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AQUATREAT BIOCIDES

Cost-effective, broad-spectrum biocides

Customer focused...technology driven.

TM

AQUATREAT BIOCIDES
Effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms

Introduction

Product Chemistry

AQUATREAT biocides are EPA registered,


non-oxidizing dithiocarbamates that have
a long history of proven performance. In cooling towers and airwashers, experience has
shown that AQUATREAT biocides are effective in controlling both planktonic and sessile
microorganisms. In paper mills, AQUATREAT biocides are known to be the most
cost-effective materials available for the control of slime forming bacteria and fungi in
both virgin and recycle mills. For both beet
and cane sugar mills, AQUATREAT biocides
can be used to effectively control mesophillic
and thermophilic bacteria that commonly foul
the sugar production process. AQUATREAT
biocides are especially effective in controlling
sulfate reducing bacteria in many applications
including drilling fluids and petroleum recovery waters. Additional uses for AQUATREAT
biocides include sapstain control, fuel storage
and in flue gas desulfurization thickeners.

AQUATREAT biocides are based on dithiocarbamate chemistry. AQUATREAT SDM (Figure 1) and
AQUATREAT KM (Figure 2) are single component
biocides based on the sodium and potassium salts
of dimethyldithiocarbamate. AQUATREAT DNM-9,
AQUATREAT DNM-30 and AQUATREAT DNM360 are dual component biocides based on a blend
of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate and disodium
ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate (Figure 3).
AQUATREAT SDM

Figure 1: Sodium Dimethyldithiocarbamate

Performance Features
EPA registered for a wide range
of applications
Meet FDA requirements for use in paper
and sugar applications
Cost-effective
Effective against a broad spectrum
of microorganisms including bacteria,
fungi and algae:
- Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria
- Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB)
- Yeasts and molds
- Legionella
Compatibility and strong performance
in a wide range of environments/conditions
- Broad pH and temperature stability
- Organic loading
- Dissolved and suspended solids
Not persistent in discharge waters
Favorable handling and toxicity compared
with competitive materials
AQUATREAT BIOCIDES

AQUATREAT KM

Figure 2: Potassium Dimethyldithiocarbamate

AQUATREAT
DNM-9, DNM-30, DNM-360

Page

Cooling Water Applications.......................4


Pulp and Paper Applications ....................11
Sugar Applications .................................14
Oil Field Applications ...............................17

Figure 3: Dual Component Biocides

Product

Cooling
Towers

Air
Washers

Pulp &
Paper
Mills

Cane
Sugar
Mills

Beet
Sugar
Mills

Drilling
Fluids

Petroleum
Recovery

Sapstain
Control

AQUATREAT SDM

AQUATREAT KM

AQUATREAT DNM-9

AQUATREAT DNM-30

AQUATREAT DNM-360

Hydrocarbon
Fluids

Table 1: Application Use Patterns

AQUATREAT biocides are applicable for a wide


range of industrial uses. Table 1 summarizes
acceptable use patterns for these products.

1600

Toxicology

1400

AQUATREAT biocides are known to be toxic to


fish and aquatic organisms. As with any biocide,
care must be taken to eliminate the possibility
of release of AQUATREAT biocides into natural
waterways such as lakes, streams, rivers and oceans.
AQUATREAT products are not persistent biocides.
Degradation of the products occurs as a result of
oxidation, sunlight, lower pH and microbial action.

Biocide

Classification
under 21 CFR 191.12

AQUATREAT DNM-30
Isothiazolin
Gluteraldehyde
DBNPA

Non-irritant
Corrosive
Severe Irritant
Severe Irritant

mg/kg

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
AQUATREAT
DNM-30

Isothiazolin

Gluteraldehyde

Figure 4: Oral Toxicity - LD50

3000
2500
2000
mg/kg

AQUATREAT biocides have a low order of toxicity


to humans. Tables 2 and 3 show comparative data
for AQUATREAT DNM-30 in eye and skin irritation
studies. Figures 4 and 5 show comparative oral and
dermal toxicity with AQUATREAT DNM-30 and
other commonly used biocides.

1500
1000

Table 2: Eye Irritation in Rabbits


500
0

Biocide

Classification
under 21 CFR 191.11

AQUATREAT DNM-30
Isothiazolin
Gluteraldehyde
DBNPA

Non-irritant
Severe Irritant
Severe Irritant
Severe Irritant

AQUATREAT
DNM-30

Isothiazolin

Gluteraldehyde

Figure 5: Dermal Toxicity - LD50

Table 3: Skin Irritation in Rabbits

AQUATREAT Biocides

AQUATREAT BIOCIDES
Cooling Water Applications

Cooling Towers
and Air Washers
AQUATREAT biocides are particularly effective
in controlling problematic organisms in both open
recirculating and closed cooling water systems.
In open recirculating systems, AQUATREAT
biocides are effective against algae and bacteria
commonly found in bulk water and in biofilms.
In closed-loop systems, it is particularly important
to control sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), denitrifying bacteria, and other anaerobic bacteria. Due to
their functionality and compatibility in reducing
environments, AQUATREAT biocides are often the
biocides of choice in closed-loop cooling systems.
In air washers, AQUATREAT biocides offer the user
broad functionality and a low order of toxicity relative to other commonly used materials.
Algae Control Using
AQUATREAT DNM-30
Algae are organisms that use light energy and
carbon dioxide from the air to produce organic
biomass. They represent a broad range of unicellular and filamentous organisms. Most system operators also refer to the cyanobacteria (blue-green
algae) as members of the algal group although
they are most closely related to bacteria.

Photo 2: Algae

Algae cause a number of direct and indirect problems in water treatment systems. Directly, many
algae grow in dense fibrous mats that plug distribution piping, accelerate corrosion and overall reduce
system performance. These mats also provide areas
for the growth of corrosion causing anaerobic bacteria. Another important effect of algal growth is
the continuous removal of carbon dioxide during
the daylight hours. This can alter water chemistry
and complicate normal scale control treatment
programs.
Indirectly, the consequence of algal growth can
be even more severe and detrimental. Algae convert inorganic carbon (CO2) into organic biomass.
As this biomass dies, it contributes nutrients that
fuel the growth of other bacteria. These bacteria
can foul heat exchanger surfaces and contribute
to corrosion, e.g., sulfate-reducing bacteria.

Photo 1: Cooling Tower and Air Washer Applications

Laboratory Studies
Laboratory studies are often used to obtain preliminary efficacy data and establish baseline dose
response information. It is important that a biocide
demonstrates a broad range of activity. AQUATREAT DNM-30 has been tested against a number
of pure and field obtained enrichment cultures from
a variety of sources as shown in Table 4. These data
show that AQUATREAT DNM-30 is effective at low
use concentrations against a wide variety of filamentous and unicellular algae.

Algae

Type

Source

MIC*

Ulothrix spp.

Filamentous green algae

Cooling tower effluent

5-10

Heterocapsa pygmaea

Slime-forming algae

Estuary in-take water

2.5-5

Euglena gracilis

Unicellular flagellate

ATCC* 12894

5-10

Chlorella pyrenoidosa

Unicellular green algae

ATCC 7516

15-20

Scenedesmus obliquus

Unicellular green algae

ATCC 11457

20-25

Phormidium spp. (mat)

Filamentous blue green

Cooling tower isolate (Gulf coast)

20-25

Oscillatoria prolifera

Filamentous blue green

Unknown

2.5-5

Oscillatoria spp.

Filamentous blue green

Carolina Biological

Cooling tower enrichment

Mixed culture of green


and blue-green algae

Cooling tower (South Dakota)

15-20

Cooling tower enrichment

Mixed culture of green


and blue-green algae

Cooling tower (southern Minnesota)

20-25

Cooling tower enrichment

Mixed culture of green


and blue-green algae

Cooling tower (Montana)

35-40

1-5

* The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) tests were conducted in the medium specified by the source supplier (American
Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD; Carolina Biological Co., (CBC) ) or in Alga Gro Medium (CBC) for pure cultures or in
Alga Gro Medium reconstituted in filter sterilized cooling tower basin water for cooling tower enrichments.

Table 4: AQUATREAT DNM-30 Efficacy Data.

Field Studies
AQUATREAT dithiocarbamates have been used and
evaluated in a number of cooling water systems for
their efficacy against planktonic and mat forming
algae. The Figures 6 and 7 (following page) document their ability to control algal mat formation
using alternating slug and maintenance dosages.
System Conditions
Bulk water capacity - 35,000 gallons
Bulk water temperature - 80-100F
Bulk water pH - 8.0 - 8.6
Total dissolved solids - 1,000 - 2,000 ppm

Figure 6 depicts data from a cooling tower deck


in southern Minnesota. The tower deck had severe
algal and cyanobacterial fouling problems, especially in the mid-summer cooling season. Replicate
5 cm2 coupons were installed on the deck early
in the season and algal growth was monitored by
removing coupons and measuring algal biomass
by chlorophyll determination. Without biocide
treatment (Figure 6) greater than 200 mg/cm2, algal
biomass accumulated on the coupons. Following
an initial slug dosage (400 ppm) of AQUATREAT
DNM-30, the algal biomass was reduced to about
50 mg/cm2 and was readily maintained at less than

AQUATREAT Biocides: Cooling Water Applications

AQUATREAT BIOCIDES

150
Maintenance Dose
100

Slug
Dosage

60

NaOCl

80

Dithiocarbamate

mg Chlorophyll/cm2

mg Chlorophyll/cm2

200

NaOCl

100
250

Dithiocarbamate

Cooling Water Applications

40
20

50

0
0

20

40

Days

60

80

Week

Figure 6: Algal Biomass Reduction Using DNM-30

100 mg/cm2 with a routine maintenance dosage of


20-40 ppm. Figure 7 shows the alternating treatment of AQUATREAT DNM-30 (20-40 ppm) and
sodium hypochlorite in the same system. In this
study, algal growth on the tower deck was more
effectively controlled during AQUATREAT DNM-30
treatment than with sodium hypochlorite.
Problematic Bacterial Control
Using AQUATREAT DNM-30
Bacteria pose various mechanical, economic and
public health issues in cooling water systems.

Organism

Figure 7: Algal Control:


AQUATREAT DNM-30 vs. Hypochlorite

As a result, microbiological influenced corrosion


(MIC) is recognized as one of the most significant
issues in industrial water treatment, resulting in
equipment failure and economic loss. Bacterial
accumulation in the form of biofilms contributes to
significant mechanical problems, such as fouling of
heat exchangers, restriction of flow, and fouling of
cooling tower fill. The formation of biofilm in heat
exchangers or on cooling tower fill can have a significant impact on the costs associated with achieving desired cooling. Recently, the presence of bacteria such as Legionella spp. in cooling water systems
has been recognized as a major public health issue.

Source

Enrichment Medium

MIC (PPM)

Escherichia coli

ATCC 29990

API-H (mod)

55-60

Escherichia coli

UM 0315

API-H (mod)

60-65

Pseudomonas fluorescens

ATCC 13525

API-H (mod)

85-90

Pseudomonas putida

ATCC 12633

API-H (mod)

60-65

Enterobacter aerogenes

UM 0298

API-H (mod)

35-40

Salmonella typhirmurium

ATCC 14028

API-H (mod)

55-60

NRRL B4278

API-H (mod)

15-20

UM 0115

API-H (mod)

5-10

ATCC 15291

Iron isolation medium std.

1-5

Gram Negative Bacteria

Gram Positive Bacteria


Bacillus cereus
Staphylococcus aureus
Iron Oxidizing Bacteria
Sphaerotilus natans

Table 5: Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Problematic Bacteria

There is a large variety of aerobic and anaerobic


bacteria that are found in industrial cooling water
systems. AQUATREAT DNM-30 has been demonstrated to be effective against a wide variety of
bacteria. Table 5 shows the MIC, in parts per million, of AQUATREAT DNM-30 necessary to control
a number of different gram negative and gram
positive bacteria. Figure 8 shows effectiveness of
AQUATREAT DNM-30 against aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in an industrial air washer.

cult to control with commercially available biocides.


Pseudomonads are recognized as prolific biofilm
producing bacteria. Gram positive bacteria such as
the spore-forming bacilli are also found in industrial
water systems. These bacteria contribute to biofouling and other microbiological related problems.
Iron oxidizing bacteria including Sphaerotilus form
surface deposits and accelerate localized corrosion.

Gram negative bacteria such as the Pseudomonas


species listed above are likely to be found in most
cooling water systems and are among the most diffi-

While most cooling water systems are operated


at alkaline pH, it is important for a biocide to exhibit
activity over a broad pH range. Figure 9 shows the
activity of AQUATREAT DNM-30 at pH 5, 7 and 9.
The data demonstrate effectiveness over a broad pH
range against aerobic bacteria in a cooling water
sample.

1.00E+07
0 ppm

CFU/ml

1.00E+06
25 ppm
91.8%

1.00E+05

50 ppm
97.3%

1.00E+04

1.00E+03

Other bacteria, such as Escherichia and Salmonella,


are among the common waterborne pathogens.

A current and especially serious public health


problem found in industrial water systems is the
occurrence of Legionella pneumophilia. Legionella is a
relatively ubiquitous organism found in water and
soil. Because of the nature of industrial cooling
tower systems, Legionella has the potential to accumulate and be distributed in tower aerosols.
The organism is unusual in that it invades and multiplies within an amoeba. When outside of the
amoeba, the bacterium is relatively easy to control.

Figure 8: Effectiveness of AQUATREAT DNM-30


against Aerobic Heterotrophs in an
Industrial Air Washer.

1.00E+08
Control (pH5)
DNM-30 (pH5)
Control (pH7)
DNM-30 (pH7)
Control (pH9)
DNM-30 (pH9)

1.00E+07

CFU/ml

1.00E+06
1.00E+05
1.00E+04
1.00E+03
1.00E+02
0

10

15
20
Time (H)

25

30

Figure 9: Broad pH Performance of


AQUATREAT DNM-30
Photo 3: Amoeba

AQUATREAT Biocides: Cooling Water Applications

AQUATREAT BIOCIDES
Cooling Water Applications
When present inside the amoeba, its control is much
more difficult. The conditions presented in Figure
10 show how the functionality of AQUATREAT
DNM-30 for control of unassociated Legionella compares with that of other available biocides. Figure 11
shows the efficacy of AQUATREAT DNM-30 for
amoeba-associated bacteria. This study shows that
DNM-30 has the capacity to penetrate amoeba and
kill intracellular Legionella.

400
350
MIC (ppm Active)

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
SMB

DBNPA

DN-30

DNM-30 Isothiazolin

Quat

Figure 10: Reduction of unassociated


Legionella pneumophila

SRB Data
The sulfate reducers are a group of anaerobic bacteria that produce hydrogen sulfide from the reduction of sulfate and other sulfur species during their
growth process. While difficult to detect, SRB are
ubiquitous in most industrial water systems where
anaerobic conditions exist. SRB cause severe corrosion and odor problems in both open recirculating
and closed cooling water systems. The economic
implications of SRB in industrial water systems are
significant due to the intensity of under-deposit and
pitting corrosion that they often cause. AQUATREAT DNM-30 has been found to be especially
effective in the control of SRB in both open recirculating and closed cooling water systems.
Figure 12 shows data from a laboratory study
in which AQUATREAT DNM-30 was used to treat
cooling tower sludge. A sludge-in-water sample
was treated with an initial dose of 120 ppm of
AQUATREAT DNM-30 and the number of viable
SRB was determined versus time using an MPN
technique. The data show that the initial dose produced a reduction from 105 to 104 SRB/gram of
sludge. A subsequent 120 ppm dose of AQUATREAT DNM-30 effectively reduced the population
to less than 101 SRB/gram of sludge.

10000
1.00E+07

MPN SRB/g Sludge

Legionella CFU/ml

1.00E+06

CFU/ml

1000

100

10

Control
1.00E+05
1.00E+04

Dithiocarbamate
at 120 ppm
(as product)

1.00E+03
1.00E+02
1.00E+01

20
60
ppm DNM-30 (active)

100

Figure 11: Reduction of Amoeba Grown Legionella


(6hr exposure) using AQUATREAT DNM-30

20

40

60

100
80
Hours

Figure 12: Reduction of SRB


in Cooling Tower Sludge

120

140

160

1.00E+07

1.00E+06
Control
CFU/cm2

Figure 13 shows a field study in which AQUATREAT DNM-30 was evaluated for efficacy against
planktonic SRB in a closed, chilled-water loop.
The number of SRB was counted for five weeks
prior to the addition of AQUATREAT DNM-30.
During week five, a 120 ppm dose of AQUATREAT
DNM-30 was added to the system. The number of
SRB was counted for an additional five weeks after
the biocide addition. The data show that a single
dosage of AQUATREAT DNM-30 effectively lowered the total SRB from 105 SRB/ml to less than
101 SRB/ml.

Control
1.00E+05

100 ppm
DNM-30

1.00E+04

100 ppm
DNM-30

1.00E+03
Total SRB

Total Anaerobes
1.00E+06

Figure 14: AQUATREAT DNM-30 Static Cell Death


of Attached Bacteria in a Closed Chilled
Water Loop (6 hr exposure)

MPN SRB/ml

120 ppm DNM-30


1.00E+04
1.00E+03
1.00E+02
1.00E+01
0

6
8
Time (Weeks)

10

12

Figure 13: AQUATREAT DNM-30 Efficacy


for Planktonic SRBs

In Figure 14, a Robbins biofilm monitoring device


was installed on a closed, chilled-water loop. After
a two-week fouling period, coupons were removed
and immersed in a 100 ppm solution of AQUATREAT DNM-30 for six hours. Replicate coupons
were removed and immersed in a solution containing no biocide for the same duration. After exposure, the coupons were scraped and evaluated for
total aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria and total
SRB. The data indicate that AQUATREAT DNM-30
effectively lowered the total anaerobic population
and was highly effective at killing the SRB contained in the biofilm.
Another group of microorganisms that is often
found in closed-loop systems is denitrifying bacteria. These microorganisms are especially prevalent
where nitrite inhibitors are used for corrosion control. Their activity not only causes the typical
microbial problems but also results in the depletion
of the nitrite inhibitor.

Figure 15 shows data from a closed-loop system


where nitrite was used for corrosion control. The
system pH was buffered to 10.2 using sodium
borate. In this system, nitrite was being depleted
due to reduction by denitrifying bacteria. AQUATREAT DNM-30 was added to the system, and a
significant reduction of total heterotrophic and denitrifying bacteria was observed. The heterotrophic
bacteria were enumerated on plate count agar
(Difco Laboratories) and denitrifying bacteria were
quantified by MPN technique. The data show the
pronounced efficacy of AQUATREAT DNM-30 for
both the heterotrophic and denitrifying populations.
Another method of evaluating the efficacy of
a treatment program is by quantification of cellular
damage after exposure to a biocide. The percentage
of cellular damage can be determined by epifluorescent microscopy using a combination of fluorescent
dyes. Cells exhibiting a green fluorescence are rela1.00E+06
Heterotrophs (0ppm)

CFU/ml or MPN/ml

1.00E+05

1.00E+05
Denitrifiers(0ppm)

1.00E+04

Heterotrophs (176ppm)

1.00E+03

Denitrifiers(176ppm)

1.00E+02
0

10

15
Time (H)

20

25

30

Figure 15: AQUATREAT DNM-30 vs.


Denitrifying Bacteria

AQUATREAT Biocides: Cooling Water Applications

AQUATREAT BIOCIDES
Cooling Water Applications
tively uninjured, while cells exhibiting an orange to
red fluorescence are injured or dead. Using this
technique, two chilled water
samples from closed-loop
systems were treated with
AQUATREAT DNM-30.
The sample labeled Chilled
Water #1 consisted of primary chilled water from a
commercial bank operating
24 hours per day. The
sample labeled Chilled
Water #2 was obtained from
a central plant that supplied chilled water to
10 surrounding buildings. The chilled water from
this system had not been drained for approximately
20 years and contained dozens of primary and
secondary loops. The data in Figure 16 show that
AQUATREAT DNM-30 has good efficacy in both of
these challenging systems after a 12-hour exposure.

50
45

DNM-30 12h Exposure

% Cellular Damage

40

All AQUATREAT biocides are anionic reducing


agents. These characteristics provide excellent
compatibility with other common additives used
for scale and corrosion control.
Because of their reducing characteristics, AQUATREAT biocides should not be fed in close proximity to an oxidizing biocide or in systems where a
continuous residual of oxidizing biocide is maintained. In systems where oxidizing biocides are
used, AQUATREAT biocides can be an effective
treatment on an alternating feed basis.
AQUATREAT biocides are known to complex
heavy metals that can be present in cooling water
systems. The presence of low levels of heavy metals
such as zinc (added for corrosion control) or iron in
a cooling water can preclude the use of AQUATREAT biocides. Other additives such as phosphates, azoles, phosphonates, and polymers may
sufficiently stabilize heavy metals. AQUATREAT
biocides are compatible with molybdate (MoO42-)
containing treatments. Before use in any system,
the compatibility of AQUATREAT biocides should
be examined using samples from the systems
circulating water. See product label for dosage
information.

35
30

Benefits of
AQUATREAT Biocides
in Cooling Water
Applications

25
20
15
10
5
0

0 ppm

120
ppm

Chilled Water #1

0 ppm

120
ppm

Chilled Water #2

Figure 16: Cellular Damage in Chilled Water Systems

Summary of
Cooling Tower Data
AQUATREAT DNM-30 is a very effective biocide
for problematic microorganisms in both open recirculating and closed cooling water systems. AQUATREAT DNM-30 has proven especially effective for
the control of anaerobic microorganisms such as
SRB and denitrifying bacteria. Additionally, AQUATREAT DNM-30 is effective in closed-loop systems
because of its stability in reduced or non-oxidizing
environments.

10

Effective control of problematic SRB


and denitrifying bacteria
Excellent compatibility with additives used
for scale and corrosion control
Inherent stability in reducing environments
found in closed-loop systems
Not a persistent biocide
Effective for a broad range of algae
and bacteria
Low order of toxicity to humans
Non-foaming

Pulp
and Paper
Applications
In paper manufacture, large volumes of water are
used in grinding and conveying pulp. The same
water is also used as a medium for forming the
paper web. This water is recycled throughout the
papermaking process and is often a significant
source of microbial contamination. The result of
contamination can lead to significant problems such
as imperfections or loss of paper, mill downtime
and equipment failure. One problem compounding
microbial control issues is the use of recycled fiber,
which contains a much higher microbial load. An
effective biocide must have good microbial control
across a range of pH and temperature conditions
and exhibit functionality in applications using both
virgin and recycled fiber. AQUATREAT biocides
have proven effective in such systems and are widely used to control slime yeasts and fungi associated
with paper mill applications.

Case Study I
AQUATREAT DNM-30 has proven cost-effective
for control of microorganisms associated with fouling in pulp and paper applications. Pulp is digested
at relatively high temperatures, and these temperatures are maintained throughout the papermaking
process. Therefore, a primary group of microorganisms that must be controlled is thermophilic (grow
optimally at temperatures above 45C) bacteria.
A study was conducted with samples from a paper
mill that was experiencing serious microbial problems. The microbial problems included significant
pH reductions in the primary buffer and in the
machine stock chest. Excessive slime formation
on the wet end was also observed. To solve the
problem, several biocides were evaluated in both
the virgin and recycle fiber at process temperature.
The results are shown in Figures 17-22.
Note for Figures 17-22: Measurements taken after 8 hours
of exposure to biocide. Benzalkonium chloride (Quat) was
treated at 50 ppm, AQUATREAT DMN-30 was treated
at 50 ppm, methylene-bis-thiocyanate (MBT) was treated
at 20 ppm, dibromonitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) was
treated at 50 ppm, and isothiazolone was treated at 25 ppm.

1.00E+04

CFU/g

1.00E+03
1.00E+02
1.00E+01
1.00E+00
Control

DNM 30

Quat

MBT

DBNPA

Isothiazolone

Figure 17: Virgin Fiber: Total Acid-Forming


Anaerobic Bacteria
1.00E+07

CFU/g

1.00E+06
1.00E+05
1.00E+04
1.00E+03

Photo 4: Paper Mill


1.00E+02
Control DNM-30

Quat

MBT

DBNPA

Isothiazolone

Figure 18: Virgin Fiber: Total Anaerobic Bacteria

AQUATREAT Biocides: Pulp and Paper Applications

11

AQUATREAT BIOCIDES

1.00E+08

1.00E+08

1.00E+07

1.00E+07

1.00E+06

1.00E+06

CFU/g

CFU/g

Pulp and Paper Applications

1.00E+05
1.00E+04

1.00E+04

1.00E+03
Control DNM-30

Quat

MBT

DBNPA

Isothiazolone

Figure 19: Virgin Fiber: Total Aerobic Bacteria

CFU/g

Control DNM-30

Quat

MBT

DBNPA

Isothiazolone

The data in Figures 17-22 demonstrate that AQUATREAT DNM-30 is a cost-effective biocide in both
virgin and recycle fiber. AQUATREAT DNM-30
was particularly effective against thermophilic
anaerobic bacteria including those causing the
pH reduction in the system.

1.00E+04
1.00E+03
1.00E+02
Control DNM-30

Quat

MBT

DBNPA

Isothiazolone

Figure 20: Recycle Fiber: Total Acid-Forming


Anaerobic Bacteria

1.00E+08
1.00E+07
CFU/g

1.00E+03

Figure 22: Recycle Fiber: Total Anaerobic Bacteria

1.00E+05

1.00E+06
1.00E+05
1.00E+04
Control DNM-30

Quat

MBT

DBNPA

Figure 21: Recycle Fiber: Total Aerobic Bacteria

12

1.00E+05

Isothiazolone

Case History II
A 650-ton-per-day mill producing clay-coated recycled paperboard was in the process of closing its
water system (increasing the use of recycled water
and reducing effluent volume). Excess machine
whitewater was clarified with a disc saveall. The
clarified water from the saveall was used as shower
water on the paper machines. The microbial load
of the water system had been evaluated on a weekly
basis from the start of the recycled water program.
Chlorine was applied to the influent water, paper
machine stock system and saveall influent.
Chlorine residuals were tested on each shift. Shortly
after switching to recycled water, total bacterial
counts increased 1,000 times and deposit problems
began to occur on the paper machine. The deposits
were especially prevalent on felt transfer rolls and
suction boxes. Deposits periodically broke free and
caused sheet breaks. The deposits were analyzed
and found to be over 90% microbiological, principally slime. Deposits were also found downstream
on the showers that had been converted to recycled
water. It was determined that the most cost-effective program would be to treat only the recycled
shower water. A biocide evaluation was performed
comparing a variety of biocides. AQUATREAT
DNM-30 was found to have the highest bacterial kill
activity in the system and was determined to be the
most cost-effective biocide.

Another significant problem in pulp and paper


systems is the growth of yeast and mold. Dithiocarbamates are well known as highly effective
fungicides. In Figures 23 and 24, AQUATREAT
DNM-30 is compared to DBNPA and isothiazolone
against mold and yeast. Similar results against
fungi have been observed in other applications.

1.00E+06

CFU/ml

After a system boil-out and clean up, a biological


control program using AQUATREAT DNM-30 was
initiated. AQUATREAT DNM-30 was fed to the discharge side of the shower water supply pump at an
initial rate of 80 ppm and later reduced to 50 ppm.
Total bacterial counts were reduced by 100 times.

Mold (Aspergillus niger)


Control

1.00E+05

DBNPA (25 ppm)


Isothiazolone (25 ppm)
DNM-30 (60 ppm)

1.00E+04
0

10

15
Time (H)

20

25

30

Figure 23: AQUATREAT DNM 30 Antifungal Activity

AQUATREAT biocides should be fed as early as


possible into the system at such points as the
hydropulper, furnish chest or broke system. AQUATREAT biocides can be used to control slime on
machines that make paper and paperboard for use
in food packaging regulated under 21CFR 176.300.
AQUATREAT biocides offer the additional advantages of being non-foaming and non-corrosive to
equipment. Special feed pumps, gaskets, line feeds
and supply systems are not required. AQUATREAT
biocides are supplied as aqueous solutions containing no organic solvents. AQUATREAT biocides are
safe for systems supplying water to paper machine
showers and are not irritating to mill personnel.

1.00E+06
Control
1.00E+05
CFU/ml

Summary of
Pulp and Paper Data

DBNPA (25 ppm)

1.00E+04

Yeast (Candida spp.)


1.00E+03
DNM-30 (60 ppm)
1.00E+02
Isothiazolone (25 ppm)
1.00E+01
0

10

15
Time (H)

20

25

30

Figure 24: AQUATREAT DNM 30 Antifungal Activity

Benefits of
AQUATREAT Biocides
in Pulp and Paper
Applications
Effective over a wide pH range
Effective on slime-forming
bacteria, fungi, and yeasts
Meet FDA criteria for use on machines
making paper or board for use in food
packaging (21 CFR 176.300)
Non-irritating to personnel

AQUATREAT Biocides: Pulp and Paper Applications

13

AQUATREAT BIOCIDES
Sugar Applications
Laboratory Studies
Laboratory studies demonstrate the functionality of
AQUATREAT DNM-30 for use in the treatment of a
beet sugar system. In these studies, fresh samples
of raw recirculating juice were incubated across time
at 55C. During incubation, aliquots were taken and
analyzed for total sugar, total lactic acid and pH.
Figures 26-28 show a comparison of AQUATREAT
DNM-30 with a competitive biocide for their relative ability to maintain total sugar
200
160
(g/L)

DNM-30 (20 ppm)


120

Photo 5: Sugar Applications

Competitive
Product A*

80
Control

Dithiocarbamate biocides such as AQUATREAT


DNM-30 are among the few products approved by
both EPA and FDA for sugar production.
Microorganisms account for significant product loss,
prolific formation of biofilms (Figure 25), organic
acid formation, pH drops and equipment corrosion.
These problems are caused by both mesophillic
(optimal growth between 22 and 44C) and thermophilic bacteria that enter with the beet or cane
stock and proliferate throughout the system. These
bacteria are largely comprised of spore forming
organisms such as Bacillus and Clostridium spp.
and a number of lactic acid bacteria (i.e. Leuconostoc
and Lactobacillus). AQUATREAT biocides have a
long history of demonstrated efficacy in both cane
and beet sugar mills.

40
0

20

Hours

40

60

*DISODIUM CYANODITHIOIMIDOCARBONATE + POTASSIUM N-METHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE

Figure 26: Total Sugar Concentration

7
6
pH

Beet and Cane Sugar

DNM-30 (20 ppm)

5
4
Competitive
Product A*

3
0

20

Hours

Control
40

60

*DISODIUM CYANODITHIOIMIDOCARBONATE + POTASSIUM N-METHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE

Figure 27: System pH

Concentration (g/L)

0.5
Control

0.4
0.3

Competitive
Product A*

0.2

DNM-30 (20 ppm)

0.1
0.0

20

Hours

40

60

*DISODIUM CYANODITHIOIMIDOCARBONATE + POTASSIUM N-METHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE

Figure 25: Formation of Biofilms

14

Figure 28: Lactic Acid

Field Studies
Beet Sugar Field Study I
A beet sugar production factory in California employs a 5,000-ton tower diffuser system. The normal
chemical treatment before this trial was a shock
dose of formaldehyde. No formaldehyde was
added in the seven days prior to this trial. Six samples were selected for monitoring. These samples
included:

250
200

Concentration (mg/L)

content in circulating raw juice, limit pH reduction


and suppress lactic acid formation. AQUATREAT
DNM-30 shows superior efficacy relative to the
competitive material.

150
Bottom
100
Middle
50

Top

0
0

20

40
Hours

60

80

Figure 30: Lactic Acid Concentration in Diffuser Samples

Raw juice leaving cossette mixer


Circulation juice before heaters
Bottom of diffuser
Middle of diffuser

1.00E+04

Pulp press water at the screens


Initial sampling was conducted prior to addition of
AQUATREAT DNM-30 at rate of 10 ppm/kg beets.
In addition, the spray water at the separator rolls
also received 8 lbs of AQUATREAT DNM-30 per
1,000 tons of beets. Samples were collected at the
indicated process points across a 72-hour period.
The results of the testing are shown in Figures 29-32.
At all sample points, a clear reduction in total
thermophilic bacteria was observed. Across the
72 hours of the trial, a significant reduction in lactic
acid formation was also observed.

Concentration (CFU/ml)

45C

Top of diffuser

Raw Juice
1.00E+03
Press Water
1.00E+02
1.00E+01
1.00E+00

72C

Circulating Juice

66C

20

40
Hours

60

80

Figure 31: Thermophilic Bacteria Counts in


Juice and Water Samples

300

104
65C
Top

CFU/ml

66C

102

70C

Concentration (mg/L)

250

103

Raw Juice

200
150

Bottom

Middle

Circulating Juice

100

101

50

Press Water

100
0

20

40
Hours

Figure 29: Thermophilic Bacteria Counts

60

80

20

40
Hours

60

80

Figure 32: Lactic Acid Concentration in


Juice and Water Samples

AQUATREAT Biocides: Sugar Applications

15

AQUATREAT BIOCIDES
Sugar Applications

1.00E+08

8
ClO2

Concentration CFU/g

1.00E+07

DNM-30
(20 ppm)

ClO2

7.5

84

Percent Sugar

82

7
Total Bacteria

80

5
4

78

Leuconostoc

3
0

6
Hours

% Sugar

This factory processes 3,000 tons of beets per day


and alternates biocide use between chlorine dioxide
and AQUATREAT DNM-30. Both biocides were
added alternately to the press pulp water prior to
entering the diffuser. The biocides were applied at a
concentration of 20 mg/kg beet. Over an eight-day
period, the diffuser juice was monitored for total
mesophillic and thermophilic bacteria. The results
are presented in Figure 33. The data show that
AQUATREAT DNM-30 provided an equal level of
control of total thermophiles and significantly better
control of total mesophiles throughout the duration
of the trial.

that (at the concentration used) the AQUATREAT


DNM-30 at 20 ppm acts primarily as a bacteriostat
preventing multiplication of the bacteria.

Concentration (CFU/ml x 106)

Cane Sugar Study I

10

76
12

Figure 34: Cane Sugar Crusher Juice


DNM-30 (20 ppm)

7
1.00E+06

6.5
6

1.00E+05

5.5

1.00E+04

1.00E+02

Mesophiles
Thermophiles
pH

1.00E+03

4.5
4

Days

Figure 33: Diffuser Samples

Cane Sugar Mill Study II


This cane sugar mill processed 3,000 tons per day of
sugar cane using mill tandems. Raw cane was
washed to remove solids prior to crushing in the
first two crushers. The extracted juice, known as
crusher juice, contains upwards of 80% sucrose.
Cane continues through the tandem mills where
more sugar is extracted. The juice from each mill is
recirculated to an earlier mill. All the juices were
then combined to form the dilute juice. The troublesome organism in this system was Leuconostoc
mesenteroides, which is responsible for significant
sugar inversion and aggressive slime formation.
AQUATREAT DNM-30 was applied to this system
at a rate of 20 ppm or about 34 ml/min based on
3,000 tons/day. The effectiveness of control was
determined by measuring Leuconostoc counts in
sucrose gelatin agar and by analysis of sucrose
levels. The results presented in Figure 34 indicate

16

Summary of Sugar Data


Laboratory and field studies have demonstrated
that AQUATREAT DNM-30 is effective in controlling bacteria associated with both cane and beet
sugar manufacturing. In addition, the low relative
cost of AQUATREAT DNM-30 and its ability to
reduce sugar loss and control organic acid production and pH make it an excellent biocide for such
applications.

Benefits of
AQUATREAT Biocides
in Sugar Applications
EPA registered
Meet FDA criteria under 176.320
Effective against difficult to treat
thermophilic, spore-forming bacteria
Reduces sugar loss and
organic acid formation
Cost-effective at typical use levels

Oil Field Applications


Secondary and Tertiary
Oil Recovery
In some oil recovery operations, water is injected
into the ground under high pressure to force residual crude oil toward a producing well. The water is
forced through the very small pores of the core rock
formation. Any bacterial growth in this water will
tend to block pores in the formation, rendering the
process far less efficient. Additionally, bacteria, such
as SRB, produce by-products that cause significant
corrosion of pipe and equipment.

The activity of AQUATREAT DNM-30 has been


demonstrated using the American Petroleum
Institute (API) RP-39 MIC test. The test was
amended to include a broad spectrum of SRB,
including both cataloged strains and oilfield
injection water isolates. Table 6 shows that
AQUATREAT DNM-30 is very effective against
many types of SRB at use concentrations.
AQUATREAT DNM-30 has been evaluated in
a number of oilfield injection waters. In Figure 35,
a sample from a Wyoming secondary flood project

Photo 6: Oil Field Applications

1.00E+06
Controls
CPU/ml or MPN SRB/ml

In these injection systems, AQUATREAT biocides


are highly effective for enhanced oil recovery (EOR)
and water floods. They are used in both secondary
and tertiary recovery because of their stability in the
presence of oxygen scavengers and their non-corrosive characteristics. AQUATREAT biocides are nonaldehyde products with broad activity against both
aerobes and anaerobes, yet have a low order of toxicity to humans. They are very cost-effective when
compared with isothiazolone compounds because
they are more active, cost less per pound, are safer
and exhibit control over a longer period.

1.00E+05
1.00E+04
Heterotrophs
1.00E+03

60 ppm DNM-30
120 ppm DNM-30

Injection Water (pH = 6.3)+200 ppm Fe


1.00E+02
SRB (60 ppm) DNM-30
1.00E+01

20

40

60

80 100 120 140 160 180


Time (h)

Figure 35: AQUATREAT DNM-30 in Injection Water

with a significantly high iron content was treated


with AQUATREAT DNM-30 and the total heterotrophic and SRB were followed across time.
The data show good control over total heterotrophic
bacteria and excellent activity against SRB.

Sulfate-reducer

Source

Enrichment System

MIC (PPM)

Desulfovibrio spp.

ATCC 7757

Med-42

20-25

Desulfovibrio spp.

Oilfield Injection Water


(New Mexico)

Postgate E

65-70

Desulfovibrio spp.

Oilfield Injection Water


(New Mexico)

API-sulfate

15-20

Desulfovibrio spp.

Oilfield Injection Water


(SW Texas)

API-sulfate

55-60

Desulfobacter spp.

ATCC 43913

Med 1648

45-50

Desulfomonile spp.

ATCC 49306

Med 1690

20-25

Desulfococcus spp.

ATCC 33890

Med 1250

120-130

Table 6: Sulfur Reducing Bacteria - Laboratory Pure Cultures and Enrichments

AQUATREAT Biocides: Oil Field Applications

17

AQUATREAT BIOCIDES
Oil Field Applications
In Figures 36 and 37, the activity of AQUATREAT
DNM-30 is compared with a cocodiamine product
in two additional injection waters. The control
of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria was monitored
across time. The data again show excellent activity
of AQUATREAT DNM-30 relative to the competitive biocide.

and 40, AQUATREAT DNM-30 maintains its efficacy for both heterotrophic bacteria and SRB in seawater brine solutions.

1.00E+06
No Sulfite
100 ppm Sulfite

Total SRB Counts/ml

1.00E+05
1.00E+04

1.00E+07

1.00E+03

1.00E+06

Control

1.00E+02

CFU/ml

1.00E+05

1.00E+01

1.00E+04

CDA (30)
1.00E+00

1.00E+03
1.00E+02
1.00E+01

6
8
Time in Hours

12

24

DNM-30 (120)
0

10

20

30

40
50
Time (h)

60

70

80

Figure 38: AQUATREAT DMN-30


in the Presence of Sulfite

Figure 36: Injection Water Samples: Sample 1


1.00E+08

CFU/ml

Control

1.00E+05
CFU/ml

Control 6.8%

1.00E+06

1.00E+06

1.00E+04

1.00E+05
1.00E+04

1.00E+02

1.00E+02

1.00E+01
DNM-30 (120)
10

20

30

40
50
Time (h)

60

70

DNM-30 in 6.8%
5

Figure 37: Injection Water Samples: Sample 2

AQUATREAT DNM-30 can be used in injection


water systems where only short contact time is
possible and where more rapid control must be
established with slug doses, as opposed to continuous feed. In a study to demonstrate this effect,
SRB levels were reduced significantly in the presence of a sulfite oxygen scavenger. Figure 38 shows
the effect using 300 ppm of AQUATREAT DNM-30.
For such systems, AQUATREAT DNM-30 should be
added after sulfite addition.

15
Time (h)

20

25

Figure 39: AQUATREAT DMN-30 Efficacy in Brines:


Heterotrophs

1.00E+07
1.00E+06
Control in 3.4%

1.00E+05

Control
in 6.8%

1.00E+04
1.00E+03

DNM-30 in 3.4%

1.00E+02
DNM-30 in 6.8%

1.00E+01
0

Efficacy in Brines
Biocides are frequently used in oilfield systems
that contain brines and must maintain their activity
under these conditions. As can be seen in Figures 39

18

10

80

SRB/ml

DNM-30 in 3.4%

1.00E+03

CDA (30)

1.00E+03

1.00E+01

Control 3.4%

1.00E+07

1.00E+07

12

24

Time (h)

Figure 40: AQUATREAT DMN-30 Efficacy in Brines:


Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

Drilling and Well


Completion Fluids
Water-based drilling fluids are complex aqueous
mixtures of specialty clays, starches, water retention
agents, thinners and other ingredients. These fluids
are subjected to extremes in pressure, shear and
temperature as they are recirculated between the
drill bit and surface.
Water-based completion fluids are highly sophisticated systems based on organic polymers, sand and
suspending and crosslinking agents. Like drilling
fluids, they are subjected to extremes in pressure,
shear and temperature.
Recirculation and exposure of drilling and wellcompletion fluids to subsurface conditions can promote bacterial growth. Unchecked, bacteria will
degrade the fluids and generate corrosive agents
and odors. To inhibit growth, a variety of biocides
have been used. AQUATREAT biocides offer a safe
and cost-effective choice for use in drilling and well
completion fluids.
Comparative Fluid Loss Test
One of the most important functions of a drilling
mud is to maintain fluid control. AQUATREAT

DNM-30 and AQUATREAT KM were compared


with two different aldehyde-based biocides for
API fluid loss control. A base mud was prepared
by adding to tap water 7.5 pounds per barrel of
bentonite clay while stirring, followed by 3.5
pounds per barrel of attapulgite clay. After the
clays were hydrated, 4.0 pounds per barrel of
starch were added to the slurry. The base mud
was then divided into 350 cc aliquots, and biocide
was added as indicated. The base muds were
subjected to conditions that would simulate field
conditions. The results in Table 7 show that both
AQUATREAT biocides were effective throughout
the 14-day test period.

Mud Rheology Characteristics


Mud rheology is a critical property that must be
maintained throughout the drilling process.
Unchecked bacterial growth will significantly alter
these properties and reduce mud effectiveness.
AQUATREAT DNM-30 has been demonstrated to
effectively control bacteria that may impact rheological properties. This is demonstrated in Tables 8, 9
and 10 and compared with paraformaldehyde.

API FLUID LOSS (ml)


Days

Treatment
Compound

Amount
Pounds/bbl

Blank mud
pH

14

6.1
8.3

8.3
10.1

13.7
8.2

28.0
8.1

37.0
8.0

45.0
7.9

AQUATREAT DNM-30
pH

.25 as is

6.8
8.2

7.3
10.4

7.9
8.5

9.8
8.3

12.0
8.2

17.1
8.2

AQUATREAT KM
pH

.25 as is

6.9
8.3

7.5
10.3

7.9
8.4

10.1
8.4

13.1
8.3

19.2
8.2

Paraformaldehyde (dry)
pH

.25 as is

5.0
8.3

6.2
10.1

8.7
8.2

9.1
8.1

10.1
8.0

14.0
8.0

Aldehyde-type (25%)
pH

1.0 as is

6.4
8.3

7.4
10.1

10.5
8.1

11.5
8.0

12.9
8.0

21.0
8.0

Table 7: Fluid Loss vs. Time

AQUATREAT Biocides: Oil Field Applications

19

AQUATREAT BIOCIDES
Oil Field Applications

Days

Int.

12

15

19

600 rpm

12

10

11

10

11

12

13

12

11

300 rpm

AV, cps

5.5

5.5

6.5

5.5

4.5

10 Sec. Gel

10 Min. Gel

pH

8.5

8.5

8.2

7.7

7.6

7.0

6.6

6.5

6.3

5.7

API F.L.

10.5

10.5

13.0

44.0

55.0

55.0

56.5

58.5

59.1

60.0

Fann Data

PV, cps
YP, #/100 ft

Table 8: Base Mud* No Biocide

Days

Int.

13

600 rpm

12

12

12

11

11

10

11

10

11

300 rpm

AV, cps

5.5

5.5

5.5

5.5

10 Sec. Gel

10 Min. Gel

8.5

8.5

8.5

8.6

8.5

8.6

8.5

8.2

8.1

9.0

9.0

9.0

9.0

9.0

9.4

9.6

9.8

15.2

Fann Data

PV, cps
YP, #/100 ft

pH
API F.L

Table 9: AQUATREAT DNM-30 .25#/bbl 30% Solids

Days

Int.

13

16

13

12

11

11

10

10

10

10

10

10

Fann Data
600 rpm
300 rpm

AV, cps

6.5

5.5

5.5

PV, cps

YP, #/100 ft2

10 Sec. Gel

10 Min. Gel

pH

8.5

8.5

8.6

8.7

8.5

8.6

8.5

8.5

8.2

8.3

API F.L.

9.5

10.0

10.0

10.5

11.0

10.8

11.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

Table 10: Paraformaldehyde .25#/bbl

20

* Base mud was prepared by adding to tap water 7.5 pound per barrel of bentonite clay while stirring, followed by 3.5 pounds per barrel of attapulgite
clay. After the clays were hydrated, 3.0 pounds per barrel of cornstarch were added. Two pounds per barrel of topsoil were added to each mud.

1.00E+08

Ps. aeruginosa (ATCC 33988)


Control

1.00E+07
1.00E+06
1.00E+05

CFU/ml

Fuel Storage
AQUATREAT biocides are approved for use
in No. 2 oil, intermediate fuel, and No. 6 oil.
AQUATREAT biocides are highly effective
fungicides and bacteriocides for such fuels.
In Figures 41-43, AQUATREAT DNM-30 is compared with a commonly used biocide in diesel fuel.
It can be seen in these data that AQUATREAT
DNM-30 was superior in controlling yeast, mold
and bacteria using a standard ASTM protocol.

1.00E+04

Competitive Product B*

1.00E+03
1.00E+02
DNM-30

1.00E+01
1.00E+00
0

100

200
Time (h)

300

400

* 2,2-(1-methyltrimethylenedioxy)bis-(4-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaboriane)=67.4%
* 2,2-oxybis (4,4,6-trimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborinane)=27.4%

1.00E+08
1.00E+07
1.00E+06
1.00E+05

Candida tropicalis (ATCC 18138)

CFU/ml

Competitive Product B*

1.00E+04
1.00E+03

DNM-30

1.00E+02
1.00E+01
1.00E+00

Figure 43: AQUATREAT DNM 30


in Diesel Fuel ASTM 1259

Control

100

200
Time (h)

300

400

* 2,2-(1-methyltrimethylenedioxy)bis-(4-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaboriane)=67.4%
* 2,2-oxybis (4,4,6-trimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborinane)=27.4%

Benefits of
AQUATREAT Biocides
in Oil Applications

Figure 41: AQUATREAT DNM 30


in Diesel Fuel ASTM 1259

Effective against anaerobic bacteria


such as SRBs
1.00E+08
1.00E+07

Control

Stable and effective in the presence of


oxygen scavengers

Competitive Product B*

Non-corrosive

Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 20495)

1.00E+06
CFU/ml

1.00E+05
1.00E+04
1.00E+03

Low order of toxicity to humans

1.00E+02
1.00E+01
1.00E+00

DNM-30

Cost-effective at typical use levels


0

100

200
Time (h)

300

400

* 2,2-(1-methyltrimethylenedioxy)bis-(4-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaboriane)=67.4%
* 2,2-oxybis (4,4,6-trimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborinane)=27.4%

Exhibits effective control over


a long use period

Figure 42: AQUATREAT DNM 30


in Diesel Fuel ASTM 1259

AQUATREAT Biocides: Oil Field Applications

21

AQUATREAT BIOCIDES

Storage and Handling


Environmental Hazards

Statement of Practical Treatment

This pesticide is toxic to fish. Do not apply (or use) in estuarine oil
fields where drilling fluids (muds) are discharged in the surface water.
Do not contaminate water by cleaning of equipment or disposal of
wastes. Do not discharge effluent containing this product into lakes,
streams, ponds, estuaries, oceans or other waters unless in accordance with the requirements of a National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) permit and the permitting authority has
been notified in writing prior to discharge. Do not discharge effluent
containing this product to sewer systems without previously notifying
the local sewage treatment plant authority. For guidance, contact
your State Water Board or Regional Office of the EPA.

KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN

Storage and Disposal

- Take off contaminated clothing.

First Aid
IF IN EYES
- Hold eye open and rinse slowly and gently with water
for 15-20 minutes.
- Remove contact lenses, if present, after the first 5 minutes,
then continue rinsing eye.
- Call a poison control center or doctor for treatment advice.
IF ON SKIN OR CLOTHING
- Rinse skin immediately with plenty of water for 15-20 minutes.

1. PROHIBITIONS: Do not contaminate water, food, or feed by storage


or disposal. Open dumping prohibited.

- Call a poison control center or doctor for treatment advice.

2. PESTICIDE DISPOSAL: Pesticide wastes are toxic. Improper disposal


of excess pesticide, spray mixture, or rinsate is a violation of
Federal law. If these wastes cannot be disposed of by use according to label instructions, contact your State Pesticide or
Environmental Control Agency, or the Hazardous Waste
Representative at the nearest EPA Regional Office for guidance.

- Call a poison control center or doctor immediately


for treatment advice.

IF SWALLOWED

- Have person sip a glass of water if able to swallow.


- Do not induce vomiting unless told to do so
by the poison control center or doctor.
- Do not give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.

3. CONTAINER DISPOSAL:
(a) Reseal container and offer for reconditioning, or

IF INHALED
- Move person to fresh air.

(b) Metal Containers: Triple rinse (or equivalent). Then offer for
recycling or reconditioning, or puncture and dispose of in a sanitary
landfill or by other approved state and local procedures.

- If person is not breathing, call 911 or an ambulance,


then give artificial respiration, preferable by mouth-to-mouth,
if possible.

(c) Plastic containers: Triple rinse (or equivalent). Then offer for
recycling or reconditioning, or puncture and dispose of in a sanitary
landfill, or incineration, or if allowed by state and local authorities,
by burning. If burned, stay out of smoke.

- Call a poison control center or doctor for further treatment advice.

4. GENERAL: Consult federal, state or local disposal authorities for


approved alternative procedures.

22

HOT LINE Number


Have the product container or label with you when calling a poison
control center or doctor, or going for treatment.
You may also call 1-888-456-6218 day or night for emergency medical treatment information.

TM

North America

South America

United States
Alco Chemical
909 Mueller Drive, P.O.Box 5401
Chattanooga, TN 37406-0401
Toll-free 800-251-1080
Phone: 423-629-1405
Fax: 423-698-8723

Argentina
National Starch & Chemical S.A.
Specialty Polymers & Adhesives Group
N. Avellaneda 1357
1642 San Isidro
Phone: 54-11-4743-2066
Fax: 54-11-4742-2971

Canada
Nacan Products Limited
Specialty Polymers & Adhesives Group
50 Marie-Victorin Blvd.
Boucherville, Quebec J4B 1V5
Phone 450-655-2220
Fax 450-655-6136

Brazil
National Starch & Chemical
Rua Cenno Sbrighi, 27
0503-010 - Sao Paolo - SP
Phone: 55-11-3618-3655
Fax: 55-11-3611-1473

Mexico
National Starch & Chemical S.A. de C.V.
Specialty Polymers & Adhesives Group
Blvd. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra No. 71
Col. Granada
C.P. 11520 Mexico, D.F.
Phone: 52-5-262-7350
Fax: 52-5-531-0417

Venezuela
National Starch & Chemical C.A.
Specialty Polymers & Adhesives Group
Avenida Francisco de Miranda
Centro Plaza, Torre C
Piso 15 Oficina 15F
Caracas
Phone: 58-2-2840035
Fax: 58-2-2861827

Europe

Asia-Pacific

Switzerland
Alco Chemical Europe
Specialty Polymers & Adhesives Group
Industriestrasse 16
CH-6203
Sempach Station
Phone: 41-41-469-6700
Fax: 41-41-469-6710

China
National Starch & Chemical Ltd.
Specialty Polymers & Adhesives Group
Guang Zhou Office
Rm 2702, Tower 2, Dong-jun Plaza
836 Dong Feng Dong Road
Guangzhou 510080 P.R.C.
Phone: 86-20-8761-5092
Fax: 86-20-8760-5440

Africa
South Africa
Arkem (Pty.) Ltd.
P.O. Box 12673
200 Lansdowne Road
Jacobs, Natal
Durban 4052
Phone: 27 31 468 8722
Fax: 27 31 468 8556

Thailand
National Starch & Chemical Ltd.
Specialty Polymers & Adhesives Group
Bangna Towers C, 11th Floor,
2/3 Mu 14, Bangna Trad (Km6)
Bangplee, Samutprakarn 10540
Phone: 66-2-312-0530
Fax: 66-2-312-0276
Taiwan
National Starch & Chemical Ltd.
No. 1, Kung Yeh I Road
Ping Cheng Industrial Park
Ping Cheng City, Taoyuan Hsien
Phone: 886-3-469-6550
Fax: 886-3-419-1080
Korea
National Starch & Chemical Ltd.
18th floor, Sam Boo Bldg.
676 Yeoksam-dong
Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-080
Phone: 82-2-527-6000
Fax: 82-2-527-6025/6
Australia
National Starch & Chemical Pty., Ltd.
7-9 Stanton Road
Seven Hills, Sydney NSW 2147
Phone: 61-2-9624-6022
Fax: 61-2-9624-1468

Japan (Osaka)
Nippon-NSC, Ltd.
Specialty Polymers & Adhesives Group
Sanbazuru Building
1-6-5 Semba Nishi
Minoo, Osaka 562
Phone: 81-727-30-8895
Fax: 81-727-27-2193

The information given and the recommendations made herein are based on our research and are believed to be accurate but no guaranty of their accuracy is made. In every case, we urge and
recommend that purchasers, before using any product in full scale production, make their own tests to determine to their own satisfaction whether the product is of acceptable quality and is
suitable for their particular purposes under their own operating conditions. THE PRODUCTS DISCUSSED HEREIN ARE SOLD WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY AS TO MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR ANY OTHER WARRANTY, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. No representative of ours has any authority to waive or change the foregoing provisions but,
subject to such provisions, our engineers are available to assist purchasers in adapting our products to their needs and to the circumstances prevailing in their business. Nothing contained
herein shall be construed to imply the non-existence of any relevant patents or to constitute a permission, inducement or recommendation to practice any invention covered by any patent.
5301-01-0807-10M

2002 National Starch and Chemical Company