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PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES 1 (SKKK 1113)

SEMESTER 2 SESSION 2014/2015


ASSIGNMENT 2
Topic: Fundamentals of Material Balance and
Single Unit Process Material Balance Calculations
Published Date: 12 March 2015 (in e-learning)
Submission Dateline: 19 March 2015 (during class)
Instructions: Write the solutions in an A4-sized paper. Start a new problem on a new page. Please
also include a cover page containing information on the subject name and code, semester and
session, assignment number and topic, lecturers name, section number, your name and matric
number.

Question 1
Draw and label the given streams and derive expressions for the indicated quantities in terms of
labeled variables. See example in Question 4.4 (a) in Felder & Rousseaus book.
(a) The feed to a batch process contains equimolar quantities of nitrogen and methane.
Write an expression for the kilograms of nitrogen in terms of the total moles n (mol) of
this mixture.
(b) A stream containing ethane, propane and butane has a mass flow rate of 100 g/s. Write
an expression for the molar flow rate of ethane, nE (lb-mole C2H6/h), in terms of the mass
fraction of this species, xE.
(c) The product from a batch reactor contains NO, NO2 and N2O4. The mole fraction of NO
is 0.400. Write an expression for the gram-moles of N2O4 in terms of n (mol mixture) and
yO2 (mol NO2/mol)

Question 2
A water solution containing 10 % acetic acid is added to a water solution containing 30 % acetic
acid flowing at a rate of 20 kg/min. The product P of the combination leaves at a rate of 100
kg/min. For this process:
(a) Determine how many independent balances can be written
(b) List the names of the balances
(c) Determine how many unknowns variables can be solved for
(d) List their names and symbol
(e) Determine the composition of P

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Question 3
A cellulose solution contains 5.2 % cellulose by weight in water. How many kilograms of 1.2 %
solution are required to dilute 100 kg of the 5.2 % solution to 4.2 %?

Question 4
One thousand kilograms per hour of a mixture containing equal parts by mass of methanol and
water is distilled. Product streams leave the top and the bottom of the distillation column. The flow
rate of the bottom stream is measured and found to be 673 kg/h, and the overhead stream is
analyzed and found to contain 96.0 wt % methanol.
(a) Draw and label a flowchart of the process and do the degree-of-freedom analysis.
(b) Calculate the mass (kg/kg) and mole fractions (mol/mol) of methanol and the molar flow
(mol/hr) rates of methanol and water in the bottom product stream.
(c) Suppose the bottom product stream is analyzed and the mole fraction of methanol is
found to be significantly higher than the value calculated in part (b). List as many
possible reasons for the discrepancy as you can think of. Include in your list, possible
violations of assumptions made in part (b).

Question 5
Two aqueous sulfuric acid solutions containing 20.0 wt % H2SO4 (SG = 1. 139) and 60.0 wt %
H2SO4 (SG = 1.498) are mixed to form a 4.00 molar solution (SG = 1.213).
(a) Calculate the mass fraction (kg/kg) of sulfuric acid in the product solution.
(b) Taking 100 kg of the 20 % feed solution as a basis, draw and label a flowchart of this
process, labeling both masses and volumes, and do the degree-of-freedom analysis.
Calculate the feed ratio (liters 20% solution/liter 60% solution).
(c) What feed rate of the 60% solution (L/h) would be required to produce 1250 kg/h of the
product?

Question 6
Consider the following process for recovering NH3 from a gas stream composed of N2 and NH3
(see figure below). Flowing upward through the process is the gas stream, which can be contain
NH3 and N2 but not solvent S, and flowing downward through the device is a liquid stream which
can contain NH3 and liquid S but not N2. The weight fraction of NH3 in the gas stream A leaving
the process is related to the weight fraction of NH3 in the liquid stream B leaving the process by
the following empirical relationship:
yNH3, A = 2xNH3,B

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Given the data given in the figure below, redraw and label the flowcharts, do the degree of
freedom analysis and calculate the flow rates and compositions of streams A and B.
A
Gas

1000 kg/hr
100 % Liquid Solvent, S

Process

1000 kg/hr
10 mole % NH3
90 mole % N2

Liquid
B

Question 7
200 dm3/hr liquid mixture of acetone-water that contains 10.0 wt % acetone is fed into an
extractor. 400 dm3/hr of chloroform at 25 0C is used as a liquid solvent to extract acetone from
the acetone-water mixture. The densities of the feed streams are given in Table 1. Assume that
there is no chloroform in the raffinate stream and water is immiscible with chloroform (does not
mix). The mass fraction of acetone in the extract stream is related to the mass fraction of
acetone in the raffinate stream by the following relationship.
mass fraction of acetone in the extract stream
mass fraction of acetone in the raffinate stream = 1.72
(a)
(b)

Draw the flowchart, label the process streams and do the degrees of freedom analysis for
this system (clearly identify the unknowns and the independent equations).
Calculate the percentage (%) of the acetone in the feed that comes out as extract.
Table 1: Densities of the feed streams to the extractor
Feed stream
Acetone-Water
Chloroform

Density (kg/dm3)
0.974
1.489

Question 8
Ammonia gas (NH3) can be utilised as a reliable analytical methods to determine the flow rate of
other gases in pipeline. To measure the flow in a natural gas pipeline, pure ammonia gas is
injected into the pipeline at a constant rate of 4252.94 mol/min. Five miles downstream from the
injection point, the steady-state ammonia concentration is found to be 0.382 weight %. The gas

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upstream from the point of ammonia injection contains no measurable ammonia. Molecular
Weight: N = 14 g/mol, O = 16 g/mol, C = 12 g/mol and H = 1 g/mol.
(a) Draw and completely label the flow chart for this operation.
(b) How many kilograms of natural gas are following through the pipelines per second?

Question 9
Membranes represent a relatively new technology for the separation of gases. One use that is
being studied is the separation of nitrogen and oxygen from air. 100 mole/min of air is fed to a
membrane and the gas stream is split into two streams, a product and a waste. The product
stream account for 20% of the feed and has an oxygen concentration of 25 mole%.
(a) Draw and completely label the flow chart for this operation.
(b) Determine the flow rate (mole/min) of product and waste stream.
(c) Calculate the mass fraction of oxygen in the waste stream?

Question 10
Slurry of CaCO3 (s) in NaOH and H2O is washed with a solution of equal mass contains 5 wt %
NaOH in water. There are two outputs for this process, i.e., slurry and clear solution. The washed
and settled slurry contains 2 lbm of solution per lbm of solid CaCO3. The solution in the settled
slurry is having same composition as the clear solution withdrawn from the unit. If the feed slurry
contained equal mass fractions of all components:
(a) Sketch and label th process
(b) Calculate the composition (%) of each component in the clear solution
(c) What happen to the composition of clear solution when we increase the feed rate
without changing the existing composition?

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