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CONSTANTA MARITIME UNIVERSITY

THE FACULTY OF NAVIGATION AND NAVAL


TRANSPORT

MARITIME ENGLISH
COURSEBOOK
2ND YEAR, 2nd SEMESTER

COURSE COORDINATOR:

ASIST. UNIV. DRD. IOANA RALUCA VISAN


FORWARD

This course is designed for second year students at the Faculty of Navigation
and Naval Transport in Constanta Maritime University. The course aims to meet the
basic communication requirements as laid down in the relevant sections of the IMO
International

Convention

on

Standards

for

Training,

Certification

and

Watchkeeping of Seafarers (STCW), 1978/95.


The course consists of 9 units which cover language work specific to the topic
of each unit and assumes an intermediate knowledge of English.
The topics cover the essentials a ship officer in a multilingual crew needs to
master in order to successfully meet the communication requirements at sea and in
ports. The course lays emphasis on the Standard Marine Communication Phrases
(IMO SMCP 2002) which are introduced in each relevant context. In order to assist
maritime students, the course aims on the one hand to develop within maritime
related topics, speaking, listening, writing and note-taking skills and on the other
hand to build up the students vocabulary of maritime terms and expressions.

CONTENTS
FORWARD .................................................................................................. 2
CONTENTS ................................................................................................. 3
UNIT 1: TAKING A PILOT ABOARD ................................................. 4
UNIT 2: PASSING THROUGH NARROWS AND CANALS
...................................................................................................................... 16
UNIT 3: ANCHORING ........................................................................... 23
UNIT 4: ANCHOR AND CABLE WORK ............................................. 29
UNIT 5: MOORING.................................................................................. 34
UNIT 6: UNDOCKING MANOEUVRES .............................................. 44
UNIT 7: TOWING ................................................................................... 52
UNIT 8: MEDICAL INSPECTION OF THE SHIP ............................. 58
UNIT 9: ARRIVING AT A PORT .......................................................... 63
BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................... 79
WEBOGRAPHY ....................................................................................... 80

UNIT 1
TAKING A PILOT ABOARD

SPEAKING:
a) What should a ship do to call for a pilot?
b) What signal flag does a ship hoist to call for a pilot?
c) Where may a pilot board the ship?

BASIC TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS

to call for
in the offing
to board
launch
rope ladder
lee side
to show (to)
to manoeuvre
berthing place
to see (to)
mooring
to con
boat rope
watch officer
to hoist
to pilot
tug (tug boat)
compulsory
single screw ship
twin screw
draft (draught)
fore
aft
to sheer
searchlight equipment
to take aboard
the responsibility lies with
to make fast
to get under way
to put over the rope
4

to steer the course


we are now running 15 knots

to make a landing
abreast of

to hold the launch against the sea

To call for a pilot, the ship either sends a radiogram beforehand or hoists the
signal when she approaches the pilot station. A pilot may board the ship either near the
pilot station or in the offing.
When the pilot launch is nearing the ship, the pilot is asked which side he wants
the ladder to be lowered on. If the wind is fresh or strong, the pilot is usually taken
aboard from the lee side.
To hold the launch against the sea, a boat rope is put over and the fenders are
shipped on the side where the launch makes fast.
The watch officer meets the pilot and shows him to the Bridge. Then the pilot
manoeuvres the ship into the harbour to her berthing place. Sometimes, the pilot takes the
ship only into the harbour and the port pilot boards the ship to manoeuvre her to the
berth. He also sees to the mooring of the vessel.
Although the pilot is consulted as to what course should be steered and practically
it is he who cons the ship to her place, yet the responsibility for the safety of the vessel
lies with the Captain.

Answer the following questions:


1. Which side does the pilot launch usually come along in fair weather?
2. From which side is the pilot usually taken aboard in bad weather?
3. On which side is the pilot boat sheltered from the wind, on the lee side or on the
weather side?
4. What rope does the pilot boat use to make fast to the ship?
5. What kind of ladder does the pilot use to board the ship?
6. Who usually meets the pilot aboard a ship?
7. Who cons the ship with the pilot aboard?
8. Who is responsible for the ships safety in this case?

Listen to the the helmorders (IMLP CD-ROM) and answer the questions:
a) What did the OOW order the helmsman?
b) What dis the helmsman report?
c) When is the helmorder Ease her given?
5

Starboard!
Starboard the helm!
Helm a-port!
Hard to starboard!
Hard to port!
Midships!
Right the helm!
Meet the helm!
Steady!

Commands to the Helmsman


Helm a-starboard!
Port!
Port the helm!
All starboard!
All port!
Amidships!
Meet her!
Hard over the helm!
Steady so!

Keep her steady!


Steady as she goes!
Straight so!
Right so!
Better (more) to starboard (~ to port)! Starboard (~ port) handsomely!
Steer the course!
Starboard (~ port) on course 30!
Watch you steering!
Follow the launch!

Nothing to starboard (~ to port)!


Mind the helm!
Follow the tug!
Follow the icebreaker!

Commands to the Engine Room


Stand by the engine!

Try the engine!

Dead slow ahead!


Half ahead!
Stop her!
Slow astern!
Full speed astern!
Slower!
Back her!

Slow ahead!
Full speed ahead!
Dead slow astern!
Half astern!
Faster!
Go astern!
Finished with engine!

Listen to the CD ROM again and complete the following sentences:


a) The order (1)................ as she goes is given when (2)..............the moment the
intended course to (3).................. is (4) ............. ahead.
b) The order (1) .......... her is given to (2) ............ the (3) ............ of the vessels
head in (4) .............. .
IMO STANDARD MARINE COMMUNICATION PHRASES

III/4 - PILOTAGE
4.1 - Pilot request
Must I take pilot?
- Yes, you must take pilot - pilotage compulsory.
- No, you need not take pilot.
Do you require pilot?
- Yes, I require pilot.
- No, I do not require pilot - I am holder of Pilotage Exemption.
What is your ETA at... (name) Pilot Station in local time?
- My ETA at... (name) Pilot Station ... hours local time.
What is your present position?
- My position....
What is your distance from... (name) Pilot Station?
- My distance from ... (name) Pilot Station ... kilometres/nautical miles.
Is pilot boat on station ?
- Yes, pilot boat on station.
- No, pilot boat not on station.
- Pilot boat on station at... hours local time.
In what position can I take pilot?
- Take pilot in/near position ... at... hours local time.
When will pilot embark?
- Pilot will embark at... hours local time.
Pilot coming to you.
Pilot boat approaching your vessel.
Keep pilot boat on port / starboard side.
Stop in present position and wait for pilot.
Change to VHF channel ... for pilot transfer.
Pilotage at... (name) Pilot Station suspended until... (date and local time).
Pilotage at... (name) Pilot Station resumed.
Pilot cannot embark at... (name) Pilot Station due to....
Do you accept shore based navigational assistance from pilot?
Yes, I accept shore based navigational assistance from pilot.
I stay in position ... until....
You may navigate by yourself (or wait for pilot at... buoy).
Follow pilot boat inward where pilot will embark.
4.2 - Embarking/disembarking pilot
Stand by pilot ladder.
Rig pilot ladder on port I starboard side ... metres above water.
Pilot ladder on port / starboard side.

Pilot ladder unsafe.


What is wrong with pilot ladder?
Pilot ladder has broken / loose steps.
Pilot ladder has loose steps.
Pilot ladder has broken spreaders.
Pilot ladder has spreaders too short.
Pilot ladder too far aft / forward.
Move pilot ladder... meters aft/forward.
Rig accommodation ladder in combination with pilot ladder.
Rig pilot ladder alongside hoist.
Put lights on at pilot ladder.
Man ropes required/ not required.
Have heaving line ready at pilot ladder.
Make lee on your port / starboard side.
Steer... degrees to make lee.
Keep sea on your port / starboard quarter.
Make boarding speed of... knots.
Stop engine until pilot boat is clear.
Embarkation not possible.
Boarding arrangements do not comply with SOLAS - Regulations.

DIALOGUES
1.
Watch Officer: Motor boat, ahoy! Come alongside from starboard!
Pilot: Hello! Put over the boat rope! Lower down the rope ladder!
Watch Officer: The ladder is fast. You may climb up. Shall we take your launch in tow?
Pilot: No, thanks, you neednt. Please hoist aboard the searchlight equipment.
Watch Officer: All right, Sir. Will you kindly come along to the Bridge?

2.
Watch Officer: Please meet the Captain, Mr. Brown.
Captain: How do you do, Sir!
Pilot: How do you do! Pleased to meet you, Sir.
Captain: How far will you pilot the ship?
Pilot: I shall take her only up to the port entrance.
Captain: Who will take the ship further on?
Pilot: At the entrance to the port, another pilot will board the ship. He will relieve me
and manoeuvre her into the port. He will take the ship to her berth.
Captain: Shall we take a tug to enter the port and to make a landing?
Pilot: Yes, taking a tug is compulsory for such big ships as yours.
Captain: Thank you. Are you ready to take her up?
Pilot: Yes, I am ready.
3.
Pilot: How many propellers has your ship?
Chief Mate: She is a single screw ship.
Pilot: What is her maximum speed?
Chief Mate: Her maximum speed is 20 knots.
Pilot: How many knots are we running now?
Chief Mate: We are running about 17 knots.
Pilot: What is the draft of you ship?
Chief Mate: Her draft is 5.95 metres fore and 6.00 metres aft.
Pilot: How is her head now?
Chief Mate: Her head is 158 now.
Pilot: How does she answer the helm?
Chief Mate: She answers the helm all right.
Pilot: Does the ship sheer too much?
Chief Mate: No, she sheers a little when there is a heavy swell or a strong wind.
Pilot: I see. Now we shall have to turn to starboard. Starboard handsomely!
Chief Mate (to helmsman): Starboard handsomely!
4.
Pilot: What propulsion machinery have you got on your ship?
Watch Officer: We have a 2000 h.p. Romanian Diesel.
Pilot: How many revolutions does she do?
Watch Officer: She does 118 r.p.m.
Pilot: How long will it take to get the engine ready?
Watch Officer: It will take one and a half hours to get the engine ready.
Pilot: Thats good. We must get under way in two hours.

5.
Pilot: We are approaching the entrance point. Will you kindly give me the glasses?
Watch Officer: Take mine, if you like. Adjust them to your eyes. Ill take other glasses
from the weelhouse. What are you trying to make out?
Pilot: Im just searching for the sea buoy, it must be somewhere near that point. By the
way, will you be good enough to get the chart for this channel ready?
Watch Officer: Ive already done that. Please step into the chart house. Here you are.
Will this chart do?
Pilot: Oh, but this chart is rather of a small scale. Havent you got another one of a larger
scale?
Watch Officer: Of course we have. Wait a moment, please. Oh, there it is. Will this one
suit you better?
Pilot: Yes, thank you. I wanted to show you how we can get into port. Well, look here.
Thats where we are now. Do you see that sunken rock here? No. Not this one. I mean
the one nearer to the coast. Yes, this one.
Watch Officer: But the rock is hardly a cable from the sea buoy you are searching for!
Pilot: Thats right. You see, the depths are very irregular around that rock. So we must
keep at least half a cable southward of that buoy. Do you follow me?
Watch Officer: Yes, I do.
Pilot: Now, do you see these two lights on the chart? Well, as soon as we are past that
buoy, we must keep these lights in line till we cross the other leading line. Do you follow
me?
Watch Officer: Yes, certainly, I do. The first leading line will take us through this
passage and the depths here are pretty irregular.
Pilot: Thats what I was going to tell you. So, switch on the echo sounder and keep it
working continuously till we are out of this passage.
Watch Officer: Very well, Ill switch it on as soon as we approach that passage. We
have still about half an hour before we reach there. Can you show me our berthing place
on the plan?
Pilot: Why not? Get the port plan ready. Well, now look here. We must enter the harbour
through this channel, leaving this mole head to starboard. Then we must proceed to the
right-hand corner of the inner harbour. Our berthing place will be exactly abreast of that
point.
Watch Officer: Thank you very much. Now we are just nearing that passage.
DIALOGUE COMPREHENSION
Dialogues 1, 2
1. Which side did the watch officer order the launch to come along?
2. What equipment did the pilot ask to take aboard?
Dialogues 3, 4
1. What speed was the ship running?
2. Was she a single screw ship?
10

3.
4.
5.
6.

What was her draft?


How was her head at that time?
What did the pilot want to know about her propulsion machinery?
When was the ship to get under way?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Dialogue 5
What was the pilot searching for with the binoculars?
Why didnt the first chart suit him?
What kind of chart did he want?
What did he want to find on the chart?
At what distance was the sunken rock from the sea buoy?
What did the watch officer say about the depth in the passage?
How long was the ship to keep the echo sounder working?
When did the watch officer promise to switch on the echo sounder?

GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY PRACTICE


I.
Model:

Ask questions using the model:


To make to the berth, a ship must use ropes.
What must a ship use to make fast to the berth?

1. To board the ship, the pilot must use a ladder.


2. To call for a pilot, the ship must hoist the signal.
3. To enter the port, the Captain must take a pilot.
11

4. To take the ship to her berth, the Captain must use a tug.
5. To know all the dangers on the way, one must consult the chart.
II. Ask questions using the model:
Model:
1.
2.
3.
4.

You will steer this course until you are past that point.
How long shall we steer this course?

They will keep these two beacons in line until they cross, the other leading line.
You will proceed through this channel until you see the entrance buoys.
We shall proceed on that course until we reach the entrance.
We shall be manoeuvring in this way until we are out of the channel.

III. Make up sentences using the model:


Model:
1.
2.
3.
4.

He asks you if he may come here.


Yes, will you kindly ask him to come here?

They ask you if they should send you a tug.


She does not know if she should do it.
He is not sure if he should wait for you.
He asks you if he should show you to the Harbour Masters Office.

IV. Fill in the blanks with the following words and terms:
lee, proceed, berthing, rig, position, clear, control, alter, standing, shoal, heaving up,
heading
MASTER - Newport Port Control. This is Moonlight. How do you
- NEWPORT PORT CONTROL - Moonlight. This is Newport Port

read me? Over.


(1) ..

Reading you loud and clear. What is your (2) ? Over.


- I am now in position: bearing 286 degrees, three miles from the Fairway
Buoy. Are there any (3) . instructions for me? Over,
- NEWPORT PORT CONTROL - Moonlight. This is Newport Port Control. Sorry, no
berthing prospects for the moment. You should reduce your speed and (4)
to the anchorage east of the Fairway Buoy. (5) . the pilot ladder on the port side.
Stand by on channel 1 - 2 for further instructions. Over.
MOONLIGHT - Understood. (6) . by on channel 1 - 2.
MOONLIGHT

After waiting for two hours at anchor the Master of Moonlight has received the
information on the berthing instructions and is (7) . her anchor, waiting for
the pilot.
- WATCH OFFICER - There is a pilot launch coming. Master.
MASTER - Lower the pilot ladder over the port side. Make a (8) . for the pilot boat.
12

With the pilot on board the MV Moonlight proceeds to her berth.


- PILOT - What is your (9) .. now?
MASTER -3-1-2, Sir.
- PILOT - Very well, keep that course.
MASTER - Course 3 - 1 - 2, Sir.
- PILOT - There has been a collision over there. Keep clear of that place. Wait
for that big tanker to pass (10) .. ahead of you.
MASTER - Very well.
- PILOT - The tide is falling and there is a (11) .. just ahead of your berth. So you
have to be careful while mooring.
MASTER - Shall we keep the present course?
- PILOT -I advise you to (12) .. course to 75 when abeam of that buoy.
MASTER - Where shall we take the boarding officers?
- PILOT - In the inner road.
V. Supply the mining words (see also the reading text):
pilot pilot ladder ETA berthing lee anchor inner port antipollution measures Custom Coastguard immigration berth
Procedure on arriving in a US port
Before arriving in any US port the Captain will notify his agents of his
1.
______________ in the port. Later, when contact has been established with the
2. ______________ and Port Authorities, preparations for entry and
3. ______________ are made. This includes the rigging of the 4. ____________ as well
as derricks or cranes or other cargo gear. On approaching the pilot station the ship must
make a 5. ______________ for the pilot boat or cutter (US). Under pilotage the vessel
will manoeuvre through the 6. ___________________ to the 7. ____________ allocated
to her. If the berth is not available, the vessel may be required to lie at 8.
______________ for some time. After berthing the ship must go through the 9.
____________________ formalities and will be inspected by 10. ______________
officers and 11. ______________ officers (in the US). On arrival in a US port under the
"Coastguard Declaration of Inspection" all
12. ______________ are checked before
discharging.
VI. Finish the sentences in the communication between a ship and the port
traffic service (VTS):

FLYING DOLPHIN - Fishaven Port Control. This is l. _____________. How do you 2.


______________ ?
FISHAVEN PORT CONTROL - Flying Dolphin, I read you
3.
______________ 2. Change to 4. ______________ 12.
FLYING DOLPHIN - Fishaven Port Control. This is 5. ______________ . I am changing to
6. .__________________ . My radar is not working. Is shore-based 7. ______________ ?
FISHAVEN PORT CONTROL - Shore-based radar assistance is available. Do you require
a pilot?

13

FLYING DOLPHIN - I 8. ___________. Where can I take a pilot? What are my berthing
instructions? Over.
FISHAVEN PORT CONTROL - YOu can 9. _______________. No information
10. _____________ . What is your present position, course and speed? Over. FLYING
DOLPHIN - My present 11. ______________ . Over.

What are the duties and responsibilities of Pilots and Masters?

FURTHER READING
FREMANTLE, W.A.: 32.03 S. 115.44 E.
Pilotage
Pilotage is compulsory in the Port of Fremantle, except for ships not exceeding 150 G.T.,
and for coastal and inter-state ships, the Masters of which hold operative Pilot
Exemption Certificates. There are 2 pilot boarding grounds: the outer boarding ground
which is situated 3.5 nautical miles N.E. of Bathurst Point, Rottnes Is., 11 and the
compulsory pilot boarding ground in Gage Roads to the Westward of Hall Bank Buoy,
which is approximately 2 miles from the entrance to the Inner Harbour.
NOTE

Pilotage is compulsory from the Outer Boarding Ground for ships drawing 11.0 m. or
more.
It is necessary for all vessels to give 24 hours notice by radio telegraphy of the expected
time of arrival at Fairway Buoy, followed by a second notice, confirming or amending
the previous notice, 2 hours ahead to the expected arrival time in that locality.
Ships requiring a Pilot at the non-compulsory ground must include this requirement in
their 24 hours Notice of Arrival.
Two pilot vessels available, one has royal blue hull, white superstructure and the other, a
fast pilot launch, is painted international orange. Pilots may be contacted by VHF
Channel 12,
Usually pilot ladder is required on the port side for vessels inward and starboard side for
vessels outward, even when the wind is in the East, unless Easterly wind is very strong as
there is nearly always a west to N.W. swell. If in doubt call Port Signal Station on VHF
Channel 12.
Pilot does not board vessels at anchor.
Pilot ladder is to be 4ft. - 5 ft. above sea level with manropes slightly shorter. Boat-rope
14

not required. The ladder should be clean and conform with Regulation 17 ofSOLAS. The
vessel should be making 3 - 4 knots.
SOLAS Regulations are strictly adhered to i.e. single length of ladder, non-slip surface
(Aluminum NOT acceptable), 12 in. spacing between steps, no more than 2 replacement
steps, all ropes on ladder and manropes to be manila and not covered (nylon
and
polypropelene not acceptable). Regulation 17(a) part (VII) and (VIII) very important, a
responsible officer to standby and not a sailor.
Pilots preference is ladder.

UNIT 2
PASSING THROUGH NARROWS AND CANALS

SPEAKING
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Describe the picture below.


How should a vessel proceed through narrows?
Why should she take soundings from time to time?
Which side of a channel is the ship to keep to, as a rule?
May ships overtake each other in narrows?

15

BASIC TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS


to proceed
collision
sound signal
bow
ahead
to slow down
steaming lights
to swing in
to lower
to warn
ashes
to empty
to take soundings
to ride at anchor
all round the horizon
to alter course to starboard (port)
to run the hawser to a buoy

to overtake
to adhere (to)
to anchor
look-out
dead ahead
sailing vessel (ship)
hawser
to swing out
pendant, pennant
prohibition
refuse
to reduce speed
to run aground
to get moored
to be under way
on starboard (port) bow

When sailing through narrows or canals, a vessel should proceed with great
care and reduce her speed. Sometimes it is necessary to take soundings to avoid running
aground.
16

The ship has to keep to one side of a channel, in most cases the starboard side. In
narrow places ships are not allowed to overtake one another.
To avoid collisions with other ships, the Captain must strictly adhere to the
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea..
The ships should strictly adhere to these regulations to avoid accidents both when
sailing and when riding at anchor.
A vessel is under way when she is not at anchor, or made fast to the shore, or
aground.
A vessel at anchor, in dependence of her length shall carry one or two white lights
visible all round the horizon, one at the foremast stay and the other at the stern.
A vessel aground shall carry the same white lights and two red lights disposed
vertically one over the other and visible all round the horizon, at a distance of at least 2
miles.
Every vessel shall use sound signals too. In fog, mist, falling snow or heavy rainstorms, weather by day or by night, a vessel under way shall sound a prolonged blast at
intervals of not more than two minutes.

Answer the following questions according to the information presented in


the text above:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

What rules shall a vessel adhere to avoid collisions?


What do we mean when we say the vessel is under way?
What lights shall a vessel carry when at anchor at night?
What additional lights shell she carry when aground?
Should the anchor lights be visible all round the horizon?
What signals are used by ships in fog?
What sound signals are used by ships under way?
DIALOGUES
1.

Watch Officer: What side of the canal must we keep to here?


Pilot: We must keep to starboard side if there is much shipping. In some places where
the traffic is in one direction only, we must keep in midchannel.
Watch Officer: What speed is allowed in the canal?
Pilot: The regulation speed allowed here must not exceed 7 knots.
Watch Officer: Shall we have to anchor when proceeding through the canal?
Pilot: No, we shall have to moor to the buoys or to the canal sides, but still both bow
anchors must be ready to let go.
Watch Officer: Where shall we have to make fast?
Pilot: Well have to make fast in the sidings to let other ships pass by.
Watch Officer: What ships do you mean?
17

Pilot: I mean the ships coming from the opposite direction.


Watch Officer: Oh, I see. Are the ships allowed to overtake one another in the canal?
Pilot: Well, if the ships proceed in one direction, they are not allowed to do so.
Watch Officer: Now I understand. A ship may overtake another ship in the canal only if
that ship is moored to the bank or to the buoys.
Pilot: Exactly so.
2.
Pilot: See, beyond that bend there is heavy traffic in this channel; a lot of fishing boats
and sailing ships are plying to and from.
Watch Officer: Well, I understand we must reduce the speed.
Pilot: Yes, thats one thing. Besides, it is advisable to keep a look-out on the bow.
Watch Officer: All right, Ill see to that. By the way, what is that motor vessel astern of
us signalling to us?
Pilot: That motor vessel asks if we can let her pass ahead of us.
Watch Officer: Well, well alter course to starboard so that she may overtake us on port
side.
Pilot: What is the look out reporting?
Watch Officer: He is reporting that there is a fishing boat dead ahead of us.
Pilot: Well have to slow down and sound a prolonged blast.
Watch Officer: All right. Ill do that. By the way, pay attention to the sailing vessel on
our starboard bow.
3.
Pilot: We shall proceed through the canal at night.
Watch Officer: Well, what than?
Pilot: You must get ready the search light and steaming lights, according to Regulations.
Watch Officer: This we have already attended to. What other arrangements should be
made?
Pilot: Well, the hawsers must be ready to be sent ashore or to the buoys.
Watch Officer: What else?
Pilot: A boat must be ready to run hawsers to the mooring buoy.
Watch Officer: Shall we swing the boat out?
Pilot: Yes, swing her out and keep hear ready to be lowered without delay.
Watch Officer: What about the engine?
Pilot: During the stay in the canal, the engine must be kept ready at short notice.
4.
Watch Officer: What signal must we hoist when the ship is made fast in the canal?
Pilot: By day, you should hoist Pendant No.2 under answering pennant, close up to the
masthead. By night, a red light between two white vertical lights in the same position.
Watch Officer: What will these signals mean?

18

Pilot: They will mean that you made fast voluntarily and your ship may be passed or
overtaken.
Watch Officer: Thats quite clear, Thank you.
Pilot: Not at all. By the way, I want to warn you about some prohibitions.
Watch Officer: What are they about?
Pilot: During the transit and stay in the canal it is prohibited to throw overboard ashes
and refuse. Then you are not allowed to empty oil, scouring and cleansing water into the
canal.
Watch Officer: Well, these are customary and general regulations. Anyway, thank you
very much for your warning.

DIALOGUE COMPREHENSION:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Dialogue 1
What did the pilot say about the traffic in the canal?
What speed was allowed in the canal?
Did the ship have to anchor or to moor in the canal?
Why did the ship have to make fast in the sidings?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Dialogue 2
Did the pilot say that there was a little traffic in the channel?
What did the watch officer say about the ships speed?
Where was it advisable to keep a look-out?
What did the watch officer say about altering course?
What did the look-out report?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Dialogue 3
What did the pilot say about the searchlight and steaming lights?
What did he say about the hawsers?
What did the watch officer say about the boat?
What did the pilot say about the engine?

Dialogue 4
1. Is a vessel allowed to throw ashes and refuse overboard when in port?
2. May she empty her cleansing water and oil into the canal?

GRAMMAR & VOCABULARY COMPREHENSION


I.
Model:

Ask questions using the model:


The vessel should proceed slowly.
19

How should the vessel proceed?


1.
2.
3.
4.

A vessel should proceed there with great care.


They should reduce the ships speed considerably.
She should answer the questions quickly.
You should send him a letter by post.
II.

Ask questions using the model:

Model: The vessel has (had, will have) to anchor here because her engine is (was)
out of order.
Why does (did, will) the vessel have to anchor here?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

We shall have to stay at home because the weather is too bad.


They will have to take soundings because the depths are very irregular.
The captain had to reduce speed because there was heavy traffic there.
He has to alter course to starboard because the other ship is overtaking us.
They had to make fast to the buoy because the current was very strong.
III.

Model:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Do (did) you have to take two tugs?


Yes, I do (did). I have (had) to.
Will they have to enter the harbour?
Yes, they will. They will have to.

Will you have to make fast to the buoy?


Did he have to finish that work?
Do they have to call at that port for bunkering?
Does he have to do it himself?
Shall we have to stay here till tomorrow?
IV.

Model:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Answer the following questions using the model:

Ask questions using the model:


The vessel shall carry light s at night.
When shall the vessel carry lights?

The vessel shall use sound signals in fog.


The ship shall sound one prolonged blast when she is under way.
They shall work there much longer tomorrow.
The tug shall be ready to tow the ship any moment.

20

V.

Match the sentences in column A with the sentences in column B:

B
1. A vessel proceeding along the course
of a narrow channel shall keep as
near to the outer limit of the channel
..
2. A vessel of less than 20 metres in
length or a sailing vessel shall not
impede the passage of a vessel .
3. A vessel engaged in fishing shall not
impede the passage of any other
vessel
4. Any vessel shall, if circumstances of
the case admit, ..
5. In a narrow channel when overtaking
can take place only if the vessel to be
overtaken has to take action to
permit safe passing .
6. A vessel nearing a bend or an area of
a narrow channel or fairway where
other vessels may be obscured by an
intervening obstruction .
7. A vessel shall not cross a narrow
channel or fairway if such crossing
impedes the passage of a vessel
..

VI.

a. navigating within a narrow channel


or fairway.
b. which can safely navigate only
within such channel or fairway.
c. avoid anchoring in a narrow channel.
d. shall navigate with particular
alertness and caution and shall sound
the appropriate signal.
e. which lies on her starboard side as is
safe and practicable.
f.

the vessel intending to overtake shall


indicate her intention by sounding the
appropriate signal.

g. which can safely navigate only


within a narrow channel or fairway.

Ask questions whose answers are the underlined words:

a) Vessels with the current behind them have the right-of-way.


b) Be courteous and leave space before crossing through the drawbridge.
c) After your successful trip through the Kent Narrows you will want to use this short cut
again and again.
d) Once beyond the bridge navigation is as easy as following the channel markers to clear
the narrows.
e) The channel markers will now be reversed leaving your red marks to port and your green
to starboard.
f) A short cut through Kent Narrows can be intimidating, so it is often avoided by sailors.
g) Sailing from the Baltimore area to destinations off the Miles River is often reserved for
long weekends or vacations.
h) With careful planning your passage will be uneventful and save you hours of sailing
time.
i) You must know the tide schedule for the day you plan to navigate through the area.
j) The drawbridge opens on the 1/2 hour for boats waiting to pass.

21

VII.

Fill in the blanks with an appropriate preposition:

The Strait of Dover or Dover Strait is the strait (1)............ the narrowest part of the English
Channel. The shortest distance (2) ............. the strait is from the South Foreland, some 4 miles
northeast (3)............. Dover, England, to Cap Gris Nez. Between these two points lies the most
popular route (4)............... cross-channel swimmers as the distance is reduced to 34 km (21 mi).
(5) ..............a clear day, it is possible to see the opposite coastline and shoreline buildings
with the naked eye, and the lights of land at night.
Most maritime traffic between the Atlantic Ocean and the North and Baltic Seas passes
(6) ........... the Strait of Dover, rather than taking the longer and more dangerous route (7)...........
the north of Scotland. The strait is the busiest international seaway in the world, used by
(8) ........... 400 commercial vessels daily. This has made safety a critical issue, with HM
Coastguard maintaining a 24-hour watch (9) ................. the strait and enforcing a strict regime of
shipping lanes. In addition to the intensive east-west traffic, the strait is criss-crossed (10) ............
north to south by ferries linking Dover (11)............. Calais and Boulogne. Until the 1990s these
provided the only surface-based route across it. The Channel Tunnel now provides an alternative
route, crossing (12) ................ the strait at an average depth of 45 m (150 feet) underneath the
seabed. The town of Dover gives its name to one of the sea areas of the British Shipping Forecast.

UNIT 3
ANCHORING

SPEAKING
Where may ships anchor?
In your opinion, why should a vessel have sufficient room at the anchorage?

22

BASIC TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS


road, roadstead
to pay out (away)
ebb
tide
to approach
landmark
anchorage
high land
ground
deck hand
to heave up
to bring the ship to anchor
to ride at anchor
to be steam on to the current
to drop anchor
to swing at anchor
to keep in line
to alter the course

Berth
tidal stream
to let go
depth
off-shore
bearing
to shelter
bottom
good-holding
to steer (for)
to slacken speed
the ship rides at one anchor
to bring the ships head up into the
wind
to give a ship the sternway with the
engine
to weight anchor
to take bearings on

Ships may anchor either in the open roadstead or in the inner harbour.
To bring the ship to anchor, it is necessary to slacken speed and stop the engine at the
proper time. Both anchors must be ready to let go.
The ship may ride to one or to two anchors. If there is a strong wind, it is
necessary to bring her head up into the wind. In case there is a strong tidal stream or
current, the ship should be steam on to the current.

23

When the ship is near her intended place, she is given a little sternway with the
engine (if there is no wind or current) and one anchor is dropped, then the anchor chain is
paid out, and if necessary, the other anchor is let go.
When the chain is brought up that is when the vessel has come to rest in water,
the brake is set as tight as possible.
The scope of chain to be paid out depends on many factors, such as the size of the
ship, the weather and tide conditions, the quality of the holding ground. It is the captain
or the watch officer who must determine how much of chain is to be paid out in each
case. Usually, a length of chain equal to about five times the depth of water is sufficient.
When the ship has been anchored, the watch officer takes the anchorage bearings.
He also sees that the soundings are taken at the anchorage and enters into the Log Book
both the bearings and soundings. Then he marks the ships position on the chart.
When the vessel is at anchor at night, one or more men are posted on anchor
watch. It is their duty under the officer of the watch to see to the security of the ship, to
see that there is sufficient room for the vessel to swing with the tide without striking
another vessel.

Answer the following questions relying on the information


presented in the text above:
1. Should only one anchor be ready when anchoring?
2. May the ships ride to one anchor only?
3. How is the ships head brought up in a strong wind?
4. How is the ships head brought up if there is a strong current?
5. Are both anchors let go at the same time?
6. Who is to determine how much of chain should be paid out?
7. What length of chain is usually sufficient?
8. What bearings should the watch officer take after anchoring?
9. What information should be enter into the log book?
10.
Where should the ships position be marked?
Commands for Anchoring
Get the starboard (port) anchor ready! Get both anchors ready!
Stand by the starboard (port) anchor!
Pay away the cable (chain)!
Hold on the cable!
Be ready to heave in!
Heave in upon the cable!
Disengage the windlass!
The anchor is up and down!
The anchor is atrip!

Let go the starboard (port) anchor!


Keep the cable (chain) slackened!
Put the windlass in gear!
Heave in the starboard (port) anchor chain!
Avast heaving in the cable!
Secure the anchor for sea!
The anchor is apeak!
How is anchor?
24

Clear anchor!
Stand clear of the anchor cable!
Heave short the cable!

Foul anchor!
Pay away three shackles of chain!
How is the cable leading?

The cable is leading forward, starboard!


All hands on deck!

Stand by fore and aft!

Listen to the CD ROM (IMLP) and repeat the anchoring orders.


DIALOGUES
1.
PILOT: In an hours time well approach the port. As its ebb time now we shall have to
wait for the tide in the outer roadstead. The depths in the entrance to port are not
sufficient for our draft.
CAPTAIN: How long shall we wait for the tide?
PILOT: Well have to wait until sunset.
CAPTAIN: Shall we have to anchor or to make fast to the mooring buoys there?
PILOT: There are no mooring buoys there, well have to anchor half a mile off-shore.
CAPTAIN: What landmarks shall we have there for the anchorage?
PILOT: There is a conspicuous water tower on the coast, which should be kept on
bearing 036 and the lighthouse at the port entrance, which should bear 078.
CAPTAIN: What are the depths at the anchorage?
PILOT: The depths are about 20 fathoms. The anchorage is well sheltered from winds
by high land.
CAPTAIN: What is the character of the bottom there?
PILOT: The bottom is quite even; there are no rocks or shoals.
CAPTAIN: What is the nature of the ground there?
PILOT: There is good holding ground: soft mud with few patches of sand.
CAPTAIN: Is there enough room at the anchorage for swinging?
PILOT: Oh, theres plenty of room for several ships.
2.
PILOT: In half an hour we shall be at the anchorage. Its time to notify the engine room
and to get the anchors ready.
CAPTAIN: Thats right. Which anchor are we going to use.
PILOT: Well use the starboard anchor.
CAPTAIN: How much chain shall we need?
PILOT: I think four shackles will do.
CAPTAIN: All right. Ive ordered a deck hand to start taking soundings.
PILOT: Thats very good. You see that red water tower over there? We must steer for
that water tower till the port lighthouse opens to southward.
CAPTAIN: Well, what then?
25

PILOT: Then we must alter the course 040 to starboard and steer for the lighthouse till
we are a mile off-shore. That is our berth.
CAPTAIN: Oh, I see. The depths are beginning to decrease.
3.
PILOT: Soon well be under way and proceed into port.
CAPTAIN: Fine! I have already given orders to stand by to weight anchor. We have just
got a radiogram from our agent. He has arranged to berth the ship at Berth No.7.
PILOT: Very good, Sir. This is a very convenient berth.
CAPTAIN: How shall we proceed form here?
PILOT: We shall steer for the port lighthouse, keeping in the green sector of the light till
we come to the entrance. Then we shall keep two red leading lights in the line till we pass
through the entrance. After that we shall keep the bright green light ashore in the line
with the molehead light. This will bring us straight to the wharf.
CAPTAIN: All right, thats clear. Shall we heave the anchor up?

DIALOGUE COMPREHENSION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Dialogue 1
When should they approach the port according to the pilot?
Why did they have to wait for the tide?
Till what time did they have to wait?
What did the pilot say about the mooring buoys?
What did the pilot say about the landmarks?
On what bearing should they keep the water tower?
What did the pilot say about the nature of the ground?
Was there enough room for swinging?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Dialogue 2
Which anchor were they going to use?
How many shackles of chain were needed?
Whom did the Captain tell to take soundings?
For what landmark was the Captain to steer?
Till what moment was he to steer for the water tower?
How many degrees was he to alter the course when the lighthouse opened?
How far off-shore was that anchorage?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Dialogue 3
When were they going to get under way?
What orders had the Captain given?
What did he say about a radiogram?
At which berth did the agent arrange for the ship to berth?
Was that berth convenient?
26

VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR COMPREHENSION


I.
Model:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Both anchor chains must be paid out.


Shall we pay them out at once?

The ships speed must be reduced.


The engine must be stopped.
The soundings must be taken.
The radiogram must be sent.
II.

Model:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Ask questions using the model:

Make up sentences using the model:


He says that we can approach the port at 5 oclock.
Ask him if we can approach it earlier.

He says that we can enter the port after midnight.


She says that we can get under way at 7 oclock.
He says we can be abreast of that island in 3 hours time.
They say we can send a radiogram tomorrow.
III.
Match each term to its corresponding image:
anchor ball; bitt hawser; ratguard; bollard

27

UNIT 4
ANCHOR AND CABLE WORK

SPEAKING
When is it said that the vessel is being brought up?
When is a vessel moored, and when is she said to be anchored?

28

BASIC TERMS & EXPRESSIONS


clanging roar
hawse pipe
standing moor
spare anchor
gypsy
stopper
to hinge
wind rode
riding weather tide
at short stay
to surge cable
the anchor is dragging
swivel
wildcat
spurling gate
devil claw
capstan

to run out
bower anchor
lugless shackle
to dismantle
drum
spiralling gate
ring
tide rode
riding lee tide
at long stay
to snub cable
anchor gear (ground tackle)
kenter joining shackle
spurling pipe
anchor lashing
gear train
cable lifter
warping head

After being instructed from the bridge by the officer, the ships Boatswain
releases the brake on the windlass and, with a clanging roar, the port anchor drops and the
cable chain runs out through the hawse pipe. Six shackles of cable, attaching the anchor
to the ship, have been run out. The vessel, drifting astern with the tide, pulls on the cable.
The Chief Officer is leaning over the bows, directing a torch on the part of the cable that
he can see. Slowly, it is lifting ahead, becomes taut, and is slackening again. The vessel is
being brought up. When the Master orders Dead slow ahead, the vessel is inching
29

towards the lying ground of her port anchor. Then the Chief Officer on the forecastlehead
says Slack away starboard cable, heave in port cable easy. Three shackles of the
starboard cable are being paid out and three of the port cable hove in, and the vessel, her
engines stopped, comes to rest mid-way between her two anchors.
This manoeuvre is known as making a standing moor. It means that the ship is put
in a position between two anchors. To be moored indicates that a ship has been put in
position by two or more anchors and cables. To be moored also implies that a vessel is
attached to a buoy or two buoys. A vessel is also moored when she is made fast alongside
(i.e. port or starboard side to) or bow/stem on. A ship may be moored to a single buoy
(SBM) or to a number of buoys (Multiple-Buoy Mooring).
When the ship is under way, the anchors are stowed in the hawse pipes, on either
side of the ships bow (bower anchors). The cable runs through the hawse pipe and is
stored in the cable locker below the forecastlehead. An anchor is also carried on the
afterdeck and is called the spare anchor. The anchor is carried out by boat some distance
from the ship and the vessel is then pulled up to it by means of the windlass or a winch.
Buoys and beacons are fixed into place by means of mooring anchors.
Cable is supplied in lengths of ninety feet, fifteen fathoms, and these lengths are called
shackles of cable. Our ship has ten shackles of cable attached to each bower anchor. In
order to distinguish one shackle from another, the lugless shackle is painted white. (Each
length of cable is joined to the next by a link which can be dismantled, and is called a
lugless shackle.) Neighbouring links are also painted white. The windlass is used to heave
in or veer out the cable. It has two drums called gypsies. It is driven by electricity and
equipped with powerful brakes. From the gypsies the cable drops vertically through
openings called the spiralling gates into the chain lockers. Various stoppers are used so
that the pull of the anchor will not come on to the winch alone and that the anchor can be
firmly secured when not in use. They are devices fixed on to the inboard end of the hawse
pipes and are known as compressors.
Anchor clear of the hawse pipe means that the anchor has been eased out of the
hawse pipe and is hinging by its ring. The cable grows in the direction it leads outside
the hawse pipe. Wind-rode means that a ship, when she is at anchor, is with her head to
the wind; tide-rode means that her head is to the tide; riding weather tide is when a
ship is at anchor and the wind is against the tide; riding lee tide means that the wind
and tide are in the same direction.
When a cable is at short stay, it is taut and leads down to the anchor vertically and
when it is at long stay it reaches out and makes an acute angle with the level of the water.
To veer cable is to let it run out under control; To surge cable is to let it run out under its
own weight; To snub or check cable is to stop it running out by putting on the brake.
When the anchor is weighed-broken from the ground and hove up clear of the
water the officer in charge will report whether it is clear or foul. Clear means that it is
free from obstructions such as a chain picked up from the bottom, and foul means that the
cable has its own cable twisted around it. If a ship is moored in a good holding ground
and the weather is fair, there is little to worry about. There are, however, a number of
rules to bear in mind about anchor work generally, and managing/handling vessels at
anchor in bad weather in particular. An anchor is dragging when through stress of wind or
tide it does not hold well, and is drawn along the bottom.

30

Answer the following questions on the basis of the information in the


above text:
1. When is the Bosun to release the brake on the windlass?
2. When is the vessel expected to be pulled on the cable?
3. When is it said that the vessel is inching towards the lying ground?
4. What is the Chief Officer supposed to say then?
5. When is it said that shackles are being paid out and hove in?
6. When is a vessel moored, and when is she said to be anchored?
7. Where is a spare anchor stowed?
8. Where are anchors stowed when the ship is under way?
9. How are shackles distinguished?
10. What is the windlass used for?

The anchor gear (or ground tackle) is located on the forecastle and consists of
all the equipment used in anchoring. This includes the anchors, the anchor windlass,
anchor cables or chain, chain stoppers and the connecting devices (shackles, swivels), etc.
When the ship is underway, the anchor is stowed in the hawse-pipe. It is attached to the
anchor chain or cable by means of an anchor shackle (type D) and a swivel shackle.

The chain then goes through the hawse-pipe onto the windlass (anchor winch)
fitted on the forecastle deck. A ship is normally fitted with ten shackles (shots in US) of
cable, each shackle about 25 metres in length, and connected to another shackle (length
of chain) by an accessory fitting called kenter joining- shackle. The cable is lifted and
lowered by the cable lifter (gipsy or wildcat) from where it falls down through the
spurling gate and spurling pipe into the chain locker. The cable is secured on the
forecastledeck by stoppers, devil-claws and anchor lashings. The chain is held by the
windlass brake. The windlass also consists of one or two drums on the sides of it for
warping and heaving on the mooring lines.

31

An anchor windlass is a machine that restrains and manipulates the anchor chain,
allowing the anchor to be raised and lowered. The cable lifter (a notched wheel) engages
the links of the chain. A brake is provided for control and the windlass is usually powered
by an electric or hydraulic motor operating via a gear train.

According to the information presented above, what is an anchor gear?


VOCABULARYAND GRAMMAR COMPREHENSION
1. Provide the correct preposition:

Technically speaking, the term "windlass" refers only (1) ............ horizontal
winches. Vertical designs are correctly called capstans. Horizontal windlasses make use
of an integral gearbox and motor assembly, all typically located (2) .......... -deck, with a
horizontal shaft through the unit and wheels for chain and/or rope (3) ............. either side.
Vertical capstans use a vertical shaft, with the motor and gearbox situated (4) ..............
the winch unit (usually below decks).
Wildcats (gipsies, technically referred to as cable lifters) are used in windlasses to
haul (5) .............. and pay out anchor chain on board ships. An associated chain stopper is
used to secure the chain while the ship is anchored, or the anchor is housed. The wheels
(6) ............ either a vertical or horizontal windlass provide for either chain or rope to be
32

engaged. The wheel (7) .............. rope is termed a warping head, while the chain handling
wheel is variously referred to as the gypsy (in the UK) or wildcat (in US), though due to
the influence of the offshore oil industry the latter usage is now more common. For
clarity in communication the generic term chain wheel is often used.
Nowadays, especially (8) ............ large tankers and cruise ships, the windlass may
be split (9) ............. independent Port & Starboard units. In these cases they are
frequently coupled (10) ................ Warping Drums (as distinct from Warping Heads). In
some of these the warping drums are of the self tensioning or constant tension type.
2. How would you entitle the text in exercise 1? Give reasons.

UNIT 5
MOORING

SPEAKING
1. How do ships make fast to a wharf?
2. At what speed should a ship approach the berth?

33

BASIC TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS


fenders
steerage-way
headway
to back
sternway
ashore
head rope
bow spring
stern rope
stern spring
to veer out
breast line
heaving line
bollard
to secure
to heave (heaved, hove)
congested waters
crane
to tie up
to dredge
to sign
quay
taut
slack
to make fast alongside
to make fast stern to
to get moored
to get berthed
to get tied up
to bring the ship alongside the quay
to work the ship into her berth
to make the starboard (port) landing
to get alongside starboard (port) side to
to run out a line
to swing the bow to starboard (port)
34

to sheer the stern from the quay


to double up fore and aft

Ships make fast to a wharf either alongside or stern to. When


approaching a berth ships must proceed at slow speed. On deck, heaving lines and
mooring ropes, as well as fenders, should be ready for use. The anchors must be ready to
let go. At an appropriate distance from the berth, the engine is stopped and the ships
headway is used to bring her alongside the wharf. This headway should be just enough
keep the ship moving ahead without losing steerage way. If a ship has too much headway
it should be stopped by backing the ship with engine or by letting the anchor go. As a
matter of fact, only the off-shore anchor is dropped and then a heaving line is passed
ashore. A head rope, a bow spring and two breast lines are run out from the ship and
secured to bollards ashore.

headlines fwd breast lines


stern lines

fwd springs

aft spring

aft breast lines

Working on these lines, as well as on the stern rope and stern spring which are
also run out in due time, the ship is hove into her berth and made fast. After the ship is
secured in her berth, rat guards should be placed on all the lines. For permanent mooring,
wire ropes are preferred to ordinary fibre ropes. All the mooring lines should be
constantly watched, as the change of weather or rise and fall of tide can make the lines
either too taut or too slack and this will necessitate from time to time veering them in or
out. In stormy weather the ships secured in their berths usually have to double up fore
and aft.

Answer the following questions:


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

What should be made ready for use on deck?


What is the ships headway used for in this case?
What should be done if the ship has too much headway?
When the ship has approached the berth, what line is passed ashore first?
What other ropes are run out from the ship and secured to the bollards ashore?
35

f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)

How is the ship hove into her berth?


Where are rat guards placed?
Why should the mooring lines be constantly watched?
Why should we veer in the ropes from time to time?
When should we veer them out?
In what weather should we double up the lines?
How should the lines be watched if the weather is changeable?
Commands for Mooring

Give on shore the heaving line!

Send on shore the stern rope!

Send on shore the head rope!

Send on shore the bow spring!

Send on shore the stern spring!

Pay away the bow spring!

Send on shore the breast line!

Pay away the stern rope!

Check the head rope!

Check the breast line!

Check the stern spring!

Make fast the bow spring!

Cast off the head rope!

Make fast the stern rope!

Let go the head rope!

Make all fast!

Heave in the bow spring!

Hold on!

Heave in aft!

Avast heaving in!

Haul in the slack!

Veer out handsomely!

Haul taut!

Veer out cheerily!

Haul fast!

Ship the fenders!

Fleet the cable upon the windlass!

Unship the fenders!

Lower down the ladder!

DIALOGUES
1.
CAPTAIN: Is taking a tug compulsory here?
PILOT: No, it is not compulsory, but it is advisable, and I shall tell you why. There are
several strong currents in the harbour and as there is a lot of traffic now, it is pretty
difficult to manoeuvre in congested waters.
CAPTAIN: Will the tug take us only into the port or will she bring the ship alongside
the wharf?
PILOT: Yes, the tug will work the ship into her berth.
CAPTAIN: At what berth shall we moor?
36

PILOT: We shall moor at berth No.17.


CAPTAIN: We shall need a 15 ton crane to discharge heavy lifts.
PILOT: Your agent must have been informed about it as there is a 15 tones crane at the
berth.
CAPTAIN: Thats good. Which side shall we make a landing?
PILOT: We shall make a starboard side landing.

2.
CAPTAIN: So, where are we going to berth?
PILOT: Do you see Sir a vacant place between the two big tankers tied up stern to?
CAPTAIN: Do you mean those two big tankers over there with streamlined funnels?
PILOT: Yes, thats what I mean, and thats where we should now steer for.
CAPTAIN: There isnt too much space there, anyhow, but still enough to get the ship
moored alongside. What is the depth alongside the berth?
PILOT: The depth is five fathoms, Sir.
CAPTAIN: Is the bottom even there?
PILOT: No, there must be a little hump some 30 yards from the wharf, as the bottom
was recently dredged.
CAPTAIN: Which side shall we go alongside?
PILOT: We shall go along starboard side.
CAPTAIN: Shall we drop an anchor?
PILOT: Yes, Sir. We shall drop the port anchor.
3.
PILOT: The ship has too much headway, Sir. I think is time to back her.
CAPTAIN: Slow astern! Helm a-port! You know, she swings her bow to starboard on
backing.
PILOT: I see. Now, Sir, give her a little swing to port. Steady so! Is your port anchor
ready?
CAPTAIN: The port anchor is ready. Stand by the port anchor!
PILOT: Let go the port anchor, Sir.
CAPTAIN: Let go the port anchor! Veer out the cable handsomely! Send on shore the
heaving line! Send on shore the bow spring!
PILOT: Thats right, Sir. We must get the bow in first.
CAPTAIN: Yes, now we can heave the ship alongside.
PILOT: I think, Sir, you must now steer the stern a little off the pier.
CAPTAIN: Good. I think Ill start heaving the bow alongside with the bow line.
4.

37

PILOT: Well, Sir, my pilot duties are over. I must be off. Will you kindly sign the pilot
form?
CAPTAIN: Very much obliged for your assistance. What must I fill up in these forms?
PILOT: Please fill in the ships name, her registered tonnage, the date and your name.
CAPTAIN: Where must I sign my name? Oh, yes, thank you. Here you are. Hope to see
you again.
PILOT: Thank you very much. Good bye!

Dialogue Comprehension
Dialogue 1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

What did the pilot say about taking a tug?


Why was taking a tug advisable?
Was there a heavy traffic in the port?
What did the pilot say about manoeuvring in congested waters?
How far was the tug to take that ship?
What did the Captain need a crane for?
Was there any crane at the berth?
Was the ship to be berthed port side to?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Dialogue 2
Where did the pilot show a vacant place for the ship?
What did the Captain say about it?
Why did he ask the pilot about the depths?
Was the bottom even alongside that berth?
Which side was the ship going to berth?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Dialogue 3
What did the pilot say about the ships headway?
How did the Captain stop her headway?
Why did he command Helm a-port! when going astern?
Which anchor did the Captain order to let go?
Which rope did he order to be sent ashore first?

Dialogue 4
1. What did the pilot ask the Captain to sign?
2. What was the Captain to fill up in the form?
3. Was the Captain satisfied with the way the pilot worked?

GRAMMAR & VOCABULARY COMPREHENSION


1.Supply the appropriate term:

38

berthing mooring gear berth berthing operation mooring lines


Coming along any l. _____________ can be a very difficult operation and is always
potentially dangerous. The ship's anchor and 2. ____________ must be made ready for
use. Most frequently tugs are used to assist the ship's
3. ____________ . The
Master decides which 4. ____________ are to be used. Each officer must know exactly
his own role in the 5. _____________ .
1. Explain the movement of the vessel in the following sentences:
1. Take all the way off.
2. The vessel starts gathering sternway.
3. The vessel moves bow first.
2. Sort out the verbs below into two groups:
A. - verbs referring to a movement of the line towards the person handling
the line
B. - verbs referring to a movement of the line from the person handling the line
pull the line on board cast off the line run the line out
tighten the line pay out the line heave on the line
slack away the line haul in the line send away the line
set the line tight, pass the line down to the tug heave the line take the slack
back
A (Movement towards the person
working the line)

A <===========
Pull the line on board

B (Movement away from the person


working the line)

B ==============>
Cast off the line

4. State which of the following terms is described in the sentences below:


moor Mediterranean moor berth mooring buoy aids to navigation
heaving line mooring gear
39

1. ______________ : the place in harbour in which a ship rides to her anchor or


is secured alongside.
2. ______________ : space around a vessel at anchor, and in which she will
swing freely.
3. _____________ : buoy securely moored so that a vessel can be attached to it
and lie safely.
4. _____________ : a type of berth where the ship's stern is secured to the quay
and two anchors are laid ahead.
5. _____________ : a light rope used to haul in a heavier one.
6. _____________ : buoys, light houses, seamarks, landmarks etc.
7. _____________ : deck and shore fittings for making fast the rope.
5. Match each phrase with its opposite:
unbend the line cast off the line pay out the line make fast the
line slacken the line
1. Tighten the line
2. Let go the line
3. Haul in the line
4. Bend the line
5. Pull the line on board

_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________

6. Write down the names of the mooring lines

7. Ask questions using the model:


Model:

The ship should be backed to stop her headway.


What should be done to stop the ships headway?

1.
2.
3.
4.

The mooring lines should be passed ashore to secure the ship to the bollards.
The off-shore anchor should be dropped to keep her securely berthed.
Rat guards should be placed on all the lines to prevent the rats from getting aboard.
The mooring lines should be watched to prevent them from becoming too taut or too
slack.
5. The engine should be stopped to prevent the ship from bumping against the quay.
40

8. Change the sentences using the model:


Model:
1.
2.
3.
4.

The ship can anchor or she can moor.


The ship can either anchor or moor.

The rope may be too taut or it may be too slack.


The ship may have too much headway or she may have too little headway.
The windlass can veer the cable in or it can veer it out.
We can berth starboard side to or we can berth port side to.

FURTHER READING
Fatal Mooring Accident
Source: www.atsb.gov.au
The incident
Taharoa Express berthed at the Parker Point ore jetty at 0024 on 10 July 2002, to load a
cargo of iron ore for Japan. The vessel was secured port side to the jetty, heading west, by
four headlines, two forward breastlines, two forward springs, two aft springs and six
sternlines to quick release hooks on the mooring dolphins. After completing the loading
of 129,959 tonnes of iron ore at 0109 on 11 July, Taharoa Express immediately started
unberthing on a falling tide.
Ashore, an operations supervisor at the remote console and two process operators, one
forward and one aft, assisted with unberthing the vessel. From the console, the operations
supervisor could see the vessel's lines aft but, as he was unable to see the forward lines,
the process operator was standing by to inform him when those lines had been released.
The wind was from the south at about 10 knots and the tide was ebbing at about 0.3 knots
towards the northeast. Two tugs, secured to the vessel, were pushing square at idling
revolutions and the only other vessel in the vicinity, an incoming ship, was about two
miles away.
The pilot instructed the master to slack all headlines and sternlines. He then ordered the
operations supervisor ashore to release the headlines. On the ship, the forward mooring
crew was under the supervision of the mate who relayed the order from the pilot to
slacken the breastlines to the bosun. The mate then moved aft to supervise two crew who
were preparing to recover the forward springs. After the headlines had been recovered on
board, the bosun engaged the winch for the breastlines, then released the brake. A seaman
was told to look over the bulwark and to inform the bosun when the breastlines had been
41

released. About a minute later, the pilot ordered the operations supervisor to release the
sternlines. From the bridge wing, the pilot was able to see that the breastlines forward
were slack. At about 0126, while the tugs were still pushing at minimum revolutions to
hold the vessel up to the jetty, the pilot ordered the operations supervisor to let go the
breastlines. The process operator, watching the forward lines, informed the operations
supervisor that the hook for one of the breastlines had failed to release, but that the line
itself was slack enough for him to go down to the dolphin to release the line manually.
The supervisor relayed this information to the pilot on board. However, by the time the
operator reached the dolphin, there was considerable tension in the line.
When the operator reported that the line was taut, the supervisor asked the pilot to have it
slackened. Instead, the line became tighter and tighter. The operator heard the rope crack
with tension and noticed that the hook seemed to be moving.
On the ship, the seaman, looking over the bulwark, shouted to the bosun, in their own
language, 'Bosun, wait!'. At this point, the hook released the tensioned breastline. The line
whipped back towards the ship, striking the seaman who had been looking over the
bulwark. The seaman collapsed on the deck with severe head injuries. The injured
seaman was taken to the hospital at Karratha and the vessel's departure was delayed until
the next tide. When the pilot asked the bosun what had happened, the bosun's response
was that he had been slacking the breastlines at all times and that the seaman had been
standing on a bulwark stiffener to watch the ropes.
The injured seaman's condition was so critical that he was transferred to a hospital in
Perth, but he died the next day.
Contributing factors
The seaman who was killed was standing almost directly over the fairlead roller for the
breastline that struck him.
Chapter 19, section 4 of the International Labour Organization (ILO) publication
'Accident prevention on board ship at sea and in port' advises that;
All seafarers involved in mooring and unmooring operations of any kind should be
informed
of
the
hazards
of
engaging
in
such
operations.
A competent person should be in charge of mooring operations and ascertain that there
are no persons in a dangerous position before any heaving or letting go operation is
commenced.
Ropes and wires are frequently under strain during mooring operations and seafarers
should always stand in a place of safety from whiplash should ropes or wires break.
The seaman was not under direct supervision of the mate during the moments leading to
the accident. The mate's position on deck and the bosun's position at the controls of the
42

mooring winch meant that the mate, and possibly the bosun, did not have the seaman
directly in their line of sight.
Conclusions
The following factors are considered to have contributed to the incident:
1. The seaman was standing almost directly over the fairlead roller for the mooring
rope and was not warned that he should have been in a safer position;
2. It is likely that the bosun, thinking that the breastlines had been released, operated
the winch to recover the lines, resulting in tightening of the line that was still
attached to the mooring hook.
In addition, although tests on the hook were not conclusive, one or more of the following
possibly occurred;

The initial attempt to release the hook partially altered the position of the release
system resulting in a release of the hook under tension;
Dirt or rust had prevented the mooring hook from being correctly reset;
The mooring hook was not correctly reset.

It is possible that modifications to the remote release mechanism might also have been a
factor in the hook releasing.

UNIT 6
UNDOCKING MANOEUVRES

SPEAKING

43

1. What must seafarers be sure of before leaving the dock?


2. In your opinion, what is the best time to berth or leave the dock?

BASIC TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS


-

Dock Pilot
River Pilot
tug-boat
transverse thrust
effect of the screw
singling up
mooring ropes
skipper
handling of ships
buoys
dolphins
slack water

single up
make fast
slack away
heave away
let go
cast off
haul in / heave in
hold on
heave on
keep tightened
stemming the tide
dockside

Undocking manoeuvres

Aft starboard mooring

Unberthing

Water jets in undocking

Unmooring

In the docks the Dock Pilot is concerned with avoiding other shipping and
making allowance for the transverse thrust of the screw and wind. The River Pilot must
think of tides and currents as well, and his local knowledge of these is of great
44

importance. Before a Pilot (Dock or Sea Pilot) takes a ship through the basins he will
want to know how she steers (all ships have different characteristics), the working of her
engines, how much power she develops when going astern and her draught. A ship is
taken out mainly by tugs, but she still needs to use her own engine power. Another factor
to be considered is the effect of the screw (or propeller) on the direction of the ship.
Some time before the Pilot comes aboard the ship, the Master or the Officer of the Watch
(OOW) has to tell the officers in charge of the Fore and After (Mooring) Station to single
up. Under their control the ratings then cast off all but the essential mooring ropes (lines)
so that the vessel is singled up aft and singled up forward.
Other equipment is to be tested and made ready for going to sea: the engine-room
telegraph, the speed log, the ship's whistle, the steering gear and the winches, for
instance. The derricks are to be lowered and secured and all the hatches are to be closed
and battened down. The patent log, or speed log, is to be ready for use, the depth finder
on, the heaving lines to be at hand, the fenders to be ready, and the mooring ropes are to
be clear for coming aboard or carrying along.
We must be sure that there are no lines, small boats, or obstructions which would
be likely to foul the rudder or propeller. A series of blasts on a mouth whistle are
sounded; these are intelligible only to the Pilot and the Skipper (Master) of the tug who is
to carry out the orders. All ropes are cast off.
The Master should be adept at the handling of ships in enclosed waters as well as
at the correct methods of berthing his ship or getting her away from wharfs and quays.
A great deal depends on local conditions: the way the currents run; the set of the
tide; the strength and direction of the wind. The availability of aids to berthing and
leaving, such as buoys and dolphins, also have an effect on the choice of methods to be
used. There are, however, some general rules to bear in mind. The best time to berth or
leave is at slack water. If, however, there is a tide or current running, the vessel's stem
should be turned into it. This is called stemming the tide or current. The procedures for
getting away from the dockside differ according to whether the ship is stem on to the tide
or stern on to the tide.

Find the relevant parts of the reading text and answer the questions
below:
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

What is the Dock Pilot concerned with in the docks?


What does he have to make allowance for?
What must the River Pilot think of?
What must a Pilot know before he takes a ship through the basins?
What is used to assist a ship to leave the port?
45

8. Does she need her own engine power?


9. How will you single up aft and forward?
10. Which equipment is to be tested and made ready for going to sea?
11. What must the Master be adept at?
12. When are we to turn the vessels stem into the tide or current running?

Onboard communications - Unmooring manoeuvre


The officers and ratings are at the forward (bow) and after (stem) station of M/S Lion,
standing by and waiting for master's orders. They are ready for the getting under way.
Orders are made by the Pilot/Master from the bridge, i.e. the wheelhouse or wheelhouse
wing.
PILOT:
Are you ready to get
underway?
MASTER:
Yes, Sir/Pilot. (We are)
Ready to get under way.
PILOT/MASTER:

(LION

BRIDGE):
Stand by engine.
CHIEF ENGINEER

Stand-by engine.
BRIDGE:
Lion Bow, Lion Stern. This is Lion bridge.
Stand by for let go.
LION

LION FORE:
Lion Bridge. This is
Standing by for let go.
LION AFT:

Lion Bridge. This is Lion


Stern. Standing by for let
go.
LION BRIDGE:
Lion Bow. Single up to one
headline and one spring.
Lion Stern. Single up to a breast line and
one after spring.
LION BOW:

46

Lion

Bow.

Lion Bridge. This is Lion Bow.


(Understood.) Single up to one headline
and one spring.
LION STERN:

Lion Bridge. This is Lion Stern.


(Understood.) Single up to a breast line
and one spring. Tug made fast on
starboard quarter.
AFTER A WHILE

AFTER A WHILE

LION BOW:
Lion Bridge. This is Lion Bow. Singled
up to one headline and one spring.
LION STERN:

Lion Bridge. This is Lion Stern. Singled


up to a breast line and one spring
LION
BRID
GE:
Lion
Stern.
Let go
all aft.
LION STERN:

Lion Bridge. This is Lion Stern. Let go


all.
After a while

After a while
Lion Bridge:
This is Lion Stem. All gone and clear.

LION
BRIDGE:
Wheel
amidships.
Slow ahead.
HELMSMAN:

Midships. (...) Midships


3RD MATE:
Slow ahead. Sir.
LION BRIDGE:

3RD MATE:
Stop engine. Sir.
(...)

Stop engine.

47

Engine stopped.
LION BRIDGE :
Half astern. Starboard 20.
HELMSMAN:
Starboard 20.

(...) Starboard 20 on. Sir.

3RD MATE:
Half astern.
LION BRIDGE:
Midships.
HELMSMAN:

Midships. (...)
on. Sir.

Midships

LION BRIDGE:
Stop engine.
3RD MATE:
Stop engine. (...) Engine
stopped. Sir.
LION BRIDGE:

Lion Bow. Let go all.


LION BOW:

Lion Bridge. Let go all.


(...) All gone and clear.
LION BRIDGE:

Slow astern. Hard a port.


3RD MATE:
Slow astern.
HELMSMAN

Hard a port.
LION BRIDGE Stop
engine.
Midships.
HELMSMAN:

Midships. (...) Midships on. Sir


48

3RD MATE Half


ahead.
Sir. (...) Half
ahead.
LION BRIDGE:

Half ahead.
Starboard
10. ... (etc.).
GRAMMAR & VOCABULARY COMPREHENSION
1.

Supply the missing words and terms from the brackets:


draught slack water allowance singling up rudder skipper derricks
wind buoys transverse thrust dolphins tide effect engine-room telegraph
mooring ship's whistle current steering gear officer of the watch loose
gear navigating lights

1. When taking the ship out of the harbour the pilot did not make ______________ for
the transverse thrust of the propeller.
2. The main factors affecting the steering of the ship are _________________ ,
____________ , ____________ and ____________ of the propeller.
3. The pilot must also know the ___________ forward and aft.
4. The screw has a strong _____________ on the direction of the ship.
5. In ____________ all the mooring ropes should be cast off except those indicated by
the Master or ______________ .
6. The instruments and gears to be checked before getting under way are:
______________ , the ______________ , the ______________ .
7. Have all the _____________ been lowered and secured for heavy weather routine?
8. When the leaving dock or departure manoeuvre is finished, the deck hands are busy
tidying up the _____________ and ____________ lines on the forecastle.
9. A fishing line has fouled our _____________ obstructing the steering of the vessel.
10. The lug or pilot boat _____________ must be familiar with the signs sounded with
the ______________ .
11. The ship could not enter the port because the berthing and leaving aids such as
_____________ and ______________ of sufficient power were not available.
12. We had to wait for high ____________ in order to be able to get out of the lock.
2. Complete the sentences:
Before leaving the port the Master and Chief Mate must check:
b. on a container ship: if / cargo lashings / secure
c. on a Ro-Ro ship: if / ramp / close and / cargo / secure
d. on a general cargo vessel: if / hatches / batten down, if / derricks / lower / secure,
49

if / shore gang / leave / ship


3. Match the images describing deck fittings to the terms:
bitts sheaves and cleats bollard cleat bollard roller fairleads

4.

Supply a suitable form of the verbs from the brackets:

Verbs used in unmooring a ship


(Cast) 1. _____________ off the breast ropes. (Single) 2. ___________ up to the head
ropes and springs. What (go) 3. ______________ ? We (be) 4. __________
Nearly ready to lave. The dock party (cast) 5. ____________ the ropes of the bollard on
the dock side and we (put) 6. ______________ a couple of turns on the warping barrel of
the windlass and (haul) 7. ____________ each wire back on board.
Here (come) 8. ______________ one of the tugs. She (present) 9. _____________ her
stern to us and we (pass) 10. ______________ a big towing line down to her. The Chippy
(bend) 11. _____________ a heaving line onto the towing hawser and (heave) 12.
_______________ it across. He now (pay out) 13. ________________ the cable as the
rope-runners (haul) 14. _____________ it in. The towing hawser (be) 15.
_____________ now on the hook and (make) 16. ____________ fast.
5.

Supply the following terms as necessary:

(aboard, underway, on the bow, fore, always, aft, fast)


50

When the ship slips her moorings the order Stand by 1. _________ and 2. _________ is
given after the ships gangway is hauled 3. ________________ . With his knowledge of
local tides, currents and hazards the Pilot will conduct the operation, assisted as 4.
___________ by the Captain and his officers. Tugs are sometimes made 5.
_____________ to the vessel, either on the quarter or 6. ____________ to assist in the
handling of the ship. When the ship has left the port she is 9. _____________ .

51

UNIT 7
TOWING

SPEAKING
A) What may a tug be required for when in port?
B) Whose assistance is required to take a ship into the dock?

BASIC TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS


to require
to tow
hull
steel wire
to settle
spare
the ship is disabled
to rig the bridle

to shift
bottom
tow-line
beforehand
to charge
port quarter
to take in tow
towing hawser

Ships may need towing in a number of cases. When in port, tugs may be
required to take ships to or from their berths. Sometimes it may be necessary to shift the
ship from one berth to another and the port tug is usually ordered to do this job.
52

It may also happen that the ship will need dry docking for cleaning the bottom and
repairs to the hull. A tug-boat will then be required to manoeuvre the ship into the dock.
A ship may become disabled at sea and in this case she will need some other
vessel or a tug to tow her to the nearest port.
Big ships require big tow-lines. Most modern vessels are provided with steel wire
tow-lines of sufficient length. It is advisable to use wire hawsers connected with a good
length of manila rope, as this will afford the necessary elasticity to tow-line.
The towing and towed vessels communicate with each other to coordinate their
actions. Usually they signal with the International Code, using single letter signals.
It should be added here that ships communicate with each other and with shore in
a number of ways: by radio, by flags, by light and sound signals and by semaphore. The
International Convention adopted a uniform system of International Code Signals which
is widely used by all the countries. In this system, a single letter or combination of letters
signifies a whole sentence.
When the ship receives these signals the watch officer translates them into letters
(or their combinations) and finds their meaning in the code book, where they are grouped
in a certain order.
Single letter signals are used to denote urgent or very common messages. For
instance, signal G means: I require a pilot. As it was mentioned above, they also have a
special meaning when used between towing and towed vessels. For example, the same
signal G in this case means: Cast off the towing hawser; the signal A signifies: The
towing hawser is fast.

Answer the following questions:


A)What may a tug be required for when in port?
B) Whose assistance is required to take a ship into the dock?
C) What may a ship need if she becomes disabled at sea?
D) What do we call the ropes with which a vessel is towed?
E) What tow-lines are most modern ships provided with?
F) What combination of hawsers is recommended for towing and why?
G) Why should the towing and towed vessels communicate with each other?
H) What code system do they usually use?
I) In what ways do ships communicate with each other and with shore stations?
J) What does a single letter or combination of letters signify in the International Code?
K) What two meanings does the signal G have?

53

Regulation Signals when Towing


Is the towing hawser fast?
The towing hawser is fast
Everything is ready for towing
Commence towing!
Steer to starboard!
Pay out the towing hawser!
Veer out the tow-line!
Shall I continue the present course?
Continue the present course!
I am keeping away before the sea
Keep away before the sea!
Shell we anchor at once?
I want to anchor at once!
I will go slower.
Go slower!
I am increasing my speed
Increase your speed!
Get spare towing rope ready!
Spare towing hawser is ready!

All fast
Are you ready for towing?
I am commencing to tow.
Shorten in the towing hawser!
I am altering my course to starboard.
I must cast off the towing hawser
Cast off the towing hawser!
The towing hawser has parted
I am stopping my engines.
Stop your engines at once!
I must get shelter or anchor as soon as
possible.
Bring me to shelter or to anchor as
soon as possible.
My engines are going astern
Go astern!
You are standing into danger.
I am paying out the towing hawser.
I cannot carry out your order.

DIALOGUES
1.
Captain: I shall require a tug tomorrow to take my ship to another berth.
Agent: At what time are you going to shift?
Captain: Well be ready to start at about 5 p.m.
Agent: Shall I order the tug for 5 p.m.?
Captain: Yes, thats what I was going to ask you. So, please order the tug to be here by 5
p.m. tomorrow.
Agent: Well, the time is fixed then. Shall I also order the tug beforehand to take you out
of the port?
Captain: Yes, kindly make preliminary arrangements with the tug company for Friday
this week. I am leaving your port on that day.
Agent: What hour shall I order the tug for?
Captain: I cannot tell you the exact hour as yet. I think Ill let you know the exact time
on Wednesday.
Agent: Good, thats settled then. I would advise you to order two tugs, because there is a
very strong current in the entrance and the port tugs are not very powerful.
Captain: How much do they charge for the towage?
Agent: The charge is 15 for each tug to take the ship out of port.

54

Captain: All right. Ill take your advice. Thank you. So, please order two tugs for
Friday.
2.
Captain: Look over there, whats the matter with that ship? They have hoisted the code
flag. Evidently they are going to signal something for us. (To the signalman): Hoist the
answering pendant !
Pilot: Oh, its rather too far away. I cant see so far as that. Let me take my binoculars.
Well, now I see the ship quite clearly. Yes, you are right, they have hoisted the
International Code Flag. If I am not mistaken, thats a Norwegian ship, and the ship is
evidently aground.
Captain: How do you know that the ship is aground?
Pilot: There is a small shoal in that vicinity and they must have run aground. Yes, thats
it. Do you see three black balls one over the other?
Captain: Oh, yes, now I see the balls too. You are right. But how on earth could they
have run against that shoal ! So far as I remember the chart, theres but one shoal in that
area, and it is well off the usual track.
Pilot: I think well soon learn about it. See, they hoisted two other flags below the Code
Flag.
Captain: I can see the flags but I cant distinguish them. I am afraid I must take my
binoculars too.
Pilot: To my mind, thats a two letter signal CB2.
Captain: Yes, there is no doubt about that anymore. I can clearly see the flags now.
These are the flags C and B and pennant 2. Let me see the code book. Oh, here you are.
These group means: I am aground. I require immediate assistance.
Pilot: So they ask you to help them. What are you going to do about that?
Captain: Well, I think we must to help them. Romanian seamen are always ready to help
anyone in trouble. A friend in need, is a friend indeed as the saying goes. Wheres that
code book? Oh, here it is. Thank you.
Pilot: What are you going to signal to that ship?
Captain: Well hoist now the group DN meaning: I am coming to your assistance.
Pilot: Shall we alter the course right away?
Captain: Yes, certainly. (To the helmsman): Port 5 ! Steer for that ship on our port bow.
Better port ! Steady so !
3.
Captain: Unfortunately, I cannot understand them. Evidently they are speaking
Norwegian. You told me you know the Norwegian language, didnt you? Now, can you
act as an interpreter?
Pilot: Ill try to.
Captain: Take this megaphone. Ask them, whats the matter with their ship?
Pilot: The Captain says that their engine was disabled and they were drifted to that shoal.
55

Captain: I see. Ask them, please, what they want us to do?


Pilot: They ask you to tow them off the ground and then to tow them to Rotterdam. They
say they are not very deep in the ground and the hull is not damaged.
Captain: All right, tell them well manoeuvre our ship now so as to come as close as
possible with our stern to their ship. It will take us about an hour or so before we rig the
bridle from our ships quarter.
Pilot: Well, Ive told them as you said. The Captain says that meanwhile they are
preparing the towing hawser at their stern. The Captain wonders how you are going to
pick the towing line up.
Captain: Tell him that well try to pass a heaving line from our stern. In case the
distance wont allow us to do so, they will have to lower the boat to run the hawser to our
stern.
Pilot: The Norwegian Captain thanks you for your arrangements. He wants to know also
in what manner you will signal him while towing off.
Captain: Well use single-letter signals in the usual way, that is either by flags or by
sounding on the ships whistle.
Pilot: The Captain says its all right and wants me to tell you that they will give us a
tow-line from the port quarter.
Captain: Well, everything is fixed then, and I begin to manoeuvre.
4.
Captain: Now that the ship is refloated, well have to make arrangements for towing
her. Ill signal them that I am casting off the tow-line. Can you get into touch with them
through your radio-telephone?
Pilot: Yes, certainly I can. What should I tell them?
Captain: Tell them we are manoeuvring now to come up to her bow. They will have to
pass a towing hawser from their starboard bow. Let them stand by to pick up our heaving
line.
Pilot: Ive told them everything you said. They are ready to pick up your heaving line.
Captain: (in a while) So we got them in tow at last. Ask them if everything is ready for
towing.
Pilot: They say all is ready for towing and the towing hawser is fast.
Captain: Thats all right. Now tell them I commence towing and from now on we shall
communicate by flag signals.

DIALOGUE COMPREHENSION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Dialogue 1
What did the Captain require a tug for?
Who was to order that tug-boat?
What arrangements was the agent to make with the tug company?
When was the Captain going to leave port?
Could he give the agent the exact hour of departure?
56

6. how many tugs did the agent advise the Captain to order and why?
7. Did the Captain take his advice?
Dialogue 2
1. What did the Captain notice on the other ship?
2. What did he order the signalman to do?
3. What did the pilot think about that ship?
4. Was he right in thinking that she was aground?
5. What do there black balls one over the other mean?
6. Were there many shoals in that area?
7. Was that shoal near the usual track?
8. What two-letter signal did the ship hoist?
9. What was the meaning of that signal?
10.
Was the Captain going to help that ship?
11.
What signal did he order to hoist?
12.
How many degrees did the ship alter her course?
Dialogue 3
1. What language did they speak on the ship in distress?
2. Whom did the Captain ask to act as a interpreter?
3. What was the matter with the Norwegian ship?
4. What did the Norwegians ask the Captain to do for them?
5. How far did they ask him to tow their vessel?
6. How was the Captain going to approach that ship?
7. How long would it take the ship to rig the bridle?
8. Where were the Norwegians preparing the towing hawser?
9. Whose boat was to run the hawser to the ships stern?
10.
Was the Norwegian Captain satisfied with the arrangements?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Dialogue 4
What did the Captain say about the Norwegian ship?
What arrangements was he going to make about that ship?
Where was the Norwegian ship to make fast the towing hawser?
Was that ship taken in tow at last?

GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY COMPREHENSION


I. Ask questions using the model:
Model:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Ships may need towing.


What may ships need?

The boat may need some repairing.


They may need some more money.
The tug may need additional towing hawsers.
You may need a good length of manila rope for towing.
57

II. Read and translate into your language:


Very often ships need towing. In many cases they need tugs to take them into or
out of port. They may also need tugs for shifting from one berth to another. As a rule, port
tugs are well equipped and use their own lines and hawsers for towing. In such cases
Masters of ships arrange with the tugs Captain how tow-lines should be secured, which
side should the tug approach the ship, what signals should be used, and so on.
Things are quite different when a ship becomes disabled at sea. She may then
have to ask the nearest vessel for assistance and such a vessel may not be specialised in
towing. In such cases the Masters of both vessels will have to settle many problems
before the actual towing can begin. They must discuss what tow-lines should be used,
how the distressed vessel should be approached, how the lines should be passed over and
secured, and how long the tow-lines must be. Towing a disabled vessel a long way is a
very difficult task because the towing is extremely dangerous.
III. Match the sentences on the left to their corresponding sentences on the right:
A) Shipboard fittings for towing should be
located on longitudinals, beams and/or
girders, .........
B) The acting point of the towing force on
shipboard fittings should be taken ........

1. as indicated on the towing and mooring


arrangements plan.

C) The SWL for the intended use for each


shipboard fitting should be noted in the
towing .............
D) The selection of shipboard fittings should
be made ..........

3. by the shipyard in accordance with


industry standards.

E) The design load used for normal towing


operations (e.g. harbour/manoeuvring)
should be 1.25 times the intended maximum
towing load (e.g. static bollard pull)......

2. at the attachment point of a towing line or


at a change in its direction.

4. which are part of the deck construction so as


to facilitate efficient distribution of the towing
load.
5. and mooring arrangements plan available
on board for the guidance of the Master.

UNIT 8
58

MEDICAL INSPECTION OF THE SHIP

SPEAKING
Who is the first person to come aboard on the ships arrival?
What is the duty of the medical officer of the port?

BASIC TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS


medical officer
infectious disease
to issue
port of call
quarantine
to injure
to fumigate
to hand over
to render assistance
to be X-rayed
to keep the ship in quarantine

to examine
bill of health
pratique
to land
casualty
to authorise
to carry out
to be under duty
to get medical treatment
to muster and line up

On the arrival of a ship in a foreign port, the first person who comes
aboard is the medical officer of the port. His duty is to examine the members of crew for
infectious diseases. He also examines the bill of health which the ship got in her last port
of call.
If the bill of health is clean and there are no infectious diseases on board, the
medical officer issues the Certificate of Practique. This Certificate allows the vessel to
59

enter the port and to discharge her cargo. It also allows the ships crew and passengers to
land.
If the ship has arrived from a port suffering from infectious diseases or if there
have been some cases of infectious aboard the ship during her voyage, the ship is put in
quarantine.
The medical officer is also under duty to examine whether the ship has proper
Certificate of Deratization and disinfection.
In case of some casualty or if there are some sick people on board, the medical
officer renders assistance in placing the injured or sick persons for hospital treatment.
Sometimes Custom officers and Pilots are authorised to give ships free practique,
provided the ships have clean Bills of Health.

Answer the following questions:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

What documents is the medical officer to examine on board?


Who issues the Bill of Health?
In what case is the Certificate of Practique given to the ship?
Who issues the Certificate of Practique?
What does this document allow the ship to do?
What does this document allow the crew and passengers to do?
In what case is the ship put in quarantine?
What assistance does the medical officer render when there are sick or injured persons
aboard?

DIALOGUES
1.
Medical Officer: Good afternoon! Ive come to examine your ship. I am the medical
officer. Have you any sick people on board?
Chief Mate: Yes, two men are badly injured during the storm.
Medical Officer: What injuries did they get?
Chief Mate: One of theme has broken his leg, the other one has sprained his arm.
Medical Officer: Bad luck! Do they get medical treatment?
Chief Mate: Yes, certainly they do, but still they need hospital treatment. They both
must be X-rayed, you know.
Medical Officer: Ill see to that later on, when we have finished with the examination.
Chief Mate: Shall I have all hands mustered and lined up for doctors inspection?
Medical Officer: No, thats not necessary. Have you anybody ill with infectious
diseases? No cases of diarrhoea?
Chief Mate: No, everybody is in good health.
60

Medical Officer: Have you had unusual mortality among threats on board your ship?
Chief Mate: No, we havent. We maintain the ship practically rat free , as we often do
fumigation.
Medical Officer: What was your last port of call?
Chief Mate: Our last port of call was Naples, Italy.
Medical Officer: Show me the latest copy of your declaration, please.
Chief Mate: Here it is. It was issued at Naples.
Medical Officer: Thank you. Its OK. Will you kindly present your Deratization and
disinfection Certificates?
Chief Mate: Here they are. The vessel was fumigated a month ago.
Medical Officer: So, everything is OK. and Ill give you free practique.

2.
Medical Officer: I am sorry, but we have to keep your ship in quarantine.
Captain: Whats the reason for that?
Medical Officer: We are informed about an epidemic of cholera in Hong Kong, where
you were five days ago.
Captain: How long shall we be kept in quarantine?
Medical Officer: According to regulations youll be kept in quarantine for a week. Well
have to carry out disinfection.
Captain: How long will it take to carry out the disinfection?
Medical Officer: It wont take much time, a couple of hours, perhaps.
Captain: All right, you may start then. What other regulations should we carry out?
Medical Officer: All the requirements are stated in this declaration which you must sign
and hand over to me. You may retain a copy of this declaration.
Captain: Thats clear. Anything else?
Medical Officer: Fruits, vegetables, flowers are not allowed to be landed. Besides you
must sign a declaration that you wont land any animals ashore.
Captain: We have no animals, except a dog.
Medical Officer: It is just the same. You must confine your dog and not let it out on
deck.
DIALOGUE COMPREHENSION

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Dialogue 1
How many injured persons were there aboard?
What injuries did they have?
What treatment did they need?
Could they be X-rayed aboard the ship?
Was there anybody ill with infectious diseases?
What did the Chief Mate say about the rat mortality aboard the ship?
61

7. Did the medical officer give free practique to the ship?


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Dialogue 2
Why was the vessel put in quarantine?
How long was she to be kept in quarantine?
How long was the disinfection to take?
What did the medical officer say about fruits, vegetables and flowers?
Could animals be landed ashore in that port?

I.Ask questions using the model:


Model:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

You must have all deck-hands lined up.


Shall we have them lined up at once?

You must have these sailors examined by a doctor.


He must have them taken to hospital.
You must have the ship disinfected.
They must have these people X-rayed.
You must have these holds fumigated.

II.Read and translate into Romanian:


As soon as we arrived at the port, the medical officer came aboard. He examined
our declaration of health and asked if we had any sick persons on board. We had two
sailors badly injured during a storm and he helped us to place them to hospital for
medical treatment. As we had no infectious diseases on board and everybody was
practically quite healthy, he issued the Certificate of Practique at once. Then he asked if
we had unusual rat mortality. But we showed him our Certificate of Deratization, where it
was stated that the ship had been recently fumigated and disinfected. The medical officer
was quite satisfied. He handed over a declaration which the Captain was to sign. Soon we
began making fast to the pier.

UNIT 9
ARRIVING AT A PORT
62

SPEAKING
1. What information must the Chief Officer give the agent in his radiogram?
2. What must be checked before arriving in the port?

Before arrival of a ship in the port of call the Master should notify his
agent and the port control of the ship's ETA, giving particulars of the ship and her cargo.
Depending on the distance of the ship from the port, the notice of arrival can be sent by
wireless telegraphy, or more likely today, by satellite communication (telex or fax), and
radiotelephony (MF and VHF).
Here is an example of the VHF exchange between the Master of the container ship
Moonlight and the Newport Port Control
opening
MASTER - Newport Port Control, Newport Port Control. This is the vessel Moonlight.
How do you read me? Over.
- NEWPORT PORT CONTROL (NPC): Moonlight. This is Newport Port Control.
I read you excellent (loud and clear). Switch to channel one - two. Over.
MASTER - Switching to Channel1 - 2. Over.
after a while
MASTER - Newport Port Control. This is Moonlight - AGW5, on channel 1-2. I am
spelling my name for you: MOONLIGHT, Mike - Oscar - Oscar -November - Lima 63

India - Golf- Hotel - Tango. Call sign: Alfa - Golf- Whiskey


- Five. Over.
message
-

PORT CONTROL - Moonlight. Understood. What is your ETA


Fairway Buoy?
MASTER - Newport Port Control. This is Moonlight. My ETA Fairway Buoy is:
tomorrow, April the seventh, 08.30 hours local time. My maximum draught is 9.8 metres
and my draught forward is 8.7 metres.
- NEWPORT PORT CONTROL - Moonlight. What is your last port of call and your next
port of call, please? Over.
MASTER - My last port of call is Bombay, India. My next port of call is Hamburg. Over.
- NEWPORT PORT CONTROL - What is your cargo? Over.
MASTER - I am a fully cellular container vessel. I have general cargo in containers on
hoard. Total number of containers is 1,432. My deadweight tonnage is 27,865 tons.
- NEWPORT PORT CONTROL - Have you got any dangerous cargo on board?
MASTER: I have 785 tons of dangerous cargo, IMO Class 4.2, in containers on deck,
- NEWPORT TORT CONTROL - Understood. Call me again when you are three miles off
the Fairway buoy. Stand by on channel 1 - 2 for further instructions regarding
berthing instructions.
NEWPORT

closing
- Understood. I shall call you again when three miles off the Fairway Buoy.
Standing by on channel 1 - 2. Over and out.
MASTER

REPORTING - Vessels over 40m LOA or over 50 gt and tugs engaged in


towing, must report to the relevant VTS Centre when passing Waypoints as indicated on
approved charts. They must also inform London VTS before the vessel navigates the
Thames and obtain clearance from the relevant VTS Centre so to do.
PILOTAGE - The requirements for compulsory pilotage in the Port of London are
contained in the PLAs Pilotage Directions. The services of a pilot can be obtained
through your Agent, or by calling the following pilot stations on VHF Channel 9, NE Spit
Pilots (Ramsgate), Sunk Pilots (Harwich), Sheerness Pilots (Warp) and London Pilots.
NAVIGATION WITHIN PORT LIMITS - Masters must advise London VTS which
approach channel they intend to use. Vessels with a draught of 6.0 metres or less should
use the Barrow Deep or Princes Channel, waiting when necessary for sufficient height of
tide to transit these channels. Any vessel uncertain of its position should call the relevant

64

VTS Centre immediately. Large scale charts of the river may be obtained through local
Agents.
SPECIFIED VESSELS - Are defined in General Directions and covers vessels
carrying quantities of explosives, or flammable or toxic substances in bulk or non gasfree following discharge of such cargoes. These vessels are required to display a red flag
by day and an all round red light by night. All vessels should maintain a half-mile
separation from specified vessels. Permission is required from the Harbour Master
before reducing that separation or overtaking a specified vessel.
RESTRICTED VISIBILITY (less than 0.5 nautical mile) - All vessels over 40m LOA
must have an operational radar to navigate in restricted visibility. Additionally, all
unpiloted vessels or vessels without a valid Pilotage Exemption Certificate holder in
charge, having a draught in excess of 4.0 metres, are not permitted to navigate in
Restricted Visibility. Vessels so prohibited, must proceed to nearest safe anchorage and
wait until visibility improves to more than 0.5 nautical mile, or the arrival of a PLA pilot,
if so requested.
DANGEROUS NAVIGATION - Masters are advised that navigating without due care
and attention, or navigating in a manner liable to injure or endanger persons, other vessels
or structures such as berths or jetties (this includes damage caused by wash or draw off
due to excessive speed), is an offence liable to prosecution. The Harbourmaster will
vigorously investigate any such infringements.
INCIDENTS - Vessels must advise the Harbourmaster immediately (through the relevant
VTS Centre) if involved in any of the following incidents: Collision, sinking, fire,
grounding, pollution, damage to vessel or structure, foul or lost anchor.
ANCHORING - Except in an emergency, vessels must only anchor in designated
anchorages as shown on approved charts. An effective bridge watch should be
maintained whilst at anchor.
DEFECTS - Vessels with structural, mechanical or equipment defects affecting their
ability to navigate safely, must inform the Harbourmaster of the defect. Such vessels
shall not move without having obtained the consent of the Harbourmaster.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES - When a Port Emergency or Major Incident is in
progress, the Master of every vessel must for the duration of the incident:

Minimise transmissions on VHF.


Proceed with caution when near the incident and follow directions as given by
London VTS or the on-scene co-ordinating vessel.
65

Give assistance as required.

Approaches
There are 2 entrances: the main one is situated between the central and northern
breakwaters, with leading lights on a heading of 27351'. Entrance is about 260 m. wide,
with a depth over 36 m. in the middle, and may be used day and night.
NOTE
Vessels entering should be lined up on the leading lights/marks 1 mile before entrance
and ships departing 0.5 miles before exit. In case of controversy Harbour Master will ask
for documentation of above positions.
Santa Panagia is an open road and berthing to ISAB Terminal is allowed in daytime only.
A current may cross the entrance after prolonged periods of windy weather. The leading
lights/marks are sometimes obscured by smoke from the industrial plants in the Southern
part of the harbour. Naval vessels and outbound traffic have the right of way when
passing through the harbour entrance.
DIALOGUES
1.
Customs and Immigration Officers' Examination
-

OFFICER - I am the customs officer and here is the immigration


officer. How do you do. Master?
MASTER - How do you do?
- CUSTOMS OFFICER - TO Facilitate and speed up the inspection 1 would ask you to
produce the following documents: clearance from the last port of call, 3 copies of the
Crew List, 6 copies of the Passenger List in transit and disembarking in this port, 2
copies of your Cargo Manifest and the Stores and Provision List.
MASTER - You will have them in a minute.
- IMMIGRATION OFFICER - May T have 6 copies of the Crew List, Passenger List in
transit and disembarking here, all the seamen's books and the passports of the
passengers?
MASTER - Certainly, officer.
- CUSTOMS OFFICER - Here is a blank form. Will you please fill it in? MASTER - I'll do it
right away.
- CUSTOMS OFFICER -I shall seal the spirits and cigarettes. When you want to unseal the
store-room for your daily requirements, ask the agent to call in a Customs officer.
MASTER -1 don't think we shall need to unseal it.
- CUSTOMS OFFICER - By the way, do you know that each crew member is
allowed not more than two packets of cigarettes when going ashore? MASTER -I
know that.
CUSTOMS

66

-1 shall issue Passes for the crew and passengers. Please


arrange to collect them after they have been used before the ship's departure.
MASTER - Yes, certainly.
IMMIGRATION OFFICER

2.
Health Officer's Examination
-

HEALTH OFFICER - As you know, my duty is to prevent the introduction of


infectious diseases, insects or pests into the country.
SHIP'S DOCTOR - Yes. At your service. Sir.
- HEALTH OFFICER - Have you had any sick cases on board during the voyage?
Is anyone sick now?
SHIP'S DOCTOR - No, we haven't. Everyone is well.
- HEALTH OFFICER - Will you show me the Port Sanitary Statements from the
previous ports and your fumigation certificate, one copy of the Crew List, a
Passenger List and also the Cargo Manifest.
SHIP'S DOCTOR - You will find all these documents in this file.
- HEALTH OFFICER - Thank you, doctor. May I have your Vaccination
Certificates?
SHIP'S DOCTOR - Here you are. As you see, some passengers were vaccinated on
board the ship.
- HEALTH OFFICER - Fill in this blank, please.
SHIP'S DOCTOR - That's right, isn't?
- HEALTH OFFICER - YES, that's O.K. Haul down the yellow flag. Here is your
free pratique, which permits you to proceed to your berth.
SHIP'S DOCTOR - Thank you. Good-bye.

DIALOGUE COMPREHENSION
1.How does the Pilot board the ship?
2. What does the Master want to know from the port authority or the harbour master?
3. Explain the role and assistance given by the Pilot when arriving in the port.
4. Who are the boarding officers?
5. Which documents are required by the Customs Officer?
6. What is the duty of the Immigration Officer?
7. What does the Customs Officer seal and unseal?
8. What is the duty of the Health Officer?
9. Which documents arc kept in the Health Officers file?
10. What is free pratique?
Santa Panagia
67

Masters are cautioned when approaching Santa Panagia by night as there are no
navigational aids in this area. Only 2 lighthouses (Murro di Porco Lighthouse to the
South and Cape S. Croce Lighthouse to the North) can be used to fix the position of the
vessel. In the landfall however, their bearings are opposite and therefore useless. Radar
must be in good operating condition. Tunny nets are laid down in the area and marks can
be temporarily missing and small Fishing boats engaged in net fishing may be
encountered up to 8 miles from the coast; these boats carry no special marks or lights to
indicate that they are using nets.
Naval ships quite often exercise off the East coast of Sicily, particularly in an area
including Augusta to the North and extending well South of Syracuse. Two submarine
exercise areas are close to this part of the coast.
d. A current may cross the entrance of the bay as well as the terminal area after prolonged
periods of windy weather.

ARRIVAL AT A PORT
Setting - off port of New York, Atlantic Ocean
Speakers - Master (Italy) - ST. Ambroze Pilot (US)
Topic(s) - Arrival notice 1
M - Ambroze Pilot, This is Venice Express. Over.
P - Oh. Good morning. Sir. Can I have your ETA Ambroze?
M - My ETA is approximately 09.00. Over.
P - OK. Roger, Sir. Can I have your deep draft, please?
M - Our deep draft is 09.80 meters, 0-9-8-0 meters.
P - OK, Sir. Starboard side ladder, and are you approaching Ambroze from the south or from
east?
M - From the east, from the east. Over.
P - Yes, Sir, please call pilot boat again passing November Bravo Buoy. Pilot on arrival, and pilot
ladder on starboard side.
M - OK. Thank you. Pilot on arrival and pilot ladder on starboard side.
P - Yes, Sir. Come back, standing by on 16.
M - OK, come back. 1-6

BEFORE ARRIVAL
Publications and administration prepared and in order
Master Chief Mate Chief Engineer ... briefing
Master Order Chief Mate Order Chief Engineer and 2nd Eng. Order
exposed
Port, Anchorage and-or Terminal Rules Contingency Ship Shore
Ships Operators instructions received and confirmed
DPA and off hours known
68

Self assessment done ( Separate ppt for Self assessment)


Agent informed and details exchanged
Cargo documentation prepared
Check lists Operational Critical - Working
Passage Planning developed in advance for Pilot passage planning and
River- Port details including Abort line, Contingency points, Margins of
Safety etc (Separate presentation of BRM - PP)
Arrival documentation as per Company, BA publications and GPE
Check for additional updates
Master Pilot Exchange
Arrival Notice
BWM, ORB .....Sludge, Sewage ....
Last Circular and Fleet letters
Bridge staff is familiar both with spelling and shipping letters

GENUA
Ship store declaration
Crew effects declaration
Cargo declaration
Crew list
General declaration
Passenger lists
Schedule of health declaration
Money declaration
Vaccination list
Dangerous Goods Declaration
Notification in advance Schengen-Non Schengen Signing on Signing off
DOCUMENTATION TO CHECK
- Ship Inspections
- Certificates Service Dates Due
- Manuals/Publications/Logbooks etc
- Crew Management
- Planned Maintenance System
- Training & Emergency Drills Record
- Accident/Incident Reporting
- Drug and Alcohol
- Register of Lifting Appliances/Mooring Equipment Documentation
- Other
- Security
BRIDGE IN ORDER CHECK !
- Radars
- Echo Sounder
- Speed Indicating Device Instrumentation
69

Standard and Gyro Compasses


Charts, Publications etc.
Passage Planning
Master's Standing Orders
Steering Gear
Manoeuvring characteristics
Sextants
Chronometers
Muster Lists
Pyrotechnics
Man Overboard Lifebuoys
Lifejackets
Fire Detection System
Signalling Equipment
Deck Log
Garbage Disposal
Contingency Planning
Fire Control Plan
Other

CHECK RADIO EQUIPMENTGMDSS


- Main Aerials
- Emergency Transmission Instructions
- Communications Systems Fitted
- Walky Talkies
- Radio Log
- Radio Notices
- Emergency Radio Batteries
- Aerials Condition
- EPIRBs
- SARTs
SEE IF LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES ARE IN ORDER
- Lifeboats
- Lifeboat Air Bottles (If fitted)
- Lifeboat Fire Protection (if fitted)
- Life-rafts
- Rescue Boat
- Davits
- Lifebuoys
- Lifejackets
- Immersion Suits
- Thermal Protective Aids
- Emergency Escape Breathing Devices
FIRE FIGHTING & EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT
70

Emergency Equipment Stations


Chemical Outfits (Inc. BA Sets)
Fixed Gas Flooding Systems
Fixed DP System
Fixed Foam Systems
Fixed Water Spray System
Other Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems
Breathing Apparatus Compressor
Other Breathing Equipment
Fire Hoses/Boxes
Fire Line and Hydrants
Foam Hose Stations
Foam Monitors
Foam Line and Hydrants
International Shore Connection
Fire Control Plans
Fire Flaps and Dampers
Spare Charges for all Extinguishers
Other

SEE WITH MATE AND HIS OFFICERS IF ALL IN ORDER ON DECK


- Anchoring Equipment
- Mooring Equipment
- External Watertight Doors
- Main Deck Openings W/T Integrity
- Pilot Ladders
- Gangways & Accommodation Ladders
- Condition of Deck
- Flame Screens
- Sounding Pipes and Vents
- Paint Lockers & Flammable Liquid Lockers
- Safety Clothing
- Stores Cranes Etc
- Oxy/Acetylene Bottles
- Pump Rooms, Voids, Duct Keels or Tunnel Spaces
- (As appl.)....
CARGO DECK
- Cargo Spaces Venting System
- Deck and Cargo Deck Lighting
- Cargo Handling Equipment
- Closed Operating Conditions
- Inert Gas System (If Fitted)
- Vapour Emission Control System
- Cargo Tank Holds/Hatches
- Drains and Scuppers
71

Cargo Valves and Pipelines


Drip Tray/Manifolds
Oil Spill Clean-up Materials
Other
Pump-rooms
Automatic Draft Gauges
Ballast Handling
Void and Ballast Spaces
Cargo Pump Controls Alarms/Trips
Cargo Transfer Procedures
Cargo Stability/Stress Finder
Cargo Planning/Records
Checklists
High Level Alarms
Crude Oil Washing
Ullage / Temp Gauge System
Gas Detection Equipment
Inert Gas System (CCR)
Sounding Routines
Cargo Instrumentation

ENGINE ROOM
- Engine Control Room
- Oil Transfer Procedures (Bunkering)
- Switchboards
- Emergency Alarm Switches / Alarms
- Steering Flat
- Emergency Fire Pump
- Workshop and ER Stores
- Incinerator
- Sewage Unit
- Purifier Room
- IG Plant (If fitted)
- Deck Spray System (If fitted)
- Emergency Bilge Suction
- Main Fire Pumps
- Sounding Caps
- Oily Water Separator
- Bilges & Tank Tops
- Engine Room - General
- Emergency Exits/Fire Doors
- E.R. Fire fighting Equipment
- Safety Clothing
- Emergency Generator
- Emergency Lighting
- MSDS
72

REQUIREMENTS BY AUTHORITIES
- National Flag
- Port State
- MARPOL
- U.S.C.G. (TVEL..etc)
- Charterers
CERTIFICATES Check Certificates - Issued - Expires - Ann Due
- 01 International Load line
- 02 Safety Construction
- 03 Safety Equipment
- 04 Safety Radio
- 05 International Oil Pollution
- 051 Int. Sewage Pollution (New vessels)
- 06 NLS Certificate
- 07 Int. Tonnage Cert.
- 08 Safe Manning
- 09 Shipboard Management SMC DOC
- 12 U.S. Financial Responsibility (California Cert now required also)
- 12.1 California CFR (if applicable)
- 12.2 Alaska CFR (if applicable)
Are our publications in order?
Flag Regulations (Depends on Flag)
USCG regs (CFR 33, 35 ...) on board Panama Canal Maritime Regs
LSA Code
- FSS Code (2001)
- Fire Training Manual
- Consolidated MARPOL (2002)
- IMDG Code and supplement
- Medical Guide (Ship Captains/WHO)
- Bridge Procedures guide (1998
- Prevention of Collision Regulations (2002)
- STCW 95 (1997) + amendment 1 & 2
- Guide to Helicopter Operations
Bridge Team Management
Code of Safe Working Practice (2002)
GMDSS Handbook Yes/No
International Code of Signals (IMO 1987)
(Inc amendments to 2000)
IMO Routing (7th)
Mariners Handbook
73

Annual Summary Notices to Mariners


OCIMF Mooring Equipment Guidelines(1997)
(And/Or Effective Mooring Guide)
Inert Gas System (1990)
Crude Oil Washing (2000)
Clean Seas Guide (4th Edition 1994)
Ship to Ship Transfer Guide (1997)
Recommendations for Oil Tanker Manifolds
ISGOTT (4th Edition 1996)
Prevention of Spillage Through Cargo
Pump-room Sea Valves (2nd Edition 1991)
LOGBOOKS
Official Log, or equivalent, up to date
Oil Record Books in order and up to date
Cargo Record Book (MARPOL Annex II)
DG/Hazmat File with Data Sheets
US DOT Hazmat Reg. No. available
BWM
Operations Manuals updated
Approved Loading & Damage Stability Data
Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual
Approved COW Manual
IG Operations Manual
Nitrogen Gas Operations Manual
Cargo Information Manual
VRP and USCG approval letter available
Annual Review carried out
Approved MARPOL plan available
OFFICERS AND CREW - CERTIFICATION
Certificate of Familiarization in Oil Tankers
Certificate of Advanced Course in Oil Tankers
Certificate of General Radio Operator
Certificate on Survival Proficiency
Certificate of Special Survival Proficiency
Medical Care
Basic fire fighting
Advanced firefighting
Advanced Gas tankers operations Certificate
Security ISPS
IMO STANDARD MARINE COMMUNICATION PHRASES
III/6.1.1- Acquiring and providing routine traffic data

74

What
is
your
name,
call
sign/identification?
- My name ..., call sign/identification ....
What is your flag state?
- My flag state ....
What is your position?
- My position ....
What is your present course and speed?
- My present course ... decrees, speed ... knots.
From what direction are you approaching?
- I am approaching from ....
What is your destination?
- My destination ....
What was your last port of call?
- My last port of call....
What is your ETA in
My ETA ... hours local time.

position

...

What is your draft forward/aft?


- My draft forward/aft... metres.
What is your maximum draft ?
- My maximum draft... metres.
What is your air draft?
- My air draft... metres.
What is your full manoeuvring speed?
- My full manoeuvring speed ... knots.
What is your cargo?
- My cargo ....
Do you carry any dangerous goods?
- Yes, I carry following dangerous goods:... kilograms/tonnes IMO Class .
- No, I do not carry any dangerous goods.
Do you have any deficiencies/restrictions?
- No, I have no deficiencies/restrictions.
- Yes, I have following deficiencies/restrictions: .
MV... hampered by draft.
Maximum permitted draft... metres.
Do you have any list?
- Yes, I have list to port/starboard of... degrees.

75

- No, I have no list.


Are you trimmed by the head/stern?
- Yes, I am trimmed by the head/stern by ... metres.
- No, I am not trimmed by the head/stern.
Are you on even keel?
- Yes, I am on even keel.
-No, I am trimmed by the head/stern.

1. Fill in the gaps with the following verbs


be indicate be locate be wait alter be obtain be clear keep
facilitate
FLYING DOLPHIN - Fishaven. This 1. ___________ Flying Dolphin. Over.
- FISHAVEN PORT CONTROL - Flying Dolphin this 2._____________
Fishaven Port Control. 3. ____________ your position to 4. _____________
identification.
FLYING DOLPHIN- F.P.C. this is Flying Dolphin. I 5. ____________ under way. My
position 6. ______________ 350 6 miles from White Lock. My position has been 7.
______________ by satellite. Over.
- FISHAVEN PORT CONTROL - Flying Dolphin, I have 8. _________ you on my
radar. You 9. ______________ for a large vessel to 10. ____________ Red Lock
before entering fairway. You must 11. ____________ your present speed. Advise you
12. _________________________ course to 190. What 13. _____________ your
draught forward and aft?
2. Request I. Re-arrange the sentences following the examples below:
a. Fill it in!
b. Fill it in, please
c. Please, fill it in.
d. Will you fill it in, please?
e. Will you please fill it in?
f. Would/Will you be so kind as to fill it in?
1. Show me the Dock Pass.
2. Fill in the blank spaces.
3. Make up a radiogram for the agent.
4. Hand over the Crew List.
5. Take the pilot to Peak Point.
6. Alter course to 115 degrees.
7. Wait for the container vessel to clear your stem.
8. Change to channel 12.
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3. Requests II. Re-arrange the sentences following the examples below:


a. Show me your Vaccination Certificate.
b. May I have your Vaccination Certificate, please?
c. Do you mind showing me your Vaccination Certificate?
d. Let me have a look at your Vaccination Certificate.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Show me your Dock Pass.


Hand me your Cargo Manifest.
Give me six copies of the Outward Clearance.
Notify your latest ETA in our port.
4.

Find the verbs corresponding to the following nouns:

Writing
The dialogues a. b. c. are not in the correct chronological order. Rearrange them as
appropriate and write a description of the duties of the Master or Officer of the watch
when arriving in a port,
Arriving in the Roads of the Port of Hamburg
A - Motor tanker Muter
B - Elbe Pilot
a.
A - Elbe Pilot, Elbe Pilot. Murter, Murter. Good evening. Over.
B - Murter, Elbe Pilot. What is your position. Sir?
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A - Er, Sir, I'm three miles from Elbe light vessel.


B - Three miles from Elbe Pilot light vessel. Yes, Captain. Pilot ladder port side,
one foot above water. For your information, my position is close to Buoy No. 1. A Roger, Sir.
B - Keep your vessel first straight ahead and then turn a little to port to make a
good lee for the pilot boat.
A - Roger, Sir. I shall keep straight ahead and then turn a little to port. I have you on my
screen. You are the big vessel 6 miles ahead of me. Is that correct?
B - Yes, that's correct. And, another question, Sir. Could you take one passenger
pilot up to Brunsbuettel? Is it possible?
A -Roger, Sir, positive. I confirm: one passenger pilot.
B - Thank you very much, indeed. Captain. Stand by on Channel 0 - 8.
A - Roger, stand by on Channel 0 - 8.
b.
A - Deutsche Bucht. Murter. CCY8.
B - Murter. Deutsche Bucht. Good afternoon.
A - Good afternoon. Sir. I'm just passing Delta Bravo 1 -3. Over.
B - Yes. Your maximum draught.
A - My maximum draught is 5.5 metres. Last port of call Felixtowe. Destination
Hamburg. Over.
B - Yeah. and ETA Light Vessel Elbe?
A - ETA Light Elbe 19.30. Over.
B - O.K. Thank you. Please call me again when you are abeam of D - B 1 - 7.
A - Roger, Sir. I will give you a call back when abeam of D - B 1 - 7.
B - Thank you. Good voyage.
c.
A -Elbe Pilot, Elbe Pilot. Murter, Murter. Good evening. Over.
B - Murter. This is Elbe Pilot. Good evening. Over.
A - Good evening. Sir. Now I'm 14 miles from Elbe Light Vessel. This means that
in about one hour and fifteen minutes I will he at the Pilot Station. Over.
B -Yes, 19.45 at the Pilot Station. Your gross tonnage and maximum draught, please.
A - Roger, Sir: Gross tonnage is 78,322, and maximum draught is 9.6 metres.
B - Please repeat your gross tonnage.
A - Gross tonnage is 7-8-3-2-2, seventy-eight thousand three hundred and
twenty-two, I repeal 7-8-3-2-2. Over. B - Yes, thank you. And your port of
destination, Murter? A -Port of destination is Hamburg, Hamburg. Over.
B - Yes, Hamburg. Thank you very much. Captain, and please call me back when
3 miles west of Elbe 1 light vessel.
A -Roger, Sir. I'll call you back 3 miles before Elbe 1 light vessel. Thank you. B -Thank
you. Captain.

78

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Blakey, T.N. English For Maritime Studies. 2nd ed. Hemel Hempstead, Prentice Hall
International (UK) Ltd, 1987 (ISBN 0 13 281379 3)
Carter, Hughes & McCarthy: 2000. Exploring Grammar in Context with Answers.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Upper-intermediate to advance)
Eastwood J. 2001. 9 th impression. Oxford Practice Grammar. Oxford: OxfordUniversity
Press. (Intermediate to upper-intermediate).
Georgescu, M., Outboard Communications, Editura Nautica, Constanta, 2010, (ISBN
978-606-8105-13-0).
Murphy, J. 2004. 3 Rdedition. English Grammar in Use. Cambridge, Cambridge
University Press. (Intermediate to upper-intermediate).
Nettle, M. and Hopkins, D. 2003. Developing Grammar in Context. Grammar reference
and practice Cambridge University Press. (Intermediate)
1974 SOLAS Convention, as amended, chapter IV on Radiocommunications.
Radio Regulations, Appendix 18, Table of Transmitting Frequencies in the VHF
Maritime Mobile Band.
Resolution A. 917(22), as amended by resolution A.956(23) on Guidelines for the
onboard operational use of shipborne automatic identification systems (AISs).
Resolution A. 918(22) on IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMCP).
Standard Marine Communication Phrases. 2001.London: IMO
Swan M. 1997. Second edition. Practical English Usage. Oxford: OxfordUniversity
Press. (Intermediate to advance).
Van Kluijven, P. C. 2003.The International Maritime Language Programme.(IMLP)
CD- ROM. Alkmaar: Alk & Heijnen Publishers. Maritime English CD-ROM
Vince, M. & Sunderland, P. 2003. Advanced Language Practice With Key.
Oxford: MacMillan.

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Walker, E. & Elsworth, S. 2000.Grammar Practice for Upper IntermediateStudents (with


key). Harlow, Essex: Longman.West, C. 2002. Recycling Advanced English New Edition
With Key. GeorgianPress.

Weeks, R, Glover A., Johnson E., Strevens P. Seaspeak Training Manual and cassette.
Plymouth, Capt. F. Weeks, 1997 (ISBN 0 08 031555 0)

WEBOGRAPHY
http://www.atrexx.com/maritime-vsat/maritime-vsat-applications/
http://www.fotopedia.com/items/flickr-6077667504
http://www.warshipsifr.com/LegacySite/burningShip.html
http://nfsl.navy.mil.ph/ http://www.defense.gov/photos/newsphoto.aspx?
newsphotoid=1303
www.pfri.uniri.hr/~bopri/
http://worldmaritimenews.com/archives/49507
http://www.bnmarin.se/marin/gmdss
http://www.icselectronics.co.uk/support/kb/gmdss
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vessel_traffic_service

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