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# English Notes Of Matric

## The Wise Caliph

CHAPTER 1
Q.1 What was caliph Haroon-ur-Rashid known and respected
for?
Ans. Caliph Haroon-ur-Rashid was famous for his wisdom and
justice. The Caliph was wise in that manner as he used to
disguise himself to know the problems and difficulties of the
subject more freely and equality.
Q.2 Why did he go through the streets of Baghdad?
Ans. He would go through the streets of Baghdad to mingle
with the common people in order to gain first-hand knowledge
of their difficulties. He believed that by adopting the common
life style, he experienced the problems in true sense.
Q.3 What did the Qazi say to the Caliph?
Ans. Firstly Qazi approached to the Caliph saluted him and
presented a puzzled case, which the Qazi could not solve. The
mystery was disturbing the Qazi because the two men were
claiming the ownership of the same horse.
Q.4 What was the dispute between the rich man and beggar?
Ans. The dispute between the rich man and the beggar
because of a horse. Both of them were claiming the ownership
of horse plus accusing each other of robbery.
Q.5 What did the rich man tell the Caliph?
Ans. The rich man told the Caliph that he was riding towards
the city. On this way he saw a beggar, who asked for a ride up
to city gate. Afterwards the beggar refused to get down from
the horse and claimed that the horse ws his.
Q.6 What did the beggar tell the Caliph?
The beggar told the Caliph that he had spent all his money on

the horse. That morning the beggar was riding to the city and
saw the rich man walking along the road. He asked for a lift
because he was in hurry but afterwards refused to discount
claiming that the horse belonged to him.
Q.7 Why did the beggar refuse to go down the horse?
Ans. The beggar refused to get down the horse because he
wanted to rob the rich man of his horse. He also fabricated a
false story to claim his ownership.
Q.8 What did the horse do when the beggar touched it?
Ans. When the beggar touched the horse it winced as if it did
not like the touch of his hand. This reaction of the animals
show that it was not owned by the beggar.
Q.9 What did the horse do when the rich man touched it?
Ans. When the rich man touched the horse it neighed and
snorted with pleasure. This reaction of the horse proved the
true ownership of the rich man.
Q.10 What did the Caliph say to the beggar?
Ans. The Caliph pronounced the beggar that he was a lair and
wicked man. And by forgiving him asked him to beg the pardon
of the rich man. Afterwards the rich man forgave him.
Sentences
1. Afford I cant afford such a heavy expense.
2. Puzzled Ali was puzzled with the sum.
3. Disguise .. The magician disguised himself as a
woman in a second.
4. Dispute The Kashmir dispute is a bone of
contention between India and Pakistan.
Synonyms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

shiver tremble
astonish amaze
cling stick
request beg
stiffen harden

6. severe stern
7. utterly completely
8. disguise hide
9. obvious clear
10. puzzled confused
11. mingle mix
Complete the Sentences
1. A large crowd had gathered outside the court.
2. The courtiers crowed round the Caliph.
3. The Caliph disguised himself as a common man.
4. The people recognized the Caliph inspite of his disguise.
5. His right leg is shorter than the left leg, so he has a limp in
his walk.
6. The rich man saw the lame beggar limping along the road.
7. The beggar motioned to him to stop.
8. He stood still and made no motion.
9. He uttered a few words and then lost consciousness.
10. To his utter disappointment he failed in the examination.
11. The rich man went galloping along the road.
12. The horse was running at a gallop.
13. The rich man and the beggar both claimed the horse.
14. Whose claim was found to be true?
Verbs and Nouns
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Beg Beggary
Live Life
Lend Loan
Believe Belief
Speak Speech

Composition
1. Describe the dispute between the rich man and the poor
beggar and how did the Caliph prove that the beggar was a
liar?
The dispute between the rich man and the beggar was because

## of a white horse. Both of them were claiming the ownership of

the horse plus accusing each other of the robbery. Firstly, rich
man riding to the city, he saw the beggar limping along the
road. He felt sorry for him and gave him a ride up city gate.
Afterwards, the beggar refused to dismount claiming that
horse belonged to him. The beggar also told the same story
with few amendments.
The Caliph, being wise, settled the dispute in a minute. He
ordered both the men to touch the horse. When the beggar
touched the horse, it showed the displeasure by wincing. But
when the rich man touched the horse, It neighed and snorted
with pleasure. The reaction of the animal proved the true
ownership of the rich man. In this manner the case was
decided and the Caliph was able to prove that the beggar was
a liar and wicked man.
2. What is the moral of the lesson The Wise Caliph?
The lesson The Wise Caliph teaches us that if someone is
dishonest to you and treats you in the bad manner, you should
not treat him in the smae manner in which her behaved. The
best revenge for a bad deed is a good deed.
Professions

CHAPTER 3
Q.1 What does Akhund mean?
Ans. Akhund is a Sindhi word derived from a Persian word
Khandan which means to read. It is the best word to
express the teachers dignity and status.
Q.2 How does a teacher fulfill, Gods command?
Ans. The teacher fulfills Gods command by acting upon the
first relation i.e. to read (IQRA). Teacher observe Gods Law
by reading from the human heart, the nature and the Holy
book.

## Q.3 What are the qualities of a teacher?

Ans. Teacher must possess some personal and professionals
Gaits. Personal qualities include interest for knowledge,
reverence for all sorts knowledge, preference for students
welfare. The other qualities are love to learn from every source
and also to apply practically what he preaches.
Q.4 Why is fish important for us?
Ans. Fish is important, for us because it is a source of food and
several by-products are obtained from fish i.e. glue, manure,
liver oil. Catching fish is one of the most ancient and common
profession of the world due to which a large number of people
are engaged with this profession. It is also a flourishing trade.
Q.5 What are the different modes of fishing?
Ans. Freshment fishing or fishing inland and sea or marine
fishing are the two different modes of fishing. Freshwater
fishing is done in rivers, Lakes, streams, ponds etc while
marine fishing is done in oceans, sea, coastal areas etc.
Q.6 Why do people like freshment fish?
Ans. People like freshment fish because of its delicious taste.
They are of very small size and easier to catch rather than
marine fishing. It is usually caught from rivers, lakes, ponds,
canals etc.
Q.7 Where is marine fishing done in Pakistan?
Ans. In Pakistan, marine fishing is done in the Arabian sea long
the coast. The hazards of marine fishing include prolong stay o
the fisherman in deep sea. The other danger is sudden change
of weather, which can result in the loss of many lives.
Composition
Explain any one quality of a teacher.
The most elegant quality of a teacher is that he takes keen
interest in learning from every source. He does not hesitate in
capturing knowledge from every point in life. He does not keep
himself committed to the books only. But tries to gain
knowledge from any and everyone. even those younger or less
gifted than himself. It means that he remains student forever.

## So, the good teacher is one who is enthusiastic for gaining

knowledge from every source of life.
Unseen Passage
Before railways were made the cultivator derived little benefit
on abundant harvest. He could not send his product to distant
places to be sold; and if the land produced more than it was
required in any particular district, as would happen in a good
season. Prices fell and the cultivator was deprived of the profit
which he might have expected, indeed, he often found it more
economical to leave apart of his crop circuit. Railway has
altered these conditions equalized has enabled agricultural,
produce the improvements in communication to be sent to any
distance with the result that prices have been in all places,
within reasonable distance from the railway. When harvest are
abundant, foodstuffs no longer not for want of buyers, since
the farmer now has access to all the markets of the world.
Questions
1. Write down to main problems the farmer had to face before
Ans. The main hazards the farmer had to face were that he
could not send his produce to the far-flung areas. The other
problem was that if more crop is harvested, the prices fell and
he deprived of the profit.
2. Why did the prices of agricultural produce fall in good
season?
Ans. the prices of agricultural products fell in good season
because of abundant quantity of produce.
3. Why did the cultivators sometimes leave a part of his crop
uncut?
Ans The farmers sometimes left a part of their crop uncut
because it was found more economical for them other than
getting low prices for the produce.
4. How has the improvement in communication helped to
equalize the prices of agriculture produce?
Ans. The improvement in communication has helped to

## equalize the prices of agricultural products because after the

establishment to transport link, the products can be taken to
ay part of the world.
5. Change the bold verbs into Present Tense.
Fill in the Blanks
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

## The teacher examined each student carefully.

River Indus is an important reservoir of water for irrigtion.
Stamp collecting is a good hobby.
The lunch was very tasty.
They are modernizing their mill by importing new machinery.
Manara is an off-shore island.
Coal Car is a by-product of petrol.

Grammar
Put the verb in correct tense.
1. I shall stay(stay) here until he comes (come) back.
2. If you speak(speak) the truth, i shall not punish (not punish)
you.
3. When he reached (reach) the station the train had arrived
(arrive).
4. I found (find) the book which i had lost (lose).
5. If you do not hurry (not hurry) you will miss (miss) the train.
6. If it does not rain (not rain) we shall go (go) out for a walk in
the evening.
7. If he studies (study) regularly he will pass (pass) the
examination.
8. He went (go) to the market and bought (buy) two exercise
books yesterday.
9. I go (go) abroad for higher studies as soon as my result is
announced (announce).
10. The teacher punished (punish) the boys who hadnt done
(not done) the homework.
Use of Since or For.
1. It has been raining since morning.
2. They have been playing foot ball for an hour.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

## I have been living in this house since January.

She has been suffering from fever for two days.
I have been preparing for the examination since Sunday last.
He has been building a house for six months.
The girl has been making a doll since noon.
He has been studying in this school since 1984.

Idioms
1. To back out of something.
Meaning: To withdraw from an agreement.
Sentence: You gave you word that you should help. Dont back
out of it.
2. To beat about the bush .
Meaning: To go around the topic in order to avoid the point.
Sentence: Say exactly what you mean and stop beating about
the bush.
3. Bone to pick with someone.
Sentence: I have a bone to pick with you.
Synonyms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Reflection Image
Enshrined preserved carefully
Divine of God
Dignity honour
Par excellence the best
cultivating developing
professional concerning ones job
regard opinion

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

## reverencing (reversing, paying respect to, referring)

appreciates (thinks, pays money to values)
inscribed (demand, written, described)
decree (certificate, command, temperature)

## 7. sources (influences, wounds, fountains)

8. strives (groups, tries hard, sleeps)
9. incorporation (put an end to, make part of , make a role
of )
10. status (a country, position, property)
Little Things
CHAPTER 4
Central Idea
Reference
This poem is written by Julia Carney. The poem emphasis upon
the importance of little things.
Central Idea
Nothing in this material world is unimportant. Even little
things, which fail to claim and importance and fail to invite our
attention, have their importance which cannot be ignored.
Same as short, brief an soft spoken words create an
everlasting impression in the hearts of others. Thus help to
establish a harmonies society.
Theme
If a great thing is simple to explain and easy to understand
then the little things demand elaboration of details.
Q.1 Write five lines about a little out of kindness done by you,
and the result of it?
Ans. Once a poor woman came to my house. She asked us
about some money because her only son was in the hospital
and she needed the money to buy medicines for him. My
mother did not believe on her story but I offered my whole
collection of the year which was about 800 to 900 rupees. In
return, the woman gave me so much prays that I felt very
happy on my act.
Sentences

## 1. To make fun of We should not make fun of poor because

they are also human beings like us.
2. To make room The conductor was trying to make room for
incoming passengers inside the bus.
3. To make money Most of the people spend their lives in
making money other than doing good deed.
4. To make a mistake Aslam is making a mistake by choosing
Qurban as his partner.
5. To make up Ive made up my mind to go to England for
higher studies after the matriculation exams.
1. That house is made of bricks.
2. This cushion is made of foam rubber.
3. These machines are made of steel.
Idioms
1. To make the most of
Meaning: To take the fullest advantage of the circumstances
Sentence: he led me use his bicycle for a month so Im going to
make the most of it.
2. To make the both ends meet
Meaning: To be able to live within ones income.
Sentence: I had to take up a part time job to be able to make
the both ends meet.
3. To make ones mouth water
Meaning: To cause someone to desire something intensely,
especially food.
Sentence: As soon as we got the smell of food, it made our
mouth water.
A Visit

CHAPTER 5

## Q.1 Why were Mr. Ahmeds pupil excited?

Ans. Mr. Ahmeds pupils were excited because they were given
a day off to visit a Model Agricultural Farm. They were
naturally very excited.
Q.2 What surprised the boys when they reached the model
farm?
Ans. When the boys reached the farm, they were surprised to
see such a vast area of farm. They were also astonished to see
mechanized farm.
Q.3 What is the name of the machine working in the wheat
field?
Ans. The name of the machine working in the wheat field is
Combine. Its function is to harvest the crop and tied it into
sheaves.
Q.4 What does a thresher do?
Ans. A Thresher chaff from the grain. From one side of the
machine, a golden rain of sweet smelling machine comes out
while from other end the chaff comes out.
Q.5 How are ploughing, seeding and harvesting done on the
model farm?
Ans. On the model farm, ploughing is done by tractors. The
sowing machine is used for the purpose of seeding where as
harvesting is done by Combine.
Q.6 How much work can one man do on the machine?
Ans. Machines have made the work easy for the farmer. Thats
why a man can do the work of almost hundred men with the
help of machines.
Q.7 What is an average produce from and ordinary farm? What
is the produce per hectare on the model farm?
Ans. The average produce from na ordinary farm is 13 to 20
quintals. Where as average produce per hectare on the model
farm is 60 to 70 quintals.
Q.8 Why is thee is difference in the output of the two?
Ans. There is a difference in the output of the two because of

## the machines used in model farm. The use of modern

machinery and chemical, fertilizers in model farm has made
work feasible for farmers. Moreover, spray of pesticides /
insecticides and continuous supply of water has helped to
increase the work output.
Q.9 What do they do to kill germs and insects?
Ans. They spray pesticides and insecticides for the prevention
of germs and insects. This process includes washing of tree
trunks with lime water and removal of wild grass and weeds.
Q.10 What do they grow on the model farm?
Ans. They grow wheat, maize, cotton, sugarcane and grant.
Moreover, they also grow vegetables and they also have a
large orchard, where they grow mangoes and oranges.
Q.11 Why were the boys surprised on the vegetable form?
Ans. The boys were surprised on the vegetable farm to see the
vegetable growing out of the season on the vegetable form.
They do it by the usage of chemical fertilizers; plentiful supply
of water and by the help modern machine.
Sentences
1. Planning I am planning to take computer classes in the
summer vacations.
2. Model The engineer presented a new model of car in the
seminar.
3. Irrigate The farmer has dug the canals to irrigate his land.
4. Plentiful Ive got plentiful amount of money to spent on
you.
5. Harmful Pollution is a very harmful disease for this world.
Complete the following Sentences
2. Mr. Haroon received them at the gate and showed them
around.
3. With one sweep it seemed to eat up a large area.
4. The pupils watched the working of the machine with keen
interest.

## 5. No, certainly not.

6. The sowing machine sows, the seed well.
7. No seed goes waste.
8. We use chemical fertilizers to enrich the soil.
9. The visitors were surprised to see growing there such
vegetables as were out of season.
10. He offered the boys fresh tomatoes and cucumbers.
Composition
1. Narrate in your own words how they get so much produce
per rectare on the model farm.
The farmers are able to grow an abundant produce on the
model farm because of the modern techniques. They use
modern machines, which can perform the work of hundred
men. Along with, fertilizers are being used on a vast scale in
the farm, so that better and finer crops can be grown.
Moreover, spray of pesticides/insecticides and non-stop supply
of water has helped to increase the work output.
2. Write the sentences to show whether modern methods of
farming are better nor the old ones.
Machines and techniques have made the profession farming
easy for the farmers. Modern methods are better than the old
ones because they are more easy to operate than the old
methods.
They have increase the feasibility of work, because of
mechanized means. In this way, one machine can do the work
of hundred men. The old methods worked very slow and took a
long time of the farmer. But today, the time is also saved and
good crops can be grown. Today chemical fertilizers are being
used in crops on vast scale, along with pesticides. These salts
provide extra enrichment to the crops and protect them from
diseases. In this manner better crops could be grown.
Dialogues
Instructor: Hello! I m from the department of Agriculture. Ive
come here to guide you.
Farmer : How can I increase the production?

## Instructor : You can do it by using chemical fertilizers in your

crops.
Farmer: But how these artificial compounds can increase the
growth?
Instructor: Actually these fertilizers are salts, which provide
extra nourishment to the crops. In this manner you can grow
better crops.
Farmer: OK! Now tell me any other advantage of these
fertilizers.
Instructor: By using these salts you can also grow the crops
that are out of season.
Farmer: Well Ive another problem to discuss.
Instructor: What is it?
Farmer: Last year my whole crop was destroyed due to some
insects. Tell me any cure for it?
Instructor: Dont worry Look! These are the begs of pesticides
or you can call it insecticides.
Farmer: Please make it more clear.
Instructor: Sure, actually these pesticides serve as medicines
which will kill the insects and prevent destruction of crops.
Farmer: Oh its very easy. youve provided me a useful
knowledge. Thank You.
Instructor: No matter, its my job.
Grammar
1. Pleasant This perfume gives a very pleasant smell.
2. Interesting Physics is an interesting subject.
3. Huge- Sun is very huge as compared to our earth.
4. Vast Arrangement have been made on vast scale for the
prevention of crimes in the country.
5. Large This exercise is very large.
Convert the following into Direct Speech.
Mr. Hasan told the visitors that the farm had been doing so
well that they had decided to add a dairy to it. There, Finest
cows and buffaloes would be kept. The farm would use an

## electric milker to milk the animals Modern Machinery would

make cream and butter.
Mr. Hasan said to the visitors The farm has been doing so well
that we have decided to add a dairy to it. Here, finest cows and
buffaloes will be kept. The farm, will use an electric milker to
milk the animals. Modern machinery will make cream and
butter.
Idioms
1. Get rid of I got rid of problem by my father.
2. Get at He get at the point after listening the mystery.

King Faisal

CHAPTER 6
Q.1 When was King Faisal born?
Ans. The Late King Faisal of Saudi Arabia was born in 1907. He
was the second son of King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud.
Q.2 From whom did he receive his religious education?
Ans. King Faisal belonged to a noble and religious family so the
received his religious education from his maternal grand father
Sheikh Abdullah Bin Latif.
Q.3 When was Faisal made the King?
Ans. Faisal was made King after the illness of his elder brother
King saud in 1964. The council of Ministers chose him as a king
because of his wisdom and intelligence.
Q.4 How did Faisal rule Saudi Arabia?
Ans. Being an able ruler and possessing great qualities of
Leadership. Faisal ruled Saudi Arabia wisely and justly Saudi
Arabia was polished under his rule because of his sincere

leadership and love for his country. He did his best for the
development of the country.
Q.5 How did he developed his country?
Ans. Keeping a vast governing experience, Fisal took all
necessary steps to develop his country. He spend a lot of
money to promote his people and provided the basic amenities
of life to the people at their footsteps. He setup new industries
and milk, provided the education with stipends compulsory
and took every step to increase mineral oils production, which
is the main source of income. Vast areas deserts were irrigated
and brought under cultivation.
Q.6 What were the feelings of King FAisal about Pakistan?
Ans. King Faisal was a sincere friend and well-wisher of the
people of Pakistan. He showed his sincerely on several
ocasions by providing all-out metal and material support. He
felt deeply on the separation of Pakistan. He was the one who
gave the Castle of Islam to Pakistan and his name shall live
foreever in the hearts of Pakistan.
Q.7 Why was King Faisal against the State of Israel?
Ans. King Faisal was against the state of Israel, because of its
enmity towards the ARabs. Infact, he was arare of the
aggressive designs of European block, that why he condemned
the illegal occupation of israel. He demanded that the previous
state of Jerusalem should be restored i.e. to be given under
the control of Muslims as a holy Islamic city.
Q.8 What did FAisal do for the Arabs in their war against
Israel?
Ans. Faisal made every possible effort to get back the ARab
territories and provided full financial support to Arabs. He
never recognized the state of Israel and did not establish any
kind of relation with it at any level. He was the one who
introduce the Arabs as a community.
Q.9 When was King Faisal killed?
Ans. King Faisal was killed by a wicked nephew of his on 25th

## March, 1975. Actually hee was murdered by a skillful

fabricated plan.
Q.10 How did the muslims feel over his death?
Ans. The Muslims felt deep sorrow over his death. Pakistan
now in his death as one of their family members had died. His
name shall be written in the letters of gold and will be
remembered forever.
Sentences
1. Education Islam makes it compulsory for all humans to
acquire education.
2. Govern The President governs the country with an iron
hand.
3. Gain Aslam gained a good profit in his joint venture.
messages of Government.
5. Affair This affair is keeping him occupied.
Complete the Following Sentences
1. Faisal started taking interest in the affairs of the state.
2. He received religious education from his maternal
grandfather.
3. He was made governor of Hijaz when he was only twenty.
4. He helped his father in governing the country.
Composition
1. King Faisal
King Faisal had a royal background thats why from the very
beginning he was aware from the art of governing. Due to his
intelligence, he was made P.M. in early age. He was a very
sources of income. He used mineral oil as a weapon for Arab to
fight with the European block. he was aware of the aggressive
plans of non-Muslims, thats why he openly declared it to the
Muslim World. He also gave the solution by awaking the need
of unity among the Muslims. he was only leader who

## recognized the Arabs as a community in the World. Now, he is

no more but his efforts shall be remembered forever.
2. King Faisals Efforts to Unite the Muslims
To create unity among Muslims and to unite them on one
platform, was the main aim of King Faisal. He realized that
only solution to the problems which the Muslims world is
currently facing lies in the unity among the Muslims. He
provoke the need of brotherhood among the Muslims. He gave
the idea and practically hold the Islamic Summit conferences in
which all the problems were discussed at Length. he always
supported the Muslims at their hard times which created an
examplary effect on the Muslims. The best best example is his
continuous struggle against the Israeli occupation of the Arab
Territories. Infact, he chose the right path to save the Muslims
from devastation.
Idioms
1. go into He goes into trouble through his foolishness.
2. go through Have you gone through my report card?
together with yours.
Grammar
Nouns
1. Born Birth
2. Educate Education
3. Resign Resignation
4. Move Movement
5. Rule Ruler
6. Govern Government
7. Serve Service
8. Visit A Visit
9. Die Death
10. Develop Development
From a Railway Carriage

CHAPTER 7
Central Idea
Reference
This poem is written by Robert Louis Stevenson, a Scottish
poet. In this poem, he shows both the sides of picture i.e. good
and evil. He loved the children and understood them.
Central Idea
This poem tells that one decides upon on objectives suiting
ones natural aptitudes and capacities, one should not waste
time and should use all the energies in the effort to attain it
and not to be distracted by anything, however beautiful it may
be.
Theme
We are not here to pay, to dream, to drill we have hard work to
do and lots to lift. Shun not the struggle, Its God gift.
Q.1 What does the poet see from a railway carriage?
Ans. He sees the beauty of the area. He also sees a boy who is
collecting services hardly, a homeless person who is doing
nothing but to stare and a man who is lifting the overloaded
cart.
Q.2 What pleasures does the railway journey give to the poet?
Ans. The railway journey gives an immeasurable pleasure to
the post. Natural beauty provides him an everlasting joy which
includes the sights of meadows, daisies, mill, river, hill plain
etc. He is pleased because a thing of beauty is a joy forever.
Idioms
1.
2.
3.
4.

## In all There are four eggs in all in the basket.

All at once All at once the rain started to fall.
All the same This matter is all the same to me.
All alone A soldier destroyed the enemys for all alone in

the war.
country.
Dignity of Work
CHAPTER 8
Q.1 What did Akhter not answer his mother?
Ans. Akhter, being stubborn did not answer his mother. He was
feeling cross and angry because he was made to do the work
of servants and gardeners with his own hands.
Q.2 What did Mr. Inayat tell the children?
Ans. Mr. Inayat usually used to tell interesting stories of
different parts of the world. But on that particular day, he told
the children about the dignity of doing work with our own
hands.
Q.3 What reason did Akhter give his under for being cross?
Ans. The reason for Akhtars anger was that he was forced to
do the mean would. He believed that by doing out cast his
greatness is decreased and was feeling ashame on his act.
Q.4 What did the teacher do himself?
Ans. The teacher swept the room and emptied the dustbin. The
head master also took part in the activities by cleaning
bathroom.
Q.5 What did the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) love?
Ans. Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) loved to do the work for himself
and for others with his own hands. He never felt shy in
repairing and mending his shoes, washing clothes and
sweeping room. He proudly joined his companions in digging
ditch during the Khandaq Battle.
Q.6 Were the companions of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) like him?
Ans. Yes, the companions of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) like him.
They were the complete sketch of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)

personality and loved doing work with their hands. Hazrat Abu
Bakr not did his own work but also helped others.
Q.7 What did Hazrat Abu Bakr do?
Ans. Hazrat Abu Bakr was the orthodox Caliph of Muslims.
Following of footsteps of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), he did every
kind of work, his own as well as of others. He fetched water far
widows and neighbours who were very old and had no one to
work for them.
Q.8 What did Hazrat Fatima do?
Ans. Hazrat Fatima was the beloved and dearest daughter of
Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H). She could have servants being the
daughter of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), but like her father she
fetched water, ground corn and swept the house.
Q.9 How did Sultan Nasir uddin earned his living?
Ans. Sultan Nasir-uddin was a very pious Emperor of Muslims.
He earned his living by making caps, although he could take
money from the emperors treasury.
Q.10 What does everyone do in China?
Ans. People at China believe that all ought to work. Everyone
has to spend sometime each year working in the fields or in a
factor. Even the Prime Minister and his wife do the work.
Word Meanings
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

cross angry
reason cause
pleasant friendly
surprised astonished
favourite specially liked
treat behave towards somebody
noble showing high character
feteree went for an brought back

Composition
Dignity of Work

## Greatness of work or significance of work stand in the

meanings of dignity of work .It means that every kind of work
is great. No matter how small or how trivial it is. By doing work
with our own hands, our greatness is not curtailed and we
should, not feel shy or disgrace in doing chores of daily life.
Dignity of work is very importance because it produces the
spirit of doing hard work which enables us to face the hardship
of life. It creates modesty on our personality and helps in the
modification of ourselves. It also makes us ethical and social.
So, we should realize that by doing work with our own hands
make us honourable and great.
A Nations Strength

CHAPTER 9
Central Idea
Reference
Raph Waldo Emerson is the writer of this beautiful poem. His
philosophy is everlasting, because it arose from a desire to
make all things new, to seize life freshly.
Central Idea
The vigorous growth of any nation does not depend on wealth.
But majority the result of hard work, high moral character and
virtues of great people. A nations strength is a fruit of which
labour is seed.
Theme
The heights by great men reached and kept were nor attained
by sudden light, But they, while their companions left, were
toiling upward in the night. (Henry Longfellow)
people do not lack strength they lack will.
Character
Character means moral qualities which constitute personal or
national individuality. A nations strength rest upon the

## character of its people. Men of character achieve greatness for

their nation through sacrifices and hones deeds. They build
their nation on foundation of lasting virtue. So character is a
parameter which can be used to measure the depth of a mans
personality. When wealth is lost, nothing is lost. When health
is lost, something is lost. When Character is lost, everything is
lost.
Idioms
1. With Heart and Soul
Meaning: All ones energies and interest.
Sentence
1.That teacher is very popular because she works with heart
and soul.
2. We should love our country with heart and soul.
The Clever Wife

CHAPTER 10
Q.1 What was the farmer doing in his field?
Ans. The farmer was ploughing in his field with a team of
bullocks. Suddenly, a tiger appeared from the bushes, which
terrified the farmer.
Q.2 What did the tiger say to him?
Ans. Tiger greeted the farmer and said that the God had
commanded him to eat farmers bullocks. He ordered farmer to
obey Gods command then and deliver them to him.
Q.3 Why was the tiger angry?
Ans. The tiger was angry because first of all the farmer argued
that God had commanded him to plough the fields and then
refused to handover the bullocks to him. This argument and
refusal of farmer made the tiger angry.

## Q.4 What did the farmer offer to the tiger?

Ans. When the tiger became angry, the farmer tried to lesser
his anger by offering his fat cow. He did so to save his dear
live.
Q.5 What did farmer tell his wife?
Ans. The farmer entered the house in a panting position and
introduced his wife with the terrifying condition. He told her
that the tiger is awaiting for cow and asked her the cure for his
feared condition.
Q.6 Why did the wife of the farmer refuse to give the cow?
Ans. The wife of the farmer refused to give the cow because it
was the only source of butter and ghee for them. Moreover she
also used to get milk from the animal.
Q.7 What did the farmers wife do?
Ans. She returned the farmer to the field and decided to solve
the problem. She dressed herself as a blood-thirsty hunter and
rode to the field.
Q.8 What did she say when she saw the tiger?
Ans. She said when she saw the tiger that she was really in
need of a tiger because of its delicious flesh. She further said
that she was habitual of eating three tigers a day in order to
frighten the tiger.
Q.9 What did the tiger do when the farmers wife said that she
would eat a tiger?
Ans. Actually the tiger was coward at heart. Thats why when
he listened the terrifying dialogues from the farmers wife. He
run away to save his dear life.
Q.10 What did the jackal say to the running tiger?
Ans. The jackal revealed the fact that the blood-thirsty killer
was actually the farmers wife. He also promised to show the
real identity of the killer.
Q.11 What did the farmers wife say to the Jackal?
Ans. The farmers wife thanked Jackal for bringing such a fine
tiger to her. She also asked for two more tigers because she

## wanted to show the character of a blood-thirsty killer to afraid

the tiger.
Sentences
1. Command: The major commanded his soldiers to attack the
enemys fort.
2. Coward: To sing a song behind ones back is a very coward
act.
3. Deliver: Newspaper are the best media to deliver the
messages of Government.
4. Tender: We should deal everyone in a tender and delicate
manner.
5. Trick: We should not play tricks with others.
Composition
Q.1 Why did the farmer offer the tiger his cow?
Ans. Firstly the tiger demanded the farmers bullocks in a
dramatic style. The demand of the tiger terrified the farmer. He
thought that if he had no bullocks to plough the field, there
would be no wheat to make bread. He thought that if he gives
his fat cow instead of bullocks, this would be profitable for
him. Thats why the farmer offered the tiger, his cow.
Q.2 How did farmers wife frighten the tiger?
Ans. The farmers wife frighted the tiger by cladding herself as
a blood-thirsty killer. She put on her husbands best clothes,
lied a fine turban round her head. Then she saddled the horse
and rode to the field. When she reached there, said in loud and
bold voice that she was really in need of a tiger. She also
added that she was habitual of eating three tigers a day. The
tiger was coward at heart, thats why when he listened such
dialogues, he ran to same his dear life?
Q.3 How did the Jackal encourage the tiger?
Ans. The Jackal firstly flattered the tiger. Then he encouraged
him by revealing the fact that the bloodthirsty killer, who was
terrifying the tiger, was the farmers wife. He also promised to
show the real identity of farmers wife i.e. her long hair in

## order to proved his claim. He did so because he thought that

he might also have a piece from the tigers hunt.
Q.4 What is the moral of the lesson The Clever Wife?
Ans. The lesson The Clever Wife teaches us that we can
erase tireny from the society by showing boldness in our
character. We should not be panic, while facing tribulations of
life and we must keep our units along us.
Grammar
1.Direct to Indirect Speech
Direct: Tiger said to the farmer, Good morning, farmed of God
has commanded me to eat your bullocks. Now obey Gods
command and deliver them to me.
Indirect: Tiger greeted the farmer that God had commanded
him to eat farmers bullocks. He ordered farmer to obey Gods
command then and deliver them to him.
Direct: Farmer said to the tiger, God has commanded me to
plough the fields and i Cannot do so without my bullocks.
Perhaps, Sir, you have made a mistake.
Indirect: Farmer told tiger that God had commanded him to
plough the fields and he would not do so without his bullocks.
Direct: Tiger said, I know better what God wishes me to do so
hurry up and hand over the bullocks to me.
Indirect: Tiger said that he knew better what God wished him
to do; he ordered the farmer to hurry up and handover the
bullocks to me.
Direct: Farmer said to the Tiger, Please, Sir, Ive a fat cow at
home. Ill fetch it for you in a few moments.
Indirect: Farmer requested the tiger that he had a fat cow at
home. He would fetch it fo you in a few moments.
Direct: The tiger said, All right, go and bring the cow but
leave, the bullocks here. I promise Ill not hurt them.
Indirect: The tiger commanded the farmer to go and bring the

## cow but leave the bullocks there. He promised he would not

hurt them.
Direct: The wife said to the farmer, You are already home, I
havent yet started my household work.
and that she hadnt yet started her house hold work.
Direct: The farmer said to his wife, Please, hurry up! Tell me
what to do. The tiger is waiting for the cow. If I am late, the
tiger will eat up the bullocks.
Indirect: The farmer begged his wife to hurry up and tell him
what to do. The tiger was waiting for the co. If he was late, the
tiger would eat up the bullocks.
Direct: The farmers wife said, Where shall and get the milk
from? How shall I make butter and ghee if you give away the
cow?
Indirect: The farmers wife questioned where they would get
the milk from. How she would make butter and ghee if he gave
away the cow.
Direct: The farmer said, I know but bread is more important
than butter. If Ive no bullocks to plough the field with, therell
be no wheat to make bread.
Indirect: The farmer said that he knew but bread was more
important than butter. If he had no bullocks to plough the field
with there would be no wheat to make bread.
Direct: The farmers wife said, No, I wont let you take the
cow.
Indirect: The farmers wife refused she would not let him took
the cow.
Direct: the farmer said, Then find some way out.
Indirect: The farmer ordered to find some way out then.
Direct: The farmers wife said, Very well, I shall think of a
way. Leave it to me. No go back to the tiger and tell him that
your wife is bringing the cow.
Indirect: The farmers wife exclaimed that she would think of a

## way. Leave it to her. She ordered the farmer to go back to the

tiger and tell him that his wife was bringing the cow.
Direct: The farmers wife said, How I would like to eat a live
tiger! Its flesh is so tender and tasty. Yesterday, I ate three
tigers, bones and all. I hope I shall find at least one delicious
little tiger today.
Indirect: The farmers wife said that how she would like to eat
a live tiger. Its flesh was so tender and tasty. The day before,
she had eaten three tigers, bones and all. She hoped she
would find at least one delicious little tiger that day.
Direct: The jackal said to the tiger, What is the matter, my
lord? Where are you off to?
Indirect: The jackal asked the tiger what was the matter.
Where he was off to?
Direct: The tiger said to the jackal, Run for your life. Theres a
blood thirsty horseman, who goes about eating tigers.
Indirect: The tiger said to the jackal to run for his life. There
was a blood-thirsty horseman, who went about eating tigers.
Direct: The jackal said to the tigers, Oh that was only the
farmers wife. She has played a trick on you. Come with me,
my lord, and I shall you her long hair.
Indirect: The jackal told the tiger that, she had been the
farmers wife only. She had played a trick on tiger. He said to
the tiger to go with him, and he would show him her long hair.
Direct: The tiger said to the jackal, Are you sure its only a
woman.
Indirect: The tiger asked the jackal if he was sure it was only a
woman.
Direct: The jackal said to the tiger, Dont you trust your old
friend.
Indirect: The jackal asked the tiger if he not trusted his old
friend.
Direct: The farmer said to his wife, Now we are lost.
Indirect: The farmer told his wife that they were lost them.

## Direct:The farmers wife said to the farmer, Dont you worry. I

shall deal with them.
Indirect:The farmers wife told the farmer not to worry. She
would deal with them.
Direct: The farmers wife said to the jackal, Ah, thank you so
much, dear Mr. Jackal, for bringing me such a fine gift of a
tiger. I was really looking for such a one. Have you any more
because I must eat three tigers a day.
Indirect: The farmers wife thanked jackal for bringing her such
a fine gift for a tiger. She had been really looking for such a
one. If he had any more because she must ate three tigers a
day.
2. Preposition
1.
2.
3.
4.

## The tiger was angry with the jackal.

The farmers wife laughed at her husband.
The farmers wife was not afraid from the tiger.
Ill fetch the cow for you in a few moments.

## 3. Sentences As a Noun and Verb

1. Command We should obey the command of our elders. (N)
1. Commanded The teacher commanded the students to take
a surprise test. (V)
2. Growl The panthers growl made the hunter terrified. (N)
2. Growled The tiger growled at the fox because he was
scrabbing his catch. (V)
3. Plough Tractor is better tool than bullocks to plough the
fields. (N)
3. Ploughed The farmer ploughed the field to earn his bread.
(V)
4. Anger Anger is prohibited in Islam. (N)
4. Angered Aslam angered when he listened the news of his
failure in exams. (V)
5. Trick The audience were very excited with the funny tricks
of joker. (N)

## 5. Tricked He tricked me by telling wrong exercise to me for

the test. (V)
6. Surprise There is a strange surprise for you in the store
room. (N)
6. Surprised Fahad was surprised with the slims. (V)
7. Milk Milk is a balanced and complete diet. (N)
7. Milked The cow milked her calf. (V)
8. Despair We should not be despair while facing hardships of
life. (N)
8. Despair Ahmed was greatly despair because he failed in
the annual exams. (V)
4. Synonyms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Bold Brave
Firm Strong
Delicious Tasty
Despair Hopelessness
Solute Great
Eager Desirous
Tender Soft

Beautiful Hands

CHAPTER 11
Central Idea
Reference
This poem is written by an American poetess Ellen M.H.Gates.
She wrote religious songs. Collection of her poems were
published in 1987 and 1910.
Central Idea
Mothers hands are the symbol of Love. A mother is a pivot,

## around which the whole family revolves. She relieves the

tedium of life, sheds the divine light in the darkness, alleviates
distress, does her duties by her children makes them happy,
healthy and intelligent citizens of tomorrow. The progress of a
nation depends upon the care and skill with which mothers
rear up their children.
Theme
The theme of this poem can be expressed in the words of
Napoleon that:
Give me good mothers, Ill Give you good nation.
or
The hands that rocks the cradle is the hand that rules the
world.
Q.1 What words or phrases tell us that they are not pretty in
the physical sense?
Ans. The words ages and wrinkled tell us that the hands are
not beautiful in their physical appearance. It means that these
hands are old and full of wrinkles. They are neither fair not
small but rough and big.
Q.2 Why does the poetess praise the hands in the second
stanza?
Ans. The poetess praises the hands in the second stanza
because these hands carelessly worked hard inspite of
exhaustion and utter fatigue in order to provide happiness of
her children. The poetess is showing repentance because when
she was young, she couldve helped her mother in doing chars
of daily life but she did not.
Q.3 In the third stanza, what does These hands must folded
be mean?
Ans. The words, These hands must folded be mean that the
death time of the poetess mother was near to come. The
poetess is showing her grief because soon her mother would
be under the layers of wild flowers in a folding manner.

## Q.4 Who does the poetess praise in this poem?

Ans. In this poem, the poetess pays a high tribute to her
mothers hands for their spiritual beauty. She further defined
these hands that they worked restlessly inspite of facing
tribulations of life, so that her family might enjoys a happy life.
Idioms
With a high hand Disregarding the feeling of other
Sentence He is most unpopular because he decides matter
with a high hand.
A Village Fair
CHAPTER 12
Q.1 Why was the village decorated?
Ans. When Bilal reached his cousins village he saw that the
village was beautifully decorated with colourful buntings and
flags unusually. The reason behind that decoration was that
the annual village fair was being celebrated.
Q.2 Why was it the best time to visit the village?
Ans. Bilal visited the village in his summer vacations. It would
be best time for him to visit the village because the villagers
were celebrating annual fair which is held only once in year.
Bilal luckily experienced the amazing sights of this fair.
Q.3 How did the juggler entertain the people?
Ans. The juggler entertained the people through his funny and
amazing tricks. He juggled with seven balls at a time without
dropping any of them. It was a great game of practice and
skill.
Q.4 How did the conjurer perform his tricks?
Ans.The conjurer performed several unbelievable tricks
through his clever skill. He took Bilals handkerchief and tore it
into pieces. Later on he astonished the audience by returning
the handkerchief in just one piece.

## Q.5 What is tent-pegging?

Ans. Tent -Pegging is a typical feature of Pakistani fair and a
popular country game. In this game, the horse rider has to pull
up the wooden pegs fixed in the ground. They do this with the
help of lances.
Q.6 What made the dogs run in the dog race?
Ans. Dog race is a kind of fascinating entertainment for the
villagers in which the skill of hound dongs is examined. In the
fair, a rabbit was brought in the field and was let loose inform
of the dogs, which made the dogs run.
Q.7 What was the special announcement?
Ans. The special announcement was about the horse race. s it
is the general feature of a fair, thats why most of the people
rushed to view their favourite segment of the fair.
Q.8 What kinds of shops had been setup for the fair?
Ans. Mostly the temporary shops had been set up for the fair.
All kinds of goods from handkerchiefs to framing tools were
available in these shops. They were the special faculty for this
fair.
Q.9 What was the use of these shops for the villagers?
Ans. The temporary shops set up for the fair provided
feasibility to both buyers and seller. People from far off places
easily bought essential commodities of life. Where as, it was a
good time for the sellers to avail business opportunity.
Q.10 What were the different entertainments in the fair for the
children?
Ans. Thee were different entertainments for the children in the
fair. These entertainments include swings, the monkey man
show and the show performed by the circus people. Children
enjoyed it a lot.
Sentences
1. Decorated Our school was beautifully decorated on the
2. Competition A soldier was badly wounded during the

shooting competition.
3. Performance A Major was awarded medal because of his
performance during the war.
4. Temporary Temporary arrangements have been made for
the prevention of crimes.
5. Damaged The car was badly damaged after a small
accident.
Grammar
1.Complete the following sentences
1. The drummer who could beat the longest work get a prize.
2. The two friends moved towards a crowd which had gathered
in a big circle.
3. The food that we ate was delicious.
4. The man whom we saw climbing the pole had been walking
on the tight rope.
5. The rider whose horse had won the race was very happy.
6. I went to the village where my cousin was living.
7. I visited him when the village fair was in full swing.
2. Tense Changing into Past.
1. We do our homework.
Ans. We did our homework at night.
2. The pupils write a composition.
Ans. The pupils wrote a composition in the half-time.
3. My friend walks to school.
Ans. My friend walked to school in the morning.
4. The Headmaster teaches us English.
Ans. The Headmaster taught us English in the last period.
5. The peon rings the bell.
Ans. The peon rang the bell at 1O clock.
6. My mother does not sleep well.
Ans. My mother did not sleep well.

## 7. His brother loses his book.

Ans. His brother lost his book in the assembly.
8. The eagle flies very high.
Ans. The eagle flew very high in the sky.
9. The cobbler sits under a tree.
Ans. The cobbler sat under a tree at noon.
10. They grow rice on this farm.
Ans. They grow rice on this farm in the winter season.
1. old older- oldest
2. young younger- youngest
3. great greater greatest
4. big bigger biggest
5. far more far most far
6. famous more famous most famous
7. beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
8. popular more popular most popular
9. intelligent more intelligent most intelligent
10. delicious more delicious most delicious
4. Forms of Verbs
1. know knew known
2. heat heated heated
3. learn learnt learnt
4. sing sang snag
6. listen listened listened
7. go went gone
8. write wrote written
10. wear wore worn
11. live lived lived
Composition
1. A Village Fair

## Last month, we visited a village fair. The fair was representing

the festive mood of the rusic people. The village was specially
decorated with colourful buntings and flags and was crowded
with a lrge number of people. Many temporary shops had been
set up which were the special faculty for the fair. These shops
were providing feasibility for the visitors as well as for the
shopkeepers. There was a lot of entertainment for different
age groups especially children like swings, monkey man show,
drum beating competition, horse race etc. The circus people
were also presenting their funny and amazing tricks to
fascinate people. Tent pegging and the dog race were two
very popular games of the fair. In tent-pegging the training
and skill to horse and the rider is examined skill of dogs is
examined through the dog race. We were very enchanted to
see the beautiful sights of the fair.
2. Tent-Pegging
Tent-pegging is one of the most popular and famous sport of
Pakistan. It is an important heritage of our culture. In this
game wooden pegs are fixed in the ground. The riders have to
pull these pegs out of the ground with the help of their spear,
as they ride by at a gallop. Tent-pegging is a exhibit of skill in
which the training invested on the horse and the skill of
trainee and the rider is tested. It is great game of joy in
Speak Gently

CHAPTER 13
Central Idea
Reference
The writer of this poem is anonymous. But the tone of the
poetry represents the peome is a part of Moorish poetry.

Central Idea
Speaking gently to everyone is a good trait in our character. By
being gentle we are likely to loose nothing and gain much in
terms of friendship. Good will and even material rewards. It
places our character and personality in a very good light and
creates an everlasting impression in the minds of others.
Theme
Kindness is more important than wisdom and recognition of it
is the beginning of wisdom.
Summary
This Moorish poem is written by an anonymous poet. This
poem emphasis upon speaking gently.
By speaking gently we can attain the spiritual power of rule.
Treating someone harshly is a kind of moral sin which can
devastate our good deeds.
Speak gently is the best way to train a child and win over his
love and trust. If you dont adopt the mild attitude your
teachings will not persist for a prolong period.
Our attitude should be soft to the aged and old people in order
to create such an atmosphere in which they can pass their
remaining days peacefully.
Speak mildly does not cause and burden to you. These soft
words create a forever impression on the others hearts. The
reward of adopting this habit is that in this mortal world is the
good deeds and the everlasting pleasure. It also brings reward
in the eternal life.
Q.1 What is the result of adopting harsh attitude?
Ans. To speak harshly is a kind of ethical and social sin which
can devastate our good deeds we should produce mildness in
our character. This is the only way through which we can
provide security to our good deeds which we have done in this
mortal world.
Q.2 What resemblance does he find between hearts and the
deep well?

## Ans. The poet finds resemblance between and deep well

because like deep well we cannot assume what is deeply within
human heart. One thing is sure that the soft words go deeply
in the heart and we cannot assume these words out of the
hearts.
Shopping

CHAPTER 14
Q.1 Why did mother ask Najma and Ajmal to go with her for
shopping?
Ans. Mother asked Najma and Ajmal to go with her for
shopping because their father was not at home. He was on
tour and in his absence the mother had to do shopping.
Moreover, they also have run out of groceries and provisions.
Q.2 How much fare did the taxi driver demanded?
Ans. Mother hired a taxi to reach the market and asked the
driver about the fare. The taxi driver demanded twenty rupees
before hand s the meter was out of order.
Q.3 What did mother tell the taxi-driver?
Ans. The mother was shocked by the demand of taxi driver
because the fare was too much as the distance was hardly a
kilometer. She further threatened that she would take him to
traffic constable if he insisted on charging 20 rupees
Q.4 Where did mother and children go first for shopping?
Ans. Mother and children firstly went to the mutton market.
Najma and Ajmal were astonished to see the Halal animals
hanging in the market.
Q.5 What is the difference between beef and mutton?
Ans. The meat of cows, calves and buffaloes is called beef.
Whereas mutton is the flesh of goats and sheep.

## Q.6 What did mother buy at the butchers shop?

Ans. Firstly mother bargained with the butcher and settled the
price at ninety rupees a kilo according to the price-list. Then
she demands one kilo of leg and one kilo minced meat.
Q.7 Where did mother go after making purchases at the
butcher?
Ans. After making purchases at the butchers mother headed
towards the vegetables and fruit. She wanted to buy fresh and
tasty vegetables for the incoming month.
Q.8 How did the mother buy bananas and apples?
Ans. Monthly firstly inquired the fruit sever about the price.
Then she bought ten bananas at a rte of fifteen rupees and one
kg apples at a cost of twenty rupees.
Q.9 What did mother buy last of all?
Ans. After making all purchases mother went to a poultry shop.
She bought eggs and one kilo of dressed chicken at a rate of
twenty and ninety rupees respectively.
Q.10 How far is the market from the house of Najma and
Ajmal?
Ans. The market was not so far from the house of Najma and
Ajmal. It was about a distance of one thousands metres.
Q.11 What did mother ask the children to do when they
reached back home?
to polish his own and Najmas shoes. She order ordered Najma
to iron the clothes.
Q.12 When do we use Metre, Kilometre, Kilo and Litre?
Ans. These are all measuring units of different quantities.
Metre is used for measuring Length, Kilometre for distance,
Kilo for weightsand Litre to measure liquids except with those
of high viscosity.
Q.13 Give the reason why polythene bags are not being used
all over the world? or What is / are the harmful effects of
polythene bags?

Ans. Polythene bags are not being used all over the world
because they are major source of water pollution. They lock
the severage pipes and when the drains are chocked, the dirty
water spills all over. There is no suitable way of disposing
these bags.
Q.14 How can we call the mother a vigilant customer? or How
did mother bargain for the price at the butchers shop?
Ans. We can call the mother a vigilant customer because
before buying anything she seemed to be very conscious the
price and quality of goods. At the butchers shop, she firstly
inquired about the price. When she knew the price, she
insisted on charging less rupees because the prices were
exceeding the price list. The butcher started telling stories but
finally he agreed on the low rate which shows the vigilance of
mother.
Q.15 Why were Najma and Ajmal excited?
Ans. Najma and Ajmal were excited because the first time they
were going for shopping. The idea of learning new and
interesting things was making them excited.
Q.16 Why did Taxi driver demand 20 rupees for fare?
Ans. Taxi driver demanded 20 rupees for the fare because he
wanted to make more money than the fare. As the meter of
taxi was also our of order, so taking the advantage of this
situation he wanted to charge 20 rupees.
Sentences
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

## Beef: Beef is the flesh of cows, calves and buffaloes.

Calves: Calve beef is more tasty than cows and buffaloes.
Carton: This carton of soap contains 100 cakes of soap.
Cabbage: We grow fresh cabbages in the garden.
Hire: Aslam hired a taxi to reach the station.
Spices: Spices add delicious taste to the food.
Meter: We should not harm our gas and electric meter.
Unit: The unit of time in M.K.s system is second.
Provisions: We buy provisions every month from the Sunday

Bazar.
10. Mutton: Mutton is the flesh of goats and sheep.
Synonyms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Frightened Afraid
Hail Greet
Carton Box
Provisions Supplies
Pointing Hinting
Threaten Warn

Opposites
1. Swim Drown
3. Float Sink
4. Front Rear
5. Start Stop
6. Boil Freeze
7. Part Whole
9. Agree Differ
10. Reject Accept
Grammar
1. Complete with Kilogram, Litre, Metres and Kilometres
1. My house is three kilometre from the railway.
2. This jar contains one kilogram of honey.
3. He measured out ten metres of rope.
4. The price of kerosene oil is five rupees a litre.
5. Sugar cane is usually two to three metres long.
6. The speed of this aeroplane is seven hundreds kilometres
and hour.
7. This car does twelve kilometres to a litre of petrol.
2.Complete with the following

## out of order, out of date, enforce, in order, up-to-date, to date

1. The old system of weights and measures is no longer
enforce.
2. You must revise your book and bring to up-to-date.
3. The Shopkeeper told him that their weighing machine was
out of order.
4. I have received no letter from him to-date.
5. This rule is enforce, we must follow it.
6. That book was published ten years ago, it is completely out
of date.
3. Complete with the following
with cake, bar, jar, packet, carton, bag, roll
1. A carton of soap contains 144 soap cakes.
2. Please bring a jar of Swat honey for me.
3. What is the price of one bag of flour?
4. The price of a cake of soap has increased by one rupee.
5. The shopkeeper charged me ninety rupees for this roll of
cloth.
6. This chocolate is cheap at three rupees a bar.
7. This packet contains 25 biscuits.
4. Prepositions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

## The driver brought the taxi to a sudden halt.

He took off his old coat and put on the new one.
Before leaving the kitchen she put off the fire.
She turned out the cat and shut the door.
My friend turned up late from the cinema.
The watchman turned out to be thief.
The plane took off at 10O Clock.

## 5. Change into Active Voice

1. He was robbed and beaten by some unknown persons.
Ans. Some unknown persons robbed and beat him.
2. The field was ploughed, the seed was sown and the crop was
harvested by the farmer himself.

Ans. The farmer himself ploughed the field, sowed the seed nd
harvested the crop.
6. Change into Passive Voice
1. She brushed, cleaned and ironed her coat.
Ans. The coat was brushed, cleaned and ironed by her.
2. I brought this news to him.
Ans. That news was brought to him by me.
Composition
You go shopping to buy a cloth for your School uniform Write a
dialogue with the shopkeeper.
Me: Hello sir, may I have a cloth for the school uniform?
Shopkeeper: Sure, wait a second.
Me: Is this purely cotton?
Shopkeeper: No, it is paper cotton. But assure you that it will
last longer?
Me: Ok! But how can you say that the colour of trouser will
Shopkeeper:It is my guarantee that the colour will not fade
otherwise you can have your money back.
Me: Alright, how much it costs?
Shopkeeper: First tell me how much do you want?
Me: I need about 6 meters of the cloth.
Shopkeeper: Actually, the real price is 200 rupees but as you
are our regular customer, you can have it at a cost of 18
rupees.
Me: Its too expensive. Cant you be more flexible?
Shopkeeper: No my son, because if I do so I will deprived of
my profit.
Me: Ok, take these 180 rupees and pack the cloth.
Shopkeeper: No problem.
Idioms

## 1. To have the lions share: To take the biggest share of

something.
Example: Divide the cake into equal slices and dont have the
lions share for yourself.
Sentence: Divide the profit share equally and dont have the
lions share.
2. To same something for rainy day: To keep for some future
security.
Example: He wanted all his savings and has save nothing for a
rainy day.
Sentence: He lost all his money in gamble and didnt save
anything for a rainy day.
3. To cry over spilt milk: To grieve over something uselessly.
Example: The damage has been done, but instead of crying
over spilt milk, do something to repair.
Sentence: It is useless crying over spilt milk.
4. Its high time: The moment has already come.
Example: The exams begin next month as its high time by now.
Sentence: The cricket match will start in twenty minutes so its
high time we should leave for the stadium.
The Hand That Rocks the Cradle is the Hand That Rules The
World
CHAPTER 15
Central Idea
Reference
This poem is written by William Ross Wallace, (1819-1881). He
was born in Dexington, Kentucky. HiBs first poem appeared in
1837. He was lawyer by profession, but spent more time on
literature. He composed patriotic songs during the civil wr
which became popular. He possessed a splendid imagination as
well as poetic diction.
Central Idea
The Central idea of this poem is that the first, noblest and

## most sacred mission of the mother is to bring up children.

Mothers are the real builders of our nation, in the sense that
the character of a children made or marred by the mother. It is
said that:
Educate women or mothers and the Nation will take charge of
itself.
Theme
A French idealogist Charles force said:
One could judge the degree of civilization of a country by the
social and political possession of its mother.
Summary
This poem is written by famous American poet William Ross
Wallace.
The poet is paying his homage to the mothers because of their
holy and sacred task. The mothers bless the palace, cottage
and poormans equally and make them colourful. Mothers
carry out a great sacred responsibility of bringing up the
children. In this world, which is full of evils and vices, a mother
is a mark of guidance and protection.
Mothers are the actual trainee of the children. Her affection
enables the children to recognize divinity and obey command
of Allah. A childs character depends directly upon the
mothers.
Behind every success of accomplishment of the great people is
the hand of their mother. Due to the caring guidance which is
given in a dedicated and caring manner, a mother can mold the
character of a child in good shape.
Mothers words are so sanctimonious that they are sure to
accepted because they are strengthened by the worship of
angles. So it is true that a mothers hand that brings up a child
is the same that governs every sphere of life.
Q.1 Why does the poet compare mothers hands to a rainbow?
Ans. The poet find resemblance between the mothers hands
and a rainbow because rainbow is symbol of peace, pleasure

## and happiness. It indicates that the storm has passed and

difficulties have gone. Similarly a mother is a symbol of pity
and pleasure who creates a peaceful and coming atmosphere
for the whole family.
Q.2 What is guided by angles and how?
Ans. The chestity and grace of mothers is guided by angles. No
one can destroy the spirit of the true mothers because it is
protected by the holy angles. They bring divine blessings to
the mothers which help the mothers to struggle with the
tediums of life.
Q.3 Explain how the poet gives the credit for all great
achievements of people to their mothers?
Ans. The poet gives the credit for all great accomplishment of
people to their mothers because all the great personalities are
prominent in the world due to the careful bringing up to their
mothers. Its only the result of mothers caring guidance and
training that the world is passing with the periods of
humanstary and great successes.
Q.4 Describe the role of a mother?
Ans. The role of a mother is to bring up and train the children.
Mother is an actual guiding force for the children because due
to her training a child can instigate a high moral character.
Mother also infest in the children the spirit to know the
difference between good and evil. A child is virtuous or his bad
character depends upon the guidance of mother.
Q.5 Why does the poet compare infancy (childhood) with the
tender fountain?
Ans. The poet compares infancy (childhood) with the tender
fountain because childhood is just like a sophisticated and
delicated fountain which can be led to any stage of life i.e.
good or bad. It is only a mother who can guide a very young
soil to his destination success it or failure.
Q.6 What does it mean by Sunshine streamed or evil hurled.
Ans. Sunshine is a symbol of goodness and virtue. This phrase
means that the structure of a mans character depends mainly

## upon the mothers. If the training of mother is goo it mean

that she has infested a high moral character in her children.
But if the guidance is not good and childs character will
prevail by evilness.
Q.7 Why does the poet say that the prayers of mothers on
earth mingles with that said in heaven?
Ans. The poet says so because the prayers of a mothers are so
sacred and holy that they are accompanied by the holy prayers
of angle. So that, these prayers are enforced and
strengthened. The words of mother keep a sanctimonious
status to God, which cannot be neglected because they are
also strengthened by the worship of angles.
Q.8 Describe the poetic diction of William Ross Wallace?
Ans.William Rose Wallace composed patriotic songs during the
civil war which became popular. He was a friend of Edgar Allen
Roe whom he resembled both in temperament and habits. He
possessed a splendid imagination as well as poetic diction.
Q.9 How can the mother keep the young heart open and for
what?
Ans. Mother has a very divine task to complete which starts
right from the beginning of the childs life and continues till
the end. She keeps the young heart open in such a way that
the child can understand and accept the divine commands of
Allah.
An African Village

CHAPTER 16
Q.1 How many independent countries are there in Africa and
where is Nigeria?
Ans. Africa is the second largest continent which consists of

## more than twenty five independent countries. Nigeria is one of

the largest countries of Africa. It is in West Africa.
Q.2 What is the bush area made up of and where do most
Nigeria farmers live?
Ans. The bush area is consisted of scattered trees with heavy
undergrowth in the form of thick bush and grass. Most of the
Nigerian farmers live in the villages and farm settlements in
the bush area. They construct huts and live in those huts.
Q.3 What is the centre of activities?
Ans. The main centre of activities is the courtyard of house.
Women cook food and work over there and children play there.
They only use rooms for resting purposes.
Q.4 What are their food crops and cash crops?
Ans. The crop, which is edible and we use as food are called
food crops. The main food crops of Nigeria are plantains,
potatoes, yarns, ground nuts and pepper. The crop which is
sold to other countries are called cash crops and the Nigerias
cash crops include palm oil and cocoa.
Q.5 Who tends the food crops and the cash crops?
Ans. Food crops are usually tended by the women. Whereas,
the cash crops are tended by men.
Q.6 What is made from cocoa beans and yield from palm trees?
Ans. From the fruit of cocoa tree, yield beans which are
grounded into powder which forms chocolate. From the palm
trees, palm oil is yield. When the oil from the trees is passed
through the chemical processors, the palm oil is obtained in
pure form.
Q.7 Why was continent Africa called Dark Continent once?
Ans. Continent Africa was called Dark Continent once
because the habitats and civilizations of the people of this
continent was not known to the world. Due to their backward
living styles and old fashioned traits, this continent seems to
be the dull part of this world.

## Q.8 Give a brief account of Nigeria?

Ans. Nigeria is situated in West Africa and is one of the largest
countries of Africa. Nigeria is basically an agricultural country.
It is also a thickly populated country which comprises majority
of farmers. A great part of Nigeria is covered with a dense
forest.
Q.9 How is the life of Nigerian farmer differ from Pakistani
farmer?
Ans. The life of Nigerian farmer differ from Pakistani farmer in
many ways. Their agricultural style is quite different from
ours. They are not in the favour of keeping cattles because of
the disease which unables them to use cattles in farming.
Their daily routine of life also differs from Pakistani farmer.
Q.10 Describe the changes that are coming or likely to come
soon in the life of the bush dwellers in Nigeria.
Ans. Many favourable changes are coming in the life of bush
dwellers, which include the availability of transport and
communication, health and education, food and water etc.
Soon their life style will more develope because many more
modern facilities are making their way in these villages.
Q.11 Describe the life of a Nigerian farmer and his wife?
Ans. The life a Nigerian villager is a model of hard work. From
the rising of sun to the dark, they work in the fields and
houses. Farmer usually does all the work related to agriculture
and women do the household jobs including looking after the
food crops.
Q.12 Describe the building style of Nigerian farm.
Ans. The building style of Nigerian farms consists of three
styles. First style is a single roomed and simple but which is
made from thick branches of trees. Other style is the cone
shaped huts made from straw and whose roof is thatched
grass, needs or palm trees. Last style is the two or three
roomed huts made of wood or are plastered with mud.
Q.13 Why can Nigerian farmer not rear cattle?
Ans. Nigerian farmers are not interested in rearing cattles

because of the major hazards for the cattles. Tse-Tse fly is the
sign of dangers for them. On the other hand, it is also
dangerous for human beings because it causes
unconsciousness state which most of the time ends in death.
Sentences
1. Century: Computer is the most amazing invention of this
century.
2. Cultivate: Modern methods of agriculture are being used to
cultivate the fields.
3. Dense: Amazon forest is mainly covered with dense
vegetation.
4. Export: Rice is the major export of Pakistan.
5. Scatter: The shelling of the police scatter the crowd.
6. Things out: The market is thickly, crowded at the beginning
but it things out at the end.
Idioms
1. To shed crocodile tears: to weep insincerely, or
hypocritically
Example: They were not all sorry when he died. They just
sheded crocodile tears.
Sentence: From the attitude of UN towards Kashmir issue, it
seems that it is just shedding crocodile tears.
2. To feel like first out of water: To feel out of place
Example: Being the only educated man in that village, I feel
like a fish out of water there.
Sentence: Aslam was the only member of Women rights
association and felt like a fish out of water.
3. To nip in the bud: To stop evil in the early stages
Example: The plot to overthrow the government was detected
nd nipped in the bud.
Sentence: he should not prevail the bad atmosphere in the
society and try, to nip in the bud of crimes.
4. To turn over a new leaf: To reform, to behave better
Example: The teacher pardoned the boy on the condition that

## he promised to turn over a new leaf.

Sentence: The death of his parents turned over a new leaf in
his life.
Synonyms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Coartyard Compound
Dense Thick
Explore Search
Introduce Acquaint
Century One Hundred
Majority More than half
Cultivate to grow
Facility Convenience

Antonyms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Dense Thin
Majority Minority
Remote Near
Major Minor
Independent Dependent
Interior Exterior
Export Import

Grammar
1. Complete the Following Sentences with Shall, Will, Should,
Would:
1. I think I shall go to the Karachi next week.
2. You should not tell a lie.
3. We shall fight to the last men.
4. This office will remain open till midnight.
5. I shall be grateful if you kindly grant me a pass.
6. The train would have arrived now.
7. Should our motherland need it, we will lay down our lives for
it.
8. You should respect your elders.

## 9. Had you been there, it would never have happened.

10. They should not violate any condition of this contract.
2. Prepositions
2. He is not acquainted with my parents.
3. This machine is fitted with automatic control.
4. You are not fit for this job.
5. A round nail does not for into a square hole.
6. He has passed the examination and is not looking for a job.
7. The police are on the look out for the robbers.
8. Look for the meaning of this world in the dictionary.
9. He promised to look into this matter.
10. We look up at you to solve our problems.
3. Change into Passive Voice
2. A snake in the grass stung his barefoot.
Ans. His barefoot was stung by a snake in the grass.
3. He cannot rear any cattle on his farm.
Ans. No cattle can be reared by him on his farm.
4. Their father settled the dispute between the brothers.
Ans. The dispute between the brothers was settled by their
father.
4. Change into Active Voice
1.This lamp was lit by the servant.
Ans. The servant lit this lamp.
2. The soldier was ordered by the officer to report to him.
Ans. The officer ordered the soldier to report to him.
Ans. Who patched this blanket?

Ans. Did the Land owner cultivated the land himself?
King Bruce and the Spider

CHAPTER 17
Central Idea
Reference
this poem is written by Eliza cook (1818-1889). Born in London,
she was the youngest of seven children. She was entirely selfeducated and wrote verses from the age of fourteen. Her first
volume being published at seventeen. In 1849, she edited and
published, Eliza Cooks Journal. Her work is simple and highly
moral. In this poem, she teaches the reader what she always
practiced in her own life to keep on trying and never to be
discouraged.
Theme
Where there is a will, there is a way.
or
The world is his who her patients and industry.
Central Idea
The central idea of this poem is that we should cultivate a
strong will power and a hopeful attitude to life, be bold
through thick and thin, counting no labour loss and our heart
within than. Almighty creator will surely help us if we adopt
such a coarse. As it is also said, The world is his who has
patience and industry.
Summary
The poetess has expressed the true sense of life in this poem.
Solution to the problems of life and key to the success are
being preached in this poem in a dramatic style.
This poem tells the story of the king Bruce of Scotland. Once
he was defeated by the English men. He took refuge in a cave.

## Due to his repeated failures, he was very grieve. King Bruce

mentally accepted his defeat from the English men.
One day, he was pondering at the point of his defeat, he
watched a spider who was try8ng to reach to her cobweb.
Thread was the only pathway for the spider to reach her
destination. Spider started her voyage with great anxiety and
force. But the spider come down to the initial stage where it
had started her journey. King Bruce was showing issurity on
the foolish attempts to reach the destination that spider will
not try again.
However the spider succeeded in the 10th attempt to reach its
cobweb. Afte the success to spider the King Bruce sounded in
a optimistic order. All honour to those who tries persistently.
King Bruce resoluted in heart to try once more in order to get
the win over on his enemies. At last he succeeded.
Q.1 What lesson did the King learn from the spider?
Ans. The persistent tries of spider gave a positive spin to the
thoughts of King Bruce and taught him that we are to be
persistent and bold to achieve our aim of life. Continuous
struggle to the main aim always produces a favourable result.
We should try hard without caring for the resistance and
circumstances of life.
Q.2. What do you know about King Bruce of Scotland?
Ans. King Bruce of Scotland was a very generous and patriotic
Emperor. Once he fight with the British Army who wants to
make a British colony in Scotland, but he was defeated. As he
wanted to defeat his enemy, thats why he made several
attempts to get back his domain but he failed.
Q.3 What do you know about King Bruce of Scotland?
Ans. Eliza cook (1818-1889) was born in London. In 1849 she
edited and published Eliza cooks Journal. Her work is simple
and highly moral and she teaches the readers what she always
practiced in her life; to keep on trying and never to be
discouraged.

## Q.4 What is meant by poetess when she says that a great

deed?
Ans. The poetess has used the words a great hard for the
King Bruce. He had been trying hard to protect his domain
from the contaminated hands of enemy. As the protection of
country keeps a very high rank among the mans priorities of
life, thats why the poetess called it a great deed.
Q.5 What resemblance, does the poetess find between the
King Bruce and the Spider?
Ans. The points of similarity between the King Bruce and the
spider were that the aim was quite far away from both of
them. Both of them were having a very slightest hope to
achieve success i.e. the spider had a single thread to reach the
cobweb and the King Bruce also had a very tiny hope to win
over his enemies.
Q.6 Why did the King Bruce or poetess call the spider Brave.
Ans. The poetess call the spider brave because it was very
persistent and tried hard to complete her task. Although she
suffered several failures, but she did not show any grieverence
on the disportual of its fate. It went on making attempt and at
last its persistent tries put it into the cobweb.
Idioms
1. To put into practice: to carry out in deeds.
Example: The soldiers put into practice the training they got in
military school.
Sentence: We should put into practice the spirit of patriotism
for our country.
2. A wild goose chose: An enterprise which will not succeed.
Example: The old man ran after the boy but a wild goose chase
him.
Sentence: The coast guards ran after the criminals in their
boats on a wild goose chase.
3. To end in smoke: To have no result, to come to nothing.
Example: Unless you preserve, your work will end in smoke.

## Sentence: The soldiers struggled hard to destroy the foes

base but it ended in smoke.
4. At a lost: Puzzled, not knowing what to do.
Example: I misplaced the book and I was at a loss: how to
manage it.
Sentence: Someone stole by Physics book and I was at a loss
ho to prepare for the Physics test.
5. With flying colours: To emerge successfully from some
Example: Our team returned from the match with flying
colours.
Sentence: Pakistan succeeded in the 1965 war with flying
colours.
Inheritors
CHAPTER 18
Q.1 What property did the two brothers inherit from their
father and what was the suggestions of Azam about the
division of property?
Ans. After the death of their father, their father inherited a
cow, a date-palm, tree and a blanket equally. Azam, the elder
brother suggested that the front part of cow, the upper part of
the date-palm tree and the blanket from sunset till morning
would belong to him. Where as Moazzam was alloted with the
rear part of cow, the lower part of the tree and the blanket for
the day time.
Q.2 Why did Moazzam agree to the division?
Ans. Moazzam was innocent and simple boy and agreed to the
division because Azam had cunningly presented the useless
part of the property as the better ones. Furthermore he
believed that whatever his brother will divide, it will beneficial
for both of them.

Q.3 Who fed the cow and who got the milk? and why did Azam
not give dates to Moazzam?
Ans. According to the agreement between Azam and Moazzam,
Moazzam was to feed the cow as the front part belonged to
him and Azam got the milk as the rear part was his. Azam did
not give the dates to Moazzam because the fruitful part of the
tree belong to Azam.
Q.4 How did Moazzam teach the lesson to his elder brother?
Ans. After advising by an old man, Moazzam wisely foiled
Azams tricks. When Azam was milking the cow he started
hitting the cows head with a stick, when Azam was picking
dates from the tree he started cutting the tree with an axe and
when Azam took up blanket, he found it wet which was done
by Moazzam. In this manner, Moazzam was able to teach the
lesson to his brother.
Q.5 What is the moral of the lesseon The Inheritors?
Ans. The moral of the lesson is that falsehood have no ground
bases to stand. We should be pragmatic in our dealings and we
can answer cleverness by wisdom. We must obey our elders
Q.6 Give the character sketch of Moazzam?
Ans. Moazzam was a very simple and trusting boy. He never
hesitated in doing hard work. Obedience and innocence was
also the part of Moazzams nature.
Q.7 Give the character sketch of Azam?
Ans.Azam was agreedy and selfish person. Being an elder, he
had an ordering style. He was always in the favour of cunning
and false hood. Laziness was also their in his character.
Q.8 How did Azam cheat Moazzam?
Ans. being selfish and clever, Azam took advantage of
Moazzams simpliciity by taking every beneficial part of the
inheritance. He fleeted milk of cow, fruit of the tree and
blanket during night for himself and awarded Moazzam with
useless and work needed parts of inheritance.

Q.9 What was the effect of the old mans advice on Moazzam?
Ans. The oldmans advice revealed the fact on Moazzam that
he was being cheated by the cleverness of his elder brother.
The old man made him realized that Azam was taking benefit
of the inheritance. Being obedient, Azam accepted the advice
of old man and answered the cleverness of his brother with his
wisdom.
Sentences
1. Cheat: Aslam was cheated by Ikhlaq through his foolishness.
2. Division: The plan for the division of sub-continent on 14th
August 47 is known as 3rd June PLan.
3. Guess: Ahmed could not guessed the mystery.
4. Property: The property of former PM was captured by the
Government because he was found indulge in crimes.
5. Milk: I bought 5 litres of milk from the shop to make the milk
shake.
Fill in the Blanks
1. Their mother had died in their childhood.
2. His younger brother. Moazzam was simple and trusting.
3. Azam the elder brother was very greedy and clever.
4. Azam suggested that they should divide the propery left by
their father.
5. We shall just divide it verbally.
6. Moazzam was delighted with the generosity of this elder
brother.
7. It shall be mine only from sunset to sunrise.
8. Now moazzam would feed the cow and Azam would milk it.
9. He did not offer even a single date to his younger brother.
10. Moazzam was quite content with it.
11. Azam enjoyed a deep sleep under the warm blanket.
Grammar
1. Nouns in Sentence
1. Die : Death
He has lost his balance of mind due to the death of his father.

We must obey our elders advice
3. Divide: Division
The plan for the division of sub-continent on 14th August 1947
was presented by Lord Mountt Batten.
4. Suggest: Suggestion
He did not accept any suggestion about his matter and
suffered a heavy loss.
5. Agree: Agreement
An agreement of undertaking was signed between Pakistan
and America on the basis of Kashmir.
6. Feed : Food
Proper food is not available in our remote villages .
2.Nouns
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Clever Cleverness
Greedy Greedy
Generous Generosity
Stupid Stupidity
Innocent Innocence
Simple Simplicity
Young Youth

3. Prepositions
1. He is fond of reading books.
2. Najma is not interested in games.
3. Ajmal is good at mathematics.
4. He is not fit for this job.
5. The baby is crying for its mother.
6. The nurse looks after the patient.
7. The patient has been cured of his disease.
8. He has given up smoking.
9. I am used to taking tea without sugar.
10. We should be proud of our country.
4. Change into Passive Voice

## 1. The old man advised Moazzam.

Ans. Moazzam was advised by the old man.
2. Moazzam fed and looked after the cow.
Ans. The cow was fed and looked after by Moazzam.
Casabianca
CHAPTER 19
Central Idea
Reference
This poem is written by Felicia Dorethea Hemans (1973-1835).
She was born at Liverpool, but the family moved to Wales
where she was brought up. She was quick in mind and had a
fine memory. As a poet, she has been compared to Long fellow.
Like Couper, she loved the pathetic, and there is great
enthusiasm for chivalry and heroism in her work. She also
stressed moral values.
Theme
A man of courage is full of faith.
or
Patriotism is a great virtue that makes people forgive their
selfness.
Central Idea
The central idea of this poem is the the noble characteristics
like chivalirism, obedience and morality demand the
impossible, the obsolite and the death which itself
transfigured into eternal life. Deep-rooted faithfulness is
majestic and unmatched which makes a man rise above all
personal affiliation.
Summary
This poem is written by an English poetess Felicia Dorothea
Hemans.
Casabianca is not purely fictitous story. It is a story of brave
and innocent boy. The poetess has depicted a scene of sea
battle. Where a ship is own ablaze with casabiance standing on
the deck. During the battle when every part of ship was gutted

with fire, most of the crew members had died and the live ones
had runaway to save their lives. But casabianca kept standing,
fearless of fire and enemys shelling where he was in
obedience of his fathers order who was the captain of the
ship.
When the ship was burning with fire, Casabiancas impatient
In the last three stanzas, the poetess has described the scene
of casabiancas death when the flames of fire engulfed him,
the ship was also blasted and his body blown to bites. But in
reality his spirit and moral was not defeated. Till his last
breath, he stood like rock facing death and danger.
Q.1 Write a short note on Casabianca?
Ans. Casabianca was a young and brave soldier of his country.
He was a born hero and has a very strong, composed and
pleasant personality. Dutifulness and obedience were his
making characteristics and he was proud of fighting for his
country.
Q.2 What do you know about a battleship from this poem?
Ans. As the poem was written in the 19th century, in these
days ships made from wood. There were different parts like
most, helm, pennon fair etc. Moreover they also used, cannon
balls for destruction purposes.
Q.3 How has the Felicia Dorothea Hemans been compared to
other poets?
Ans. Felicia Dorothea Hemans has been compared to Henry
Long Fellow and Couper. She had the same pathetic and there
is a great enthusiasm for chivalry and heroism in her work like
the other poets. She also stressed moral values.
Q.4 What does the poetess mean by saying that Lone Post of
Death?
Ans. The poetess is describing the death scene of Casabianca
through the phrase. It means that when the fire was near to

engulf him and his death time had arrived, than he was all
future i.e. about winning over the battle.
Q.5 Why does the poetess call the Casabianca A Gallant
Child?
Ans. The poetess calls the Casabianca a gallant child
because he stood like a rock, fairless of the fire, the enemys
shelling and his despair in the moments of death and danger.
When his body blown into bites i.e. he was defeated by the
death, but actually his spirit was not overpowered and he
remained as a brave and valiant soldier.
The Khyber Pass

CHAPTER 20
Q.1 What is the Khyber Pass? How long it is ? Where do we go
through the Pass?
Ans. Khyber Pass is one of the most famous pass which is a
narrow mountain valley. It is about fifty kilometres long. From
Khyber Pass we can go to Afghanistan and on the other side is
the famous city of Peshawar.
Q.2 When did Aryans cross it and how many times did
Mahmood Ghaznavi cross it and why?
Ans. Aryans crossed nearly four thousand years ago the
Khyber Pass to enter Pakistan. Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi
crossed the Khyber Pass seventimes. He crossed this passage
in order to invade the sub-continent.
Q.3 What is the economical importance of Khyber Pass? Or
Ans. The economical importance of Khyber Pass is that it is
used a trading route between the different regions. It is the
most favourable and best connection of East Asian countries

## with Central Asian countries for trading purposes. The

important goods which are transferred through this pass into
different regions include mirrors, furs, skins and fruits.
Q.4 What did the camel caravans carry? By what have the
camels caravans been replaced?
Ans. The camel caravans carried mirrors, furs, skins, fruits,
spices, silk, carpet etc to different parts of the region. The
camels caravans have now been replaced by trains, trucks and
lorries which are the most advanced and fastest means of
transportation.
Q.5 Who lives in the mountains of the Khyber Pass?
Ans. The brave tribal people and Pathans live in the mountains
of the Khyber Pass, who fought with the mighty British Empire
for hundred years and defended their freedom. They are war
like people among which keeping fire alarms is a common
feature. But after joining Pakistan they are now the defenders
of North-Western frontier of Pakistan.
Q.6 Why Landi Kotal is the famous place along the Pass?
Ans. Landi Kotal is the famous place along the Pass because it
is the highest place about thirty km away from Jamrod Check
post along the pass. It is also a market place where most of
the people enjoy eating Tikkas and Chapli Kabab. Landi Kotal is
a beautiful spot from where the road goes down winding
through beautiful scenery.
Q.7 What is the historical importance of Khyber Pass?
Ans. The historical importance of Khyber Pass cannot be
neglected because many Muslim conquerors like Sultan
Mahmood Ghaznavi, Shahabuddin Ghouri, Babur and Ahmed
Shah Abdli made their way through this Pass. Mostly this pass
had been used in the history for attacking nd conquering
South Asia.
Q.8 Describe briefly the route from Peshawar to Khyber Pass.
Ans. The route for reaching Khyber Pass starts from the
central city of Peshawar. About fourteen Kilometers from
Peshawar is the Jamrod Check Post from where the permits are

## issued and which is surrounded by mountains. The road then

runs is a haphazard manner to Landi Kotal, 30 km away from
Jamrod Check Post and finally after a journey of ten km is the
frontier post between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Sentences
1. Famous: Kentucky fried chicken has become very famous in
Karachi.
2. Spices: Spices give a delicious taste to vegetables.
3. Conqueror: The conqueror Halaku Khan was the sign of
terror for the whole world.
4. Defended: The borders of Pakistan were successfully
defended by the soldier during 1965 war.
5. Stretched: He stretched his arms to hold the pile of books.
Fill in the Blanks
1. There are many who have traveled through some part of it.
2. Khyber Pass has been famous in history.
3. It has also been a famous trade route.
4. These brave tribes men fought the mighty British Empire.
5. They are the defenders of the North-Westen frontier of
Pakistan.
6. They ate some Tikkas and Chapli Kabab.
7. The road goes down winding through beautiful scenery.
8. It has to run through many tunnels in the mountains.
9. They were welcomed by the soldiers guarding the frontier.
Compound Words
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Pakistan Flag
Camel Caravan
Class Fellows
Check Post
Railway Line
Mule Trains

Idioms
1. Dont go out alone in the Dark
Meaning: Dont be out of doors at night alone.

## Sentence: My parents always guide me not to go out in the

dark.
2. There is such a strong breeze, the candle may go out
Meaning: There is such a strong breeze that the candle may be
extinguished.
Sentence: Yesterday there was strong wind blowing that I said
to my friends that their is such a strong breeze, the candle
may go out.
3. Clothes go out of Fashion too fast
Meaning: Fashions of clothes last only for short periods of
time.
Sentence: As it is a modern method so clothes go out of
fashion too fast.
4. You can see more the land when the tides goes out
Meaning: When the water receds more the sea-shore is visible.
Sentence: When I went to the sea-side the tide was not very
high so I said to my friend that you can see more the land
when the tide goes out.
5. The party went all out to win the elections
Meaning: The party made strenuous efforts to win the election.
Sentence: My uncle is in politics so his party went all out to
win the elections.
6. He goes out of his way to help
Meaning: He makes extra ordinary efforts to help
Sentence: My friend is very generous and kind so he always
goes out of his way to help any body.
7. Im going off to my friends house
Meaning: I am leaving for my friends house.
Sentence: Yesterday there was my friends birthday so I went
off at 7O clock to my friends house.
8. How did your interview go off?
Meaning: How did you fail in your interview?
Sentence: Yesterday my friend went to an organization in order

to give his interview when he was returning him how did his
interview go off?
9. England has gone off the gold standard
Meaning: Englands currency is no longer solidly backed by
gold.
Sentence: The quality of Pakistani rice has not yet gone off
beyond the standards.
10. I hope the bomb squad reaches before the bomb explodes
Meaning: I hope the bomb squad reaches before the bomb
goes off.
Sentence: When some guys fitted the bomb in a school, the
principal of a school was saying again and again that I hope
the bomb squad reaches before the bomb goes off.
The Minstrel Boy

CHAPTER - 21
Central Idea
Reference
This poem is written by Thomas Moore (1779-1852) an Irish
poet. He was born in Dublin where he studied at the best
school. He was admitted to Trinity College at the age of 15
years. He became an enthusiastic Irish Poet. In imitation of
Lord Byron, who was his friend, he wrote poem on an oriental
theme called Lalla Rookh. His patriotic feelings is well
expressed in this poem.
Theme
Patriotism is not a short out burst of emotions but the
or
Only passions, great passions can elevate the soul into great
things.
Summary

## The poem The Minstrel Boy has been written by a famous

Irish poet Thomas Moore. He has expressed his patriotic
feelings in this poem.
The poem is in the praise of a minstrel boy. He was a great
singer who used to sing songs on the time of his harp in the
peacetime. But when the wartime came on his country, he
joined the army of flight for his country. Actually he was
continuing the legacy of his fore fathers i.e. to fight for their
country.
He fought bravely, with his sward and sacrificed his life for the
protection of his motherland. When he was near to death, he
tore off all his belonging because he wanted the enemy to
realize that people like him would never allow him to touch
their beloved homeland.
In the end the poet has show his patriotic feelings in a
convincing way. He says that the enemy might defeat the
minstrel boy physically but they could not conquer his spirits.
The minstrel boys harp was destroyed by the minstrel boy
himself because it was meant to sing in peace not in slavery.
The extreme limit of patriotism is exhibited by their action.
Q.1 What do you know about Thomas Moore?
Ans. Thomas Moore was an enthusiastic Irish poet. In the
imitation of his friend Lord Byron, he wrote poem on an
oriental theme called Lalla Rookh. He has expressed his
patriotic feelings in this poem.
Q.2 What does Thomas Moore mean when he says as thought
all the world betray thee?
Ans. Thomas Moore has tried to convey a message by these
words to his nation that if youve got three things, no matter
the whole world turns against you, you are not to afraid of it.
Loyal and faithful companions, a beloved motherland and
power to protect the privilege.
Q.3 Why did he destroy his harp?
Ans. Before the minstrel boy was dead he destroyed his harp
because he wanted the enemy to realize that every single child

## of his nation would not allow them to touch their homeland

with impure hands. Moreover his harp was meant to play in
peace and if the harp had survived it would have chained into
the atmosphere of slavery. The extreme limit of patriotism is
exhibited by the action of minstrel boy.
Q.4 For whom the poet was the words warrior bard and proud
soul?
Ans. Thomas Moore has paid a homage to the minstrel boy by
alloting him the bites of warrior bard and the proud soul.
Thomas Moore has used these words to exhibit the spirit of
chamisism in the minstrel boy. He was a great and brave
fighter and was proud of fighting for his homeland.
Q.5 For whom were the songs of harp made?
Ans. The songs sung on the tune of harp were the marks of
peace and carried out detention against slavery. these songs
faithfully and Loyal companions and the men who were got
freedom of their homeland could hear these songs.

How To Do Things

CHAPTER 22
Q.1 What games were arranged for the guests?
Ans. To make the party colourful and fascinating, Shahnawaz
also arranged some games. These games include Passing the
Parcel, Treasure Hunt and Musical Chair. These games
provided fun and laughter to the guests.

## Q.2 When is a bicycle-rider a joy? When does this joy vanish?

Ans. Bicycle ride is a joy when one is young, it is also a
pleasant experience when you are riding a bicycle. This joy
suddenly vanishes when the cycle gets punctured. You feel
while the riding that the tyre has lost its lightness and is
pressing flat against the ground.
Q.3 What does the kit for mending the puncture contain?
Ans. The kit for mending the puncture is needed when the tyre
last its lightness. The kit contains a wrench, a pair of small
scissors, a piece of an old cycle tube, sand paper, a coloured
pencil and the sticking solution.
Q.4 How is the Parcel prepared for the Parcel Game?
Ans.The parcel game is to be very interesting and exciting. A
piece of Toffee is put in a small carton which was wrapped with
many layers of coloured papers.
Q.5 How is the game Treasure Hunt played?
Ans. Treasure hunt is an interesting game. In treasure hunt
small things wrapped in paper are to be hidden at different
places in the room. The guest are to look for every where till
all the treasures are found.
Q.6 Describe the process of mending a puncture?
Ans. In order to make a puncture, first of all we take out tube
from the wheel and inflate it. Then we dip it in water and find
out the puncture, mark it with the coloured pencil and dry it
and rub it with sand paper and then apply sticking solution
and press it. The tube is then put into tyre and pumped. The
puncture has been mended.
Q.7 Describe the process of mending a puncture in a repair
shop?
Ans. The purpose of mending a puncture at a bicycle repair
shop is different one. A kind of half solid rubber solution is
applied to the puncture part of the tube. It is heated at a
certain temperature for some time in a machine which is a sort
of press. The solution melts and sticks to the tube so that both
are inseparable.

## Q.8 What are the amusing aspects of parcel game?

Ans. The amusing aspects of parcel game are the punishment
given during the games These punishments are the mixture of
commands like sing a song, crow like a cock, bleat like a
goat, bray like a donkey. Everyone has to obey the
command that fell to it his lot.
Q.9 How can a successful party be arranged?
Ans. A successful party can be arranged through the following
steps. A party should be well-planned and decorative to attract
the people. The menu setting and serving counts very munch
in a coourful party and there should be some entertainment for
the guests.
Q.10 How decoration is necessary for arranging a party?
Ans. Decoration is the best way to make a party fascinating. If
the decoration is not attractive the party has no effect. The
party place should be adorn in such a manner that it could
capture the attention of the guests and add beautiful colours
to the party.
Sentences
1. Honour: It is an honou for us that Shahid Afridi has broken
the world record.
2. Serve: We should serve our country with heart and soul.
3. Frighten: My sister is frightened of going into dark.
4. Riding: Riding a bicycle is a great fun.
5. Puncture: Puncture can easily be mended if you have the
puncture kit with you.
Fill in the Blanks
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

## Shahnaz was very happy because it was her birthday.

She had invited her friends to a party.
Now they got busy int he kitchen.
Riding a bicycle is joy when one is young.
They decided to buy the rest of the things from the market.
You are riding back home merrily.
You lay you bicycle on the ground.

## 9. You take out your kit for the puncture.

10. This emergency should not worry you if you are prepared
on it.
Idioms
1. Odds and ends: A collection of obhects not belonging to any
group of order, left over and discarded.
Example: That shop does not still anything in particular. It has
only odds and ends.
Sentence: He claims that he is very fond of collecting precious
stones, but his collection contains only odds and ends.
2. Under ones nose: immediately with reach.
Example: You dont have to go far. Its under your nose.
Sentence: I looked for my English copy everywhere and it was
under my nose all the time.
3. To poke ones nose into: To meddle or interfere
Example: She has the bad habit of poking her nose into the
matters that are not her concern.
Sentence: According to the charter of U.N. no country is
allowed to poke her nose into the personal affairs of any
country.
4. To kick up a row: To make a disturbance or noise
Example: If you dont kick up a row, you will not be paid
attention to
Sentence: The young boys started kicking up a row, when
Micheal Jackson began to sing.
5. To wind up: To bring to an end
Example: Im using my last week in the country to wind up by
Sentence: The director winded up the set due to late arrival of
the artist.
Grammar
1.Noun

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Invite Invitation
Prepare Preparation
Discuss Discussion
Decorate Decoration
Punish Punishment
Collect Collection
Sing Song
Decide Decision

2. Idiomatic Structures
1. To pour in: When I was passed in 9th class examination a
number of phone calls of congratulations poured in.
2. To pour out: In winter season when I am feelings too cold. I
asked my mother to pour out some hot tea for me.
3. To pour over: In the war, the nurse were pouring medicine
over the wounded soldiers.
4. To put on: At the day of Eid festival, I put on my new clothes.
CHAPTER 23
Q.1 Write the message of this poem?
Ans. Adversity is the mother of our noblest virtues that teach
us patience, perseverance fortitude. Self help and sympathy
from God. Seeming ugly and dark but actually messengers of
sweetness and light. As Francis Bacon says The virtue of
Adversity is fortitude, which is mortal in the more heroic
virtue.
Idioms
1. In black and white: In writing
Example: I cannot accept your oral complaint. It must be in

## black and white.

Sentence: The teacher rejected the students oral application
by saying that it must be in black and white.
Idiomatic Structures
1. Out of: Only two out of ten people are eduction in our
country.
2. Instead of: Instead of writing him a letter you can telegram.
3. Inspite of: Inspite of three warnings, the thief continue his
work, thats why Policeman arrested him.
4. Because of: Because of hardworking, I got 1st position in the
class.
5. For the sake of: Captain Rashid Minhas died for the sake of
country.
6. Every now and again: Few weeks ago strikes were being
called every now and again.
7. All over again: Yesterday he lost his coy, so he rewrite his
work all over again.
8. Time and again: He had been warned time and again to quit
smoking by his parents.
Making A Summary
CHAPTER 24
Q.1 Give the Summary of the Lesson.
Ans. We use summary to express lengthy material in short
steps. A good summary is generally one third of the length.
Precise must not look like a collection of disjointed sentences
nor should any important or beautiful idea of the original be
left. For making a precise, we should keep five skills in mind
among which generalizing of ideas is an initial step. Selection
of related ideas, compression of lengthy sentences, use of
indirect narration and reference of the author counts very
much in Precise-writing.

## Q.2 What is the significance of Precise-Writing?

Ans. The significance of Precise-writing is clear from the fact
tht in this fast moving world, one could not pace up with the
advancement of the world, so the man of this century depends
mostly upon precise. It is the easiest way to get information at
length in shortest possible time by average reading.
Q.3 What are the steps involved in Precise-Writing?
Ans. Precise-writing is used to express prolong material in
short steps. A perfect precise can be produced by the
combination of five steps among which use of indirect
narration and compression of lengthy material are important.
The other steps are selection of related ideas, generalizing of
ideas and reference of the author.
Grammar
1. Give One General Word
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## Football, Cricket, Hockey, Volley ball Games/Sports

Tables, Chairs, Sofas, Cupboards Furniture
Snakes, Crocodiles, Lizards Reptiles
Lions, Bears, Tigers Beasts
Sheep, Goats, Horses, Camels, Donkeys Cattles

## 2. Compress into One Word

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

That
That
That
That
That
That
That

which
which
which
which
which
which
which

cannot
cannot
cannot
cannot
cannot
cannot
cannot

be
be
be
be
be
be
be

done Impossible
eaten Inedible
described Indescribable
conquered Invincible
seen Invisible
avoided Inevitable

3. Indirect Speech
1. She is lonely, they say
Indirect: They say that she is lonely.
2. Could it be mended? they asked.
Indirect: They asked if it could have been mended.

## 3. Open the suit case, he said to him.

Indirect: He ordered him to open the suit-case.
4. I am unwell, he says
Indirect: He tells that he is unwell.
5. I was lying, he confessed.
Indirect: He confessed that he had been lying.
Theres A Good Time Coming

CHAPTER 25
Summary
Reference
This poem is written by Charles Mackay (1814-1889), a
Scottish song writer. He was born in Perth. His mother died
while he was an infant. He went to school in Brussels in 1828
and began writing verses in both English and French in 1880.
He returned to London and worked for the Morning Chronicle
till 1884 and then became editor of Argus. Besides his
extremely popular songs, some of which still live, Mackay
wrote books on travel, history and biography and was a good
all round journalist.
Theme
Hope Sustains the World.
Summary
This poem is written by an Scottish poet Charles Mackay. This
poem exhibits the strong assurity of the poet, being optimistic
and religious that there once will day when everyone will enjoy
the basic rights. The good time will prevail. The whole world
regardless of area. Destructive weapons which are used to
prove the truth shall be replaced by the good thoughts. The
power of pen will exceed the power of sward i.e. the power will
be used in positive spin.

Everyone will be free to enjoy his basic rights. The people will
be respected on the virtue of their worth. There will be no
extra support to walk over the ladder of life. Moral values like
merit, privileges will hold the ground in that time.
It would be such an ideal time that no body will praise the wars
to protect the material comb. The people will disgust the war
because of unfairness and injustice.
In the end the poet has tied the hopes with humanity that by
working together we can revolutionize the whole world and
can bring the ideal future closer.
Central Idea
The Central Idea of this poem is that an era is to come with
there will be no war because there will be a radical change in
the outlook of people and nations. The poet Charles Mackay is
optimistic that in future nations will agree to code of national
behaviour humanity will emerge from the dark nights of wars
and destructions and hail down of a new better era of peace
and prosperity.
Q.1 What do you know about the poet Charles Mackay?
Ans. Charles Mackay (1814-1889) was born in Scotland. In
London, he worked for the Morning Charnicle till 1884 and
then became editor of Argus. Besides his extremely popular
songs, some of which still alive and he wrote books on travel,
history and biography and was a good all round journalist.
Q.2 Do you agree with the poet that a good time is coming?
Ans. Yes, I agree with the poet that a good time is coming. He
rightly said that if we worked together, we can bring the ideal
future closer in which truthfulness, peace, Justice and merit
will prevail all around the World. s poet tries to explain in his
poem that even the lightest deeds dome with sincerity will
produce the result naturally.
Q.3 What future does the poet promise for us?
Ans. Charles Mackay being optimistic promises an ideal future
for us where there will be complete peace in the World. Good

## thoughts will be the most strongest weapon to protect the

privileges and intellectuals will be the fighter instead of sword.
Moral values like merit, worth will hold the ground in that time
and people will regard wars as disgusting because of
unfairness.
Q.4 Does poet expect us to make some effort of achievement?
Ans. Yes, Charles Mackay has tied strong hopes to us and by
giving an initiative, he has asked us to bring the ideal future
closer to us. According to poet it is our duty to make our
combined efforts to get this goal in a positive and constructive
way. In this way we can revolutionize the whole World.
The Customs of Various Regions of Pakistan

CHAPTER 26
Q.1 What sort of people are the Pathans and food of what kind
do they like?
Ans. Pathans are enthusiastic warriors and extremities of
weather and climate have made them physically very strong.
They are famous for their hospitality and men power is taken
as their pride in the community. Roast Mutton and spicy
tongue are specially like by them.
Q.2 How and why does a tribes man announce the birth of a
son?
Ans. A tribes man fires with the rifle to make the birth of son
known publicly. He does so because the birth of son is
regarded a blessing for them. Men power is taken as their
pride in the community.
Q.3 Why is the Punjab called the seat of learning?
Ans. The Punjab is called the seat of learning because
centuries ago, many educational, institutions flourished in this
region and their import is still continue in the form of schools,

## colleges and universities. Taxila University, flourished two

thousand and five hundred years ago gives a healthy proof
that Punjab has always been a seat of learning.
Q.4 Where do the Punjabi farmers sit in the evening?
Ans. The Punjabi farmers sit in Chopals in the evening. They
discuss about the weather and crops and also solve their
disputes. They also enjoy songs and dances i.e. chopals
gathering provides them recreation.
Q.5 What is the result of extreme weather on the lives of
Ans. The extremities of weather unable the Balochis to lead
their lives in just one place. They move from place to place in
order to escape from the calamities of season. Their daily life
Q.6 Describe a Balochi wedding?
Ans. A Balochi wedding ceremony is to be very joyous and
jubilant which provides a joy to the guest. Men and women
dance to the lively beat of drums which is considered to be the
main heritage of the wedding. The groom feasts his own and
brides guests.
Q.7 How old is the civilization of valley of Mehran and name
the university existed that time?
Ans. The Valley of Mehran is one of the ancient civilization of
the world which had life in 2500 B.C. Its ancient city Moen-joDaros ruins speak of the highly developed society that existed
there about 5000 years ago. The University of Taxila existed
that time.
Q.8 Who are the famous saints of Sindh?
Ans. Lal Shahbaz Qalander and Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai are the
famous saints of Sindh. These mystic poets and saints
preached the message of Allah in a very convincing way. Their
poetry is an important aspect of our culture.
Q.9 What are the famous crafts of Sindh?
Ans. Most of the crafts of Sindh emerged from the embroidery
which is praised all over the country as well as in foreign

## countries. These handicrafts include dresses embroided with

purses and cushions.
Q.10 How are the marriages arranged and wedding ceremonies
performed among Pathans?
Ans. The Pathans believe in arranged marriages which are
done by their elders. Wedding ceremonies are celebrated with
great vehemence in which guests make rhythmical movement
to the beats of drum.
Q.11 Why is the Punjab called Heart of Pakistan?
Ans. Quaid-e-Azam declared Punjab as Heart of Pakistan
because of its geographical and knowledge importance. It is a
land of five rivers and seat of learning. The religious glimpse in
the region is cleared from the fact that shrines of saints and
holy men the living glory of Pakistan.
Q.12 What is an Urs and how it is celebrated?
Ans. Urs is the death or birth anniversary of mystic poets
which is celebrated in a religious manner. People gather at the
shrines and sing devotional songs. They attend the fairs
connected with these urs.
Q.13 What is the importance of culture?
Ans. This lesson emphasizes upon the importane of culture for
any nation. For any civilization called cultured is an important
thing. As it is said that A person without a heritage is just like
a fiddler sitting on an inclined roof.
Q.14 What is sandy and where it is used?
Ans. Sandy is sort of coal store which is used in extreme cold
weather. Sandy with a little burning coal in the middle of the
room which provide heat to the people. This instrument is
common in Baluchistan.
Q.15 Write the main theme of this lesson?
Ans. This lesson tells us the fact that Pakistan is very rich in
diversities of custom. It shows us that how people of different
regions of our country lead their lives in connection with their
customs. This cultural legacy is the basic identity of Pakistan.

## Q.16 What do you know about Pakistani culture?

Ans. Pakistani culture comprises of different colourful customs
which include religious festivals, lively marriage celebrations,
arts and handicrafts. Pakistani culture is also embroided with
the thread of simplicity and hospitality. This collective
manifestation of customs and traditions mostly emerged from
history which re the basic identity of Pakistan.
Fill in the Blanks
1. The birth of a son is therefore, regarded as a great blessing
for the family.
2. The Pathans of the north are steady and warlike.
3. People from all over the country participate in the URs
and sing devotional songs.
4. They will protect a visitor at the cost of their own lives.
5. The favourite food of the people is meat.
6. Roast mutton and Chapli Kababs are popular dishes.
7. Most festivals in Sindh, as in Punjab are of religious nature.
8. Sheep are bred in large herds on the green slopes of the
northern regions.
9. The rock area is mostly barren.
10. The ancient city of Moen-jo-Daro dates back to 2500 BC.
Idioms
1. To see eye to eye with someone: To have the same opinion,
or to agree with
Example: Management seldom see eye to eye with Labour.
Sentence: The opposition saw eye to eye when the
Government is passing the bill against 8th amendment.
2. To turn a deaf ear to: To pay no attention to
Example: The employee kept pleading his case but the
manager turned a deaf ear to it.
Sentence: Paksitan has raised Kashmir issue several times in
the United Nations but it had turned a deaf ear to it.
3. A black sheep: A bad character in an other wise good group
Example: Our school has produced very good citizens but there

## are black sheep too.

Sentence: We should point at the black sheep of the society.
4. To take to task: To call to account, to blame, to rebuke
Example: Those who are corrupt will have to be taken to task
of their doings.
Sentence: The manager was taken to task of his mis-dealings
in the accounts of bank.
5. Far and wide: over a large area.
Example: This tour will take you over far and wide of the
country.
Sentence: People from far and wide places came to see to
newly born baby of the Kangaroo in the zoo.
6. At large: at liberty, or free.
Example: The politician is popular at large.
Sentence: People at large condemned the opening of wine
shops in their locality.
The Man Who Wins
CHAPTER 27
Central Idea
Though the poet for this poem is anonymous but it breathes
out the moral that we should produce in us a strong will power,
self-confidence and positive attitude towards life. Once we
decides upon an objective and has the will to do something
suiting our natural aptitude and use our energies in attaining
it, we can work wonders and will surely achieve it.
Summary
This poem emphasizes upon the importance of good thoughts
and will power. It is written by an anonymous poet.
It is rightly said that man who thinks can win. Conversely, if
your thinking is pasimistic and less practical than it will give
negative impression on your deeds. If you want to do
something but your thinking is negative, than you will left

## behind in the race of life.

Our way of actions, way of efficiency depends on the thinking.
We always find this rule every where. According to the poet
the germs of a personality are the power to get rid of any kind
of complexes, widening of thoughts and complete faith and
self-confidence.
Life is a kind of war. You have to fight every time while you are
living your life. A man with strong will and good thoughts can
win over this battle. Strengths of mind and integrity of
thoughts are keys of success.
One can never achieve anything lasting in this world by being
irresolute.
Q.1 Express line 3 and 4 of the first stanza in your own
sentences?
Ans. The poet has conveyed a very powerful message through
these lines that if you have good facilities to do something but
if your thinking is negative, you will fail to do it. If your
thinking is pasimistic and less practical you will get the result
in the same way.
Q.2 What according to the poet qualities needed by a person to
get success in life?
Ans. The poet has given a good description of the gems of a
perfect personality. Power to overcome any kind of complexes,
widening of thoughts and complete faith and self-confidence
are the basic pillars of success. By these qualities men can
struggle with the resistance of life.
Q.3 What are the results according to the poet brought by high
thoughts?
Ans. The poet has explained the advantages of high thoughts
in a very convincing way that widening of thoughts provides
spiritual power to us. Strength of mind and integrity of
thoughts are the real rewards of high thoughts. If a person
thinks high he can win over the battle of life.

Q.4 What is the message of the poem The Man who Wins?
Ans. The poem The Man Who Wins discloses the secret of
success in life by telling the importance of good, thoughts and
will power. Power to overcome any kind of complexes,
widening of thoughts and complete faith and self-confidence
are the gems of perfect personality. By thinking high a man
can winover the battle of life.
Letters
To Uncle Thanking Him for the Birthday Present
Examination Hall,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
My Dear Uncle,
delivered to me by a postman containing a beautiful Omega
watch.
in your heart for me. I liked the watch you has sent for me. I
really needed a watch this time. How nice of you that you have
fulfilled my need. I shall consider it a precious thing like a
diamond. It will also make me punctual.
Uncle I missed you very much in the happy occasion of my
birthday. I have taken many photographs and will send some of
the prints to you.
My letter is getting long. Allow me to close my letter here.
With regards an good wishes to you.
Yours affectionately
X-Y-Z
To Your Friend Requesting Him To Lend Camera To You
Examination Hall,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
My Dear friend,
I hope you will be fine and by the grace of Almighty God I am

## also in good health and spirit.

I am accompanying my parents to some sight seeing places in
Thatta, Hyderabad and Khairpur. I need a good camera for
taking photograph while on tour.
I know that you own a Maya Camera. So could you please lend
me your camera for few days.
I will take at most care of it while it will be in my custody and
shall return you to its original condition.
I hope you will not turn down my request when I will come in a
day or two to collect it from you.
With regards an good wishes to you.
X-Y-Z
To Your Friend Requesting Her/Him To Spend Summer
Vacations With You
Examination Hall,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
My Dear Friend,
For a long time we did not correspond with each other. I hope
you are in good health and by the grace of Almighty God I am
also hale and hearty here.
I am especially writing this letter to you for a particular
purpose. My parents have planned to visit some historical
places in Sindh. In middle of this month. I am ware of the fact
that your school has closed down for summer vacations so how
about visiting us in Karachi and accompanying me with my
parents on all excursion. We shall have a topping time visiting
places in Sindh and going out for shooting birds.
I hope you will like my suggestion and let me know of your
programme by return of mail.
Allow me to close my letter here with good wishes and good
luck to you.
Yours affectionately
X-Y-Z

Examination Hall,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
My Dear Friend,
I heard that you have returned from States recently. How was
your stay there. Your sister wrote to me several letters and I
promptly replied to her.
Any how let me come to the point of my letter. I am celebrating
my fourteenth birthday on 28th of December. I have invited
almost all friend whom you know very well. The venue of the
party is my residence and time is 5 pm.
May I take this opportunity to informally invite you to attend
my birthday party on date and time mentioned as above.
We shall have a topping time and it will be a great pleasure for
me to feel your presence at the party.
I shall eagerly be looking forward to your attending my
birthday party.
With good wishes and good luck to you.
Yours affectionately
X-Y-Z
To Your Friend Telling Him Your Inability to Join Him On A Picnic
Examination Hall,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
Dear Friend,
Assalam-o-Alaikum,
Hope you are enjoying the best of health. I am also enjoining
the life by the grace of Almighty Allah.
Last week you dropped me a letter in which youve invited me
to join you on a picnic point. Truly I am very much in the favour
of this invitation but due to an appointment with my family
physician I cannot give my time to you. I do believe that we
will have a joyous time but as my health is not so progressive
thats why I am not in a state to join you on the picnic. Sorry
for refusing and hurting your feelings.

## I do hope that you will forgive me. Give my regards to your

parents.
X-Y-Z
Examination Hall,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
My dear Nomee,
I am well here and hopping the same for you.
Last week you dropped me a letter in which you asked me
about my hobby. My hobby is making models of aircraft. Aeromodeling is an interesting hobby to me because when you
think over new techniques during modeling, your mind is
pushed towards the creative work and new ideas re developed.
Aero-modeling can also be a paying hobby. We can send some
of our best models for competition and not only get prizes but
also get a good name.
I think this is enough. Now I will finish my letter. Give my
X-Y-Z
Books
Examination Hall,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
Dear Father,
Assalam-o-Alaikum,
Hope you will be fine. I am well too by the grace of Almighty
Allah.
Ive written this letter because I urgently need a sum of
money. As you know that Ive passed my S.S.C part I Exams

## and now I am in class X. I shall have to may my admission fees

one thousand rupees. I hope you will not mind sending me this
amount of money.
I hope you are enjoying the best of health.
X-Y-Z
To Your Friend Inviting Him to Spend Summer Vacations With
You
Examination Hall,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
Dear Friend,
I am well here and hopping the same for you.
As you know that our vacations has started. Ive written this
letter to invite you to spend your vacations with me in Karachi.
It will be a great pleasure for me. We shall be visiting different
places in Karachi in which includes Clifton, Aladdin Park,
Sindbad and many other such places. I assure you that this will
be an enjoyable experience for you.
I hope you will think over my request. Give my wishes to your
parents.
X-Y-Z
Books
Examination Hall,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
My Dear Father,
Assalam-o-Alaikum,
back. I was very much please to read it. My result was declared
one week ago. You will be glad to know that I have come out

## successful. I have stood third in my class. I am now in class IX

in which news books have been prescribed. These are very
costly and I have to buy them all. As classes will start from the
next month I would need some money immediately for the
purchase of books.
Kindly, therefore send Rs.1000/- by money order as soon as
possible. So that I may buy these articles with out delay.
All is Ok. Please convey my compliments to all the members of
the family and love to Mummy.
With best wishes.
X-Y-Z
To Younger Brother, Advising Him to Take Part In Games
Examination Hall,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998
My Dear Brother,
Assalam-o-Alaikum,
Hope you are in the midst of good health and everyone at
home is hale an hearty. I was pained to hear from your friend
that you do not take part in games in your school. Oh! dear
brother do not forget that all work and no play makes you a
dull boy. For achieving good results in your studies you must
also developed good body besides a brilliant mind. Games will
take part in sports arranged at your school.
I hope you will follow my good advice and act upon it.
Allow me to close my letter here with best wishes to you.
X-Y-Z
Examination Hall,
Karachi.
4th September, 1998

The Editor,
X-Y-Z News,
Karachi.
Venerable Sir,
Will you please oblige me by allowing some space for my letter
in the columns of your Daily .
I live in one of the commercial area of F.B.Area. The most
pressing problem which the resident of my area are facing is
load shedding. Electricity does not come seven hours in a day.
This whole locality is emersed in darkness soon after sunset.
situation.
Hoping for a positive anticipation by the concerned authorities
in the crying need of my area.
Yours sincerely,
X-Y-Z,
Resident of F.B.Area

Application

## To Principal Asking Permission for Visiting Pakistan Steel Mills

and Making Necessary Arrangement for Transport
The Principal,
X-Y-Z School, Karachi
SUBJECT: PERMISSION TO VISIT PAKISTAN STEEL MILLS.
Dear Sir,
With due respect, I beg to say that the students of our class
wanted to visit Pakistan Steel Mills Karachi. We shall be
accompanied by three of our senior teachers. This trip will be a
beneficial trip for us, from which we can make increment in our
knowledge by watching how machines actually work. We can
also pick a valuable information for the forth-coming technical
exhibition.

## We will be grateful to you if you allow us to visit Pakistan Steel

Mills and make necessary arrangements for transport.
Thanking You.
Yours faithfully,
Students of Class X
4th September, 1998
To the Principal Asking for Character Certificate
The Principal,
X-Y-Z School, Karachi
SUBJECT: NEED FOR CHARACTER CERTIFICATE.
Respected Sir,
I have the honour to inform you that I have passed the Matric
college I shall need a character certificate.
I, therefore, request you to issue me a character certificate. Ill
be grateful to your this act of kindness.
Yours Obediently,
X-Y-Z.
4th September, 1998
To the Principal for Sick Leave
To,
ABC High School,
Clifton,
Karachi.
SUBJECT: APPLICATION FOR SICK LEAVE.
I am a student of class IX of your school and has been suffering
from cold and fever since yesterday.
I am under treatment of my family doctor who has advised me
bed rest for two more days.
In the light of my aliment, I would request to grant me sick
leave for three days and for this act of yours I shall remain

## ever grateful to you.

Thanking you once again for your favour.
X-Y-Z.
4th September, 1998
To the Principal Asking Him for the Transfer Certificate
To,
X-Y-Z School,
Karachi
SUBJECT: NEED FOR TRANSFER CERTIFICATE.
I am a student of your school studying in class IX at present, I
feel extremely sorry to inform you that I shall not be able to
prolong my studies in your esteemed school as my father is
leaving with all the members of his family to Oman in
connection with a job.
Therefore under the above circumstances, I would request you
to issue me a Transfer Certificate which will enable me to seek
admission in a school in Oman.
Thanking You for your anticipation in this regard.
Yours Obediently,
X-Y-Z.
4th September, 1998
Absence for Six Days for Attending Marriage Ceremony of Your
Cousin.
To,
ABC High School,
Hyderi,
Karachi

## SUBJECT: REQUEST TO GRANT LEAVE TO ATTEND MARRIAGE

CEREMONY.
I am writing to inform you that marriage of my cousin is going
to be solemnized on 11th September 1998 at Hyderabad.
My parents and other relatives are leaving for Hyderabad on
6th September, 1998 to attend the marriage.
Therefore Madam, I would request you to grant me leave of
absence from 6th September, 1998 till 12th September, 1998 of
the same month so that I can join the happy celebrations in
Thanking You for act of kindness in this regard.
Yours Obediently,
X-Y-Z.
Concession in School Fee
To,
ABC High School,
Karachi
SUBJECT: REQUEST FOR THE CONCESSION IN FEE.
I am a student of your school studying in class IX. I am very
keen to continue with my study but the financial condition of
my family is very poor and it is becoming a hinderance.
My father is a school teacher and earns a very little amount
from his work. More over due to inflation it has become
difficult for my father to afford my education.
Madam, from the school record you will find that I have
obtained excellent marks in S.S.C part 1 and hope to pass in
grade A-1 in final part of same examination.
In the light of the above circumstances, I would request you to
grant me concession in my school fee.
Thanking You for your anticipation in this regard.

X-Y-Z.

Composition

## Unforgettable Moments in My Life

There had been many unforgettable moments in my life. I
would like to mention one of these.
Once I was traveling from Karachi to Lahore by train. I was in
first class, so there were only few passengers, with me. At a
particular station, they all got off. Now I was completely alone
in the compartment.
After sometime, a smart lady entered the compartment and
sat next to me. She had a very clever plan to rob me. She said
to me that if I did not hand over all the money to her which I
robbed her. When I heard this dreadful speech I was
completely and absolutely pass puzzled. I hit a plan to save
myself from the wicked plan of that lady. I therefore pretended
that I was a deaf and a dumb fellow and requested to write in a
piece of page what she wanted to say. She gladly wrote her
demand on the piece of paper and handed it to me. I change
my seat and took the piece of writing. The railway police come
and asked as what the matter was. The women as clever as
she was burst into admits so she told that I had robber her of a
thousand rupees. At first he seemed to believe in her story,
but when I gave the piece of writing to the police, the women
turned pale. She was caught red-handed and this way I saved
from her wicked plan.
Pakistan As You See in the 21st Century
When the Muslims of India demanded a separate homeland for
themselves, many people thought that the establishment of
Pakistan was impossible. But Pakistan did come into being. It
has not only survived many difficulties but has also made great

## progress in every field. Its survival and development have

surprised all.
We would like to see Pakistan at its best in 21st century, in the
past years we enabled and demoralize.
Unfortunately, Pakistan has not been politically very stable.
But there is no need for despair. The people Pakistan agree on
fundamental issues and priorities.
In the economic field, hopes must be brighter. In 1947, we
were a poor agricultural country growing a few crops. Very
soon our country began to be industrialized. Its dependence on
agriculture would be lessened.
Pakistan has taken a very short period in becoming a semiindustrial country. This fact gives us the hope that there would
be even faster development in the coming years. We have step
in computer world and the other modern technology and
expected that in 21st century the computer will be the part of
every department even the advancement is expected because
the new coming generation is comparatively more intelligent
than before. The modern schools and institutions are
preparing the staff better than the before. We have already
entered in manufacturing of many modern electronic
equipment in future like in 21st century Insha Allah Pakistan
will send settelite in space. Pakistani scientist will conquer the
space. As the Allama Iqbal saying there is more world after the
stars.
All these hopes are not just wild dreams. They have a solid
foundations. They are founded on the fact that people of
Pakistan are intensely devoted to their country. They want to
make it a great country and for this, they are ready to make
every effort and sacrifice. Moreover, they are true Muslims
with firm faith in Allah.
Importance of Science As a Subject in Curriculum
The nature has many secrets buried in it. It is the science
which has scratched the mask from the face of nature. Science
has always helped the man in every chamber of life. The
importance of science as a subject in school curriculum can be

## understood from the fact that science acts as a pillar in the

mans knowledge and when the youths are provided with this
pillar from the very beginning, they are sure to be successful.
Through this subject students are able to know the process
going on in nature. The understanding of science gives the
students the actual concept of phenomenon that is what is
going on behind a particular process. The students can make a
great increment in their knowledge by having a deep study on
science, so that they are able to know the general activities.
Hence the science is a very useful guide which introduces the
students with the techniques of nature.
A Picnic
We were given a special holiday after our annual prize
distribution. So me and my friends made a programme and set
out accordingly for the picnic at the beach in the morning. We
reached there at 9O clock. We unpacked our things in a hut.
My friends wanted to go for boating so we hired a boat to carry
us to the island of Manora. We decided to do fishing so we all
started with great hopes but only a small quantity of fish was
caught. We reached the island after enjoying ourselves on the
sea. We cooked the fish and enjoyed a grand lunch. In the
evening we had tea and spent a good time till the sunset.
We waded in water. Waves after waves were coming and
passing us finally splashing on land. We also rode the horses
and camels, it was very exciting.
The scene of the setting sun was really superb. As the sun
sank we packed our things and after few minutes were back
with the memories of the whole day to cur heart desire.
Importance of Trees
Trees and plants are living things. They grow form seed and
after a training maturity they die. Trees are of significant
importance for us. We cannot under estimate their value in our
surroundings. Trees adorn our surroundings. They produce
oxygen without which we cannot live. They are source of fruits
and cereals for us. Trees provide us wood which we use in
building houses and furniture. Wood of trees is used as fuel.

## They play vital role in changing climate of a region. Many

useful medicines are prepared from herb and plants for
removing our ailments. Trees are a bounty for us and we
should grow them where ever we can.
Life in a Big City
Pakistan is a land of diverse beauty with 70% of her population
living in villages spread all over the land and the rest live in
cities and towns.
Life in city is very fast and busy one. Take life of people in big
cities like Karachi, Lahore, Rawal Pindi or Peshawar. It is of
course, not free from tension, worries and problems. The main
problems are urbanization, housing, transport, shortage of
water and pollution. People living in big cities do not get pure
food like milk, butter, cheese and curd. They gets stale
vegetables to eat. Another deadly and frightening problem
that has recently waled freely into big cities is terrorism. This
problem has shaken the mind and disturbed the peace of every
citizen.
People living in big cities are generally selfish and self
centered. They do not fellow feelings in them. The population
is divided into classes the rich, middle class and the poor.
Although there are better opportunities and scope for
education, health and jobs in a big city but as a whole life in a
big city is full of hazards, problems, corruption and crimes.
My Favourite Hobby
A hobby can be almost anything a person like to do in his spare
time. Because the Idle Mind is Devils workshop therefore
those who have developed a hobby never need to worry about
what to do with their newly founded leisure hours.
Every person in the world has a hobby of his own. There are
many kinds of hobbies such as gardening, stamp collecting,
hiking, coin collecting, photography, listening to music and so
forth. Girls to pursue some hobbies. Their hobbies differ from
those of the boys. Girls mostly like hobbies such as cooking,
stitching dresses, painting and listening to music.

## Among all the hobbies mentioned above I like painting. It is a

subtle hobby. Whenever I get time I sit down with my paint
box, canvas, brushes and paint beautiful landscape. My hobby
does not infringe on the rights of other people. It is not a noisy
hobby like music. I can also earn money by selling my
paintings to lover of fine arts. My hobby fills my heart with joy
and colours and there it is my favourite hobby.
Sir Wilham Osler said:
No man is really happy or safe without a hobby.
Health is Wealth
No one can deny the fact that healthy man live happily. Money
or wealth cannot give a person all the happiness of life as
health can. A person may have wealth, cars, servants at his
service and a big house to life in cannot enjoy all these
blessings without a good health. Where as a person with small
income, with no servant for work and small house to live in but
a healthy body enjoy a fuller life in the world.
For good health and for looking younger and living longer one
must follow few good principles of life. To remain healthy we
should eat balance diet. Take little exercise everyday. Let not
worries crowd our mind and shake our nervous system. We
should not allow ill thoughts bring agony to our mind. We
should live in clear and neat surrounding. We must become
early risers and never go to bed very late.
Good health is a precious thing and every step must be taken
to guard it. Early to bed early to rise makes all men healthy,
wealthy and wise.
My Aim in Life
Every one has an aim in life but those who do not have are dull
souls and they curse their life for all time. In other words we
can say a person without an aim in life is like a car without a
driver. People have different aims in life. Some aspire to
become rich, some like to become doctor, engineers, business
men, executives in a big company, banker, lawyer, musician,
artist and so forth.
I desire to lead a life different from others. I dont crave fro

wealth not like to serve people as doctor or like who say that
they want to become a teacher and spread light and
knowledge.
My ambition in life may sound odd to you. I like to become a
comedian. It is not an easy task to become a comedian. Only
one person out of million can become a good comedian. People
in our country belonging to different class and age live a very
depressed life. All have problems and they give me a gloomy
look. I I can become a comedian and make my people cheerful
or bring some happy moments in their sad life. i think I would
have really rendered great service to my nation. After Lehri,
we have two such people like Moen Akhter and Omer Sharif in
dream to become a great comedian and pray to God to help me
fulfill my goal in life.
A Street Accident
bring agony to our mind and also to the relatives of victims,
but till the day I had not seen an accident with my own eyes.
By God what a terrible sight it was!
It was in the short hour of one evening I was going along Burns
Road to buy a pen for my examination which was going to
commence next week. At Denso Hall I was waiting for the
traffic to clear off so that I could safely cross the road. A bus
was also running along the road and it was trying to overtake a
private car a head of it. All of a sudden driver lost the control
of steering and rammed against a horse carriage. The driver of
the hackney carriage fell down and the bus crushed him. The
passengers in the hackney carriage escaped death with some
injuries. The horse was also badly wounded and it was looking
for his master. The injured were rushed immediately to a
nearby hospital.
People gathered at the scene of accident. Some showing
sympathy for the victim, some abusing the bus driver and
I left the scene with a sorrowful heart for the driver of the
carriage who unfortunately lost his life in that accident.

## Responsibilities of a Good Student

Students are the future hopes of any country. Much
development and progress of the country depends upon them.
Students are the backbone of a nation.
There are many responsibilities of a good student. The major
one is that he/she should take keen interest in his/her studies.
Moreover good student should also take part in games as All
work and no paly make Jack a dull boy. Besides this student
should also take part in the scout activities so as to help other
fellow students.
A good student should also make effort to develop the sense of
responsibility in other fellow mates. He/She should also try to
keep his/her locality clean.
A good student should be loyal and obedient to the teachers
because Obedience is the key to the door of success.
A good student must know the true meaning of trust, self
esteem, obedience and confidence. MOreover a good student
should always keep away from the politics of big power.
Computer a Curse or Blessing
Computer is a modern and best invention in the world. As the
time goes on computer goes on developing. computer is used
in industries, offices, schools and research work. We can get all
information through the Internet. Today computers are found
every where.
Here are the few examples of areas in which computers are
used. computer helps in offices to store all kind of information
and we take back information from its memory as we require.
Computer makes calculations of all sorts, prepare business
letters and books. Computer is used in billing departments.
Airlines and Railways use computer Technology in making
tickets for the passenger, keeping and updating the departure
and arrival timings of planes and trains.
Computers are being used to conduct lessons for all subject,
students are learning through computers by reading as well as
seeing diagrams on screen. Computer are helping the doctors
to detect disease and keep information about patient.