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3 Aufrufe10 SeitenFinite element solutions for flow in a single-screw extruder, including curvature effects

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Finite element solutions for flow in a single-screw extruder, including curvature effects

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3 Aufrufe

Finite element solutions for flow in a single-screw extruder, including curvature effects

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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PIITMAN

University College of Swansea

University of Wales

Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales, United Kingdom

Slow developed flow in an extruder channel has been set up

as a two-dimensional, variational problem using a helical coordinate system, thus avoiding the usual geometrical simplification. Continuity is enforced by an integral form of constraint,

and solutions for isothermal, Newtonian flow are obtained by a

finite element method for both shallow and deep, highly

curved channels. The performance ofthe solution procedure as

a function of Lagrangian multiplier is discussed. Convergence

to correct solutions is demonstrated for the shallow channel

case. Deep channel results are compared with analytic predictions, curvature corrected according to Booy. Further testing of

deep channel results will be made against experimental data.

INTRODUCTION

here has been a substantial amount of work on the

T a n a l y s i s and mathematical modelling of flow in screw

pumps (extruders); the characteristics of most approaches are summarized in Table 1 of Ref. (1).Models

which have most closely approached the real situation

have necessarily involved numerical solution of the governing differential equations. Pre-eminent in this category is the work of Griffith (2), Pearson, et al. (3)and

Fenner (4), who used finite difference methods and a

Cartesian coordinate system with the unwrapped channel approximation. The main features of the mathematical models used in these works have been summarized

(1)and it is not necessary to repeat them here. More

recently the work of Fenner and Palit (5-7) provides an

instance where the finite element method has been

used; the unwrapped channel approximation was,

however, retained. Solutions were obtained for twodimensional developed isothermal flow of power law

fluids. Non-isothermal solutions (5)were hampered by

the lack, at that time, of a true finite element analogue of

the finite difference technique of up-wind differencing,

which is required to deal with convective heat transfer at

higher Peclet numbers.

The present work follows on from Ref. (l),where a

variational analysis was set u p in helical coordinates,

and it differs from previous approaches in combining the

following three features:

The true geometry of the channel is taken into

consideration.

The finite element method is used.

Computed results are compared in detail with data

from carefully controlled experiments.

POLYMER ENGlNEERlNG AND SCIENCE, MARCH, 1980, Vol. 20, No. 5

ing

The case for the finite element method in mot

polymer processing has been made elsewhere (1,7, lox

and Pearson (11)has suggested that it might be used in

what we could describe as the ultimate approach to the

plasticating extruder problem. The case extends to all

situations where the geometry of the problem is one of

the parameters which we wish to vary, and where the

domain of the problem may not be a simple shape.

Although comparisons are hard to come by, it seems that

modern finite element techniques can be more efficient

in terms of computer usage than finite difference techniques. Certainly in terms of the sum of human-plusmachine effort, the ease with which a finite element

program can be applied to a whole range of problems

gives important benefits. A proposal to use finite elements in the present context was made in Ref. (1)and

the work of Pallit and Fenner represents the only example of its application to date in the extrusion problem.

Conclusive comparisons between numerical solutions

and experimental results are not abundant in this field.

The available data on extruder performance can be divided into two categories; those obtained under practical conditions and those from idealized experiments. In

the practical category, data are typically measured on

highly instrumented extruders pumping molten polymer (and probably also conveying and melting). Conditions are far removed from isothermal: flow is never fully

developed, and the fluid is highly non-Newtonian, with

considerable doubt existing as to the appropriateness of

any particular constitutive equation in this nonviscometric flow field. The possibility of wall slip exists

(12) and the flight may strip melt from the barrel (13).

Accurate data on physical properties and boundary con339

ditions may not be available. In short, the practical

situation may depart in so many respects from even the

most sophisticated of existing models that it is very

dimcult to pinpoint the reasons for the divergence of

experimental and computed results.

The only previous work where channel curvature is

taken into account (other than by approximate corrections) is the treatment by Zamodits, using helical coordinates (8). Isothermal, one-dimensional developed

flow was considered, making the wide channel assumption so that velocities depended only on radial position.

Results were obtained for power law fluids of various

indices and for various helix angles. These illustrated

interesting interactions between power law index and

channel curvature in determining throughput. The results, however, were not tested against experimental

data, nor was the work extended to the two-dimensional

problem including effects of the flight. It is true that

curvature effects in the metering section of a plastics

extruder are probably often small. However, the size of

the effects can at present be estimated only by using

an analysis, e. g., Ref. (9), which is itself approximate.

Deeper, more highly curved, channels occur in the

conveying and melting zones of plasticating extruders.

Flow in the melt pool should properly be modelled

taking into account channel curvature. It may be that a

flow model could be extended to deal with solids conveying (of powders, for example) by incorporating an appropriate constitutive equation and, possibly, wall slip. In

this case again, curvature may be more important. Finally, one could note that deep channel screws are used

other than in the plastics industry; in rubber and food

processing, for example. Given that there is no intrinsic

difficulty in modelling curvature realistically, it seems

worthwhile to do so, and avoid the restriction to shallow

channels inherent in most of the previous works. We

have used a helical coordinate system, though different

from that employed by Zamodits, which makes it possible to express steady developed flow in the helical channel as a two-dimensional problem.

In idealized experiments, on the other hand, conditions are chosen to match the main assumptions of the

theoretical model as closely as possible. In the present

work we adopt this approach, and now outline briefly

the underlying philosophy. Agreement between

idealized experiments and theory gives confidence in

the mathematical model at its present level of sophistication. Development proceeds by introducing elaborations into both experiments and model in parallel, and

comparisons can then indicate with more certainty what

phenomena need to be included in the model. The

experiments involved in this sort of approach will, at

least in the early stages, be far removed from the real

problem and may receive criticism on that ground, but

such criticism would be short-sighted.

The practical end-point to this kind of approach may

be set by various factors-available numerical techniques, computing costs, uncertainties over constitutive

equations, etc. At this point, but not before, the model

should be adjusted empirically in an attempt to account

for the remaining discrepancies. The predictive power

340

rigorous development has been carried. At this stage,

the model could in principle be incorporated into a

computer.-aided optimal design procedure such as that

described by Helmy and Parnaby (14). However, the

computing costs, using a sophisticated model, would be

very substantial unless the parameter range were already closely defined on the basis of experience. But

even before reaching this point, which is concerned with

quantitative prediction of machine performance, a good

model should be able to indicate important trends in the

relationshp between screw design and performance.

Numerical experiments can point the way to key physical experiments.

In the present work, we set out along the road

signposted above, and in this paper we recapitulate the

variational formulation of the flow and heat-transfer

problem in helical coordinates (I), describe a finite element procedure, and discuss its performance. Solutions

for isothermal Newtonian flow in both shallow and deep

channels are presented and compared with analytic results where applicable.

In subsequent work, experimental data will be compared with computations, and both computation and

experiment extended to purely viscous non-Newtonian

flow.

HELICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

In an earlier paper, a variational analysis of developed

flow in a helical screw channel was given (1).A functional

based on the General Evolution Criterion (15)was derived in vector-tensor form, and then expressed in a

helical coordinate system. The functional is applicable

to the incompressible, non-isothermal flow of a fluid

with viscosity dependent upon temperature and instantaneous rate of deformation (a generalized Newtonian

fluid). Here we give two separate functionals corresponding to the momentum and conservation equations,

since in practice these would be used iteratively in a

solution of the non-isothermal flow problem.

+ -u . V (P + p a ) + po

r

A:A

dV (1)

k

- (VT) 2

po

(%)TI dV

(2)

extremalizing velocity and temperature fields. The use

of these terms distinguishes the present approach from

the classical variational formulation, in which it is not

possible to allow for inertia terms (16) and a general

shear-dependent viscosity. Non-subscripted velocities

and temperatures are subject to variation. but subscripted terms are not. Bearing this in mind, it is easily

shown (17) that the Euler-Lagrange equations corresponding to extremalization of Y, with respect to inPOLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, MARCH, 1980, Vol. 20, No. 5

Finite Element Solutions for Flow in a Single Screw Extruder, Including Curvature Effects

compressible velocity fields are indeed the momentum

conservation equations for a generalized Newtonian

fluid. /I.,, is the local viscosity value, and for nonisothermal flow provides coupling with the energy functional. The energy functional is a modification of that

derived previously (1)and is more convenient in that the

field variable is in the denominators. It is identical to the

form used by Palit (5), and again it is easy to show (17)

that the Euler Lagrange equations give the correct

energy-conservation relationship. The functional does

not include provision for stored elastic energy, consistent with the assumption of a purely viscous flow.

The helical coordinate system which has been used is

as follows:

(1)Radius, r , measured from the screw axis.

(2) Helical distance, s, measured along the intersection of a cylinder of radius r and a helical reference

surface fixed relative to the barrel, coaxial with it, and

with the same pitch and sense as the screw.

(3) Axial distance, t, measured from the reference

helix.

The coordinates are dimensionless, having been

scaled by the barrel internal radius R. The helical reference surface is thus the coordinate plane t = 0. s = O is a

plane passing through the axis and fixed relative to the

barrel. The system is non-orthogonal and is illustrated in

Fig. 1 . It differs from that previously used by Zamodits

(8) for the extruder problem, and from that proposed by

Tung and Lawrence (18) for the treatment of flow in

static mixers, etc. The latter states that the coordinate

transformations given in our previous paper (1)do not

give the coordinate curves we describe, that our vector

component transformations do not follow the rules for

contravariant components, and that our continuity equation is incorrect. We are therefore obliged to go into

some detail to clear up this misunderstanding. In their

paper, Tung and Lawrence review some standard material on general curvilinear coordinate systems, and go on

to derive equations of motion and continuity using the

general laws for contravariant component transformations. Their remarks about our work show that they have

assumed that we are also using contravariant components. In fact, this is not the case; our system is mixed.

Ours base vector is tangential to the intersection of the r

= constant and t = constant surfaces, and is thus a

natural base normalized to unit magnitude; likewise the

t-direction base, which is tangential to the intersection

of r = constant and s = constant. The r components,

however, are not referred to a unit vector tangential to

the intersection ofs = constant andt = constant. We use

instead a base orthogonal to the s and t bases just mentioned. It is thus a reciprocal rather than a natural base

(see Fig. 1).An attempt to derive our component transformations or continuity equation assuming a system of

natural base vectors, as Tung and Lawrence appear to

have done, will inevitably fail. In fact, we avoided their

approach and derived our results by the simple and

direct method which is given in the Appendix. We

denote dimensional velocity components by u:, u i , u l ,

and scale these by 2 rrRN to obtain dimensionless components u T ,us,ut.

POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, MARCH, 1980, Vol. 20, No. 5

axial

pitch

r, s, t.

instant during its reuoluiiori when the reference helix coiiicides

with the center of t h e j i g h t .

domain of the volume integrations is fixed relative to the

screw and is taken as one pitch length of the channel

bounded by: (a) the inner surface of the barrel; (b) the

surfaces of screw and flight; (c) the helical surface running through the center of the flight clearance, which

coincides with t = 0 for an instant on every revolution of

the screw; and (d)axial surfaces cutting across the channel at the beginning and end of the pitch, which coincide

with s = 0, once every revolution.

The geometry of the screw is (partially)defined by the

following dimensionless constants

radius of screw shaft

k, = internal barrel radius, R

(3)

k3 = flight width measured parallel

k4 = screw pitch measured parallel

to the axis/R

to the axid2rrR

is, there is no dependence of velocity (or temperature)

34 1

upon s. We also make the usual assumption of negligible

inertia forces, and deal here with isothermal flow. Thus

Y,, E9 1 , less the first term of the integrand, is to be

expressed in the helical system, and since there is no

dependence on s, an integration with respect tos can be

carried out directly. The result (1) is (dropping the subscript on Y):

u, = us = ut = 0

k { D } [L,]{Dq)drdt (4)

P*

cross-section (see Fig. 2 ) . The dimensionless groups are

as follows:

F = 47T"R 3 N 2 p*', a characteristic rate of viscous heat

generation, N is screw speed, P* is a reference viscosity

(constant).

N p , = 4 R2Pc/p* U , Poiseuille number, P G is the axial

pressure gradient, U is a characteristic flow velocity

magnitude.

NTh = U I ~ T R N ,Thompson number. poIp* is the

ratio of local to reference viscosity.

The row matrix { D } is (1 x 9) and contains the three

dimensionless velocity components and their spatial derivations. Row matrix { M } , (1 X 9), involves only

geometrical factors together with r, s andt, as does the (9

x 9) matrix [ L , ] . Details of these matrices and the

manipulations leading to Eq. 3 are given in Ref. (17).

Note that throughout we indicate a row matrix by, for

example, { D } , and the corresponding column by (03.

The treatment of the term involving pressure inEqs 1

and 4 requires comment. For incompressible flows generally, pressure can be removed from the variational

problem, since

1 u. +

V(P

p a ) dV =

is needed. In the present problem, the duct has a less

simple shape than that illustrated in Fig. 3, but the same

ideas apply and Eq. 4 consequently involves only the

axial pressure gradient, rather than pressure as a field

variable.

The boundary conditions used with Eq 4 are as follows:

(a) No slip at the barrel:

V u(P + p a ) dV

over the whole of the surface, S, we see that the term

involving pressure is not subject to variation and can be

dropped from the functional. Alternatively, the situation for any developed flow can be illustrated as in Fig. 3 .

The velocity fields over surfaces S, and Sz are identical.

The pressure difference, PJ, between any pair of corresponding points is independent of position on the

surfaces. Thus the contribution to the integral from

surfaces S , and S2 depends, for a given duct length,

only on the velocity field and the downstream pressure

cross-section of the screu: channel shown in hold outline.

flight:

ur= 0

us = -

ut =

d k4' + 1-2

k4

about the axis with speed N , and in the positive direction.

(c) Velocities in the flight clearanc'e are obtained from

a solution for flow in the narrow annulus between infinite, co-axial cylinders. Details of this are available

elsewhere (17).Velocities are given as afunction ofr and

depend on fluid viscosity, screw speed, flight clearance,

and axial pressure drop across the flight. Calculation of

the latter requires some assumption about pressure distribution in the channel, in addition to a value for overall

axial pressure gradient. We have assumed that isobaric

surfaces in the channel are helical and orthogonal to the

flight. This is known not to be true, but the approximation introduced is unimportant, as will be discussed in a

subsequent paper. It is important to recall that this

assumption affects only the pressure-driven leakage

flow, which is generally negligible. In all other respects,

as mentioned earlier, the solution is independent of'the

pressure distribution over the channel cross-section.

Numerical solutions for the velocity components ur(r,

t), us(r,t) and ut(r, t) are found using the finite element

method to extremalize E q 4 , subject to the boundary

conditions and the incompressibility condition. Flow

rate through the channel is found by integrating the

circumferential component of the resulting velocity field

over the axial channel cross-section, having first subtracted a term to allow for the fact that the domain of

integration rotates with the screw (17). The result is:

Q~~ =

!,I,2 T ~ N3 [

drdt

(6)

342

POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, MARCH, 1980, Vol. 20, No. 5

Finite Element Solutions f o r Flow in a Single Screw Extruder, Including Curvature Effects

To get the throughput of the machine, one has to correct

this channel flow rate by the amount of leakage over the

flight. Expressions are given elsewhere (17)in terms of

the helical system for the drag and pressure-driven

components of the leakage flow. However, since the

'clearance is generally very small, leakage can be

adequately calculated for the isothermal Newtonian case

using the analysis by Mohr and Mallouk (19) which

neglects curvature. This is also true for the simplest form

of non-Newtonian isothermal flow.

Results will be presented later in terms ofdimensionless flow rate and axial pressure gradient, as used by

Fenner (4).These were originally defined in terms of a

Cartesian representation and are interpreted here as

follows:

rIQ=

Q

2mRNWH

COS'

&,

(7)

and H is channel depth. &, is the helix angle at the barrel

internal radius.

from

Y=

2mRN cos

H

~$b

Briefly, the options in a finite element approach to

incompressible flow are: the pressure-velocity formulation, the stream function formulation, or a constrained

extremalization.

The first of these, the momentum and continuity equations, are treated simultaneously using the Galerkin

method (20, 21). The nodal variables are the velocity

components and pressure. As already indicated, we do

not wish to increase the unknowns of the problem by

introducing pressure as a field variable, so t h e

pressure-velocity approach has not been followed.

The use of a stream function raises to two the order of

derivatives in the functional. An early example was the

work ofAtkinson, et al. (22),who used a non-conforming

cubic triangular element. The need forCl continuity, or

a proven non-conforming element, probably necessitates the use of higher order shape functions. Palit and

Fenner (6, 7 )used the stream function formulation with

a non-conforming quadratic triangular element, which

gave good results, but it has not been subjected to the

patch test (23-25)nor has its behavior as a function of

mesh design been discussed.

Continuity can be enforced by applying a constraint to

the extremalization of, e.g., E q 1 , in either differential

or integral form. Incorporation of the differential constraint V . u = 0 into the functional introduces a

position-dependent Lagrangian multiplier, which can

be identified as pressure (26). In the present work, we

POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, MARCH, 1980, Vol. 20, No. 5

the functional of E q 1 with a constant multiplier,

YM = Y M + a/v(V.U),dV

(9)

of the constraint term to 4, expressing it in helical coordinates and integrating with respect to s, we get

drdt

(10)

r only. The advantage of the integral constraint approach

is that the nodal variables remain simply the three velocity components, keeping down the size of the problem

and allowing the use of simple elements. Against this

must be balanced the need to arrive at an appropriate

value of the multiplier, a.

The multiplier can be identified as (28)

a=

variational derivative of YM

variational derivative

/ (V -

(11)

u)'dV

denominator goes to zero as the constraint is satisfied.

The numerator, however, remains finite at the constrained extremum, so analytically V * u + 0 as a + m.

An element contribution to the constraint term, however, involves the product of a with the discretized

version of V . u , and so may in principle remain finite in

the limit. ThTs product can in fact be identified as

pressure. In practice, due to approximations in the

numerical solution, V * u will not go identically to zero,

and the constraint termwill eventually dominate as a

becomes very large (c.f., Ref. (29)).We may, however,

expect to find a range of a values for which both continuity and momentum conservation are adequately

satisfied.

These remarks apply independently of the particular

element chosen. The choice of element needs to be

made keeping in mind the problem of overconstraint

(25)which can occur when continuity is enforced. Various ways of avoiding overconstraint have been proposed, an important one being the use of reduced integration with higher order elements (25). With linear

triangular elements in a Cartesian system, it has been

shown (30) that overconstraint can be avoided if the

mesh is constructed from quadrilaterals with crossed

diagonals. This is also true for the present helical coordinate system.

In any numerical solution, one has to strike a balance

between the amount of algebra and programming, and

the work to be done by the computer. The algebra

involved with the helical system, which has been rather

glossed over in the previous section, provides an incen343

tive to choose the simplest possible element, and accept

that a large number of nodes may be needed for a good

solution.

We have therefore chosen linear triangles arranged as

indicated above.

Expressing the functional of E q 10 in terms of the

nodal variables within element e , we obtain

= {u,} [H,] [GI, where {u,} is the row

of nine nodal variables in element e , [He] involves only

the element nodal coordinates, and [GI is a function of r

and t , { M } is a row involving geometrical constants and r

(17). Integration is now over element e. Differentiating

with respect to the nodal variables:

Assembly of the element contributions gives the extremalizing conditions, to be solved for the totality of

unknowns {u}:

geometry of the mesh, and are independent of fluid

viscosity and operating conditions. They are accordingly

evaluated in a separate program, once only for a given

mesh, and the results stored for use in solutions with

N T h and a. As a consequence of

various values of po,,IpO,

the helical coordinate system, the integrands contain

terms such as 1ldk4' r z and cannot be integrated

exactly by low-order Gaussian quadrature as is usual in

FE implementations. W e have used a Rhoinberg

scheme of an order sufficient to give effectively exact

results, as demonstrated by numerical experiments. A

second program assembles and solves E q 14 exploiting

the symmetric, banded, positive, definite character of

the coefficient matrix, so that only Mb(b + 1)coefficients

are held in high-speed store at any moment (b is semiband width). A mesh-generator program was also written. This very substantially reduces the labor ofproducing specifications for fine meshes, and automatically

orders nodes and elements correctly.

Dependence of the Solution on Lagrangian Multiplier

Value

In the limiting case of an infinitely wide shallow extruder channel, pointwise continuity is satisfied automatically. Thus it is not surprising to find, in the present

work, that solutions for a shallow channel, (depth/width

HMI = 0.05, depthhadius H/R = 0.02), show little dependence on the value of ar//.~*. Using 256 elements, flow

rates at N = 60 RPM are constant within a fraction nfa

percent for values of d / . ~from

* 103 to greater than lo6.

Similar behavior is exhibited by point velocity components, although velocities close to the flights are more

sensitive. A better test of the formulation is provided by

solutions for a deep, highly curved channel (see Table 1

for dimensions). Here, the component equations of motion in the helical system cannot be separated as they can

be in the simple analytic theory just mentioned. Thus,

although us does not occur in the continuity equation

u

au,

L+

r

dr

au,

- - 0,

at

and ut, would be expected to show dependence upon

d p * . This is confirmed, and for a uniform 256 element

*

mesh, we find further that the region of d / . ~independence is much reduced. It expands, however, when

finer meshes are used. Results for a uniform 1024 element mesh are shown in Figs. 4 a n d 5 for velocities at the

channel center, for three fractional depths, y (a fractional depth y = 1corresponds to barrel surface, y = 0, to

the screw root). An example of flow-rate variation with

d p * for the highly curved channel is shown in Fig. 6 ,

indicating, by comparison with Figs. 4 and5, the greater

sensitivity to d p * of velocities close to the flight. A finer

mesh would further expand the region of independence

and provide better velocity values nearer the flight if

required. Subsequent solutions were all carried out in

the region of dp* independence.

Values of (V . g)' were integrated over the volume of

every element, and made dimensionless using a characteristic shear rate as follows:

J(V.u)2dV

=

element vol

one pitch

(16)

344

(15)

The sums over the whole mesh for the shallow (256

Table 1. Deep Screw Dimensions

Barrel internal radius, R, rnrn

19

rnrn

Barrel axial length, rnrn

1000

rnrn

Axial channel width, W, rnrn

109

rnrn

Channel depth, H, rnrn

9.6 rnrn

Axial pitch, rnrn

121

rnm

11.9 rnrn

Axial flight width, rnrn

Flight clearance, rnrn

0.18 rnm

Helix angle at radius R, 4,,, deg 45.2

HIW

0.087

HiR

0.506

Finite Element Solutions f o r Flow in a Single Screw Extruder, Including Curvature Effects

beneficial.

The results in Figs. 4 , 5 and 6 are for drag flow (I&, =

0). For pressure flow (II, = 0), u , = h t l d t = 0, so

continuity isautomatically satisfied. Since the equations

of motion are linear (we have neglected inertia), any

intermediate operating condition can be obtained by

superposition of solutions, and so we should expect alp*

dependence in all cases to be the same as for drag flow.

This is confirmed by numerical experiments.

1.4

1.2

1.0

us

.5

.6

:9

1c3

1 o5

1I

1 c6

1 0

u poise-

= 0 . Mesh size 1024 elements. Curve 1 : Y = 0.25, Curve 2 : Y =

0.50, and Curve 3 : Y = 0.75.

1.6

:1.

1.2

1.0

I

.E

.6

4

.2

102

103

t@

105

a poise-

Id

106

= 0 . Mesh size 1024 elements. Curve 1 : Y = 0.25, Curve 2 : Y =

0.50, and Curce S : Y = 0.75.

16

Q

in3513

compared with the analytic results, e.g., Ref. (31),for an

unwrapped channel of the same proportions. Using

uniform meshes of 64, 256, 1024 elements, flow rates at

open discharge ( I I p = 0), for example, agreed with the

analytic results to 4.5, 2.2 and 0.35 percent, respectively. Comparison of flow rates under other operating

conditions and of velocity profiles within the channel

gave similar results, demonstrating the convergence of

the solution as the mesh is refined.

For the deep channel, flow rates obtained with 1024

elements differed by only 0.5 percent from the results

with a 256 element mesh. At this point it would be quite

customary to assume that convergence to a correct result

is also occurring for this intrinsically more dimcult problem, where an analytic result is not available. The alternative is to test the computations against careful experimental values, and this is what we have done. This

important test of the present approach is reported subsequently, but finally here we make a comparison with

the analytically derived curvature correction due to

Booy (32).

Booy solved the equations of motion and continuity in

cylindrical polar coordinates on the basis of the following

assumptions: developed, slow, isothermal Newtonian

flow; a channel of infinite width (zero radial velocity

everywhere); zero radial pressure gradient; and zero

flight thickness. He used this solution to derive correction factors to be applied to drag flow and pressure flows

calculated from the one-dimensional unwrapped channel theory based on the barrel diameter and helix angle.

He proposed that the correction factors should each be

multiplied by the ratio of the axial channel width to the

axial screw pitch, to allow for non-zero flight thickness.

Finally, the effect of a finite width channel was to be

included using the previously available correction factors derived from the two-dimensional unwrapped

channel theory (31). Accordingly, for the present case

(HID = 0.25, = 45),see Table 1 , we read from Booys

Figs. 3 and 4 (32):

+,,

1 r,J

10

1 g4

a

106

13

poci

jluu., n,>=0.Sc.rewspeedh7

=15!RPM.Meshszze1024elenicntr.

elements) and the highly curved channel (1024 elements) were 0.16 x lop4and 0.05 x lo-, respectively.

Inspection of the element values showed that the largest

values occurred near the flight clearance, indicating that

POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, MARCH, 1980, Vol. 20, No. 5

0.78 (25%)

FDC

FpC

= 0.97 (t5%)

The flight thickness correction factor is 1 - 11.9/121 =

0.9. The finite width channel factors are obtained using

the channel width (orthogonal to the flight) at the mean

345

M . L. H a m i and J. F . T . P i t t m a n

depth in the channel. In the present case,

APPENDIX

The Helical System

w,,,~ = W cos 51 = 68 mm

H/wmean

= 0.14 and the factors are (31)

so

Fp

= 0.9 (25%)

FD = 0.92 ( t 5 % )

The resulting operating line is shown in Fig. 7, together

with the one-dimensional unwrapped channel results (based on barrel diameter and helix angle) and the

computed solution. In this example, the Booy correction

slightly overestimates the reduction in flow rate and

pressure-raising capacity due to curvature. The present

computer method clearly has the potential for a more

extensive investigation of curvature effects, and comparison with other results which attempt to correct for

channel curvature (2, 33-36).

None of the flow rates discussed above, either analytic

or computed, has been corrected for leakage flow over

the flights. This topic will also be taken up subsequently.

CONCLUSION

Finite element solutions for developed isothermal

Newtonian flow in both shallow and deep highly curved

screw channels have been obtained, based on a variational formulation in helical coordinates. An integral

constraint method has been used to enforce continuity,

and the dependence of the solutions on Lagrangian multiplier value has been investigated. It is found that for

sufficiently fine meshes, a clear range exists where the

solution is independent of the multiplier value. This

range is a function of geometry and mesh design, and not

of the boundary conditions or physical properties of the

problem. Solutions obtained within the region of multiplier independence are shown to converge to analytic

solutions for a wide, shallow channel. Solutions for a

deep, curved channel show a smaller reduction of

throughput due to curvature than is predicted by the

Booy correction. Computations for this case will be subsequently tested against experimental results.

reference system, and give transformations between

this and the helical system. Cylindrical polars are denoted by xl, x2, xrradial, angular and axial coordinates

respectively (we avoid the usual r , 8,z notation, since

we have used r in the dimensionless helical system). We

derive below the transformations given in Ref. (1).

Coordinates. Note that the r, s, t system uses an

anti-clockwise helix, whereas x2 is measured clockwise.

To simpllfy the coordinate transformations, we set the

origin of the helical system at XI= 0, x2 = 0, x3 =

-2?rRk4, where 2?rRk4 is the axial pitch. Refer to Fig. 1

and E 9 3 . Clearly,

xl/R -

X2

-.

2rr

271. Vx,

+ k4 R2 = Rs

(A-1)

radius xl.

Therefore,

x2

* 27Tk4R =Rt -

Also,

277

x3

t = x2k, + 2R

X

Therefore,

(-4-3)

Derivatives. Suppose a scalar (or vector/tensor component) F is expressed in the two coordinate systems:

Then

F = f l i X 1 , x2, x 3 ) = fib-,s, t )

aF - aF dr +--+-dF as

aF at

ax,

dr ax,

as ax,

a t ax,

(A-4)

Therefore,

Similarly,

aF - 1 dF

- -R ar

ax,

rs

R(k$ + r)

aF

as

aF aF + k p aF

- - V k 2 + r2 ax2

as

at

(A-5)

0.5

0.4

and

c.3

denote dimensional components by ui, referred to unit

magnitude base vectorski (i = 1, 2 , 3).

For the helical system, the dimensional components

u:, u:, ui are referred to unit magnitude base vectors

br,b,, bt (see Fig. 1). Express an arbitrary vector in

terms of the two systems:

0.2

ii.1

uncorrected for leakage f l ow. Cume 1 :One-dimensional shallow channel theory, Curve 2 : Finite elenierit computation, arid

Curve 3 : Curve 1 corrected according to Booy.

346

(-4-6)

u .b,, we obtain

Taking in turn the dot products POLYMER ENGlNEERING AND SCIENCE, MARCH, 1980, Vol. 20, No. 5

Finite Element Solutions f o r Flow in a Single Screw Extruder, lncluding Curvature Effects

241

(A-7)

= u:

u, = u: cos

(7d2 +

4)

rate

p_

= density

= helix angle

4 b

v3

= u; cos

4 + u;

= gravity potential

Matrices

NOMENCLATURE

Roman Scalars

of the functional

c

= specific heat

D

= internal barrel diameter

H

= channel depth

F

= a characteristic rate of viscous heat generation

K

= thermal conductivity

k,, k2, k3, k, = geometric factors of the channel

= rotational speed of the screw

= Poiseuille, Thompson numbers

= axial pressure gradient

= volumetric flow rate through the extruder

= flow rate through the channel

=leakage flows, drag and pressure flows,

respectively

= dimensionless radius

= internal barrel radius

= dimensionless helical coordinate

= domain of surface integration

= dimensionless axial coordinate

= temperature

= dimensional velocity components in the

helical system

= dimensionless components in the helical

system

= a characteristic velocity magnitude

= domain of volume integration

= channel width in axial direction

= axial distance, Fig. 3

= fractional depth in the channel, R ( l - r)/H

= momentum and energy hnctionals, respectively, in vector-tensor form

= constrained

form of Yu

= Y,v expressed in helical coordinates

= element contribution to Y

Greek Scalars

= Lagrangian multiplier

= a characteristic shear rate

= a dimensionless measure of continuity en-

forcement

= viscosity

= reference viscosity

= a characteristic viscosity, applicable at

shear rate

= dimensionless extruder pressure gradient

= dimensionless extruder volumetric flow

POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, MARCH, 1980, Vol. 20, No. 5

[GI (9x9) = a function of r and t

[ H e ] (9x9) = a function of element nodal coordinates

[ L J (9~ 9 =)afunction ofgeometrical factors andr, s, t

[L,] (9x9) = a function of r

{ M } (1~ 9=)a function of geometrical factors and r, s, t

{ ] (px1)

n1

case, otherwise written {n>

[ S ] (3xp) = matrix of shape factors for a general case

{T} (1xp) = a function of spatial derivatives of shape

factors for a general case

{u,] (1~ 9 =)three helical velocity components at each

of the nodes of a linear triangle.

{u) ( 1 ~ 3 n =

) three helical velocity components at each

of the n internal nodes

0,

Vectors, Tensors

br,

i

s

,

i

t

=base vectors of the helical system

= velocity vector

U

A

= rate of deformation tensor

= del operator

Subscript

0

=indicates values which render the functional stationary, i.e., indicates terms not

subject to variation

REFERENCES

Sci., 13, 209 (1973).

2. H. M. Griffith, 1. E . C. Fundumentuls, 1, 180 (1952).

3. B. Martin, J. R. A. Pearsoii, aiid B. Yates, Report KO,5,

Polyni. Proc. Res. Ceiitre, Dept. Cheni. Erig. Uiiiv. Canibridge, U.K.(1969);also, H. J. Zaniodits aiid J. R. A . Pearsoii,

Truiis. Soc. Rheol., 13, 357 (1969).

4. R. T. Fenner, Extruder Screw Design, Iliffe Books, London (1970).

5 . K. Palit, Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. Mech. Eng., Imperial College,

London (1972).

6. K. Palit and R. T. Fenner, AZChE I., 18, 628 (1972).

7. h. Palit aiitl R. T. Feiiiier, AZChE J,, 18, 1163 (1972).

8. H. J. Zaniodits, Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. Cheni. Eiig., Uiiiv.

Canibridge, U.L. (1964).

9. M. L. Booy, SPE Truns., 3, 176 (1963).

10. C. Kiparissides and J. Vlachopoulos, P o l y m . E n g . Sci., 16.,

712 (1976).

11. J. R. A. Pearsoil, Paper preseiited at E3.Ch.E. worhiiig

part) oii hoii-Newtoiiiaii Fluid Processiiig; Anisterdani,

Hollai~d(Juiie 1976);also, The CheniicuZ Eiigiireer, 317,91

(1977).

12. R. A. Worth aiitl J. Pariiab) ,PoZyni. Eiig. Sci., 17,257(1977).

347

13. D. R. Carlile and R. T. FerinerJ.M.E.S., 20, 2 (1978).

14. H. A. A. Helmy and J. Parnaby, Polym. Eng. Sci., 16, 437

(1976).

15. P. Glansdorff and I. Prigogine, Physica, 30, 351 (1964).

16. B. A. Finlayson, Phys. Fluids, 15, 963 (1972).

17. M . L. Hami, Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. Chem. Eng., U.C.

Swansea, Univ. Wales (1977).

18. T. T. Tung and R. L. Laurence, Polym. Eng. Sci., 15, 401

(1975).

19. W. Mohrarid R. S. Mallouk,lnd. E n g . Chem., 51,765(1959).

20. C. Taylor arid P. Hood, Computers Fluids, 1, 73 (1973).

21. P. Hood and C. Taylor, Paper presented at the International

Symposium on Finite Elenlent Methods in Flow Problenis,

University College, Swansea (1974). Proceedings published UAH Press, University of Alabama, Huntsville

(1974).

22. B. Atkinson, C. C . H. Card, and B. M. Irons. Trans. Inst.

Chem. Engrs., 48, 276 (1970).

23. G. P. Bazeley, Y. K. Cheung, B. M. Irons, and 0. C. Zienkiewicz, Proc. 1st Cong. on Matrix Methods in Structural

Mech., Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio (1965).

24. G. Strang and G. J. Fix, An Analysis of the Finite Element

Method, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey

(1973).

348

ed.), McGraw Hill, U.K. (1977).

26. 0. C. Zienkiewicz and P. N. Godbole, Paper presented at

the International Symposium on Finite Element Methods

in Flow Problems, University College, Swansea (1974);

Proceedings published, UAH Press, University of Alabama,

Huntsville (1974).

27. 0. C. Zienkiewicz, Conference on Nunierical Solution of

Differential Equations, Dundee (1973); Lecture Kotes on

Mathematics, Springer (1973).

28. I. M. Gelfand and S. V. Fomin, Calculus of Variation,

trans. ed. R. A. Silverman, Prentice-Hall, Eaglewood Cliffs,

New Jersey (1974).

29. 0. C. Zienkiewicz, The Finite Elenierit hlethod, (3rd

ed.), p. 287, McGraw Hill, U.K. (1977).

30. J. C. Nagtegaal, D. M. Parks, arid J. R. Rice, Computer

Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 4, 153 (1974).

31. E . C. Bernhardt (Ed.), Processing of Thermoplastic Materials, p. 169-174, Rheinhold, U.S.A. (1967).

32. M. L. Booy, SPE Trans., 3, 176 (1963).

33. P. H. Squires, in Ref. 28.

34. F. Rieger and J. Sestak, Appl. Sci. Res., 28, 89 (1973).

35. D. F. Dyer, AZChE J., 15, 823 (1969).

36. Z. Tadmor, Polym. Eng. Sci., 6, 203 (1966).

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