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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

MECHANICAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT

Systems)

MECH 2012Y

Mechanics of Materials II

Experiment L4: Deflection of simply supported beam

GROUP 8

1. BADULLA Muhammad Twaaha

2. LOREKANG Mokgwabone Funny

3. NUNHUCK Mohammad Shah Wasil

(1311150)

(1300246)

(1313122)

- Date Submitted: 15 March 2015

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Variation of deflection with load, beam thickness and material

INTRODUCTION

A beam is a bar-like structural element whose primary function is to support transverse loading and

carry it to the supports.

A simple example is a vehicle on a bridge as shown in Figure 1.

Since the load carrying capacity of beams is of extraordinary significance, investigations and tests

can done to comprehend their behaviours as diverse loads are connected to them. Beams can be of

distinctive shapes, measurements and are made of countless materials depending how it will be

utilized. These components additionally can be taken into consideration to further examine how they

tend to behave when subjected to loading.

OBJECTIVE

Determining the relationship between the deflections of simply supported beams made up of

Comparing experimental and theoretical results.

APPARATUS USED

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Two load cells

One dial gauge

One hanger

Set of weights (six 2N and six 5N weights)

A set of beams(one brass, one aluminium and three steel beams)

PROCEDURES

3

1. A suitable position for the mid span of the beam is chosen by reading the upper scale found

on the apparatus.

2. The two load cells are set so that they each sit span to the left and right to the mid-span

reading. The knife edges are locked.

3. One of the five beams is placed on the SM 104 beam apparatus with span overhung at both

ends.

4. The hanger is positioned at mid-span so that the loading point is on the centre line of the

beam.

5. A dial gauge is placed on the upper cross member so that the ball end rests on the centre line

of

the

beam

above

the

left

hand

support.

It

is

adjusted

to

read

zero.

The gauge is then positioned above the right hand support and the knife edge is adjusted until

the gauge reads zero. This is done to ensure that the beam is parallel to the cross-member.

6. The dial gauge is placed at the mid-span so that the ball end rests in the centre if the setscrew

found on the hanger. The dial gauge is adjusted to read zero.

7. A load is applied to the hanger and beam deflection is recorded on the dial gauge.

8. The load is increased at least 6 times and the deflections are recorded.

9. The loads are then removed by the same steps and the readings on the dial gauge are noted

again.

10. The whole experiment is repeated using the other beams.

NOTE: For step 8 and 9, the load applied to the aluminium beam is increased and decreased by 2N

and by 5N for the other four beams.

THEORY

When a beam bends, it takes different shapes. The shape of a beam can be superimposed on a x-z

graph with its origin on the left end of the beam (before loading occurs). At a distance of x, the

deflection of the beam is z and its gradient will be dz/dx.

4

As it is already known, the bending moment and the curvature of the beam are related by the

following equation:

M E

=

I R

Where:

(1)

M: bending moment

I: second moment of area of the beam section

E: modulus of elasticity

R : radius of curvature of the loaded beam

It can be shown that any curves plotted on an x-z graph has a radius of curvature, R defined as:

2

d z

2

1

dx

=

R

dz

1+

dx

3

2

(2)

In beams, R is very large and the equation may be simplified without loss of accuracy to:

1 d2 x

=

R d z2

(3)

Hence,

d2 z 1 M

= =

d x 2 R EI

(4)

d2 z M

=

d x 2 EI

(5)

By double integrating the above equation, it can be shown that the deflection at the middle of a beam

subjected to direct loading can be expressed in the form:

z=a

WL

EI

(6)

z : deflection

I : second moment of area of the beam section

a : constant whose value depends upon the type of loading and

support

W : load acting on the beam

E : modulus of elasticity of material

L : span of the beam

where:

BENDING STIFFNESS

The bending stiffness ( K ) of a beam can be obtained using the following equation:

K=

W

z

where:

(7)

K : transverse stiffness

W : applied load

z : deflection of the beam

Analysis

Table 1: Raw data for brass

6

Experiment

Number

1

2

3

4

5

6

Load/N

Deflection while

loading/mm

0.75

1.5

2.25

3

3.8

4.6

5

10

15

20

25

30

Deflection while

unloading/mm

0.8

1.55

2.3

3.05

3.8

4.6

Brass

5

4.5

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

10

15

20

25

30

Load/N

Graph 1

Gradient of graph 1 = 0.1537 mmN-1

Experiment

Load/N

Deflection while

7

Deflection while

35

number

1

2

3

4

5

6

loading/mm

0.45

0.9

1.35

1.8

2.3

2.75

2

4

6

8

10

12

unloading/mm

0.55

1

1.15

1.9

2.35

2.75

Aluminium

3

f(x) = 0.23x - 0.01

2.5

1.5

0.5

Load/N

Graph 2

8

10

12

14

Experiment

Number

1

Load/N

5

Deflection while

loading/mm

3.55

Deflection while

unloading/mm

4.15

10

7.3

7.8

15

11

11.45

20

14.9

14.9

Steel (t = 3mm)

16

f(x) = 0.75x - 0.1

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

10

Load/N

Graph 3

9

15

20

25

Experiment

number

1

2

3

4

5

6

Load/N

Deflection while

loading/mm

0.9

1.8

2.75

3.7

4.65

5.6

5

10

15

20

25

30

Deflection while

unloading/mm

0.9

1.85

2.8

3.7

4.65

5.6

Steel ( t = 4.5mm)

6

10

15

20

Load/N

Graph 4

10

25

30

35

Experiment

Load/N

Deflection while

number

loading/mm

1

5

0.4

Deflection while

unloading/mm

0.4

10

0.7

0.7

15

1.1

1.1

20

1.5

1.5

25

1.9

1.9

30

2.3

2.3

Steel (t = 6mm)

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

10

15

Load/N

Graph 5

Gradient of graph 5 = 0.0771 mmN-1

11

20

25

30

35

Thickness of steel beam,

1/d3/mm-3

d/mm

6

4.63E-03

4.5

0.01097

3

0.037

Gradient of steel

beams/mmN-1

0.0771

0.1886

0.755

0.8

f(x) = 21.18x - 0.03

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0.00E+00

1.00E-02

2.00E-02

1/d3/mm-3

Graph 6

Gradient of graph 6 = 21.179 mm4N-1

12

3.00E-02

4.00E-02

Beams (6mm

Modulus of elasticity,

thick)

E/Nm-2

Brass

1.05E+11

1/E/N-1 m2

9.5E-12

Gradient/

mmN-1

0.1537

Aluminium

7.60E+10

1.31E-11

0.2307

steel

2.10E+11

4.76E-12

0.1886

Gradient

0.25

f(x) = 18301099604.51x - 0.01

0.2

0.15

Gradient/mmN-1

0.1

0.05

1/E/N-1m2

Graph 7

13

14

REFERENCE

INTRO

http://www.colorado.edu/engineering/CAS/courses.d/Structures.d/IAST.Lect10.d/

IAST.Lect10.pdf

http://www.dcu.ie/sites/default/files/mechanical_engineering/pdfs/manuals/Beam

%20Apparatus%28a%29.pdf

THEORY

http://www.freestudy.co.uk/statics/beams/beam%20tut3.pdf

15

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