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# 31

Lecture 5.

## Ideal Gas Calculations

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

## An ideal gas is an imaginary gas that obeys exactly the

following relationship:

PV = nRT
where P = absolute pressure of the gas
V = total volume occupied by the gas
n = number of moles of the gas
R = ideal gas constants in appropriate units
T = absolute temperature of the gas

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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## The Ideal Gas Constant, R

R = 1.987 cal/(gmol)(K)
= 1.987 Btu/(lbmol)(0R)
= 10.73 (psia)(ft3)/(lbmol)(0R)
= 8.314 (kPa)(m3)/(kmol)(K)
= 8.314 J/(gmol)(K)
= 82.06 (atm)(cm3)/(gmol)(K)
= 0.08206 (atm)(L)/(gmol)(K)
= 21.9 (in. Hg)(ft3)/(lbmol)(0R)
= 0.7302 (atm)(ft3)/(lbmol)(0R)

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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## Several arbitrarily specified standard states of temperature

and pressure have been selected by custom.
System

TS

PS

VS

nS

SI

273.15 K

101.325 kPa

22.415 m3

1 kmol

Am. Eng.

4920R

1 atm

359.05 ft3

1 lbmol

Natural Gas
Industry

333.15 K

14.696 psia

379.4 ft3

1 lbmol

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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## Butane (C4H10) at 3600C and 3.00 atm absolute flows into a

reactor at a rate of 1100 kg/h. Calculate the volumetric flow
rate of this stream.
Method A. Computation using a known value of R.
The ideal gas equation in terms of flowrate:

PV nRT
V n

or P RT
t
t
t t

P V = n RT

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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## Solving for volumetric flowrate:

n RT
V=
P
Obtaining the molar flowrate from mass flowrate:

m
1100 kg / h
n=

19.0 kmol / h
MW 58 kg / kmol

## T = 633 K and P = 3 atm

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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## Using the following value of R:

L atm 1000gmol
L atm
R 0.08206
82.06

gmol K 1kmol
kmol K
The volumetric flowrate is

V=

## n RT (19.0kmol / h)(82.06 L atm / kmol K)(633K)

P
3atm

L 1m3
m3
V =328,978.5
329
h 1000 L
h

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

SLIDE

## Method B. By comparison to standard conditions

PV
nT

PS VS n STS
Using a basis of 1 hr, then n = 19 kmol
The following standard conditions will be used.
PS = 1 atm
VS = 22.41 m3
nS = 1 kmol
TS = 273 K

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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## Example 5-1. Ideal Gas Calculation

Solving for V:

n T P
V S VS
n S TS P
19.0kmol 633K 1atm
3
V
22.415m
273K 3atm
1kmol

V 329m 3
In terms of volumetric flowrate

m3
V = 329
h

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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## Ten cubic feet of air at 700F and 1 atm is heated to 6100F

and compressed to 2.5 atm. What volume does the gas
occupy in its final state?
Let 1 denote the initial state of the gas and 2 the final state.

P1V1 n1T1 T1

P2 V2 n 2T2 T2
Solving for V2:
0

P1 T2

1.00
atm

1070
R
3
3
V2 V1 10.0 ft

8.08
ft
530 0 R
P
T
2.50
atm

2 1

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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## What is the density of N2 at 270C and 100 kPa in SI units?

PV
nT

PSVS n STS
Solving for (n/V) and obtaining the density from this :

n S P TS
n
MW MW
V
VS PS T
1kmol 100 kPa 273K
kg
kg

28
1.123 3

3
m
22.41m 101.3kPa 300 K kmol
Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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## In a mixture of ideal gases, the partial pressure of a gas

component is the pressure that would be exerted by a that
component if it existed by itself in the same volume as
occupied by the mixture and the same temperature of the
mixture.

PiVtotal = niRTtotal
where Pi and ni are the partial pressure and number of
moles of component i.

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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## For the gas mixture:

PtotalVtotal = ntotalRTtotal
Dividing the two equations,

Pi VT n i RTT

PT VT n T RTT

or

Pi

ni
PT yi PT
nT

According to Dalton,

PA + PB + PC + . . . . = Ptotal

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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## Example 5-4. Ideal Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures

A flue gas analyzes 14.0% CO2, 6.0% O2, and 80.0% N2. The mixture
is at 4000F and 765 mmHg pressure. Calculate the partial pressure
of each component.
Component

Pi (mmHg)

CO2

0.140

0.140(765) = 107.1

O2

0.060

0.060(765) = 45.9

N2

0.800

0.800(765) = 612.0

Total

1.000

765 mmHg

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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