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School of Engineering & Logistics

Charles Darwin University


March 2007
ENG324 Power Systems Analysis
Solution to Tutorial Set No 1
TRANSFORMERS

ENG324 Tut 1.1


N2
300
V1
1400 /0 0 140 /0 0 volts.
N1
3000
N
3000
I 2 1 I1
2 / - 30 0 20 / - 30 0 amps.
N2
300
V2

V2
140 /0 0

7 / 30 0 ohms.
0
I2
20 / - 30

Z2

N
3000
0
0
Z2 1 Z 2
7 / 30 700 / 30 ohms.
300
N2
V
1400 /0 0
700 / 30 0 ohms.
OR Z2 1
I1
0 / - 30 0

ENG324 Tut 1.2

N1 2400

4
N2
600

R 1 r1 a 2 r2 3 4 2 0.2 6.2 ohms.


X1 x 1 a 2 x 2 10 4 2 0.6 19.6 ohms.
Z2 a 2 Z 2 4 2 10 160 ohms.
Z total R 1 X1 Z2 6.2 j19.6 160 166.2 j19.6 ohms.
I1

1200 / 0 0
7.17 / 6.77 0
166.2 j 19.6

amps.

V2 a V2 160 I1 160 7.17 / - 6.77 0 1147.2 / - 6.77 0 volts.


1
1
V2 1147.2 286.8 volts.
a
4
1
1
No-load voltage = V2 NL V1 1200 300 volts.
a
4
V2

Voltage Regulation

No_load voltage Full_Load voltage


300 286.8
100
100 0.046 or 4.6%
Full_Load voltage
286.8

ENG324 Tut 1.3

265776190.doc

(a) Referred to the HV side:


230
2
115
r1 a 2 r2 0.02 2 2 0.0001 0.024 ohms.

a
R e1

X e1 x 1 a 2 x 2 0.15 2 2 0.01 0.19 ohms.

(b)

Referred to the LV side:

1
1
r1 0.001 2 0.02 0.006 ohms.
2
a
2
1
1
x 2 2 x 1 0.01 2 0.15 0.0475 ohms.
a
2

R e2 r2
X e2

(c) I1 rated

100 10 6
435 amps.
230 10 3

10.44
100 0.0045%
230,000
82.7
I1 rated X e1 435 0.19 82.7 volts.
100 0.036%
230,000
(d) I 2 rated a I1 rated 2 435 870 amps.
I1 rated R e1 435 0.024 10.44 volts.

5.22
100 0.0045%
115,000
41.325
870 0.2475 41.325 volts.
100 0.036%
115,000

I 2 rated R e2 870 0.006 5.22 volts.


I 2 rated X e2

Note: Prcent voltge drops are the same whether referred to primary or secondary.
(e)

Z e1 R e1 j X e1 0.024 j 0.19 0.192 / 82.8 0 ohms.

Z e2 R e2 j X e 2 0.006 j 0.0475 0.048 / 82.8 0 ohms.

ENG324 Tut 1.4


V2

N2
500
V1
1,000 /0 0 500 / 0 0 volts.
N1
1,000

265776190.doc

N3
2,000
V1
1,000 /0 0 2,000 / 0 0 volts.
N1
1,000

V3
I2

V2
500 /0 0

25 / 0 0 amps.
Z2
20 /0 0

I3

V3
2,000 /0 0

20 / 90 0 amps.
Z3
100 /90 0

From N1 I1 N 2 I 2 N 3 I 3
N
N
500
2,000
I1 2 I 2 3 I 3
25 /0 0
20 / 90 0 12.5 j 40 41.9 /72.64 0 amps.
N1
N1
1,000
1,000
Power:
S1 V1 I1 1,000 /0 0 41.9 / - 72.64 0 voltamps 41.9 / - 72.64 0 kVA
S 2 V2 I 2 500 /0 0 25 /0 0 12,500 /0 0 voltamps.

S3 V3 I 3 2,000 /0 0 20 / - 90 0 40,000 / - 90 0 voltamps.

S 2 S3 12,500 j 40,000 voltamp 12.5 j 40 41.9 / 72.64 0 kVA

Checked: S 2 S3 S1

ENG324 Tut 1.5


Choose:
Sb = 50,000 voltamps and V1b = 1,000 volts.
Then V1b = 1,000 volts and V3 b = 2,000 volts.
Z2 b

500 2
2000 2
5 ohms and Z 3 b
80 ohms
50,000
50,000

Z 2 pu

V1

j 100
20
4 pu and Z 3 pu
j1.25 pu
5
8

1,000 /0 0
1 /0 0 pu
1,000

1
1
0.25 j 0.8 0.838 / 72.6 0 pu
I1 1 /0 0

4
j
1.25

50,000
I1 b
50 amps.
1,000
I1 0.838 / 72.6 0 50 41.9 / 72.6 0 amps.

ENG324 Tut 1.6


Select transformer ratings as basses.
i.e. Sb = 400 MVA and kVb = 22 kV (measurement side). Then
Zb

22 2
1.21 ohms.
400

X t 0.12 ohms
265776190.doc

0.12
0.991 pu.
1.21
3

This per unit value of 0.991 pu for the tramsformer value is also valid for the HV side of the
transformer. When this transfomer is connectred to a 230 kV system, the 220 kV side will be
connected (not the 22 kV side). The conversion of the 0.991 pu impedance must therefore be
done from 220 kV base to 230 kV base.
X t new X t

S b new
S b old

kVb old

kVb new

0.991

100 220

400 230

0.0227 pu

ENG324 Tut 1.7


Choose
and
Then
And

Sb = 24 MVA
kVb = 66 kV on the primary terminal.
kVb = 13.2 kV on the secondary terminal
kVb = 2.3 kV on the tertiary terminal.

Zps and Zpt are measured on the primary side. So these impedances are based on the chosen bases
but not so for the Zst. Convert this into the chosen bases i.e. 24 MVA. (Note that 13.2 kV base
changes automatically to the 66 kV base as one moves from the secondary to the primary side)
Z st 7%

24
14%
12

Zp

1
2

(Z ps Z pt Z st )

1
2

(j 0.06 j 0.08 j 0.14) j 0.0 p.u.

Zs

1
2

(Z ps Z pt Z st )

1
2

(j 0.06 j 0.08 j 0.14) j 0.06 p.u.

Zt

1
2

(Z ps Z pt Z st )

265776190.doc

1
2

(-j 0.06 j 0.08 j 0.14) j 0.08 p.u.