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MANTISSA

ASSIGNMENT COVER
Student Name

PRISCA BANGO

Student ID

BBA - F1308 - 0322

Programme

BBA PGSM

Module Subject:
Module code:
Name of Lecturer:
Assignment title:
Assignment
Submission date

Intercultural Management
MG 420
Ewan Lee
Pakistan Cultural Profile
Name of Group
Extension date agreed
Members
(Written approval from
Mantissa office)

Actual Late
submission date

04 - 07- 2014
Explanation for Late
submission (if
applicable)
Interim mark awarded
IMPORTANT:
1. All completed assignments must be accompanied by PGSM front cover
sheet when submitted.
2. Students are required to submit their work through MORE Portal to
ensure the originality of their work.
3. All references must be fully cited in Harvard/ APA notation.
4. Plagiarism in any form will result in severe penalties.
5. Work submitted within up to 7 calendar days late = 10 marks
subtracted.
6. Work submitted up to 10 calendar days late = 20 marks subtracted.
7. Work submitted more than 10 calendar days late = 1 marks awarded.
Declaration: I declare that

a) No part of this assignment has been copied from any other persons work except
where due acknowledgement is made in the text.
b) No part of this assignment had been written for me by any other person except where
such collaboration has been authorized by lecturer concerned.
c) All grades obtained by students are final. Appeal can only be made (on FAIL case
only) to the Academic Borad along with a payment of RM 100.00 to formalise the
Process.
d) the University/ College uses plagiarism detection software.
Student Signature ___________________________ Date _____________________
Table of Content
Topics
Pages

Introduction............................................................................................................3
Religion..................................................................................................................4
Kinship/Family.......................................................................................................5
Recreation.............................................................................................................6
Language...............................................................................................................6-7
Health Care System...............................................................................................8
Form of Government.............................................................................................9
Attitude towards time, change and Individualism...................................................9
The expected business practices as related to punctuality, negotiating
business attire, entertaining...................................................................................9-12
Nonverbal clues such as hand gestures and facial expressions..........................12
Conclusion.............................................................................................................13
References............................................................................................................14

INTRODUCTION
Pakistan is situated in the western part of the Indian subcontinent, with Afghanistan
and Iran on the west, India on the east, and the Arabian Sea on the south. The name
Pakistan is derived from the Urdu words Pak (meaning pure) and stan (meaning
country). It is nearly twice the size of California. The northern and western highlands
of Pakistan contain the towering Karakoram and Pamir mountain ranges, which
include some of the world's highest peaks: K2 (28,250 ft; 8,611 m) and Nanga Parbat
(26,660 ft; 8,126 m).
Pakistan was one of the two original successor states to British India, which was
partitioned along religious lines in 1947. For almost 25 years following
independence, it consisted of two separate regions, East and West Pakistan, but
now it is made up only of the western sector. Both India and Pakistan have laid claim
to the Kashmir region; this territorial dispute led to war in 1949, 1965, 1971, 1999,
and remains unresolved today.

RELIGION
The state religion in Pakistan is Islam, which is practised by about 95 - 98% of the
187,343,000 people of the nation. The remaining 2-5% practice Christianity,
Hinduism, Sikhism and other religions. Muslims are divided into three major sects;
the majority of them practice sunni Islam, while the Shias an estimated 10-15%, and
the Ahmadis approximately 2.2% of the total Muslim population of the country,
though the latter are not permitted to call themselves Muslims in the country. In
Pakistan, Islam regulates all aspect of life, as the family believed to be the centre of
the Islamic social order.
The Pakistani government does not restrict religious publishing per se. However, it
restricts the right to freedom of speech with regard to religion. Speaking in opposition
to Islam and publishing an attack on Islam or its prophet are prohibited. Pakistan's
penal code mandates the death penalty or life in prison for anyone defiling the name
of Muhammad whom Muslims view as a prophet. This penal code mandates life
imprisonment for desecrating the Quran, and up to 10 years imprisonment for
insulting another's religious beliefs with intent to outrage religious feelings (Ahmed,
1997).

KINSHIP/FAMILY STRUCTURE
The extended family is the basis of the social structure and individual identity. It
includes the nuclear family, immediate relatives, distant relatives, tribe members,
friends, and neighbours. Loyalty to the family comes before other social
relationships, even business. favouritism is viewed positively, since it guarantees
hiring people who can be trusted, which is crucial in a country where working with
people one knows and trusts is of primary importance. The family is more private
than in many other cultures. Female relatives are protected from outside influences.
It is considered inappropriate to ask questions about a Pakistani's wife or other
female relatives. Families are quite large by western standards, often having up to 6
children (Knerr, 2012).
Pakistani social life revolves around family and kin. Even among members of the
most westernized elite, family retains its overarching significance. The family is the
basis of social organization, providing its members with both identity and protection.
Rarely does an individual live apart from relatives; even male urban migrants usually
live with relatives or friends of kin. Children live with their parents until marriage, and
sons often stay with their parents after marriage, forming a joint family. The
household is the primary kinship unit. In its ideal, or extended, form, it includes a
married couple, their sons, their sons' wives and children, and unmarried offspring.
Sons establish separate households upon their father's death. Whether or not an
extended household endures depends on the preferences of the individuals involved.
A woman's life is difficult during the early years of marriage. A young bride has very
little status in her husband s household; she is subservient to her mother-in-law and
must negotiate relations with her sisters-in-law. Her situation is made easier if she
has married a cousin and her mother-in-law is also her aunt (Knerr, 2012).

RECREATION
Cricket is the most popular sport in Pakistan, while squash and hockey are also
extremely popular. Traditional sports like kabaddi and other well-known games are
also played. The Pakistan Sports Board was created in 1962 by the Ministry of
Education as a corporate body for the purposes of promoting and developing uniform
standards of competition in sports in Pakistan comparable to the standards
prevailing internationally, and regulating and controlling sports in Pakistan on a
national basis. The Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, now has control over the
Pakistan Sports Board. The PSB controls all 39 sporting federations. The Pakistan
Sports Board is supported by the Pakistan Sports Trust, which assists hard up
players and associations so they can continue participating in sports (Spear, 2007).

LANGUAGE
Languages of Pakistan include two official languages, Urdu and English, and
regional languages, Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Kashmiri, Brahui, Shina, Balti,
Khowar and Burushaski. Most of the languages of Pakistan belong to the IndoIranian group of the Indo-European language family. Urdu is the national language,
lingua franca and one of two official languages of Pakistan. Although only about 8%
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of Pakistanis speak it as their first language, it is spoken and understood as a


second language by almost all Pakistanis. Its introduction as the lingua franca was
encouraged by the British upon the capitulation and annexation of Sindh (1843) and
Punjab (1849) with the subsequent ban on the use of Persian. The decision to make
the language change was to institute a universal language throughout the then
British Raj in South Asia as well as minimize the influence of Persia, the Ottoman
Empire, Afghanistan and Central Asia on this transitional region (Iftikhar, 2005).

HEALTH CARE SYSTEM


Pakistan's health care system is a three-tiered health care delivery system: Primary,
Secondary and Tertiary care. Health system strengthening mechanism starting at
grass roots level, health houses provide community health care services through
lady health worker and are connected to basic health units with an upward referral
pathway to rural health centres, tehsil hospitals and district hospitals. There are also
well-equipped tertiary level teaching hospitals. However, this extensive health care
infrastructure has not been translated into optimal health care delivery due to a
number of issues related to the health system. This includes the poor motivation of
the health workforce due to lack of good career structures and work environments,
misdistribution of resources between urban and rural areas, and the lack of a
national human resources for health policy. Pakistan spends only 0.5% of its gross
domestic product (GDP) on health, which is very low. This leads to an inability of the
government to provide the required medicine and laboratory support to health care
delivery resulting in an out-of-pocket expenditure on health of around 80%. The
public health service delivery infrastructure in Pakistan is fairly good, with 5000 basic
health units, 600 rural health centres, 7500 other first-level care facilities and over
100 000 lady health workers providing primary health care services across the
country. These are complemented by 989 secondary care hospitals, at tehsil and
district levels, responsible for the referrals (Cohen, 2006).

EDUCATION SYSTEM
Education in Pakistan is overseen by the Ministry of Education of the Government of
Pakistan as well as the provincial governments, whereas the federal government
mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the financing of
research and development. Article 25-A of Constitution of Pakistan obligates the
state to provide free and compulsory quality education to children of the age group 5
to 16 years. The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of
the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner as may be determined by law.
The education system in Pakistan is generally divided into five levels: primary middle
high intermediate and university programs leading to undergraduate and graduate
degrees.
The literacy rate ranges from 96% in Islamabad to 28% in the Kohlu District.
Between 2000 and 2004, Pakistanis in the age group 5564 had a literacy rate of
almost 38%, those ages 4554 had a literacy rate of nearly 46%, those 2534 had a
literacy rate of 57%, and those ages 1524 had a literacy rate of 72%. Literacy rates
vary regionally, particularly by sex. In tribal areas female literacy is 9.5%. Moreover,
English is fast spreading in Pakistan, with 18 million Pakistanis (11% of the
population) having a command over the English language, which makes it the third
largest English-speaking nation in the world and the second largest in Asia. On top
of that, Pakistan produces about 445,000 university graduates and 10,000 computer
science graduates per year. Despite these statistics, Pakistan still has one of the
highest illiteracy rates in the world and the second largest out of school population
5.1 million children after Nigeria (Lieven, 2012).

FORM OF GOVERNMENT

Government has shifted among various forms of parliamentary, military, and


presidential governments in pursuit of political stability. The 1973 constitution, as
amended in 1985, provides for parliamentary system with president as head of state
and popularly elected prime minister as head of government. Bicameral legislature,
which consists of Senate and National Assembly. The powers and duties of these
branches are further defined by acts and amendments of the Parliament, including
the creation of executive institutions, departments and courts inferior to the Supreme
Court. Granting constitutional powers to President to spread the ordinances and
passing bills, the president acted as the ceremonial figurehead and the peopleelected Prime Minister acting as the chief executive of the executive branch and
responsible for running the federal government(McCartney, 2011).
THE ATTITUDE TOWARDS CHANGE, INDIVIDUAL AND TIME
Pakistani are slow towards change due to the collectivism of the society. Pakistan is
a high context collective society and high esteem is attached to their culture and way
of life. Difference is ethnicity in Pakistan is another factor contributing its reluctant
attitude toward change as a result of its various believe (Malik, 2006).
THE EXPECTED BUSINESS PRACTICES AS RELATED TO PUNCTUALITY,
NEGOTIATING, BUSINESS ATTIRE, ENTERTAINING
PUNCTUALITY
It is essential to arrive for a business meeting on time in Pakistan, both international
and local professionals are expected to be punctual. Before the meeting officially

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begins, it is customary to greet all colleagues, starting with the person who has the
highest professional rank. Small talk is traditional as well, but usually does not last
for more than 10 minutes. According to Pakistani etiquette, it is appropriate for the
client, or the person who will be doing most of the purchasing in the business deal, to
start and end the meeting (Malik, 2006).

BUSINESS NEGOTIATION
Pakistani professionals include bargaining in their negotiation process, so
international professionals are expected to do the same. It is best for all business
people to remain calm during negotiations, as being harsh or overly persuasive is
considered bad etiquette. Professionals in Pakistan will often take a considerable
amount of time to reach a final decision, so exercising patience is important.
Companies are hierarchical. Therefore, decisions are made by the highest-ranking
person. Decisions are reached slowly. If you try to rush things, you will give
offense and jeopardize your business relationship. The society is extremely
bureaucratic. Most decisions require several layers of approval. It often takes
several visits to accomplish simple tasks. If you change negotiators, negotiations
will have to start over since relationships are to the person and not the company
that they represent. Pakistanis are highly skilled negotiators. Price is often a
determining factor in closing a deal. Pakistanis strive for win-win outcomes.
Maintain indirect eye contact while speaking. Do not use high-pressure tactics,
Pakistanis can become highly emotional during negotiations. Discussions may
become heated and even revert to Urdu (the national language). It is imperative
that you remain calm (Malik, 2006).
BUSINESS ATTIRE
Dress for both men and women is rather conservative when in a business setting.
Men should wear black or navy blue business suits and shoes that are easy to slip
off if required before entering a meeting site. Women can also wear business suits in
the same colours, or blouses and modest skirts. It is not appropriate for women to
wear tight-fitting clothing or sleeveless dresses or shirts (Malik, 2006).
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ENTERTAINING
If invited to a home you will most likely have to remove your shoes. Check to see if
the host is wearing shoes. If not, remove yours at the door. Dress conservatively.
Arrive approximately 15 minutes later than the stipulated time when invited to
dinner or a small gathering. You may arrive up to one hour later than the stipulated
time when invited to a party. Show respect for the elders by greeting them first. In
more rural areas, it is still common to eat meals from a knee-high round table while
sitting on the floor. Many people in urban areas do not use eating utensils,
although more westernized families do. When in doubt, watch what others are
doing and emulate their behaviour. Guests are served first. Then the oldest,
continuing in some rough approximation of age order until the youngest is served.
Do not start eating until the oldest person at the table begins. You will be urged to
take second and even third helpings. Saying "I'm full" will be taken as a polite
gesture and not accepted at face value. Eat only with the right hand (Malik, 2006).
BUILDING RELATIONSHIP AND COMMUNICATION
Third-party introductions are a necessity in this relationship-driven culture.
Pakistanis prefer to work with people they know and trust and will spend a great
deal of time on the getting-to-know-you part of relationship building. You must not
appear frustrated by what may appear to be purely social conversation. Pakistanis
are hospitable and enjoy hosting foreign guests. Relationships take time to grow
and must be nurtured. This may require several visits. Pakistanis often ask
personal questions as a way to get to know you as a person. If possible, it is best
to answer these questions. Pakistanis do not require as much personal space as
most western cultures. As such, they will stand close to you while conversing and
you may feel as if your personal space has been violated. Do not back away.
Pakistanis are generally indirect communicators. Always demonstrate deference to
the most senior person in the group. In general, Pakistanis speak in a roundabout
or circuitous fashion. Direct statements are made only to those with whom they
have a long-standing personal relationship. They also use a great deal of
hyperbole and similes, and go out of their way to find something to praise. Be
prepared to flatter and be flattered. Pakistanis prefer to converse in a noncontroversial manner, so they will say they "will try" rather than admit that they
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cannot or will not be able to do something. Therefore, it is important to ask


questions in several ways so you can be certain what was meant by a vague
response. Silence is often used as a communication tool. Pakistanis prefer to do
business in person. They see the telephone as too impersonal

medium for

business communication (Malik, 2006).

GIVING GIFT
If invited to a Pakistani's home, bring the hostess a small gift such as flowers or good
quality chocolates. Men should avoid giving flowers to women. Do not give white
flowers as they are used at weddings. If a man must give a gift to a woman, he
should say that it is from his wife, mother, sister, or some other female relative. Do
not give alcohol Gifts are not opened when received Gifts are given with two hands
(Malik, 2006).
NONVERBAL CLUES SUCH AS HAND GESTURES AND FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
Pakistanis maintain close body contact but not with the opposite sex. Both men and
women generally hug each other while meeting even for the first time. Women also
kiss each other on the cheeks but men dont. Holding hands and putting arm around
the other person of the same sex are normal and show closeness and intimacy.
When meeting a female Pakistani, a male should not try to shake her hand until and
unless she extends her hand first. A foreigner female can, however, shake hand with
a male Pakistani. There is no set distance while talking to a Pakistani. Also making a
regular eye contact is not important. In fact, maintaining a constant eye contact with
a person of opposite sex is considered rude and unethical.
Pakistanis do not use a lot of gesturing while talking but they do not mind if the
foreigners do as they are from another culture and are accepted as such. Most
Pakistanis like to touch while talking. This usually consists of putting hand over your
shoulder or holding your hand occasionally. Pakistanis often interject while others
are talking and it is considered normal if two people start a conversation during a
group meeting. They are also very loud and forceful in getting their point of view
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across. It is however considered impolite and rude to be direct in their conversation.


Pakistanis are quite diplomatic when expressing views about others (Malik, 2006).

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CONCLUSION
Culture varies from place to place and it dictates the way people live. However, it is
important for an international manager to know acceptable and unacceptable
behaviour in each society or country for a successful business dealings.

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REFERENCES
Ahmed and Akbar (1997).Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for
Saladin. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-14966-2
Cohen and Stephen P., (2006).The Idea of Pakistan. Brookings Institution Press
ISBN 978-0-8157-1503-0
Iftikhar M., (2005). Culture and Customs of Pakistan (Culture and Customs of Asia).
Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-33126-8
Knerr B., (2012) Overseas Migration and its Socio-Economic Impacts on the
Families Left Behind in Pakistan: A Case Study in the Province Punjab, Pakistan.
Volume 6. Kassell University Press. p.102.
Lieven and Anatol (2012). Pakistan: A Hard Country. Public Affairs. ISBN 978-161039-145-0
Malik H., (2006). The Encyclopaedia of Pakistan. Oxford University Press. ISBN
978-0-19-597735-6
McCartney M., (2011). Pakistan: The Political Economy of Growth, Stagnation and
the State, 19512009 Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-57747-2
Raja and Masood A., (2010) Constructing Pakistan: Foundational Texts and the Rise
of Muslim National Identity. Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-547811-2
Spear and Percival (2007). India, Pakistan and the West. Read Books Publishers.
ISBN 1-4067-1215-

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