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THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF STEAM

CONDENSOR
WITH ON LINE TUBE CLEANING SYSTEM
Project report submitted in
Partial fulfillment of the requirements for
The award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Submitted by
ANAND MOHAN (11231A0346)
AMANULLAH SIDDIQUE (11231A0354)
NIKHIL KUMAR (11231A0357)
ASHISH KUMAR GUPTA (11231A0303)

Under the esteemed guidance of

K.DURGA SUSHMITHA, M.TECH


ASST.PROF.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


NIMRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND
TECHNOLOGY

(AFFILIATED TO JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL


UNIVERSITY, KAKINADA)
(APPROVED BY AICTE, NEW DELHI PERMITTED BY GOVT.OF.AP)
NIMRA NAGAR, JUPUDI, VIJAYAWADA, KRISHNA DIST.-521456

DECLARATION

We hereby declare that the project work Report entitled


THERMODYNAMICS
ANALYSIS OF STEAM CONDENSOR WITH

ON LINE TUBE CLEANING SYSTEM


which is being submitted to the
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada (JNTUK),
(JNTUK), in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of
Technology in the department of MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
ENGINEERING, is a
bonafide report of the work carried out by us. The material contained in this
project work Report has not been submitted to any University or Institution for
the award of any degree.

(Register Number)

1.
2.
3.
4.

11231A0346
11231A0354
11231A0357
11231A0303

(Name)

ANAND MOHAN
AMANULLAH SIDDIQUE
NIKHIL KUMAR
ASHISH KUMAR GUPTA

Department of MECHANICAL ENIGINEERING.


Place: NCET, Vijayawada
Date:
APRIL 2015

(Signature)

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Project entitled THERMODYNAMICS


ANALYSIS

OF STEAM CONDENSOR WITH ON LINE TUBE CLEANING SYSTEM

submitted by ANAND MOHAN (Register number 11231A0346);


AMAMNULLAH SIDDIQUE (Register number 11231A0354); NIKHIL
KUMAR(Register number 11231A0357); ASHISH KUMAR GUPTA
(Register number 11231A0303) is accepted as the Project submission in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of BACHELOR OF
TECHNOLOGY in the Department of MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

INTERNAL GUIDE
ASST.PROF.K.DURGA SUSHMITHA

HOD
ASST.PROF.K.DURGA SUSHMITHA

PRINCIPAL

EXTERNAL GUIDE

DR.Y.SUDHEER BABU

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Behind every achievement there lies an unfathomable sea of gratitude to
those who actuated it, without whom it could not have seen the light of the
day. So we take great pleasure in expressing our heartfelt acknowledgement
to all those who took part in our achievement.
We

also

thank

our

beloved

Head

of

Department

Mechanical

EngineeringASST. Prof. K.DURGA SUSHMITHA for his outstanding


encouragement contributing to completion of this project.
We are also thankful to the principal Dr. Y.SUDHEER BABU who has given
an opportunity for doing a study project at Dr. NTTPS.
It would be Endeavour to express our profound gratitude to Sri
G.SRINIVASA RAO ADE Stage-2, Turbine maintenance for their
motivating and exemplifying guidance that really helped in doing this project.
Lastly we exchange a word of appreciation with each other associates for
stimulating discussions, cooperation in their strenuous work to present this
report.

Project
Associates

ANAND MOHAN
(11231A0346)
AMANULLAH SIDDIQUE
(11231A0354)
NIKHIL KUMAR
(11231A0357)
ASHISH KUMAR GUPTA
(11231A0303)

ABSTRACT
In the operation and maintenance of a power plant, the main steam surface
condenser is virtually neglected compared with other components. Efficient
and reliable service from condensers requires more care in both operations
and maintenance than the care that is being taken in current practice.
In the present project, those parameters, which directly or indirectly influence
the performance of a condenser, have been studied. The factors include
cleanliness

factor,

backpressure,

inlet

temperature

and

saturation

temperatures, Heat transfer coefficients, LMTD, steam flow and seasonal


variations. The procedure for performance test and the subsequent
calculations has been studied in this book from the data collected from
condenser of stage2, Dr. NTTPS.
Performance optimization of steam surface condenser is directly related to the
problems that arise inevitably in any condenser like fouling, tube leakage and
air leakage. These problems along with the remedial measures have been

dealt with the processes of exact identification and proper monitoring in


online tube cleaning system.
Finally it is concluded with the optimum conditions of inlet temperature and
saturation temperature, Heat transfer coefficients and LMTD for efficient
condenser operation.

Dr. Narla Tatarao Thermal Power Station (Dr.


NTTPS)
Dr. Narla Tatarao Thermal Power Station is one of the prestigious power
plants in India, which is located on the North bank of river KRISHNA within
a distance of 2KM from the river. The Plant is located in between
Ibrahimpatnam and Kondapalli villages and 16KM of the north side of
Vijayawada. The site lies at an elevation of about 26.5mtrs above the mean
sea level.
Dr. Narla Tatarao Thermal Power Station complex consists of four stages.
Each stage consists of two units, which are about 210MW capacity each. The

total capacity of the station is 1760MW. The first two (as stage 1) being of
Russian design and manually controlled.
The next four (as stage 2 & 3) are fully automated, with the boiler by Suluzer,
France and Turbo-generator set by KMU, Germany. The boilers are of single
pass tower type against the conventional two pass type. The turbine is of thin
wall section and blades. This type of designing helped in the reduction of
many subsystems used in the first stage.

FIG: POWER PLANT

Ball mills were used in stage 2 & 3. This facilitated the incorporation of finer
fuel (coal) and input controls.
Stage , II, III units are commissioned as given below:

Stage

Unit No

210MW

01/11/1979

210MW

10/10/1980

210MW

05/10/1989

210MW

23/08/1990

210MW

31/03/1994

210MW

24/02/1995

IV

Capacity

Date commissioning

500 MW

06/04/2009

At Dr. NTTPS we observe the absence of cooling towers as the required


water is drawn from Krishna River. The large reservoir created by Prakasam
barrage on Krishna River that is maintained at minimum water level
throughout the year provides an efficient direct circulation of cooling water
system and meets other water requirements of the plant.
The stage1 of Dr. Narla Tatarao Thermal Power Station is linked to Singareni
Collieries Company Limited (S.C.C.L) for supply of coal. Stages 2 &3 are
linked to Talcher coalfields in Orissa to meet the increased demand of fuel.
The complete line diagram of steam power plant is depicted in the following
figure

CONTENTS
S.NO
PAGE NO
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1-5

1.1 Working of Basic steam power plant


1

1.2 Need of a condenser


2
1.3 Classification of steam condensers
3
CHAPTER 2 TROUBLE SHOOTING IN THE CONDENSER
6-14
2.1 Fouling in condenser
6
2.2 Leaky tubes
11
2.3 Air leakage
12

CHAPTER 3 CONDENSER ONLINE TUBE CLEANING SYSTEM


15-20

3.1Brush type cleaning system


15

3.2 Ball type cleaning system


16
CHAPTER 4 CONDENSER PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
21-30
4.1Introduction to performance analysis
21
4.2 Input data sheet for condenser
22
4.3 Formulae for the performance analysis and sample calculations
24
CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
31-39
5.1 The effects of condenser water inlet temperature
31
5.2 The effects of steam saturation temperature
33
5.3 The effects of steam flow
36
CONCLUSION
40
REFERENCES
41

LIST OF FIGURES
S.NO
PAGE NO
FIG 1.1 RANKINE CYCLE
6
FIG 3.1 CONDENSER VIEW
18
FIG 5.1 EFFECT OF CONDENSER INLET TEMPERATURE
31
ON HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT
FIG 5.2 EFFECT OF CONDENSER INLET TEMPERATURE
32
ON DEADLINE FACTOR
FIG 5.3 EFFECT OF CONDENSER INLET TEMPERATURE
32
ON EFFECTIVENESS
FIG 5.4 EFFECT OF SATURATION TEMPERATURE
33
ON LMTD
FIG 5.5 EFFECT OF SATURATION TEMPERATURE
34
ON HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT
FIG 5.6 EFFECT OF SATURATION TEMPERATURE
34
ON DEADLINES FACTOR
FIG 5.7 EFFECT OF SATURATION TEMPERATURE
35
ON EFFECTIVENESS
FIG 5.8 EFFECT OF REHEAT SPRAY
36

ON HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT


FIG 5.9 EFFECT OF REHEAT SPRAY
36
ON CONDENSER DULG
FIG 5.10 EFFECT OF REHEAT SPRAY
37
ON CW FLOW
FIG 5.11 EFFECT OF REHEAT SPRAY ON VELOCITY
38
OF WATER IN THE CONDENSER TUBES

NOMENCLATURE
A condensing
BWG

= Condensing surface area


= British wit worth gauge

cd

= Condenser duty

Cf

= Cleanliness factor

Cp

= specific heat of water

CW

= condenser water

= Density of water

Fq

= Correction for condenser heat load

Ft

= Correction for c.w inlet temp

Fw

= Correction for c.w flow

Hcrh

= Enthalpy of cold reheat

HFW

= Enthalpy 0f feed water

HHRH

= Enthalpy of hot reheat

HMS

= Enthalpy of main steam

HRH

= Hot reheat

LMTD

= Log mean temp difference

Ms

= Main steam

M.W

= Meter water column

NT

= Number of tubes

Pgen

= Load

R.H

= Reheat spray

Tout

= Average c.w outlet temp

Tin

= Average c.w inlet temp

Tsat

= Saturation temp corresponding to backpressure

= Uncorrected heat transfer coefficient

U actual

= Actual heat transfer coefficient theoretical

= Theoretical

heat transfer coefficient


Z

= constant

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1WORKING OF BASIC STEAM POWER PLANT

FIG 1.1 Rankine Cycle


Steam power plant operates on Rankine cycle. It mainly consists of boiler,
turbine, condenser and pump.
High pressure superheated steam leaves the boiler and enters the turbine. The
steam expands in the turbine. During this process the steam does work, and
this enables the turbine to drive the electric generator. The low-pressure steam
leaves the turbine and enters the condenser. Heat is transferred from the steam
to cooling water passing through the condenser tubes, causing the steam to
condense.
Since a large quantity of water is required, Power plants are generally located
near rivers or lakes. When the supply of cooling water is limited, a cooling
tower may be used.
A pump enables condensate to flow into the boiler and increases the pressure
of condensate leaving the condenser. In the boiler, the heat energy of
combustion gases is used for converting water to vapour. In most of the
boilers the steam is superheated and thus high pressure, high temperature
steam is supplied to the turbine.

1.2 THE NEED OF A CONDENSER

The maximum possible thermal efficiency of a heat engine is given by (1)


T1 T2
T1
Where T1 and T2 are the supply and exhaust temperatures.
This expression of efficiency show that the efficiency increases with an
increase in temperature T1 and with decrease in temperature T2.
The maximum value of temperature T1 of steam supplied to steam prime
mover is limited by the material consideration. The temperature T2 at which
heat is rejected can be reduced if the exhaust of steam prime mover takes
place below the atmospheric pressure. Low exhaust pressure means low
exhaust temperature.
But the steam cannot be released into the atmosphere if it is expanded in the
engine or turbine below atmospheric pressure. However this can be made
possible, if the steam is made to enter a vessel known as condenser, where the
pressure inside is maintained below the atmospheric pressure by condensing
the steam with the circulation of cold water.
Thus condenser improves the efficiency of the power plant by decreasing the
exhaust pressure of the steam below atmospheric pressure, as it lowers the
exhaust temperature T2. Condenser provides a source of pure feed water to
the boiler and thus helps in reducing the burden on the water softening plant
to a great extent. So steam condenser is one of the most essential components
of a thermal power plant.

CONDENSER
A condenser is defined as a closed vessel in which exhaust steam from

Steam turbine is condensed by cooling water, and vacuum is maintained. This


results in an increase in work done and efficiency of the steam power plant
and use of condensate as feed water to the boiler.
The elements of a water-cooled condensing unit are:
1. Closed vessel in which steam condenses.
2. A dry air pump, which removes air and other non-condensable
materials.
3. A condensate extraction pump that extracts the condensed steam
collected in the hot well of the condenser and pumps it to the feed
pipe line.
4. A cooling water pump to circulate the cooling water in condenser.
5. A feed water pump to condensate from hot well to the boiler.

1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF STEAM CONDENSERS


The condensers are mainly classified into four types
A. Mixing or jet type condenser
B. Non mixing type or surface condenser
C. Non conventional direct contact condenser
D. Evaporative condenser

A. Mixing or jet type condenser


In mixing type condensers the exhaust steam from prime mover and cooling
water come in to direct contact with each other. The condensate coming out
of the mixing type condenser cannot be used as boiler feed water because it
is not free from salts and pollutants.
These types of condensers are generally preferred where the good quality
water is easily available in ample quantity. Mixing condensers are seldom
used in modern power plants. Instead parallel flow and counter flow jet
condensers are used. In a parallel flow condenser, the steam and cooling

water flow in the same direction. They flow in opposite directions in counter
flow condenser.
Mixing type condensers are mainly classified into three categories depending
upon the arrangement used for the removal of condensate as low level, high
level and ejector condensers. These are rarely used in modern high capacity
power plants.

B. Non Mixing type or surface condenser


In non-mixing type of condensers, steam and cooling water do not come in
direct contact with each other. The cooling water passes through the number
of tubes attached to condenser shell and steam surrounds the tubes. These
types of condensers are universally used in all high capacity modern steam
power plants, as the condensate coming out from the condenser used as feed
for the boiler.
These types of condensers are generally used where large quantity of inferior
water is available and better quality of feed water to the boiler must be used
most economically.
The condenser

that we have selected for the present study is a shell and

tube type surface condenser.


This condenses the exhaust steam from low pressure turbine and maintains
the possible vacuum in order to increase the heat drop and the turbine output,
besides making it possible to reuse the condensate thus obtained.

C. Non - Conventional direct contact condenser


This is a new concept in power industry where condensate is used to
condense the exhaust steam in the condenser. In this arrangement external
condensate cooler cools part of the condensate coming out of condenser and
the same is used again in the condenser in the form of spray and the
condenser is of mixing type.

D. Evaporative condenser
The evaporative condensers are preferred where acute shortage of cooling
water
exists. In this type of condensers water is sprayed through the nozzles over
pipe
Carrying exhaust steam and forms a thin film over it. The air is drawn over
the surface
of the coil with the help of induced fans.
The arrangement of this type of condenser is simple and cheap. It does not
require large quantity of water therefore needs a small capacity cooling water
pump. The vacuum maintained in this condenser is not as high as in surface
condenser. Therefore the work done per kg of steam is less when compared to
surface condensers.
The evaporative condensers are generally preferred for small power plants
and where there is acute shortage of cooling water.

Constructional features of Surface condenser


A condenser is a rectangular vessel having suitably stiffened dome, consisting
of stiffening rods, welded on either side walls and of the dome shell except
tubes. The remaining construction is a fabricated one. The tubes have been
expanded into main tube plates and are supported by the support plates at
intermittent points to prevent their sagging and to curb the flow induced
vibrations. Non-condensable gases are continuously extracted in order to
maintain vacuum in the condenser.
Optimum utilization of steam space by providing rectangular cross-section of
tube nest is an added feature of this condenser. For ensuring equitable loading
of condenser tubes in the bottom rows incurring appreciable steam side
pressure drop - tubes have been segregated in small bunches leaving wide
lanes between them. Tube bundles have been half degree inclined towards

front water box side for its self draining during cooling water pump tripping.
The condenser front water chamber has provision for the isolation of half of
the condenser for on load leak detection. Water boxes incorporate hinge
arrangement to facilitate the removal of covers for enabling rubbing and
cleaning of tubes. Water boxes and circulating water side of steel main tube
plates have been protected against corrosion by the application of protective
coating over the surface in contact with cooling water. Provision for
sacrificial anodes has also been made for additional protection against
corrosion.

Installation
Condenser has been floated over the springs, which take empty weight of
condenser along with the partial operating weight while remaining operating
weight is taken by the turbine foundation. Tube installation is tested by filling
water into steam space up to one meter above the top tube row. Prior to filling
water into condenser steam space for above testing screws provided with
spring support should be used for ensuring water weight being passed on to
them, to avoid over stressing of turbine foundation.

CHAPTER 2
TROUBLE SHOOTINGS IN THE CONDENSER
Generally the following problems are faced in the operation of condensers in
Steam power plants.
1. Fouling
2. Leaky tubes
3. Air leakage
2.1 FOULING IN CONDENSER
When the heat transfer apparatus has been in service for some time, dirt and
scale deposits on inside and outside of the pipe. As a result the thermal
resistance in the path of the heat flow increases, which reduces heat transfer
rate.
Thus during operation condenser tubes become fouled with an accumulation
of deposits of one kind or another on heat transfer surface.
The dirt or scale formation is termed as fouling. This results in increased
resistance to heat transfer is called fouling factor. This should be considered
in calculating the overall heat transfer coefficient. This additional resistance
reduces the original value of overall heat transfer coefficient.
The economic penalty for fouling can be attributed to,
1. Higher capital expenditure through over sized units.
2. Energy losses due to thermal inefficiencies.
3. Costs associated with periodic cleaning of heat exchanges.
4. Loss of production during shut down for cleaning.
The magnitude of the fouling factor depends on nature of the scale. Th scale
is uniform in composition and structure, the resistance is calculated by
dividing the scale thickness by the thermal conductivity of the scale material.

Usually the scale is of an unknown or complicated composition and structure


and the fouling factor must be known for analyzing the performance of
condenser. The fouling process is obviously a time function starting with zero
and proceeding along some pseudo asymptotic or linear relationship but a
constant value is generally used in design. This is then interpreted as a value
to be reached in some reasonable time interval at which time the user of the
equipment is willing to clean it. Allocation of exaggerated large fouling
resistance also does not guarantee longer operating time. On the contrary in
many cases it can contributes to more rapid deterioration.

TYPES OF FOULING PROCESS


Scaling or precipitation fouling
One of the common causes of fouling is due to crystallization of salts having
inverse solubility character than normal solubility.
Unlike normal salts certain salts exhibit decreasing solubility beyond a
certain temperature. Thus when they come in contact with the heated surface
crystalline deposits are formed. In water scaling, examples for such salts are
CaCO3 and CaSO4.

Sedimentation or particulate fouling


The accumulation of finely divided solids like rust, dusts, clay, sand etc. on
the heat transfer surface is also known as fouling. When the settling of
particles due to gravity, the process of fouling is known as sedimentation.
Rust and dust are
Generally caused by air, where as sand and mud are carried by river water.
The effects of these are partly reduced by filtering methods before the use of
water for cooling.

Chemical reaction fouling or polymerization

Deposits formed at the heat transfer surface by chemical reaction in the fluid
itself (in which the surface material is not a reactant) are referred to as
chemical reaction fouling.
This type of fouling occurs in many times in petroleum and chemical streams.
Surface temperature is a critical variable, since it determines the reaction rate.
A special type of chemical reaction fouling occurs in organic fluid moderated
nuclear reactors.

Corrosion fouling
Corrosion products of the heat transfer surface produced an additional
thermal resistance. Corrosion creates roughness, which will produce
nucleation sites for crystallization and particle sedimentation.

Biological fouling
The attachment of macro (clams, barnacles, mussels) and micro (algae, fungi,
bacteria) organisms to heat transfer surface is known as biological fouling.
This develops on heat transfer surface in contact with untreated water such as
sea, river or lake water. Macro organisms pass through the intake of
condenser plant and settle on the hot heat transfer surface thus impairing heat
transfer.
Sometimes the extent of bio fouling may be so much leading to shutdown of
power station due to cooling system blockage. Cost of cleaning and lost
output is extremely high. The growing interest in controlling bio fouling is
due to wide use of seawater as cooling medium in power stations and OTEC
plants. Bacteria are very sensitive to temperatures below 0 to 20 and above 40
to 70 degrees Celsius will kill most of the marine bacteria.

Freeze fouling or solidification fouling

The crystallization of pure liquid or one component from the liquid phase on
a sub cooled heat transfer surface falls under this category.

PARAMETERS AFFECTING FOULING


Velocity
Velocity affects the fouling process with respect to both deposition and
removal. The effect of velocity on removal is characterized by the strength of
the deposit. For inorganic type of fouling, as the deposition rate is a
controlling process the fouling rate increases with velocity .For organic type
of fouling the residence time of particulates in the boundary layers decreases
with increased velocity and reduces the fouling rate.
The allowable velocity range is 1 to 3 m/s.

Temperature
The liquid bulk temperature, wall temperature and scale fluid interface
temperature are important in the fouling process.
Under constant heat flux conditions, there will be effect of temperature on
deposition rate. A portion of deposit will undergo additional crystallization
process as the temperature with in deposit increases.
For a fluid containing inverse solubility of salts the deposition rate increases
with increasing interface temperature. The fouling resistance increases
asymptotically with increase in bulk temperature to a maximum, and then
decreases. The decrease is due to smaller temperature gradient and therefore
less mass transfer to the crystallizing surface if outlet water temperature is
greater than 50 deg c corrosion problems arises.

Water chemistry
Generally PH compositions of different salt components are used to
characterize the water chemistry the biological fouling mostly depends on the
PH value of water used in condenser.

Tube materials
The effect of tube material is to add corrosion products to the deposit on
surface.

The characteristics of tube materials also have an effect on

deposition.

PREVENTION OF FOULING
Fouling can pose serious problems in process plants and some time lead to
unplanned shutdowns and production losses.
Fouling always leads to higher-pressure drops and hence higher operating
costs. Thus fouling is an evil that must always be prevented. Unfortunately
complete prevention is neither possible nor economically feasible. Therefore
steps must be taken to keep fouling at minimum. This can be done by method
listed below.

Proper Design of condenser


The design of a condenser plays very important role in fouling deposition.
A. Velocity should kept sufficiently high (not too high as it may cause
erosion and excess loss) because low velocity would not exert
sufficient shear to remove fouling layer.
B. A wrong selection of material can cause corrosion and increase the
fouling rate.

Some experiments tried with the Teflon tubes to

minimize fouling have been quite successful. They have a lower


fouling initiation tendency because of smooth surface.
C. Fluid with high fouling tendency should be preferably placed on tube
side for greater care of cleaning. However if chemical cleaning is used,
there is no preference between the tube or shell side.

D. For mechanical cleaning square pitch is preferred where as for


hydraulic cleaning on the shell side a large tube pitch must be used.
E. As polymerization fouling is particularly sensitive to tube wall
temperatures, concurrent flow is preferred in such cases that maintain
lower and uniform wall temperature.
F. Stagnant region in the shell side should be avoided by well
proportioned baffles spacing, baffles cut and multi-segmental baffles.

Treatment of process system


A. Fluid system containing large amount of solid particles should be
filtered before entering the condenser.
B. Additive to suppress fouling or becoming increasingly popular.
C. Polymer formation can be prevented by addition of stabilizers.

Cleaning system
A toproge condenser tube cleaning system uses slightly oversized abrasive
sponge rubber balls, which are re-circulated through the tubes. These balls
remove all fouling and even hard deposits in the tubes. This method reduces
the down time lost which forms the major part of the loss due to fouling.

Biocides and Biostats


These are used for controlling the fouling. Biocides kill the organisms where
as Biostats reduce the growth of organisms. Copper and its alloys have been
used as biocides but their use is too costly for use in sea thermal plant. In
OTEC plants where corrosion of surfaces under the biological growth is a
serious problem. Aluminum or plastic are suggested as the materials.

Sacrificial anodes
Use of sacrificial anodes in the case of cast iron pipes decreases the corrosion
rates and in a way prevents fouling due to corrosion.

2.2 LEAKY TUBES


Tubes leakage is one of the major problems in condenser application.
Tube may leak,
1. At the tube plate joint due to the improper attachment.
2. Within the length due the pealing of oxide layer.

EFFECTS DUE TO TUBE LEAKAGE


1. Condenser gets contaminated with cooling water which effects the
operation of boiler and turbine.
2. Vacuum in the condenser decreases intern results in decreasing the power
output. If the leaks in tubes are few in number then they just block at the both
ends without shut downing the condenser. If there are more in number effect
in the operation of condenser then the unit is to be shut down for replacing
the leaky tubes.

DETECTION OF LEAKING TUBES


When turbine is in operation
Condenser has been provided with the divided water chambers thus making it
possible to locate the leaky tube and plug its ends even when turbine is in
operation For locating the leaky tube concerned portion of water chamber
should be isolated on cooling water side and tube plate should be dried
commencing from top to bottom by the application of dry air.
Tube openings should be covered with a thin polythene sheet that will get
sucked in to failed tube end, alternatively tube ends should be scanned
through with a lighted candle stick/smoke generator. The flame/smoke will
get attracted into the leaky tube end.
Leaky tube can also be detected by the use of U-tube manometer. Plug one
end of tube with soft rubber and connect the other tube end with U-tube

manometer having color water. Color water will get sucked into the tube in
case of leaky tube; otherwise water level will remain unchanged.
When the machine is under shutdown
Drain the water boxes and fill condenser steam space with water only up to
one meter above top row of tubes. Water comes from the leaky tubes.

2.3 AIR LEAKAGE


The sources of air leakage in the condenser are listed below,
The feed water contains air in dissolved condition. The dissolved air gets
liberated when the steam is formed and it is carried with the steam into the
condenser.
Air leaks through the joints, packing and glands into the condenser, where the
pressure is below the atmospheric pressure.

The effect of air leakage in condenser are listed below,


It increases the pressure in condenser or back pressure of the prime mover
and reduces the work done per kg of steam.
The pressure of air lowers the partial pressure of steam and its corresponding
temperature. The latent heat of steam increases at low pressure .Therefore
more quantity of water is required to condense one kg of steam as the
quantity

of latent heat removed is more. These are greater possibility of

under cooling condensate with the reduction in the partial pressure of steam
due to the presence of air. This phenomenon reduces the overall efficiency of
the power producing plant.
The heat transfer rates are greatly reduced due to the presents of air offers
high resistance to heat flow. This further necessitates the more quantity of
cooling water to maintain the heat transfer rates. Otherwise it reduces the rate
of condensation and further increases the back pressure of the prime mover.
Preventive measures should be taken to remove leaking air from the
condenser to avoid bad effects. The air from the condenser is removed with

the help of air pumps. The primary function of the air pump is to extract the
air from the condenser.

DETERMINATION OF BREAKUP OF CONDENSER BACK


PRESSURE DEVIATION
Corrosion Failures of Heat Exchanger Tubes
Corrosion is the unintended destructive interaction of a metallic component
with its environment leading to its failure.

Types of Corrosion Phenomena on the basis of their physical


manifestation

Velocity affected corrosion (erosion corrosion)

Uniform corrosion

Pitting corrosion

Intergranular corrosion

Concentration cell corrosion

Galvanic corrosion

Bacterial or Bio-Fouling corrosion

Factors that determine the type of corrosion process

Presence of crevices in metal parts or assemblies

Relative motion between the metal parts and environment

Presence of dissimilar metal parts in an electrically conducting


environment

Temperature gradients at metal environment interface

Metals Research Laboratory (MRL) of BHEL Haridwar, who recently


carried the investigations to determine the cause of these failures.

There are mainly two types of failure due to corrosion according to their
report
1. Dealloying Corrosion Failures
2. Velocity Effected Corrosion (Erosion Corrosion) Failures

To know about these failures they had mainly done three types of tests as
follows

Visual Examination for both internal and external surfaces.

Hardness testing.

Metallographic examination.

On Admiralty Brass oil cooler tubes of Dr. Narla Tatarao TPS, Srisailam HPS,
Ropar TPS, Nagarjuna HPS and Admiralty Brass condenser of Ukai HPS,
Cupro- Nickel condenser tubes of Kolaghat TPS.

Conclusion given by BHEL Haridwar is


Failure of Heat exchanger tubes is a normal phenomenon and generally
occurs either by selective leaching or velocity-effected corrosion.
Preventive measures include a change in the tube material to more resistant
alloys such as stainless steel or titanium but economics of this change largely
dictates the feasibility of changeover. Other measures include a strict control

of the water composition, periodic cleaning of the tubes to prevent deposition


of muddy deposits and ensuring proper operational conditions.
However, despite the best operational practices, failures are not totally
avoidable through the occurrences can be significantly reduced. However, as
the above examples show, determination of the cause of failure does not
require sophisticated tools and can frequently be done at the site itself, thus
leading to fast corrective actions.

CHAPTER 3
CONDENSER ONLINE TUBE CLEANING SYSTEM
3.1 BRUSH TYPE CLEANING SYSTEM
The Problem
Corrosion and fouling of Condenser & Heat Exchanger Tubes are major
factors affecting the performance of a plant.

The Solution
On Line Tube Cleaning System facilitates cleaning of the Condenser Tubes
up with the Plant in operation, continuously every day without effort thus
improving efficiency and wasting no downtime on shutdowns. Your
equipment essentially becomes self-cleaning. The systems automatically
maintain a fouling factor below the manufacturers design specification.
The online tube cleaning system is actually three different variations on a
similar concept, each engineered specifically for a given application. All
systems require no special operator effort and no interruption in day-to-day
equipment performance.

Nylon Brush Type


In low temperature systems, each tube is fitted with a specially developed and
fabricated nylon brush and special catch baskets. As the brushes travel back
and forth through the tubing, they scrub the interior walls without interrupting
the systems operation.

Steel Brush Type


High temperature process systems use stainless steel brush and steel baskets
for scrubbing tubing walls.

Sponge Ball Type

Some special applications cleaning is accomplished by injecting slightly


oversized sponge rubber balls which into the supply line, then recirculated in
a closed loop system of their own. These re-circulating balls clean interior
tubing surfaces just as efficiently as the scrubber brushes and, like the
brushes, may be timed through the control panel for periodic cleaning passes.

BRUSH TYPE
Brush type on-line tube cleaning systems consists of catch basket at either
end of each condenser tube. A free floating brush inserted into each tube; an
automatic, programmable control panel; and a four-way, flow-reversing
diverter.
Propelled by liquid flow, the small brushes travel back and forth periodically
through your heat exchanger or condenser tubing, scrubbing the inner walls
and keeping heat flow unrestricted.
The easily installed flow diverters reverse the flow tube-side water or process
fluid automatically at preset intervals. In fact, by programming the control
panel to reverse the tube-side flow several times a day, the cleaning brushes
are shuttled back and forth automatically and your tubing system is scrubbed
to function near pack efficiency at all times.
At the heart of this effortless maintenance system is the four-way diverter,
controlled by a programmable control panel, which periodically shuttles the
cleaning brushes to and fro within the system at certain predetermined
intervals.
This diverter may be timed, through the control panel, to reverse the flow of
fluids at virtually any interval settings.

3.2 BALL TYPE CLEANING SYSTEM


Elastomeric rubber balls are injected into the supply line and forced through
the condenser/heat exchanger tubes by the cooling water flow. Proper ball

distribution is achieved by special injection method and the ball type used.
Being slightly larger than the inside diameter of the tubes, balls actually wipe
the tubes clean. The balls are separated from the cooling water by a strainer
section, extracted by a pump, passed through a ball collector, and recirculated
into the cooling water supplying closed manner.
Patented vortex and turbulence promoters are installed at the strainer outlet
point to enhance ball recovery. Provisions are made to turn the screens to the
backwash position to clear accumulated debris. A differential pressure
monitor displays the pressure drop across the strainer section. Options of
continuous, intermittent, or manual cycles are provided. Optional features are
also available to monitor the number of balls in circulation and indicate the
quality of worn balls
Major Components and Auxiliary Equipment Of sponge ball type on line
tube cleaning system are as shown in the below figure.
a. Universal Debris filter
b. Ball Separator
c. Ball Recirculating Skid
d. Measuring and Control System
e. Ball Monitoring System
f. Ball charger and feeder
g. Ball injection Nozzles

GEA India supplies a wide range of cleaning balls to suit every


application
Sponge Rubber - Hardness selected to suit service conditions.
High Temperature Balls - For application up to 1400 C.
Abbrasive Balls - Ring/Fully coated for removal of hard deposits.
Granulate Coated Balls - For use in Titanium tubes.

"V"-TYPE DEBRIS SEPARATOR


The Debris Filter installed in the C.W. Inlet Line is an important secondary
filtering equipment. The design and the internal construction of the Debris
Filter is based on the Water flow, type, size and quantity of the Debris and the
Cooling Water inlet Pressure. The Debris is collected at the inner surface of
the screen, housed inside the filter.
Monitoring the Differential Pressure across the Screen indicates the level of
debris fouling on the filter screen. When it reaches a preset limit, the control
system initiates the debris removal operation, till the screen is cleared off the
debris.
Debris accumulated on the inside surface of the screen is sucked by the debris
extraction assembly which routes the extracted debris into the Debris
Discharge Pipe connected to the main condenser outlet pipe or drain.
An Electric Gear drive mounted outside the Filter housing facilitates the
rotation of the Flushing Assembly. The cleaning operation ceases once the
screen is clean. The salient feature of the GEA filter is that at no time is there
any significant reduction of water flow during the screen cleaning operation.
Many a times the extraction technique alone is inadequate to dislodge all the
Debris from the screen. To effectively solve this problem the GEA Filter
incorporates a special patented Rotating High Pressure Water Injecting Arm
on the rear side of the screen. However, it is an optional item.

The basic principle of operations and the construction is similar to Debris


Filter. It is only for our own convenience that we are calling the debris filter
of size DN 200 to DN 900 as Self Cleaning Strainers. Otherwise even Debris
Filters are also Self Cleaning type filters only.

FIG 3.1 CONDENSER VIEW

Design features
--

Easy maintainability

-- Flexible design to accommodate varied customer requirements.


-- Design standards to ASME/DIN/BS/BIS/IIS
-- Installation can be Horizontal/Vertical
-- Filter basket ranging from 900 - 3500 mm
-- Filter basket perforations ranging from 1 - 10 mm
-- Normal flushing cycle of 3 min. and adjustable as per site conditions.
-- Low backwash flow shall be as low as 3% of total cooling water as an

additional feature
-- Construction in Carbon Steel, Carbon Steel Rubber lined Stainless
Steel (SS 316, 316L, 317LN) and Cu Ni, to suit application.

The savings
- Keep fouling deposits from forming inside tubes.
- Increase heat transfer coefficient.
- Maintains constant high heat transfer rate meet design specifications.
- Increases energy efficiency and heat recovery by as much as 25%.
- Increase Production.
- System is automatic, easy to operate and easy to maintain.
- Reduces maintenance and downtime cost for your condenser/chiller or
process exchanger.
- Reduces the amount of chemicals needed to treat your system.
- Easily installed in new or existing systems.
- System pays for itself, sometimes in as little as six months

CONDENSER PERFORMANCE TESTING AND


MONITORING
Efficient, reliable service from condenser requires considerably more care in
both operational and maintenance that has been current practice. Generally
acceptance tests and routine operational tests are conducted to have an idea
about the performance of the condenser.

Condenser performance tests are carried out for two reasons


A. Acceptance tests are conducted to establish whether a condenser
meets its specified performance, and whether it is capable of

producing the desired condenser backpressure when operating under


specified conditions. This test will also form a benchmark for future
comparison.
B. Routine operational tests are conducted to monitor the condenser
performance periodically, and to verify that the condenser
performance is not being adversely affected by deterioration in the
condenser parameters.

In both the acceptance tests and routine tests high standard of instrumentation
is required, particularly in the measurement of the condenser back pressure
and the cooling water temperatures. Routine tests generally use less
instrumentation than acceptance tests.

CHAPTER 4
CONDENSER PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
After steam has surrendered its useful heat to the turbine, it passes onto the
condenser. The work obtained by the turbine from the steam will increase as
the backpressure is reduced, so it is always desirable to keep the backpressure
at minimum achievable level. In fact, condenser backpressure is the most
important operating parameter of a unit; therefore, the factors, which worsen
backpressure, must be clearly identified so that effective remedial measures
can be taken.
There are various controllable parameters to improve/maintain the condenser
performance such as cleanliness factor, air-ingress, cooling water (CW) flow
etc.

In view of this it is recommended to carryout simplified routine performance


test on condenser at certain frequency to identify the level of deviations and
trending of performance.

Objective and Scope


The scope is limited to condenser. This test procedure shall determine the
condenser performance with regard to one or more performance indices as
follows.

Evaluation of test

In this performance test we have taken readings of load, flow of feed water
and main steam, main steam temperature (temp) and pressure(pr), Cold
Reheat (CRH) steam pressure and temperature at High Pressure Turbine
(HPT) exhaust, Hot Reheat (HRH) steam pressure and temperature at
Intermediate Pressure Turbine (IPT) inlet, saturation temperature , HPH6 feed
water inlet and outlet temperature and pressure, Economizer and HPH5 inlet
feed water temperature, steam pressure at ejector nozzle, No extraction steam
pressure and temperature , Input casing exhaust steam pressure and
temperature and HPH6 drip temperature are taken for this test.
The Condenser Duty, CW flow, Tube Velocity, LMTD, U-actual, Utheoretical, Cleanliness Factor, Expected values of LMTD and Tsat are
calculated.

4.2 INPUT DATA SHEET FOR CONDENSER


1. Design cooling water temperature

36 0c

2. Cooling water temp raise

8.1 0c

3. Cooling water flow quantity

- 30600 m3/hr

4. Condenser backpressure

- 89mm of Hg abs

5. Cooling waterside pressure drop

- 3.1 Mwc

6. No. of cooling water passes

7. No. of tubes

- 23934

8. Tube dimensions
Outside diameter

19 mm

Thickness

1 mm

Ordering length

9.9 m

90/10 copper/nickel

9. Tube material

The following table denotes the input parameters required for the
performance analysis of condenser.

Load

MW

210.00

209.8

Feed water flow hourly average

TPH

649.00

665.2

R.H. Spray

TPH

8.00

13.5

Main steam flow

TPH

641.00

651.5

M.S.Pressure after strainer (L/R)

Kg/Cm2

147.5

M.S temp. before E.S V1/E.S V2

Degree. C

151.00
532.00

H.P.Turbine I-st blading Pressure

Kg/cm2

132.8

135.00

C.R.H. Steam Pr.at H.P.T. Exhaust

Kg/cm2

37.2

36.75

C.R.H Steam temp.at H.P.T. Exhaust

Degree. C

352.5

354.5

H.R.H Steam Pr.at IPT.I n let.

Kg/cm2

35

33.9

H.R.H Steam temp. at IPT.I n let

Degree. C

537.3

538.5

L.P. Turbine Exhaust hood temp (Tsat).

Degree. C

45.8

45.7

Number of Ejectors in service

Nos.

H.p.heater 5 in let Feed water temp.

Hz.

168

169.4

H.p.heater 6 O/L Feed water temp.

Degree. C

246.6

257.5

H.p.heater 6 in let Feed water temp.

Degree. C

201.5

202

535.5

H.p.heater 6 in let Feed water Pr...

Kg/cm2

172

172

H.p.heater 6 out let Feed water Pr...

Kg/cm2

171

171

Economizer inlet Feed water temp(L/R)

Degree. C

242.5

239

C.W. Temp.at condenser I / L -O/L(L/R)

Degree. C

29.9/39

32/39.55

Steam pressure at ejector nozzle

Kg/Cm2

8.2

8.3

No.6 Extraction steam Pr...

Kg/cm2

37

36.8

No.6 Extraction steam temp

Degree. C

352.3

354.7

IP casing Exhaust steam temp.(L/R)

Degree. C

337.6

337.8

H.P. Heater -6 Drip temp

Degree. C

228

227.5

IP casing Exhaust steam Pr(L/R)

Kg/cm2

7.1

Steam temp. at ejector nozzle

Degree. C

201

203.00

4.3 FORMULAE FOR THE CONDENSER PERFORMANCE


ANALYSIS AND SAMPLE CALCULATION

1. Determination of Condenser Duty


The amount of heat to be removed by the condenser from the steam in a given
time is the Condenser Duty.

Condenser Duty = {(Heat Added MS + Heat Added HRH + Heat


added
spray) 860 (Pgen + Pgen losses + Heat Loss rad)} *
(4.18/3600)
= {(356502.103 + 58343.885 + 7797.492)
860 (209.8 + 20.98 + 2.098)}*(4.18/3600)

= 258.315 KJ/S

Where
Condenser Duty

= KJ/Sec

Heat Added MS

= Flow MS (HMS hFW)


= 651.5 (815.164 267.9)
= 356502.103 Kcal/Hr

Flow MS

= 651.5 Kg/Hr

HMS

= 815.164 Kcal/Kg

HFW

= 267.9 Kcal/Kg

Heat Added HRH

= Flow HRH (hHRH hcrh)


= 565.286 (845.554 742.342)
= 58343.885 Kcal/Hr

Flow HRH

= 565.286Kg/Hr

HHRH

= 845.554 Kcal/Kg

Hcrh
Heat added spray

= 742.342 Kcal/Kg
= Rh spray (hHRH hFW)
= 13.5 (845.554 267.962)
= 7797.492 Kcal/Hr

Pgen

= 209.8 KW (Gross Generator Output)

Heat Loss rad

= 0.1% of Pgen (Radiation Losses) KW

Pgen Losses

= (Mech Losses + Iron Losses Stator Current


Losses)

Generally Pgen Losses are taken as 0.01% of Pgen.

2. Determination of Condenser Flow


The volume rate of flow of cooling water required to attain the condenser
duty is given by CW flow.

CW Flow

Condenser Duty
=
--------------------Cp (Tout Tin) * D
=

258.315 * 1000 / (4.18 * (39.55 32) * 1000)

8.185 m3/Sec

Where
Condenser Duty

= 258.315 KJ/hr.

Cp

= 4.18 KJ/kg deg. C

= 1000 Kg/cubic meter

T out

= 39.55 deg. C

T in

= 32 deg. C

3. Water Velocity in Condenser Tube


C.W. Flow rate * 106
Tube Velocity =
---------------------------------------------------------------Tube Area * (Number of Tubes - Number
Of Tubes
Plugged)
= 8.185* 106 / ( ( /4 * 172) * (23934 0 )
= 1.507 m/sec.
Where
Tube Velocity

= m/sec

C.W. Flow Rate

= m3/Sec

Tube Area

= mm2

4. Computation of Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)

LMTD

(Tout Tin)
------------------------

(Tsat Tin)
Ln ------------(Tsat Tout)
= (39.55 32) / Ln ((45.7 32) / (45.7 39.55))
= 9.42 deg. C
Where LMTD

= deg. C
Tsat

= 45.7 deg. C (Saturation temperature corresponding

to
Back pressure)

5. Determination of Cleanliness Factor


It is the ratio of actual heat transfer coefficient to that of theoretical heat
transfer coefficient, which is commonly used in diagnostics as an indicator of
thermal fouling of the heat exchanger surface.

U actual (Actual heat transfer


coefficient)
Cf (cleanliness factor) =
---------------------------------------------------U theoretical (Theoretical heat
transfer
Coefficient)
= (1685.794 / 2940.440) * 100

57.33 %

Condenser Flow * Cp * ( Tout Tin ) * Density of


water
U actual =
----------------------------------------------------------------------A condensing * LMTD
=

(8.185* 4.18 * (39.55 32) * 1000) / (14000 * 9.426

)
=

1.9574 KJ/Sec m2 0C

Where
U actual

= Kcal/hr m2 0C

Density of water

= 1000 Kg/m3

A condensing

= m2 (condensing surface area)

U theoretical

U * Tin correction factor * tube correction

factor *4.882428
=
=

3.41 KJ/sec m2 0C

(593.5 * 1.0739 * 0.945 * 4.882428) * (4.18/3600)

Fw - INLET WATER TEMPERATURE CORRECTION


FACTOR

Inlet Water
0
F
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57

Fw
0.650
0.659
0.669
0.678
0.687
0.696
0.706
0.715
0.724
0.733
0.743
0.752
0.761
0.770
0.780
0.789
0.798
0.816
0.825
0.834
0.843
0.852
0.861
0.870
0.879
0.888
0.897

Inlet Water
0
F
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87

Fw
0.923
0.932
0.941
0.950
0.959
0.968
0.975
0.982
0.989
0.994
1.000
1.005
1.010
1.015
1.020
1.025
1.029
1.037
1.041
1.045
1.048
1.051
1.054
1.057
1.060
1.063
1.066

Inlet Water
0
F
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117

Where
U theoretical

= KJ/sec m2 0C

U
Tin correction factor

= heat transfer coefficient


in Btu/hrs qft
= Correction factor for actual
C.W. inlet temperature.

Fw
1.075
1.078
1.080
1.083
1.085
1.088
1.090
1.092
1.095
1.097
1.100
1.103
1.105
1.108
1.110
1.113
1.115
1.119
1.121
1.123
1.125
1.127
1.129
1.131
1.133
1.135
1.137

Tube correction factor = Correction factor for tube material


and
Tube wall gauge.

6. Determination of expected LMTD for Deviation from


Design Value
Correction for C.W. Inlet temperature (ft)
|
ft

Saturation temp test LMTD test


| 1/4
|------------------------------------------------- |
| Saturation temp design LMTD design |

=
=

((45.7 9.426) / (49.2 8.4)) (1/4)

0.943.

Correction for C.W. Flow (fw)


|

Tube velocity test | 1/2


= |-------------------------- |
| Tube velocity design |

Fw

(1.507 / 1.565) (1/2)

=
=

0.981.

Correction for condenser heat load (fq):


Condenser duty design
Fq = --------------------------------Condenser duty test
= (280.68 / 258.31)
= 1.087

Expected LMTD
LMTD expected

= LMTD test * ft * fw * fq
=

9.426 * 0.943 * 0.981 * 1.087

9.476 deg. C

7. Determination of Expected Saturation Temperature


(Taking into considerations deviation in opening value from design values)

Sat Temp Expected


deg. C

[ Tin Tout * Expo (z ) ]


=
--------------------------------[ 1 Expo (z) ]

= (32 ( 39.55 * Expo (0.797))) / (1-Expo


(0.797)
= 45.74 degree C
Where
Tin

= C.W. inlet temp

Tout = C.W. outlet temp

Tout - Tin
-------------------Expected LMTD
=
0.797.

= (39.55 32) / 9.426

CHAPTER 5
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
5.1 Effects of condenser inlet temperature
3500
3000
2500
2000
Heat transfer coefficents

1500

U-theoretical

U-actual

1000
500
0
25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

inlet temperature

FIG 5.1 Effect of condenser inlet temperature on Heat transfer

coefficients
Tin
Uthe
Uact

26
2805.29
1234.53

27
2823.42
1338.2

28
2837.89
1461.5

29
2852.42
1611.64

30
2866.86
1798.08

31
2880.89
2037.39

32
2893.57
2358.46

The Theoretical Heat Transfer Coefficients increasing with the increase in


CW inlet temperature as shown. Because heat transfer coefficient mainly
depends on LMTD, as the LMTD decreases the heat transfer coefficients
gradually increases.

33
2901.77
2819.12

120
100
80

CF

60
40
20
0
25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

inlet temprature

FIG 5.2 Effect of condenser inlet temperature on cleanliness factor

Tin
Cf

26
44

27
47.39

28
51.5

29
56.5

30
62.7

31
70.2

32
81.52

33
97.15

The cleanliness factor is increasing with the inlet temperature increasing, the
reason for it is the increasing u-actual comparatively more than u-theoretical
in the formula Cf = U-actual / U-theoretical.

34

0.8
0.75
0.7
0.65
0.6
effectiveness (%)

0.55
0.5

effectiveness

0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

inlet temprature ( degree C )

FIG 5.3 Effect of condenser inlet temperature on Effectiveness

Tin

26
0.455

27
0.482

28
0.513

29
0.540

30
0.587

31
0.633

32
0.6864

The temperature difference of water outlet temperature and inlet temperature


are fixed and only the water inlet temperature is increasing, so the
effectiveness is increasing. = (Tout Tin)/ (Tsat Tin).

5.2 THE EFFECTS OF STEAM SATURATION


TEMPERATURE

33
0.75

16
14
12
10
8

LM TD ( de gree C )

LMT D

4
2
0
39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

Ts at ( degree C )

FIG 5.4 Effect of saturation temperature on LMTD

Tsat
40
LMTD 6.872

41
7.77

42
9.052

43
10.115

44
11.164

45
12.205

46
13.239

47
14.264

Both the sides of the condenser the temperature difference is increasing so the
LMTD is increasing.

3500
3000
2500

Heat transfer coefficients

2000

U-theoretical

U-actual

1500
1000

500
39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

Tsat

FIG 5.5 Effect of saturation temperature on Heat transfer

coefficients
Tsat
Uthe
Uact

40
2842.13
2396

41
2842.13
2065

42
2842.13
1819.28

43
2842.13
1628.44

44
2842.13
1475.38

45
2842.13
1349.51

46
2842.13
1244.14

With the increasing saturation temperature the actual heat transfer coefficient
decreases as the LMTD is increasing. But the theoretical heat transfer
coefficient remains constant as the tube velocity is not changing.
90
80
70
60
Cleanliness factor (%)

50

Cf

40
30
20
39

40

41

42

43

44

Tsat (degree c)

45

46

47

48

47
284.13
1154.4

FIG 5.6 Effect of saturation temperature on Cleanliness Factor

Tsat
Cf

40
84.338

41
72.66

42
64

43
57.296

44
51.291

45
47.48

46
43.779

47
40.617

Cleanliness factor depend on the heat transfer coefficients. With the


increasing saturation temperature the actual heat transfer coefficient is
decreasing remaining theoretical heat transfer coefficient constant
automatically the cleanliness factor decreases. This means due the dirty tubes
saturation temperature of condenser water increases.

0.75
0.7
0.65
0.6
Effectiveness (%)

0.55
effectiveness

0.5
0.45
0.4
0.35
39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

Tsat (degree c)

FIG 5.7 Effect of saturation temperature on Effectiveness

Tsat

40
0.69

41
0.639

42
0.591

43
0.551

44
0.515

45
0.485

46
0.457

47
0.433

The temperature difference between the water inlet and outlet temperatures is
fixed and the saturation temperature is increasing, so there is gradual decrease
in effectiveness.

5.3 EFFECT OF STEAM FLOW


3500
3250
3000
2750
2500
Heat transfer coefficients

2250

U-theoretical

U-actual

2000
1750
1500
1250

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

Reheat spray

FIG 5.8 Effect of Reheat Spray on Heat transfer coefficients


Rh

10

12

14

16

18

20

Uth

2818.49

2825.95

2833.24

2840.37

2847.39

2854.30

2861.14

2867.93

Uac

1477.65

1485.62

1493.58

1501.55

1509.54

1517.47

1525.44

1533.41

Whenever heated spray is increasing heat transfer is also increasing, so heat


transfer coefficients are also increasing.
Q = Ms (L) = Mw * Cw * (Tout Tin).

236000
234000
232000
230000
Condenser Duty

228000
Cd

226000
224000
222000
4

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

Reheat spray

FIG 5.9 Effect of Reheat spray on Condenser Duty.


Reheat spray
Condenser Duty

6
226636.46
14
231522.79

8
227858.04
16
232744.37

10
229079.62
18
233965.957

12
230301.211
20
23518.739

With the increase in steam flow the heat gained from the steam increases
resulting in condenser duty increase.
29200
29000
28800
28600
28400
C.W.Flow

28200
Cwf

28000
27800
27600
27400
4

10

12

14

Reheat spray

16

18

20

22

FIG 5.10 Effect of Reheat sprays on CW Flow.


Rh
Cwf

6
27979.81

8
28130.62

10
28281.43

12
28432.25
18
28884.68

14
28583.06

16
28733.87

20
29035.41

The steam and water consumption for condenser is directly proportional to


each other, so the water flow increases with the steam flow.

1.49
1.48
1.47
1.46
1.45
Tube Velocity (m/s)

1.44
V

1.43
1.42
1.41
1.4
4

10

12

14

16

18

20

Reheat spray (TPH)

FIG 5.11 Effect of Reheat spray on the velocity of cooling water in

the condenser t tubes

22

Rh
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
V
1.4306 1.438
1.446
1.4538 1.4615 1.4695 1.4769
The tube velocity increases with the steam flow, because of the increase in
cooling water flow.

20
1.484

RESULT
The following table shows the comparison between the design values
(BHEL) and calculated values.

Comparison between design values and calculated values

S.NO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

PARAMETERS
C.W inlet temp
C.W temp rise
T sat
Load
Condenser duty
C.W flow
Velocity of tube
LMTD
Cleanliness factor
Back pressure

DESIGN
36 0C
8.1 0c
49.2 0C
210 MW
280.68 KJ/Sec
8.5 m3/Sec
1.565 m/s
8.4 0C
72.5%
89 mm

CALCULATED
VALUE
32 0C
7.55 0C
45.7 0C
209.8 MW
258.315 KJ/Sec
8.185 m3/Sec
1.507 m/s
9.42 0C
57.33%
75.473 mm

Since it is more convenient to express enormous amount of results obtained


through c-programme in graphical form, the results are represented through
various graphs

CONCLUSION
In this book the need of main steam surface condenser performance
analysis in a power plant is discussed.
How the various factor like condenser duty, flow of cooling water and
its velocity, heat transfer coefficients, cleanliness factor, back pressure and
temperatures effect the condenser performance changes have been seen. For
this we have taken the readings from Dr. NTTPS, stage 2 and drawn various
graphs.
In results and discussions how the cleanliness factor and back
pressure of condenser vary with time duration is seen. Next the effects of inlet
temperature, saturation temperature and main steam on the cleanliness factor,
effectiveness, LMTD and heat transfer coefficients are discussed. From all
these results the optimal conditions for the operation of a condenser are
taken. We can also extend this to know how the calculated values vary from
design or theoretical values.
For condenser performance main problem is fouling and corrosion
when compared to other like tube leakage and air leakage. So to overcome
this problem the online tube cleaning system with the help of sponge balls is
suggested and the working of it is discussed.
Finally concluding with optimum values for Tin 31 0C, Tout 390C,
Tsat 420C for getting cleanliness factor around 71%, effectiveness 64% and
MTD 8 0C and heat transfer coefficients theoretical 2050 and actual 2850
Kcal/ Hr m2 0C.

REFERENCES

1.
P.K.NAG,

POWER PLANT ENGINEERING

2.
ARORA &

POWER PLANT ENGINEERING

DOMKUNDWAR
3.

PERORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY MONITORING NTPC

MANNUAL

4.

BHEL MANNUAL

WWW. BGRCORP.CO