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Introduction to Chemical Engineering Calculations

Lecture 5.

Ideal Gas Calculations

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

Ideal Gas Calculations

What is an ideal gas?

An ideal gas is an imaginary gas that obeys exactly the


following relationship:

PV = nRT
where P = absolute pressure of the gas
V = total volume occupied by the gas
n = number of moles of the gas
R = ideal gas constants in appropriate units
T = absolute temperature of the gas

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

SLIDE

Ideal Gas Calculations

The Ideal Gas Constant, R

R = 1.987 cal/(gmol)(K)
= 1.987 Btu/(lbmol)(0R)
= 10.73 (psia)(ft3)/(lbmol)(0R)
= 8.314 (kPa)(m3)/(kmol)(K)
= 8.314 J/(gmol)(K)
= 82.06 (atm)(cm3)/(gmol)(K)
= 0.08206 (atm)(L)/(gmol)(K)
= 21.9 (in. Hg)(ft3)/(lbmol)(0R)
= 0.7302 (atm)(ft3)/(lbmol)(0R)

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

SLIDE

Ideal Gas Calculations

Standard Conditions for the Ideal Gas

Several arbitrarily specified standard states of temperature


and pressure have been selected by custom.
System

TS

PS

VS

nS

SI

273.15 K

101.325 kPa

22.415 m3

1 kmol

Am. Eng.

4920R

1 atm

359.05 ft3

1 lbmol

Natural Gas
Industry

333.15 K

14.696 psia

379.4 ft3

1 lbmol

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

SLIDE

Ideal Gas Calculations

Example 5-1. Ideal Gas Calculation

Butane (C4H10) at 3600C and 3.00 atm absolute flows into a


reactor at a rate of 1100 kg/h. Calculate the volumetric flow
rate of this stream.
Method A. Computation using a known value of R.
The ideal gas equation in terms of flowrate:

PV nRT
V n

or P RT
t
t
t t

P V = n RT

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

SLIDE

Ideal Gas Calculations

Example 5-1. Ideal Gas Calculation

Solving for volumetric flowrate:

n RT
V=
P
Obtaining the molar flowrate from mass flowrate:

m
1100 kg / h
n=

19.0 kmol / h
MW 58 kg / kmol

Using absolute temperatures and pressure:

T = 633 K and P = 3 atm

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

SLIDE

Ideal Gas Calculations

Example 5-1. Ideal Gas Calculation

Using the following value of R:

L atm 1000gmol
L atm
R 0.08206
82.06

gmol K 1kmol
kmol K
The volumetric flowrate is

V=

n RT (19.0kmol / h)(82.06 L atm / kmol K)(633K)

P
3atm

L 1m3
m3
V =328,978.5
329
h 1000 L
h

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

SLIDE

Ideal Gas Calculations

Example 5-1. Ideal Gas Calculation

Method B. By comparison to standard conditions

PV
nT

PS VS n STS
Using a basis of 1 hr, then n = 19 kmol
The following standard conditions will be used.
PS = 1 atm
VS = 22.41 m3
nS = 1 kmol
TS = 273 K

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

SLIDE

Ideal Gas Calculations

Example 5-1. Ideal Gas Calculation

Solving for V:

n T P
V S VS
n S TS P
19.0kmol 633K 1atm
3
V
22.415m
273K 3atm
1kmol

V 329m 3
In terms of volumetric flowrate

m3
V = 329
h

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

SLIDE

Ideal Gas Calculations

Example 5-2. Ideal Gas at Two Different Conditions

Ten cubic feet of air at 700F and 1 atm is heated to 6100F


and compressed to 2.5 atm. What volume does the gas
occupy in its final state?
Let 1 denote the initial state of the gas and 2 the final state.

P1V1 n1T1 T1

P2 V2 n 2T2 T2
Solving for V2:
0

P1 T2

1.00
atm

1070
R
3
3
V2 V1 10.0 ft

8.08
ft
530 0 R
P
T
2.50
atm

2 1

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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Ideal Gas Calculations

Example 5-3. Calculation of Ideal Gas Density

What is the density of N2 at 270C and 100 kPa in SI units?

PV
nT

PSVS n STS
Solving for (n/V) and obtaining the density from this :

n S P TS
n
MW MW
V
VS PS T
1kmol 100 kPa 273K
kg
kg

28
1.123 3

3
m
22.41m 101.3kPa 300 K kmol
Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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Ideal Gas Calculations

Ideal Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures

In a mixture of ideal gases, the partial pressure of a gas


component is the pressure that would be exerted by a that
component if it existed by itself in the same volume as
occupied by the mixture and the same temperature of the
mixture.

PiVtotal = niRTtotal
where Pi and ni are the partial pressure and number of
moles of component i.

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

SLIDE

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Ideal Gas Calculations

Ideal Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures

For the gas mixture:

PtotalVtotal = ntotalRTtotal
Dividing the two equations,

Pi VT n i RTT

PT VT n T RTT

or

Pi

ni
PT yi PT
nT

According to Dalton,

PA + PB + PC + . . . . = Ptotal

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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Ideal Gas Calculations

Example 5-4. Ideal Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures


A flue gas analyzes 14.0% CO2, 6.0% O2, and 80.0% N2. The mixture
is at 4000F and 765 mmHg pressure. Calculate the partial pressure
of each component.
Component

Pi (mmHg)

CO2

0.140

0.140(765) = 107.1

O2

0.060

0.060(765) = 45.9

N2

0.800

0.800(765) = 612.0

Total

1.000

765 mmHg

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

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