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HELICAL TURBINE FOR AEOLIAN SYSTEMS AND

MICROHIDROSTATION

Ion Bostan, Valeriu Dulgheru, Radu Ciuperca


Technical University of Moldova, Republic of Moldova

Abstract:

In conditions of the wind cadastre existing in the Republic of Moldova and in conformity with the
development directions of wind energy conversion systems, which stipulates the development of small power
electric-energetic plants (approximately 3 5kW/h) for private consumers, the utilisation of efficiency
working parts is useful. In conformity with this rigours the construction of a helicoid wind and water
microturbine has been elaborated.

Key words:

helical turbine, wing profile.

1.

ELABORATION OF MATHEMATICS MODEL FOR HELICAL


TURBINE

Knowing the aerodynamic characteristics is highly important for the design of the optimal wing
profile of helical rotor and setting some constructional parameter values which can make efficient its
functioning at usage conditions variation and wind speed. The design of the helical turbine (figure 1)
includes axis 1 where blades 2 are stiffly fixed on the constant pace helical line. The wing profile
(figure 2) is characterized by its blunted foreside and sharp backside. Its central line is the geometric
place of circuit centers inscribed in the profile.

2
Xc
Xf

X
b

Figure 1. Helical turbine

Figure 2. Wing profile

The main geometric parameters of the profile are:


a) relative thickness of the profile c , which was determined as the relation of the peak thickness of
the profile c towards the chord length b, c = c / b ;

386

Ion Bostan, Valeriu Dulgheru, Radu Ciuperca

b) relative hollow f which was determined as the relation of peak bending-deflection of the axial
curve f towards the chord length b, f = f / b ;
c) the camber, which was determined through the bending angle of the central line , that is the angle
between the tangent lines at the central line of the profile in its foreside and backside.
Positions c and f were determined through the relative abscissas: x c = x c / b and x f = x f / b .
The converse position of the profile in the reticle is characterized by pace t, position angle (the
angle between the chord of the profile and the flank of the reticle), and angles 1 i 2 between the
tangents at central line of the profile in its points and the flank of the reticle. The relative pace of the
reticle was determined by the relation of pace t towards the chord length b, t=t/b. The reticular
density,
r
which is the inverse value of the relative pace was determined from the relation = 1 / t = b / t .
The elaborated mathematical design allows to determine the basic kinetic and energy parameters
of the helical turbine. In order to do this, there was taken the motion equation system of the perfect
incompresible and isoenthropic fluid, which describes the air movement round the eolian rotor with a
rather high accuracy:
divV = 0 - continuity equation,

dV
= gradp + f - pulse equation,
dt

de
= pdivV energy equation.
dt

(1)

The solutions to these equations comply with the limit conditions on the turbine rotor propeller
and at big distances in undisturbed limits of the fluid. Generally the setting of these conditions
presents certain difficulties related to the constructional form and the operating conditions of the
eolian turbine. That is why it was resort to their determination for certain optimal working conditions,
where the speed value in the outflow of the rotor and of the induced speed in the propeller blade were
known. Thus, through the given integral equation system (meant for the examined eolian turbine) the
immediate calculus of the aerodynamic characteristics was possible.
The following researches were carried out in order to determine the air-mass speed and the forces
generated by them. The effect force of the current over a unitary profile in cross direction to the figure
plan was determined at careening of a infinite reticle profile by a continous parallel air flow. Sections
1 i 2 (figure 3), parallel to the figure flank, were pointed out in the current and spaced from the reticle
at a distance that permitted the acceptance of constant speed and pressure in each section, that is where
the current will not be disturbed. The current lines AB and CD were laid out at the distance of reticle
pace t.
i
w1
1
A
D
1

Pz
Pu

w2

Axa turbinei

wm

w1 2
T

Figure 3.Diagram of forces generated by air currents

387

Helical turbine for aeolian systems and microhidrostation


Motion quantity equation was applied to ABCD pointed out space:

ur
ur
F T = mw 2 mw1.

(2)

The resultant projections of all forces which act in this space on Z axis and U reticle flank are:

PU' = M ( w2 cos 2 + w1 cos 2 ) = M [ w2U + w1U ]

(3)

where P U is the resultant force projection on U axis;


M = m / T air-mass which passes per second through the reticle with pace t and unitary
length (in cross direction to the figure plan).
From the continuity equation:

M = 1w1Z t 1 = 2 w2 Z t 1.

(4)

For an incompressible gas:

1 = 2 = i w1Z = w2 Z = w Z ,

(5)

and the resultant force projection on Z reticle axis is determined by the relation:

PZ + ( 1 2 ) t 1 = M ( w2 Z w1Z ) = 0.

(6)

ur
P force projection, which acts over the profile wing of unitary length:

PU = PU = M ( w1U w2U ) = wZ t ( w1U w2U ) ;


PZ = PZ = ( 1 2 ) t.

(7)

uur
ur
Thus, P is the resultant force that acts over the profile, but P the force applied to the
computational load.
According to Bernoulli equation:

p1 + w12 / 2 = p2 + w22 / 2,

(8)

where p1 and p2 are static pressures in sections 1 and 2;


w12 / 2 i w 22 / 2 dynamic pressures in sections 1 and 2 accordingly.
Thus:

p1 p2 = / 2( w22 w12 ) = / 2( w22U + w22Z ) / 2( w12U + w12Z ) = / 2( w22U w12U ) .

(9)

Let us determine now the speed circulation on ABCD contour accepting as positive the counterclockwise direction:

G ABCD = G AB + GBC + GCD + G DA .

(10)

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Ion Bostan, Valeriu Dulgheru, Radu Ciuperca


As AB and CD current lines are congruent, and the speed distribution on them is the same, then

G AB = GCD ;
G = GABCD =

( )

r r
c cos c , s ds =

ABCD

(11)

= w2U t + w1U t = t ( w1U w2U ) .

2.

DETERMINATION OF THE AERODYNAMIC FORCES AND


PERFORMANCES FOR THE HELICOID ROTOR
The medium geometric vector of

ur
wm

speed is determined by the relation:

wm = ( w1 + w2 ) / 2 .

(12)

The projection of this vector on U axis is equal to ( w 1U + w 2 U ) / 2 , and on Z axis respectively

(w1Z

+ w 2Z

)=

2w Z / 2 = w Z .

The direction of the medium geometric speed is determined:


ctg m =
=

w mU w1U + w 2U
=
=
2w Z
w mZ

(13)

1 w1U w 2U 1
+

= ( ctg 1 + ctg 2 ) .
2 wZ
wZ 2

Thus the resultant of all velocities, which reacts on the reticulum from the part of the
incompressible gas current, is equal to the product between the density, medium geometric speed and
speed circulation around the profile. Its agency direction is perpendicular to the medium geometric
speed vector. In order to determine the direction of P force we rotate vector Wm with the angle of 900
counter-clockwise.
ur
As it was previously shown over a unitary profile, which moves with a peripheral speed U, P
lifting force acts, which projections on the reticulum axis and on the frontal line are equal to PZ and PU
respectively.
Applying the quantity of motion equation towards an elementary annular section with unitary
thickness the following is obtained:

Pz =

( w1U + w2U )
2
PU = Gwz

P = Pz2 + PU2 = G

( w1U + w2U ) 2
+ wz2 = Gwm .
2
r

(14)

(15)

Lets analyze how the viscosity of an incompressible gas reacts on the resultant of all velocities
which reacts on the profile in the reticulum. For the quantity of motion equation we will obtain the

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Helical turbine for aeolian systems and microhidrostation

relations for axial and frontal components of the current reaction on a unitary profile of the reticulum
(figure 4):

Pz = ( P1 P2 )

(16)

PU = wz t ( w1U w2U )
Wm

Pz
R
Rz

RY

RU
RX
Z

Figure 4. Calculus schema of the radial and frontal components of the force, generate by the real gas

Taking into account the viscosity the Bernoulli equation for the sections 1 and 2 it will be:

p1 p 2 =

( w22U w12U ) + p ,

(17)

where p are summary losses of the overall pressure which appear due to the viscosity.
Thus,

p = p1 p 2 +

( w12U w22U )

R z = ( p1 p 2 )t =

t
2

(18)

( w w ) + tP
2
1U

2
2U

Lets compare the relations of the lifting force projections at the motion of a perfect gas with the
similar relations at the motion of a semi fluid gas.
For a perfect gas we have:

PU = Gwz
Pz = G

w1U + w2U
2

(19)

For a semi fluid gas:

PU = Gwz
Pz = G

w1U + w2U
+ tP
2

(20)

uur

The additional member t P expresses the projection of the resistance force R on the reticulum
axis.

390

Ion Bostan, Valeriu Dulgheru, Radu Ciuperca


The projection of this force on the axis is equal to zero, i.e. parallel to the reticulum axis. We

ur

ur

ur

introduce the medium geometric speed w m = w 1 + w 2 / 2 and we obtain the relation:

R = Gwm ,

(21)

which formally does not differ from the one for the perfect gas. But here both

and G are

m
ur
ur
determined according to the real velocities w 1 and w 2 .
ur
The interaction resultant force (total force) R of the viscous gas draught with the net outline is

equal:

r r r
R = P + R' .

(22)

Thus, as PU = RU, the resultant force does not influence the torque moment of the outlines net.
We disintegrate the force

r
R

into components:

r r
r
R = R X + RY ,

(23)

where RX is the frontal resistance force; RY the lifting power.


The frontal component of the resultant force RX characterises the power action of the draught upon
the working wheel, and the axial component RY determines the loading force of the turbine bearing.
The relation between the lifting power of the profile and the frontal resistance force is the quality of
the outline:

K = RY / R X = ctg .

(24)

These non-dimensional coefficients of the integrated outline forces or of the net depend on the
outline and the net geometry, on the angle of the attack i, on the dynamical pressure W m1 / 2 and
on other auxiliary factors.
The resultant force for the net composed of n outlines with integrated height is determined as:

R = C R nbwm2 / 2

(25)

and the components for the integrated outline as:

R y = C y b wm2 / 2

(26)

R x = C x b wm2 / 2

Here, CR, CY, CX are the coefficients of the aerodynamic force, of the lifting power and of the
frontal resistance force.
The coefficient C Y = 2 t ( ctg 1 ctg 2 ) sin m allows the determination of the lifting power

according to the known specific features of the outlines net.

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Helical turbine for aeolian systems and microhidrostation

3.

COMPUTER ASSISTED OPTIMIZATION FOR HELICOID TURBINE


GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS

The model of the helicoid turbinefluid system consists of two elements (one is fluid with the
flow in the outflow and the other one is solid and fix on the direction of the fluid flow) with implicit
links between them. This system has an essential
particularity, that is, the impossibility to set some
definitely strict interaction conditions of the fluid
element with the rotor on one side, and of the
modification laws of the upstream, downstream
fluid and horizontally to it depending on the
turbine usage conditions and of the global status
of the undisturbed area. To simplify the research
methodology and to reduce the measuring points
in the inside of the air flux field it was agreed
upon the concept of combining the experimental
method with the theoretical one. The
computerised model of the helicoid turbine with
four beginnings is represented in figure 5.
Figure 5. Computerised model of the
helicoid turbine

REFERENCES
1. BOSTAN I., TOPA M., DULGHERU V., CIUPERC R., Helicoidal turbine. Patent no. 2126, 2003.
2. BOSTAN I., OPA M., DULGHERU V., OPREA A., CIUPERC R., Hydraulic plant. Patent no. 2288MD, 2003.