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# UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
MECHANICAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT

## E443 Beng (Hons.) Mechanical Engineering (Minor: Energy

Systems)

MECH 2012Y
Mechanics of Materials II
Experiment L4: Deflection of simply supported beam
GROUP 8
2. LOREKANG Mokgwabone Funny

(1311150)
(1300246)
(1313122)

## -Date of Experiment: 6 March 2015

- Date Submitted: 15 March 2015

## SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM:

Variation of deflection with load, beam thickness and material
INTRODUCTION
A beam is a bar-like structural element whose primary function is to support transverse loading and
carry it to the supports.
A simple example is a vehicle on a bridge as shown in Figure 1.

## Figure 1: Beam withstanding transverse load to resist bending

Since the load carrying capacity of beams is of extraordinary significance, investigations and tests
can done to comprehend their behaviours as diverse loads are connected to them. Beams can be of
distinctive shapes, measurements and are made of countless materials depending how it will be
utilized. These components additionally can be taken into consideration to further examine how they

OBJECTIVE

Determining the relationship between the deflections of simply supported beams made up of

Comparing experimental and theoretical results.

APPARATUS USED
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

## Beam apparatus (SM104)

One dial gauge
One hanger
Set of weights (six 2N and six 5N weights)
A set of beams(one brass, one aluminium and three steel beams)

PROCEDURES
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1. A suitable position for the mid span of the beam is chosen by reading the upper scale found
on the apparatus.
2. The two load cells are set so that they each sit span to the left and right to the mid-span
reading. The knife edges are locked.
3. One of the five beams is placed on the SM 104 beam apparatus with span overhung at both
ends.
4. The hanger is positioned at mid-span so that the loading point is on the centre line of the
beam.
5. A dial gauge is placed on the upper cross member so that the ball end rests on the centre line
of

the

beam

above

the

left

hand

support.

It

is

to

zero.

The gauge is then positioned above the right hand support and the knife edge is adjusted until
the gauge reads zero. This is done to ensure that the beam is parallel to the cross-member.
6. The dial gauge is placed at the mid-span so that the ball end rests in the centre if the setscrew
found on the hanger. The dial gauge is adjusted to read zero.
7. A load is applied to the hanger and beam deflection is recorded on the dial gauge.
8. The load is increased at least 6 times and the deflections are recorded.
9. The loads are then removed by the same steps and the readings on the dial gauge are noted
again.
10. The whole experiment is repeated using the other beams.

NOTE: For step 8 and 9, the load applied to the aluminium beam is increased and decreased by 2N
and by 5N for the other four beams.

THEORY
When a beam bends, it takes different shapes. The shape of a beam can be superimposed on a x-z
graph with its origin on the left end of the beam (before loading occurs). At a distance of x, the
deflection of the beam is z and its gradient will be dz/dx.
4

As it is already known, the bending moment and the curvature of the beam are related by the
following equation:
M E
=
I R
Where:

(1)

M: bending moment
I: second moment of area of the beam section
E: modulus of elasticity

## Figure 2: Diagram showing the radius of curvature

It can be shown that any curves plotted on an x-z graph has a radius of curvature, R defined as:
2

d z
2
1
dx
=
R
dz
1+
dx

3
2

(2)

In beams, R is very large and the equation may be simplified without loss of accuracy to:
1 d2 x
=
R d z2

(3)

Hence,
d2 z 1 M
= =
d x 2 R EI

(4)

d2 z M
=
d x 2 EI

(5)

By double integrating the above equation, it can be shown that the deflection at the middle of a beam
z=a

WL
EI

(6)

z : deflection
I : second moment of area of the beam section
a : constant whose value depends upon the type of loading and
support
W : load acting on the beam
E : modulus of elasticity of material
L : span of the beam

where:

BENDING STIFFNESS
The bending stiffness ( K ) of a beam can be obtained using the following equation:
K=

W
z

where:

(7)

K : transverse stiffness
z : deflection of the beam

Analysis
Table 1: Raw data for brass
6

Experiment
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6

Deflection while
0.75
1.5
2.25
3
3.8
4.6

5
10
15
20
25
30

Deflection while
0.8
1.55
2.3
3.05
3.8
4.6

Brass
5
4.5

## f(x) = 0.15x - 0.02

4
3.5
3

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

10

15

20

25

30

Graph 1
Gradient of graph 1 = 0.1537 mmN-1

## Table 2: Raw data for aluminum

Experiment

Deflection while
7

Deflection while

35

number
1
2
3
4
5
6

0.45
0.9
1.35
1.8
2.3
2.75

2
4
6
8
10
12

0.55
1
1.15
1.9
2.35
2.75

Aluminium
3
f(x) = 0.23x - 0.01

2.5

1.5

0.5

Graph 2

## Table 3: Raw data for steel (t = 3mm)

8

10

12

14

Experiment
Number
1

5

Deflection while
3.55

Deflection while
4.15

10

7.3

7.8

15

11

11.45

20

14.9

14.9

Steel (t = 3mm)
16
f(x) = 0.75x - 0.1

14
12
10

8
6
4
2
0

10

Graph 3

## Table 4: Raw data for steel (t = 4.5mm)

9

15

20

25

Experiment
number
1
2
3
4
5
6

Deflection while
0.9
1.8
2.75
3.7
4.65
5.6

5
10
15
20
25
30

Deflection while
0.9
1.85
2.8
3.7
4.65
5.6

Steel ( t = 4.5mm)
6

10

15

20

Graph 4

10

25

30

35

Experiment
Deflection while
number
1
5
0.4

Deflection while
0.4

10

0.7

0.7

15

1.1

1.1

20

1.5

1.5

25

1.9

1.9

30

2.3

2.3

Steel (t = 6mm)
2.5

## f(x) = 0.08x - 0.02

2

1.5

1

0.5

10

15

Graph 5
Gradient of graph 5 = 0.0771 mmN-1

11

20

25

30

35

## Table 6: Gradient and thickness of the 3 steel beams

Thickness of steel beam,
1/d3/mm-3
d/mm
6
4.63E-03
4.5
0.01097
3
0.037

beams/mmN-1
0.0771
0.1886
0.755

## Gradient of steel beam s against 1/d3

0.8
f(x) = 21.18x - 0.03

0.7
0.6
0.5

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.00E+00

1.00E-02

2.00E-02

1/d3/mm-3

Graph 6
Gradient of graph 6 = 21.179 mm4N-1

12

3.00E-02

4.00E-02

## Table 7: Modulus of elasticity

Beams (6mm
Modulus of elasticity,
thick)
E/Nm-2
Brass
1.05E+11

1/E/N-1 m2
9.5E-12

mmN-1
0.1537

Aluminium

7.60E+10

1.31E-11

0.2307

steel

2.10E+11

4.76E-12

0.1886

0.25
f(x) = 18301099604.51x - 0.01
0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

1/E/N-1m2

Graph 7

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14

REFERENCE
INTRO