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Lecture 5.

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

following relationship:

PV = nRT

where P = absolute pressure of the gas

V = total volume occupied by the gas

n = number of moles of the gas

R = ideal gas constants in appropriate units

T = absolute temperature of the gas

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

SLIDE

R = 1.987 cal/(gmol)(K)

= 1.987 Btu/(lbmol)(0R)

= 10.73 (psia)(ft3)/(lbmol)(0R)

= 8.314 (kPa)(m3)/(kmol)(K)

= 8.314 J/(gmol)(K)

= 82.06 (atm)(cm3)/(gmol)(K)

= 0.08206 (atm)(L)/(gmol)(K)

= 21.9 (in. Hg)(ft3)/(lbmol)(0R)

= 0.7302 (atm)(ft3)/(lbmol)(0R)

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

SLIDE

and pressure have been selected by custom.

System

TS

PS

VS

nS

SI

273.15 K

101.325 kPa

22.415 m3

1 kmol

Am. Eng.

4920R

1 atm

359.05 ft3

1 lbmol

Natural Gas

Industry

333.15 K

14.696 psia

379.4 ft3

1 lbmol

SLIDE

reactor at a rate of 1100 kg/h. Calculate the volumetric flow

rate of this stream.

Method A. Computation using a known value of R.

The ideal gas equation in terms of flowrate:

PV nRT

V n

or P RT

t

t

t t

P V = n RT

SLIDE

n RT

V=

P

Obtaining the molar flowrate from mass flowrate:

m

1100 kg / h

n=

19.0 kmol / h

MW 58 kg / kmol

SLIDE

L atm 1000gmol

L atm

R 0.08206

82.06

gmol K 1kmol

kmol K

The volumetric flowrate is

V=

P

3atm

L 1m3

m3

V =328,978.5

329

h 1000 L

h

SLIDE

PV

nT

PS VS n STS

Using a basis of 1 hr, then n = 19 kmol

The following standard conditions will be used.

PS = 1 atm

VS = 22.41 m3

nS = 1 kmol

TS = 273 K

SLIDE

Solving for V:

n T P

V S VS

n S TS P

19.0kmol 633K 1atm

3

V

22.415m

273K 3atm

1kmol

V 329m 3

In terms of volumetric flowrate

m3

V = 329

h

SLIDE

and compressed to 2.5 atm. What volume does the gas

occupy in its final state?

Let 1 denote the initial state of the gas and 2 the final state.

P1V1 n1T1 T1

P2 V2 n 2T2 T2

Solving for V2:

0

P1 T2

1.00

atm

1070

R

3

3

V2 V1 10.0 ft

8.08

ft

530 0 R

P

T

2.50

atm

2 1

SLIDE

10

PV

nT

PSVS n STS

Solving for (n/V) and obtaining the density from this :

n S P TS

n

MW MW

V

VS PS T

1kmol 100 kPa 273K

kg

kg

28

1.123 3

3

m

22.41m 101.3kPa 300 K kmol

Prof. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Department of Chemical Engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baos

SLIDE

11

component is the pressure that would be exerted by a that

component if it existed by itself in the same volume as

occupied by the mixture and the same temperature of the

mixture.

PiVtotal = niRTtotal

where Pi and ni are the partial pressure and number of

moles of component i.

SLIDE

12

PtotalVtotal = ntotalRTtotal

Dividing the two equations,

Pi VT n i RTT

PT VT n T RTT

or

Pi

ni

PT yi PT

nT

According to Dalton,

PA + PB + PC + . . . . = Ptotal

SLIDE

13

A flue gas analyzes 14.0% CO2, 6.0% O2, and 80.0% N2. The mixture

is at 4000F and 765 mmHg pressure. Calculate the partial pressure

of each component.

Component

Pi (mmHg)

CO2

0.140

0.140(765) = 107.1

O2

0.060

0.060(765) = 45.9

N2

0.800

0.800(765) = 612.0

Total

1.000

765 mmHg

SLIDE

14

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