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Chapter 13

Systems Analysis and Design

Multiple Choice

1.

Which phase of the SDLC are information needs identified?


a) preliminary investigation
b) systems analysis
c) systems design
d) systems development
Answer: A
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 358
Response: The information problems or needs are identified in the preliminary
phase of the SDLC.

2.

In this phase of the SDLC, new or alternative information systems are designed.
a) preliminary investigation
b) systems analysis
c) systems design
d) systems development

Answer: C
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 358
Response: New or alternative information systems are designed in the systems
design stage of the SDLC.

3.

In this phase of the SDLC, the new information systems are installed and adapted
to the new system, and people are trained to use them.
a) preliminary implementation
b) systems analysis
c) systems design
d) systems development
Answer: A
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 358
Response: In the systems implementation phase, the new information system is
installed and adapted to the new system, and people are trained to use them.

4.

This phase of the SDLC is known as the ongoing phase where the system is
periodically evaluated and updated as needed.
a) preliminary investigation
b) systems design
c) systems implementation
d) systems maintenance
Answer: D
Difficulty level: Easy

Page: 358
Response: The systems maintenance phase is the ongoing phase of the SDLC.

5.

A recent survey by Money magazine determined that out of 100 widely-held jobs
that they researched, the top job classification was a
a) network administrator
b) cryptographer
c) systems analyst
d) computer engineer
Answer: D
Difficulty level: Hard
Page: 358
Response: Money magazine determined that the top job classification was a
computer engineer.

6.

Many organizations have determined that there is a __________ -year backlog of


work for systems analysts.
a) one
b) two
c) three
d) four
Answer: C
Difficulty level: Hard

Page: 359
Response: Organizations have determined that there is a three-year backlog of
work for systems analysts.

7.

The first step in preliminary analysis is to


a) purchase supplies
b) hire consultants
c) define the problem
d) propose changes
Answer: C
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 360
Response: The first step in the preliminary analysis is to define the problem.

8.

In the preliminary investigation phase of the SDLC, which one of the following
tasks would not be included?
a) briefly defining the problem
b) suggesting alternative solutions
c) gathering the data
d) preparing a short report
Answer: C
Difficulty level: Medium

Page: 360
Response: Gathering the data would not be included in the preliminary
investigation phase.

9.

In order to obtain financing for the analysis phase, the systems analyst must
a) prepare a preliminary investigation report
b) justify the expense of upgrading
c) consider abandoning the project
d) train users on the new system
Answer: A
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 361
Response: Management need a preliminary investigation report before deciding to
finance the analysis phase.

10.

The first step of the systems analysis phase of the SDLC is to


a) propose changes
b) analyze data
c) gather data
d) write system analysis report
Answer: C
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 362

Response: The first step of the systems analysis phase involves gathering the data.

11.

Which of the following shows levels of management and formal lines of


authority?
a) organization chart
b) decision table
c) pyramid diagram
d) grid chart
Answer: A
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 362
Response: Organization chart describes the formal lines of authority.

12.

A list of questions used in analysis is called a(n)


a) organization chart
b) interview guideline
c) grid table
d) checklist
Answer: D
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 363
Response: A checklist is a list of questions.

13.

What type of analysis starts with the big picture and then breaks it down into
smaller pieces?
a) financial
b) reverse
c) top-down
d) executive
Answer: C
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 363
Response: Top-down analysis method is used to identify the top-level components
of a complex system.

14.

Which of the following is used to show the rules that apply to a decision when
one or more conditions apply?
a) system flowchart
b) decision table
c) grid chart
d) checklist
Answer: B
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 364
Response: A decision table shows the decision rules that apply when certain
conditions occur.

15.

Which of the following tools shows the data or information flow within an
information system?
a) grid chart
b) decision table
c) system flowchart
d) data flow diagram
Answer: D
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 365
Response: Data flow diagrams show the data or information flow within an
information system.

16.

These software packages evaluate hardware and software alternatives according


to requirements given by the systems analyst.
a) project management
b) automated design tools
c) spreadsheets
d) report generators
Answer: B
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 365
Response: Automated design tools are software packages that evaluate hardware
and software alternatives according to requirements given by the systems analyst.

17.

Which of the following is not found on a data flow diagram?


a) entities
b) process
c) offline storage
d) file
Answer: C
Difficulty level: Hard
Page: 365
Response: Data flow diagrams show entities, processes, and file.

18.

The final step of the systems analysis phase in the SDLC is to


a) gather data
b) write system analysis report
c) propose changes
d) analyze data
Answer: B
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 366
Response: The final step of the systems analysis phase is to write the report.

19.

Which of the following would not be described in the systems analysis report?
a) the current information system
b) the requirements for a new system
c) the development schedule
d) the training requirements for users
Answer: D
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 366
Response: User requirements are not described in the systems analysis report.

20.

Which of the following tasks is not part of the systems design phase?
a) designing alternative systems
b) selecting the best system
c) writing a systems design report
d) suggesting alternative solutions
Answer: D
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 366
Response: Suggesting alternative solutions is part of the preliminary investigation
phase.

21.

The first task to complete in the design phase of the SDLC is to

a) design alternative systems


b) select the best design
c) examine hardware requirements
d) write a systems design report
Answer: A
Difficulty level: Hard
Page: 366
Response: The first task is to design alternative systems.

22.

After designing alternative systems, the system analyst must


a) prepare a system design report
b) diagram the system
c) prepare a data flow diagram
d) select the best alternative
Answer: D
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 366
Response: After designing alternative systems, the system analyst must select the
best system.

23.

The final task in the design phase of the SDLC is to


a) select the best design
b) design alternative systems

c) prepare a system design report


d) examine hardware requirements
Answer: C
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 366
Response: The final task in the systems design phase is to write a systems design
report.

24.

A feasibility study is used to determine the proposed systems.


a) resource requirements
b) costs and benefits
c) availability of hardware and software
d) all of the above
Answer: D
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 367
Response: Feasibility study determines all of these things.

25.

Determining if employees, managers, and clients will resist a proposed new


system is part of this feasibility study.
a) technical feasibility
b) economic feasibility

c) organizational feasibility
d) operational feasibility
Answer: D
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 367
Response: Operational feasibility is used to determine if the proposed new system
will be accepted or rejected by employees, managers, or clients.

26.

Determining whether expected cost savings and other benefits will exceed the
cost of developing an alternative system is related to
a) technical feasibility
b) economic feasibility
c) organizational feasibility
d) operational feasibility
Answer: B
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 367
Response: Economic feasibility is used to determine if the expected benefits will
exceed the costs.

27.

The first step of systems development is to purchase or custom design


a) software
b) a network

c) hardware
d) training materials
Answer: A
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 368
Response: The first step is to either purchase the software or have it custom
designed.

28.

The final step of development is to


a) acquire software
b) acquire hardware
c) prepare a systems development report
d) test the system
Answer: D
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 368
Response: After the hardware and software have been installed, the final step
involves testing the system.

29.

During which phase of the SDLC are users trained to use the new system?
a) preliminary investigation
b) systems implementation
c) systems development

d) systems maintenance
Answer: B
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 369
Response: Users are trained on the new system during the implementation phase
of the SDLC.

30.

The first step in implementing a new system is to determine the


a) hardware requirements
b) software requirements
c) conversion type
d) best alternative
Answer: C
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 369
Response: The first step is to determine the type of conversion to be used.

31.

The __________ approach conversion type simply involves abandoning the old
system and using the new.
a) direct
b) pilot
c) phased
d) parallel

Answer: A
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 369
Response: In the direct approach, the conversion is done simply by abandoning
the old and starting up the new.

32.

The old and new systems run side by side for a period of time when using the
__________ approach to implementation.
a) direct
b) parallel
c) phased
d) pilot
Answer: B
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 370
Response: In the parallel approach, old and new systems are operated side by side
until the new one has proved to be reliable.

33.

Although this conversion approach (__________) is considered low risk, keeping


enough equipment and people active to manage two systems at the same time can
be very expensive.
a) direct
b) parallel
c) phased

d) pilot
Answer: B
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 370
Response: Parallel is low-risk but expensive to run two systems at the same time.

34.

Using the __________ approach, a new system is tested in one part of the
organization before being implemented in others.
a) direct
b) phased
c) pilot
d) parallel
Answer: C
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 370
Response: In the pilot approach, the new system is tried out in only one part of the
organization.

35.

The __________ implementation approach is broken down into smaller parts that
are implemented over time.
a) pilot
b) direct
c) parallel

d) phased
Answer: D
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 370
Response: In the phased approach, the new system is implemented gradually over
a period of time.

36.

The implementation approach that is the least risky would be the


a) direct approach
b) parallel approach
c) phased approach
d) pilot approach
Answer: C
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 370
Response: The phased approach is the least risky approach.

37.

This implementation approach (__________) is preferred when there are many


people in an organization performing similar operations.
a) direct
b) parallel
c) phased

d) pilot
Answer: D
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 370
Response: The pilot approach is preferred when there are many people in an
organization performing similar operations.

38.

The final step of the implementation phase of the SDLC is to


a) train the users
b) develop documentation
c) select the conversion type
d) write the implementation report
Answer: A
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 371
Response: Training the users is the last step in the implementation phase of the
SDLC.

39.

Which of the following phases of the SDLC is considered as the ongoing


process?
a) systems development
b) systems analysis
c) systems design
d) systems maintenance

Answer: D
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 371
Response: Systems maintenance is a very important, ongoing activity.

40.

The ongoing testing and analysis of an existing system is called


system__________.
a) maintenance
b) implementation
c) design
d) analysis
Answer: A
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 371
Response: Ongoing testing and analysis of an existing system is called system
maintenance.

41.

During a systems audit, the system performance is compared to


a) similar systems
b) newer systems
c) the design specifications
d) competing systems
Answer: C

Difficulty level: Medium


Page: 372
Response: In the systems audit, the systems performance is compared to the
original design specifications.

42.

A modifiable model built before the actual system is installed is called a(n)
a) sample
b) example
c) template
d) prototype
Answer: D
Difficulty level: Hard
Page: 373
Response: Prototyping means building a model or prototype that can be modified
before the actual system is installed.

43.

The process of building a model that demonstrates the features of a proposed


product, service or system is called a
a) JAD
b) RAD
c) template
d) prototype
Answer: D
Difficulty level: Hard

Page: 373
Response: Prototyping means building a model or prototype that can be modified
before the actual system is installed.

44.

A modifiable model of a proposed product, system, or system is called a(n)


a) prototype
b) benchmark
c) factor
d) template
Answer: A
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 373
Response: Prototyping is a modifiable model.

45.

RAD stands for


a) Redundant Array of Disks
b) Rapid Application Development
c) Remove and Destroy
d) Replication Applet Diagram
Answer: B
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 373
Response: RAD is an acronym for rapid applications development.

True/False

46.

A systems analyst uses the six-phase systems lifecycle to improve and maintain
information systems.
Answer: True
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 358
Response: Systems analysts use the six-phase SDLC model.

47.

During the preliminary investigation phase of the SDLC, you first suggest
alternatives and then define the problem.
Answer: False
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 359
Response: During the preliminary investigation phase of the SDLC your problems
or needs are identified.

48.

The final step in the preliminary investigation is to create an organization chart.


Answer: False
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 360

Response: The final step is to prepare a short report to summarize the results of
the preliminary investigation and to suggest alternative systems.
49.

Gathering data and information in the first step of systems analysis can be
achieved through conducting interviews and doing observation.
Answer: True
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 362
Response: Data is obtained from observations and interviews.

50.

An organization chart details the physical location and purpose of the servers on
a network.
Answer: False
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 362
Response: An organization chart shows levels of management and formal lines of
authority.

51.

Analyzing data can help pinpoint why a system doesnt work as expected.
Answer: True
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 363
Response: The idea behind analyzing data is to learn how information currently
flows in an organization and to pinpoint why it isnt flowing appropriately.

52.

A checklist is a tool used to organize and remember the questions to ask


regarding current systems.
Answer: True
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 363
Response: A checklist is a list of questions.

53.

Using the top-down analysis method means to start with the smallest part of the
system and craft larger pieces.
Answer: False
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 363
Response: Top-down analysis is used to identify the top-level components of a
complex system. Each component is broken down into smaller and smaller
components.

54.

A grid chart shows the relationship between input and output documents.
Answer: True
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 364
Response: A grid chart shows the relationship between input and output
documents.

55.

A decision table shows the various rules that apply to a decision when certain
conditions exist.

Answer: True
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 364
Response: A decision table shows the decision rules that apply when certain
conditions occur.

56.

A system flowchart shows the procedural path that data takes from department to
department.
Answer: False
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 364
Response: A system flowchart shows the flow of input data to processing and
finally to output, or distribution of information.

57.

A data flow diagram shows the path from input to processing to output.
Answer: False
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 365
Response: A data flow diagram shows the data or information flow within an
information system.

58.

CASE stands for Computer Aided Software Engineering.


Answer: True
Difficulty level: Medium

Page: 365
Response: CASE is an acronym for Computer Aided Software Engineering tools.

59.

Information problems or needs are discussed during the systems design phase of
the SDLC.
Answer: False
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 366
Response: Problems or needs are discussed during the preliminary investigation
phase of the SDLC.

60.

Suggesting an alternative simply means to define some procedures that could be


used instead of those that are currently in place.
Answer: True
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 366
Response: An alternative means to define some procedure that could be used
instead of the one current in place.

61.

The first step of the systems design phase of the SDLC is to select the best
alternative.
Answer: False
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 366

Response: The first step is to design alternative systems.

62.

In the design phase of the SDLC, alternative systems are analyzed for economic,
physical, and operational feasibility.
Answer: False
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 367
Response: Alternative systems are analyzed for economic, technical, and
operational feasibility.

63.

Technical feasibility refers to the availability of reliable hardware, software, and


training to make the system work.
Answer: True
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 367
Response: Technical feasibility relates to the idea of having reliable hardware,
software, and training available to make the system work.

64.

In the systems design phase of the SDLC, the systems design report usually
concludes by proposing one of the analyzed alternatives.
Answer: True
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 367
Response: The report usually concludes by recommending one of the alternatives.

65.

Application software for new information systems always requires having it


custom-designed to meet the needs of the organization.
Answer: False
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 368
Response: Application software can be purchased off-the-shelf and modified, or it
can be custom-designed.

66.

New or alternative systems are designed during the systems development phase
of the SDLC.
Answer: False
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 368
Response: New or alternative systems are designed during the systems design
stage.

67.

Hardware and software are normally acquired during the implementation phase
of the SDLC.
Answer: False
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 368
Response: Hardware and software are acquired during the development phase of
the SDLC.

68.

The final step of the development phase in the SDLC is to test the system.
Answer: True
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 369
Response: After the software and hardware have been installed, the final step is to
test the system.

69.

Another name for the systems implementation phase of the SDLC is called
execution.
Answer: False
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 369
Response: Another name is conversion.

70.

Conversion as it relates to implementation is the process of converting from the


old system to the new and training people to use the new system.
Answer: True
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 369
Response: Conversion is the process of going from the old system to the new
system.

71.

The direct approach to conversion is to simply replace the old system with the
new one.
Answer: True
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 369
Response: Direct approach involves abandoning the old and starting up the new.

72.

The direct approach to conversion is the least risky of the four conversion
methods.
Answer: False
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 369
Response: The direct approach is the most risky of the four conversion methods.

73.

The parallel approach to conversion involves running the new system and the old
system side-by-side for a while.
Answer: True
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 370
Response: In the parallel approach, old and new systems are operated side-by-side
until the new one has proved to be reliable.

74.

The parallel approach to conversion is used only in cases in which the cost of
failure or of interrupted operation is great.

Answer: True
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 370
Response: The parallel approach is used only in cases in which the cost of failure
or of interrupted operation is great.

75.

In the pilot approach, the new system is immediately implemented throughout


the organization.
Answer: False
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 370
Response: In the pilot approach, the new system is tried out in only one part of the
organization.

76.

The phased approach to conversion is considered one of the least risky


approaches.
Answer: True
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 370
Response: The phased approach is considered one of the least risky approaches.

77.

The pilot approach to conversion is preferred when there are many people in an
organization performing different operations.

Answer: False
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 370
Response: The pilot approach is preferred when there are many people in an
organization performing similar operations.

78.

The phased approach to conversion is more appropriate for organizations in


which people are performing different operations.
Answer: True
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 370
Response: The phased approach is more appropriate for organizations in which
people are performing different operations.

79.

If only the accounting department were on the new system, you are using the
phased approach to conversion.
Answer: False
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 370
Response: You would be using a pilot approach to conversion.

80.

The maintenance phase is an ongoing process.


Answer: True

Difficulty level: Easy


Page: 371
Response: The maintenance phase is an ongoing process for any system.

81.

During a systems audit, the systems performance is compared to the original


specifications.
Answer: True
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 372
Response: In the systems audit, the systems performance is compared to the
original design specifications.

82.

RAD and prototyping are two alternative approaches to the traditional systems
development life cycle mode.
Answer: True
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 372
Response: RAD and prototyping are two alternatives to the SDLC model.

83.

A changeable model is called a prototype.


Answer: True
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 373

Response: A changeable model is called a prototype.

84.

When developing a new system, RAD is usually considered as an inexpensive


alternative to the traditional SDLC steps.
Answer: False
Difficulty level: Hard
Page: 373
Response: RAD is expensive as it requires the use of powerful development
software, small specialized teams, and highly trained personnel.

85.

The final step of systems analysis is to prepare a preliminary investigation report.


Answer: False
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 366
Response: The final step is to prepare a systems analysis report.

Fill-In-The-Blank

86.

This individual (__________) makes extensive use of the six-phase systems


development lifecycle model.
Answer: systems analyst
Difficulty level: Medium

Page: 358
Response: Systems analysts make extensive use of this model.

87.

The phase in the SDLC in which the current system is studied is called the
__________ phase.
Answer: systems analysis
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 358
Response: The present system is studied in depth in the systems analysis stage of
the SDLC.

88.

In this phase of the SDLC (__________), new hardware and software are
acquired, developed and tested.
Answer: systems development
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 358
Response: New hardware and software are acquired, developed, and tested in the
systems development stage.

89.

These computer professionals (__________) use the SDLC model to study an


organizations systems to determine what actions to take and how to use computer
technology to assist them.
Answer: systems analysts

Difficulty level: Medium


Page: 358
Response: Systems analysts use the six-phase SDLC.

90.

The first step in a preliminary investigation phase of the SDLC is to define the
__________ in the current system.
Answer: problems
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 359
Response: In the preliminary investigation phase, the problem must be identified.

91.

An important aspect of the preliminary investigation phase in the SDLC is to


suggest __________ systems.
Answer: alternative
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 359
Response: An important aspect of the preliminary investigation phase is to
suggest alternatives.

92.

The final step in the preliminary investigation phase of the SDLC is to prepare
a(n) __________.
Answer: report
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 359

Response: The final step is to prepare a report.

93.

The second step of preliminary design is to propose __________ systems.


Answer: alternative
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 361
Response: The second step of the preliminary design phase is to suggest
alternative systems.

94.

A(n) __________ chart displays the hierarchical relationship of employees and


managers.
Answer: organization
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 362
Response: An organization chart shows levels of management and formal lines of
authority.

95.

A(n) __________ is used to remember questions to ask during analysis.


Answer: checklist
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 363
Response: A checklist is a list of questions.

96.

The __________ analysis method starts with large pieces of the system and then
breaks these up to make analysis easier.
Answer: top-down
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 363
Response: A top-down analysis method is used to identify the top-level
components of a complex system.

97.

A(n) __________ shows the relationship between input and output documents.
Answer: grid chart
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 364
Response: A grid chart shows the relationship between input and output
documents.

98.

This tool (__________) is used to show the flow of input to processing and then
to output, or distribution of the information.
Answer: system flowchart
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 364
Response: System flowcharts show the flow of input data to processing and
finally to output, or distribution of information.

99.

A(n) __________ table shows the various rules that apply to a decision when
certain conditions exist.

Answer: decision
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 364
Response: A decision table shows the decision rules that apply when certain
conditions exist.

100.

A system flowchart follows the data from input to __________ to output.


Answer: processing
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 364
Response: A system flowchart shows the flow of input data to processing and
finally to output, or distribution of information.

101.

A(n) __________ flow diagram follows the information flow within an


information system.
Answer: data
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 365
Response: Data flow diagrams show the data or information flow within an
information system.

102.

To assist in developing clear documentation, a system analyst may use a(n)


__________ tool.
Answer: CASE
Difficulty level: Medium

Page: 365
Response: CASE tools are used in system design development.

103.

These tools (__________) are used for systems analysis and are also used for
systems development.
Answer: CASE
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 365
Response: CASE tools are used for analysis and development.

104.

This phase of the SDLC (__________) would describe a proposed development


schedule.
Answer: systems analysis
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 366
Response: Possible development schedules are described in the systems analysis
phase.

105.

A new or alternative information system is designed in this phase of the SDLC


__________.
Answer: systems design
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 366

Response: In the systems design phase, a new or alternative information system is


designed.

106.

Determining how well a proposed system can actually operate in an organization


is called __________ feasibility.
Answer: operational
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 367
Response: Operational feasibility is used to determine if the proposed system can
actually be made to operate in the organization.

107.

Determining whether reliable hardware and software required by a proposed


system is available is related to __________ feasibility.
Answer: technical
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 367
Response: Technical feasibility determines if reliable hardware and software are
available.

108.

The costs and financial benefits of a system alternative are called the __________
feasibility.
Answer: economic
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 367

Response: Costs and financial benefits of a system alternative are called economic
feasibility.

109.

The availability of reliable software, hardware, and training is the key to


__________ feasibility.
Answer: technical
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 367
Response: Technical feasibility is the availability of reliable software, hardware
and training.

110.

A system that is cost-efficient and technically sound, but is nearly impossible to


use, is said to lack __________ feasibility.
Answer: operational
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 367
Response: A system that is cost-efficient and technically sound, but is nearly
impossible to use, is said to lack operational feasibility.

111.

Sometimes, the second step of systems development involves acquiring


__________, if it is required.
Answer: hardware
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 368

Response: Some new systems may not require new computer equipment, but
others will.

112.

In this phase of the SDLC (__________) the required hardware is acquired.


Answer: systems development
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 368
Response: Acquiring hardware is undertaken in the systems development phase.

113.

The first step of the development phase of the SDLC is to purchase or custom
design __________.
Answer: software
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 368
Response: Software must be purchased (off the shelf) or custom designed.

114.

The second step in the development phase involves purchasing __________, if it


is required.
Answer: hardware
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 368
Response: Hardware sometimes must be purchased during this phase.

115.

Determining the best method of conversion is one of the tasks undertaken during
this step of the SDLC __________.
Answer: systems implementation
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 369
Response: Best method of conversion is undertaken during the systems
implementation phase.

116.

This conversion approach (__________) is considered to be the most risky.


Answer: direct
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 369
Response: The direct approach is considered the most risky.

117.

This conversion approach (__________) is used only in cases in which the cost of
failure or of interrupted operation is great.
Answer: parallel
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 370
Response: Parallel approach is used only in cases in which the cost of failure or of
interrupted operation is great.

118.

The __________ approach to conversion involves running the new system and
the old system side-by-side for a while.
Answer: parallel
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 370
Response: In the parallel approach two systems are run at the same time.

119.

In this implementation approach (__________), once the system is working


smoothly in one part, it is implemented throughout the rest of the organization.
Answer: pilot
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 370
Response: In the pilot approach the new system is tried out in one part of the
organization until it is determined to be working properly before implemented
elsewhere.

120.

This implementation approach (__________) is more appropriate for


organizations in which people are performing different operations.
Answer: phased
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 370
Response: The phased approach is more appropriate for organizations in which
people are performing different operations.

121.

Most organizations spend more time and money on this phase than any of the
other phases of the SDLC __________.
Answer: systems maintenance
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 371
Response: More time and money is spent on the systems maintenance phase.

122.

Maintenance is a(n) __________ process.


Answer: ongoing
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 371
Response: Maintenance is an ongoing process it never stops.

123.

During a systems __________, the systems performance is compared to the


design specifications.
Answer: audit
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 372
Response: In the systems audit, the systems performance is compared to the
original design specifications.

124.

__________ means to build a changeable model to test.


Answer: Prototyping

Difficulty level: Medium


Page: 373
Response: Prototyping means to build a model or prototype that can be modified
before the actual system is installed.

125.

__________ requires powerful development software, small specialized teams,


and highly-trained personnel.
Answer: RAD
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 373
Response: RAD requires powerful development software, small specialized
teams, and highly-trained personnel.

Essay

126.

Name the six phases of system analysis and design.


Answer: The six stages of systems analysis and design are: preliminary
investigation, systems analysis, systems design, systems development, systems
implementation, and systems maintenance.
Difficulty level: Hard
Page: 358

127.

Name five common analysis tools.


Answer: Checklist, top-down analysis, grid chart, decision table, system
flowchart, data flow diagram, automated design (CASE) tools.

Difficulty level: Medium


Page: 363

128.

What is the purpose of the analysis phase of system development process?


Answer: The purpose of the analysis phase is to collect data about the current
system in order to determine requirements for an alternative system.
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 366

129.

What factors need to be considered when deciding on the best system design?
Answer: When looking at alternative systems, the key is feasibility. Economic,
technical, and operational feasibility are all taken into account.
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 367

130.

What are the two different ways of acquiring software?


Answer: Software can either be purchased off-the-shelf or can be written
especially for the new system.
Difficulty level: Easy
Page: 368

131.

What is the implementation phase?


Answer: The implementation phase is when the new system is actually installed
and the users are trained.
Difficulty level: Medium

Page: 369

132.

Briefly describe the four approaches to conversion.


Answer: The four approaches to conversion are: direct (out with the old), parallel
(old and new running side-by-side), pilot (converting part of an organization
first), and phased (introducing the new system gradually).
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 369, 370

133.

Name the two parts of the maintenance phase.


Answer: The two parts of the maintenance phase are: systems audit and periodic
evaluations.
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 371

134.

What is prototyping?
Answer: Prototyping is the practice of skipping the six-phase life cycle and
jumping directly to designing and testing on the fly. A workable model is built
and then tested by the user. Modifications are made until the system is deemed
ready to implement.
Difficulty level: Medium
Page: 373

135.

What is RAD?
Answer: RAD stands for Rapid Application Development. This procedure
replaces the traditional six-phase cycle with the rather expensive replacement of
specialized teams of highly-trained professionals using the best equipment

possible. This method cuts down the development time tremendously and usually
results in higher-quality systems.
Difficulty level: Hard
Page: 373