sites and specific pollutants, causes of pollution. Natural
disasters and war events in populated and industrial areas as a pollution causality.
11. Basics of environmental risk assessment and role of geochemistry within the assessment
process. Preliminary risk assessment of potentially polluted industrial sites. Environmental
risk assessment of polluted sites. Environmental impact assessment.
12. Environmental hot spots in Slovakia. Causes and types of pollution. Importance of
geological environment.