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Unit 1

Measuring the size of an object under a


microscope
Measure with an eyepiece graticule
Calibrate with the stage mcirometer (an object of a
known size)
Repeat and calculate an average

Scientists use optical microscopes and transmission


electron microscopes (TEMs) to
investigate cell structure. Explain the advantages and
the limitations of using a TEM
to investigate cell structure.
Advantages:
1 Small objects can be seen;
2 TEM has high resolution;
3 Wavelength of electrons shorter;
Limitations:
4 Cannot look at living cells;
5 Must be in a vacuum;
6 Must cut section / thin specimen;
7 Preparation may create artefact
8 Does not produce colour image;

Explain the advantages and limitations of using a transmission


electron microscope to study cells.

Microscopes
Prokaryotic cells
The structure of a cholera bacterium is different from the
structure of an epithelial cell from the small intestine.
Describe how the structure of a cholera bacterium is
Different.
1 Cholera bacterium is prokaryote;
2 Does not have a nucleus/nuclear envelope/ has DNA free
in cytoplasm/has loop of DNA;
3 and 4 Any two from
No membrane-bound organelles/no mitochondria / no golgi/
no endoplasmic reticulum/etc;
5 Small ribosomes only;
6 and 7 Any two from
Capsule/flagellum/plasmid / cell wall/etc;

Cell fractionation

1 TEM uses (beam of) electrons;


2 These have short wavelength;
3 Allow high resolution/greater resolution/Allow more detail to
be seen/greater useful magnification;
4 Electrons scattered (by molecules in air);
5 Vacuum established;
6 Cannot examine living cells;
7 Lots of preparation/procedures used in preparing specimens
/ fixing/staining/sectioning;
8 May alter appearance/result in artefacts;

Starting with some lettuce leaves,


describe how you would obtain a sample of
undamaged chloroplasts. Use your
knowledge of cell fractionation and
ultracentrifugation to answer this
question.
1. Chop up (accept any reference to crude
breaking up);
2. Cold; (reduces
enzyme activity)
3. Buffered solution; (prevents pH affecting
enzymes)
4. Isotonic / same water potential; (prevents
osmosis and possible lysis or shrinkage of
organelles)
5. Filter and centrifuge filtrate;
6. Centrifuge supernatant;
7. At higher speed;
8. Chloroplasts in (second) pellet;

The bacteria in the intestine are prokaryotic cells. The


epithelial cells which line the small intestine are eukaryotic
cells. Describe the ways in which prokaryotic cells and
eukaryotic cells differ

Parts of the prokaryotic cell

1 Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus / have genetic


material in cytoplasm;

Bmesosome,

2 DNA in loop / ring;

Ccell wall,

3 Not associated with proteins / do not have chromosomes /

(mechanical) protection/prevents (osmotic) lysis;

chromatin / do not divide by mitosis;

Dslime layer/capsule,

4 Smaller ribosomes;

protection (against e.g. antibiotics);

cell (surface) membrane,


regulates entry/exit/selectively permeable;
respiration/cell division;

Eflagellum,

5 No membrane-bound organelles;

movement of cell;

6 Such as mitochondria / lysosomes / endoplasmic


reticulum / Golgi / chloroplasts;
7 Prokaryotic cells may have mesosomes;
8 Prokaryotic cells smaller;
How
prokaryotic
cell is by
the capsule;
same and different to a eukaryotic cell
9 May
be enclosed
cytoplasm;
ribosomes;
phospholipid membranes / cell membrane / semipermeable
membrane;
2 max
(accept folded membrane for two marks)
(ii)
(it = bacterium)
cell wall;
capsule;
flagellum;
mesosome;
no nucleus / nuclear membrane / DNA free;
no mitochondria;
(accept no membrane-bound organelles if neither nucleus
nor mitochondria mark scored)
no microvilli;
no Golgi;
no ER;
70S/smaller ribosomes;

F DNA molecule/bacterial chromosome,

Prokaryotic cells
and fractionation

genetic information;

Give two factors which affect the ability of


bacteria to cause a disease.

pathogenicity / toxicity of products;


site of infection;
invasiveness;

Labelled antibodies and an electron microscope can be used


to produce images locating proteins on the surface of
organelles, but cannot be used to observe cross bridge
cycling in muscle cells. Explain why.
1.

e.m. gives high resolution;

2.

due to short wavelength of electrons;

3.

antibodies attach specifically to target proteins;

4.

gold particles are electron dense;

5.

electrons must pass through a vacuum;

6.

material must be dead / fixed for e.m.;

Explain the advantages and the limitations of using a TEM to


investigate cell structure.
Advantages:
1
Small objects can be seen;
2
TEM has high resolution;
Accept better
3
Wavelength of electrons shorter;
Advantages: allow maximum of 3 marks.
Limitations:
4
5
6
7
8

7.
cross-bridge cycling requires living cells /
metabolism / named
aspect-e.g. ATP synthesis;

Starting with some lettuce leaves, describe how


you would obtain a sample of undamaged
chloroplasts. Use your knowledge of cell
fractionation and ultracentrifugation to
answer this question.
1. Chop up (accept any reference to crude
breaking up);
2. Cold;
3. Buffer solution;
4. Isotonic / same water potential;
5. Filter and centrifuge filtrate;

Microscopes
Fractionation

Cannot look at living cells;


Must be in a vacuum;
Must cut section / thin specimen;
Preparation may create artefact
Does not produce colour image;
5 max
Limitations: allow maximum of 3 marks.

Describe the ways in which prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic


cells differ
1 Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus / have genetic
material in cytoplasm;
2 DNA in loop / ring;
3 Not associated with proteins / do not have chromosomes /
chromatin / do not divide by mitosis;
4 Smaller ribosomes;
5No membrane-bound organelles;

6. Centrifuge supernatant;

6 Such as mitochondria / lysosomes / endoplasmic


reticulum / Golgi / chloroplasts;

7. At higher speed;

7 Prokaryotic cells may have mesosomes;

8. Chloroplasts in (second) pellet;

8 Prokaryotic cells smaller;


9 May be enclosed by capsule;

Describe the ways in which prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic


cells differ

Explain how viruses cause damage to cells.


uses / breaks up / digests host nuclear / genetic
material (allow references

Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus / have genetic


materialin cytoplasm;
DNA in loop / ring;
Not associated with proteins / do not have chromosomes /
chromatin / do not divide by mitosis;
Smaller ribosomes;
No membrane-bound organelles;
Such as mitochondria / lysosomes / endoplasmic reticulum /
Golgi / chloroplasts;
Prokaryotic cells may have mesosomes;
Prokaryotic cells smaller;
May be enclosed by capsule;

Define resolving power and state why it is bteter for


electron microscopes than light
(i)

Ability to distinguish points


(close together); 1
(ii)

Electrons have a
shorter wavelength;

made to DNA /RNA instead of nuclear /genetic);


virus DNA / genetic material inserted into hosts DNA /
chromosome
/ genetic material;
host cells amino acids are used to synthesize viral
proteins;
cell lysis;
by enzyme (produced by expressing a virus gene);
toxin production;

Prokaryotic cells
and viruses and
microscopes

Describe the fluid-mosaic structure of a cell surface


membrane.(5)

Describe how proteins are arranged in a plasma


membrane and the part they play in transporting
substances into and out of cells.(6)

Phospholipids and proteins;

1 Some proteins pass right through membrane;


2 Some proteins associated with one layer;
3 Involved in facilitated diffusion;
4 Involved in active transport;
5 Proteins act as carriers;
6 Carrier changes shape / position;
7 Proteins form channels / pores;
8 Protein allows passage of water soluble molecules /
charged particles / correct named example;

Phospholipid bilayer;
Arrangement of phospholipid molecules Tails to
tails;
Floating(protein) molecules / molecules can move in
membrane;
Intrinsic proteins extend through bilayer;
Extrinsic proteins in outer layer only;
(Ref. to intrinsic and extrinsic, unqualified, gains 1
mark);
Detail of channel proteins / protein shapes /
glycoproteins;
Presence of cholesterol.
Some substances pass through the plasma membrane of a
milk-producing cell by diffusion. Describe the structure of a
plasma membrane and explain how different substances are
able to pass through the membrane by diffusion (6)
1 Phospholipids forming bilayer/two layers;
2 Details of arrangement with heads on the outside;
3 Two types of protein specified; e.g. passing right through or
confined to one layer / extrinsic or intrinsic / channel proteins and
carrier proteins / two functional types
4 Reference to other molecule e.g. cholesterol or glycoprotein;
5 Substances move down concentration gradient/from high to low
concentration;
Reject references to across or along a gradient
6 Water/ions through channel proteins/pores;
7 Small/lipid soluble molecules/examples pass between
phospholipids/through phospholipid layer;
8 Carrier proteins involved with facilitated diffusion;
Ignore references to active transport.
Credit information in diagrams.

Cell
membranes

Explain how three features of a plasma membrane adapt it for


its functions.
1. phospholipid bilayer (as a barrier);
2.forms a barrier to water soluble / charged substances /
allows non-polar substances to pass
OR
maintains a different environment on each side /
compartmentalisation;
3. bilayer is fluid;
4. can bend to take up different shapes for phagocytosis /
form vesicles / self repair;
5. channel proteins (through the bilayer)/intrinsic protein;
6. let water soluble/charged substances through / facilitated
diffusion;
7. carrier proteins (through the bilayer);
8. allow facilitated diffusion / active transport;
9 surface proteins / extrinsic proteins, glycoproteins / glycolipids;
10 cell recognition / act as antigens / receptors;
11cholesterol;
12 regulates fluidity / increases stability;

Describe the structure of a cell membrane.

Describe the part played by cell surface membranes in


regulating the movement of substances into and out of cells.

Double layer of phospholipid molecules;

Non-polar/lipid soluble molecules move through


phospholipid layer/bilayer;

Detail of arrangement of phospholipids;


Intrinsic proteins/protein molecules passing right
through;

Small molecules/water/gases move through phospholipid


layer/bilayer;

Some with channels/pores;

Ions/water soluble substances move through channels in


proteins;

Extrinsic proteins/proteins only in one layer/on


surface;

Some proteins are gated;

Molecules can move in membrane/dynamic/membrane


contains

Reference to diffusion;
Carriers identified as proteins;

cholesterol;

Carriers associated with facilitated diffusion;

Glycocalyx/carbohydrates attached to lipids/proteins;

Cell
membrane
Describe how the distribution of cell membranes in a
prokaryotic cell such as a bacterium differs from that
in a cell from a plant leaf.

Carriers associated with active transport/transport with


ATP/pumps;
Different cells have different proteins;
Describe
the role of
Correct reference
to proteins
cytosis; in the transport of molecules
and ions across cell surface membranes.
Allows passage of charged particles / ions;
allows passage of water soluble / large molecules;

Absence of nuclear envelope/membrane;

channel proteins / proteins with pores;

Membrane bounded organelles;

specificity related to diameter / charge;

Such as mitochondria/chloroplast/vacuole/lysosome;

carrier proteins;

and membrane systems/endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi;

specificity lined to shape of receptor sites;

Mesosomes in prokaryotes;

functions by changing shape / conformation;


facilitated diffusion with concentration gradient;
active transport against concentration gradient;
active transport requiring energy / ATP;

Describe how proteins are arranged in a plasma membrane


and the part they play in transporting substances into and out
of cells.

Suggest why this model is known as fluid mosaic.

1 Some proteins pass right through membrane;


2 Some proteins associated with one layer;
3 Involved in facilitated diffusion;
4 Involved in active transport;
5 Proteins act as carriers;
6 Carrier changes shape / position;
7 Proteins form channels / pores;
8 Protein allows passage of water soluble molecules /
charged particles / correct named example;

Molecules within the membrane able to move;


mixture of phospholipid and protein / arrangement of
protein;

Cell
membranes
Describe the structure of a plasma membrane and explain how different
substances are able to pass through the membrane by diffusion.
1
2
3

Phospholipids forming bilayer/two layers;


Details of arrangement with heads on the outside;
Two types of protein specified;
e.g. passing right through or confined to one layer /
extrinsic or intrinsic /
channel proteins and carrier proteins /
two functional types
4 Reference to other molecule e.g. cholesterol or glycoprotein;
5 Substances move down concentration gradient/from high to low
concentration;
Reject references to across or along a gradient
6 Water/ions through channel proteins/pores;
7 Small/lipid soluble molecules/examples pass between
phospholipids/through
phospholipid layer;
8 Carrier proteins involved with facilitated diffusion;

Explain how three features of a plasma membrane adapt it for its functions.
1. phospholipid bilayer (as a barrier);
2. forms a barrier to water soluble / charged substances /
allows non-polar substances to pass
OR
maintains a different environment on each side / compartmentalisation;
3. bilayer is fluid;
4. can bend to take up different shapes for phagocytosis /
form vesicles / self repair;
5. channel proteins (through the bilayer)/intrinsic protein;
6. let water soluble/charged substances through / facilitated diffusion;
7. carrier proteins (through the bilayer);
8. allow facilitated diffusion / active transport;
9 surface proteins / extrinsic proteins, glycoproteins / glycolipids;
10 cell recognition / act as antigens / receptors;
11 cholesterol;
12 regulates fluidity / increases stability;
6 max
principle mark (only for 5, 6, 7, 8)
proteins transport material across the membrane

Describe how proteins are arranged in a plasma


membrane and the part they play in transporting
substances into and out of cells.

Describe how proteins are arranged in a plasma membrane


and the part they play in transporting substances into and out
of cells.

1 Some proteins pass right through membrane;


2 Some proteins associated with one layer;
3 Involved in facilitated diffusion;
4 Involved in active transport;
5 Proteins act as carriers;
6 Carrier changes shape / position;
7 Proteins form channels / pores;
8 Protein allows passage of water soluble molecules /
charged particles / correct named example;

1 Some proteins pass right through membrane;


2 Some proteins associated with one layer;
3 Involved in facilitated diffusion;
4 Involved in active transport;
5 Proteins act as carriers;
6 Carrier changes shape / position;
7 Proteins form channels / pores;
8 Protein allows passage of water soluble molecules /
charged particles / correct named example;

Cell
membranes
Describe the structure of a phospholipid molecule and
explain how phospholipids are arranged in a plasma
membrane.

Describe the structure of a plasma membrane and explain how different


substances are able to pass through the membrane by diffusion.

1 Phosholipid consists of glycerol;

2Details of arrangement with heads on the outside;

2 (To which are joined) two fatty acids;

3Two types of protein specified;

3 And phosphate;

e.g.passing right through or confined to one layer /

4 By condensation/elimination of water molecules;

extrinsic or intrinsic /

5 Arranged as bilayer in membrane;


6 Head/phosphate hydrophilic/polar and tail/fatty acid

1Phospholipids forming bilayer/two layers;

channel proteins and carrier proteins /


two functional types
4Reference to other molecule e.g. cholesterol or glycoprotein;

hydrophobic/non-polar;
7 Heads outside and tails attracted to each other/inside;

5Substances move down concentration gradient/from high to low


concentration;
Reject references to across or along a gradient
6Water/ions through channel proteins/pores;
7Small/lipid soluble molecules/examples pass between
phospholipids/through

phospholipid layer;
8Carrier proteins involved with facilitated diffusion;

Describe how proteins are arranged in a plasma


membrane and the part they play in transporting
substances into and out of cells.

Describe how proteins are arranged in a plasma


membrane and the part they play in transporting
substances into and out of cells.

Some proteins pass right through membrane;


2 Some proteins associated with one layer;
3 Involved in facilitated diffusion;
4 Involved in active transport;
5 Proteins act as carriers;
6 Carrier changes shape / position;
7 Proteins form channels / pores;
8 Protein allows passage of water soluble molecules /
charged particles / correct named example;

1 Some proteins pass right through membrane;


2 Some proteins associated with one layer;
3 Involved in facilitated diffusion;
4 Involved in active transport;
5 Proteins act as carriers;
6 Carrier changes shape / position;
7 Proteins form channels / pores;
8 Protein allows passage of water soluble
molecules /
charged particles / correct named example;

Cell
membranes

Explain how pepsin is inactivated by the high pH in


the small intestine.

High pH denatures enzyme/ alters charge on active


site;
Breaks bonds;
Alters tertiary structure of enzyme molecule;
Changes shape of active site;
Active site can no longer bind with/ form ES
complexes with/ is no
longer complementary to substrate;

Enzymes

In terms of your knowledge of the way in which enzymes


work, explain why the rate of reaction would change if:
temperature fell and pH changed dramatically
(i)
energy;

Explain how inhibitors affect the rate of enzyme-controlled


reactions.
1 Statement about two types, competitive and noncompetitive;
Note. Award points 2 5 only in context of competitive and
non-competitive inhibition
Competitive
2 Similarity of shape of inhibitor and substrate;
3 Inhibitor can enter/bind with active site (of enzyme);
Non-competitive
4 Affect/bind to enzyme other than at active site;
5 Distorts shape of active site;
Inhibitors
6 Prevent entry of/binding of substrate to active site;
7 Therefore fewer/no enzyme-substrate complexes formed;

Molecules would have less (kinetic)

move slower;
fewer collisions / fewer ES complexes form;
max 2
(ii)

Change in pH alters charge / shape;

distorts active site / tertiary structure of enzyme / denatures


enzyme;
substrate will no longer fit active site;

Enzymes
Amylase is an enzyme, found in saliva, which breaks down
starch. It works best at a pH
of 8. Explain why amylase does not function in the
stomach where the pH is
approximately 3.
Tertiary structure changes / enzyme denatured / bonds broken;
Will affect active site (of enzyme);
Starch cannot bind / fit / form enzyme-substrate complex;

Use your knowledge of protein structure to explain why


enzymes are specific and may be affected by noncompetitive inhibitors.
1 each enzyme/protein has specific primary structure /
amino acid sequence;
2 folds in a particular way/ has particular tertiary structure;
3 active site with unique structure;
4 shape of active site complementary to/ will only fit that of
substrate;
maximum of three marks for inhibition, points 5 8
5 inhibitor fits at site on the enzyme other than active site;
6 determined by shape;
7 distorts active site;
8 so substrate will no longer fit / form enzyme-substrate
complex;

Explain what happens to an enzyme molecule when it is


denatured by high temperature.

Describe how the condensation reaction can be catalysed by


an enzyme.

Correctly named bonds broken / water removed;


tertiary / globular shape of enzyme changed;

enzyme has an active site;

shape of active site affected;

with a complementary shape to the substrate molecules;


enzyme-substrate complex formed;
lowering the (activation) energy for the reaction;
glycosidic bond formed/bringing together hydroxyl
groups/water
molecule removed;
products leave the active site;

Enzymes

enzyme unchanged;

Temperature has a marked effect on blood pH. At 37 C


blood plasma has a pH of 7.4 but at a temperature of 25 C,
the pH is 6.9. In some surgical procedures the body is cooled
by 10 C. Other than the direct effect that lowering the
temperature will have, explain how this cooling will affect
the reactions taking place in the body.

Lysozyme breaks down bacterial cell walls but does not


affect the walls of plant cells. Explain why.

enzymes involved;

specificity of active site / substrate does not fit.

formation of the enzyme-substrate complex reliant on the


correct pH;
pH affects the active site;
by disrupting bonds/altering charge;
lowering temperature will reduce pH;
enzymes have optimum pH;
pH change will slow the rates of reactions;

Walls made of different materials / peptidoglycan or murein


v. cellulose;

Explain how a substrate is broken down by the enzyme.

Describe and explain how an increase in temperature affects


the rate of an enzyme controlled reaction.

Substrate enters active site;


Complimentary shapes / Lock and Key;
(Binding) to form enzyme-substrate complex;
Lowering of activation energy;
Conformational / shape change;
Breaking of bonds in substrate;
Products no longer fit active site and so are released;

Enzymes

Temperature
Rate of reaction increases;
Increasing temperature increases rate of movement of
molecules/
kinetic energy;
Collide more often/substrate enters active site more
often/more
enzyme-substrate complexes formed;
Up to optimum;
Rate of reaction decreases;
High temperatures cause denaturation/loss of tertiary
structure/3D structure;
By breaking specified bonds (not peptide bond);
Active site altered/substrate cannot bind/fit/

Use your knowledge of the tertiary structure of enzymes to


explain how a non competitive inhibitor could reduce the
rate of an enzyme controlled reaction.

Many reactions take place in living cells at temperatures


far lower than those required for the same reactions in a
laboratory. Explain how enzymes enable this to happen.

Inhibitor is a different shape to substrate;

lowers activation energy;

Binds at position other than active site/allosteric site;

relevant mechanism e. g. brings molecules close together /


reaction in smaller

Alters shape of active site;


Substrate cannot bind/enzyme-substrate complex not
formed;

steps / change in charge distribution / proton donation or


acceptance / induced
fit ensuring substrates brought in correct sequence;
including relevant reference to active site;

Explain how the shape of an enzyme molecule is related to


its function.
specific 3D tertiary structure/shape;
substrate complementary shape; (reject same shape)
substrate (can bind) to active site/ can fit into each active
site;

Enzymes
decreasing the pH affects carbohydrase activity.
(decrease in pH) increases H+ ions/protons;
5 attach/attracted to amino acids;
6 hydrogen/ionic bonds disrupted/broken;
7 denatures enzyme / changes tertiary structure;
8 changes shape/charge of active site;
9 active site/enzyme unable to combine/fit with
starch/enzyme-substrate
complex no longer able to form decreases rate of breakdown
of starch/rate of reaction /carbohydrase activity;

Describe how molecular shape is important in explaining the


way in which enzymes may be affected by inhibitors.

Use your knowledge of protein structure to explain why


enzymes are specific and may be affected by noncompetitive inhibitors.

Active site (of enzyme) has particular shape;

1 each enzyme/protein has specific primary structure /


amino acid sequence;

(Into which) substrate molecule fits / binds;


Appropriate reference linking induced fit and shape;

2 folds in a particular way/ has particular tertiary structure;

(Competitive inhibitor) has similar shape to substrate;

3 active site with unique structure;

Also fits active sites;


Prevents substrate access;

4 shape of active site complementary to/ will only fit that of


substrate;

(Non-competitive inhibitor) fits at site other than active site;

maximum of three marks for inhibition, points 5 8

Distorting shape of active site / enzyme;

5 inhibitor fits at site on the enzyme other than active site;

Prevents substrate access; (award once only)

6 determined by shape;

Two types identified as competitive and non-competitive;

Many reactions take place in living cells at temperatures far


lower than those required for the same reactions in a
laboratory. Explain how enzymes enable this to happen.
lowers activation energy;
relevant mechanism e. g. brings molecules close together /
reaction in smaller
steps / change in charge distribution / proton donation or
acceptance / induced
fit ensuring substrates brought in correct sequence;
including relevant reference to active site;

Enzymes

7 distorts active site;


8 so substrate will no longer fit / form enzyme-substrate
complex;

Describe how molecular shape is important in explaining the


way in which enzymes may be affected by inhibitors.(6)

Explain how raising the temperature affects carbohydrase


activity;

1 Active site (of enzyme) has particular shape;

1 increase in temperature increases kinetic energy;

2 (Into which) substrate molecule fits / binds;

2 increases collisions (between enzyme/active site and


substrate) / increases formation of enzyme/substrate
complexes;

3 Appropriate reference linking induced fit and shape;


4 (Competitive inhibitor) has similar shape to substrate;

3 increases rate of breakdown of starch /rate of

5 Also fits active sites;

reaction/carbohydrase activity;

6 Prevents substrate access;


7 (Non-competitive inhibitor) fits at site other than active
site;
8 Distorting shape of active site / enzyme;
6 Prevents substrate access; (award once only)
9 Two types identified as competitive and non-competitive;
decreasing the pH affects carbohydrase activity.
(decrease in pH) increases H+ ions/protons;
5 attach/attracted to amino acids;
6 hydrogen/ionic bonds disrupted/broken;
7 denatures enzyme / changes tertiary structure;
8 changes shape/charge of active site;
9 active site/enzyme unable to combine/fit with
starch/enzyme-substrate complex no longer able to form;
decreases rate of breakdown of starch/rate of reaction
/carbohydrase activity;

Enzymes
Explain how the shape of an enzyme molecule is related to
its function.
specific 3D tertiary structure/shape;
substrate complementary shape; (reject same shape)
substrate (can bind) to active site/ can fit into each active
site;

Describe how the condensation reaction can be catalysed by


an enzyme.

Explain how amylase makes it possible for starch to be


digested at body temperature.
Activation energy reduced;

enzyme has an active site;


with a complementary shape to the substrate molecules;

starch attached to active site / formation of enzyme-substrate


complex;

enzyme-substrate complex formed;

less energy required to bring (substrate) molecules together


/ to break bonds;

lowering the (activation) energy for the reaction;

reaction occurs in small(er) steps;

glycosidic bond formed/bringing together hydroxyl


groups/water

change in shape of enzyme molecule (induced fit) brings


molecules

molecule removed;

together / allows bonds to break / causes overlapping of


electron

products leave the active site;

orbits of substrates.

enzyme unchanged;
Explain how substrates are broken down by the enzyme.
Substrate enters active site;
Complimentary shapes / Lock and Key;
(Binding) to form enzyme-substrate complex;

Enzymes

Describe and explain how an increase in temperature affects


the rate of an enzyme controlled reaction.
Temperature
Rate of reaction increases;

Lowering of activation energy;

Increasing temperature increases rate of movement of


molecules/

Conformational / shape change;

kinetic energy;

Breaking of bonds in substrate;

Collide more often/substrate enters active site more often/more

Products no longer fit active site and so are released;

enzyme-substrate complexes formed;


Up to optimum;
Rate of reaction decreases;
High temperatures cause denaturation/loss of tertiary
structure/3D structure;

Active site altered/substrate cannot bind/fit/

Many reactions take place in living cells at temperatures far


lower than those required for the same reactions in a
laboratory. Explain how enzymes enable this to happen.

Explain how the shape of an enzyme molecule is


related to its function.
specific 3D tertiary structure/shape;

lowers activation energy;

substrate complementary shape; (reject same shape)

relevant mechanism e. g. brings molecules close together /


reaction in smaller

substrate (can bind) to active site/ can fit into each


active site;

steps / change in charge distribution / proton donation or


acceptance / induced
fit ensuring substrates brought in correct sequence;
including relevant reference to active site;

Enzymes
Expalin how decreasing the pH affects carbohydrase activity.
(decrease in pH) increases H+ ions/protons;
5 attach/attracted to amino acids;
6 hydrogen/ionic bonds disrupted/broken;
7 denatures enzyme / changes tertiary structure;
8 changes shape/charge of active site;
9 active site/enzyme unable to combine/fit with
starch/enzyme-substrate
complex no longer able to form;
decreases rate of breakdown of
starch/rate of reaction
/carbohydrase activity;

Describe a chemical test you could carry out to show that


a piece of coconut contains lipids.(3)

Describe how you would use a biochemical test to show


that a solution contained protein.

(Crush in) ethanol / alcohol;

Biuret / alkali + copper sulphate;

Add (to) water (Order of adding is critical for this point);

Lilac/purple/mauve/violet;

Emulsion / white colour


Explain what is meant by a polymer.

Describe how you would use a biochemical test to show


that a sample contained reducing sugar.(2)
Benedicts and heat;

(Molecule) made up of many identical/similar


molecules/monomers/

Green / yellow / orange / red / brown

subunits;

Do not credit unqualified references to water baths

Describe how the sequence of amino acids in part of


a protein from a persons Tears could enable this
protein to act as an enzyme inhibitor.(6)

Biological
molecules

Explain how proteins are suited for their roles as receptor


molecules.
Many different sorts of proteins;

1 Sequence of amino acids gives shape;

Different primary structures/sequences of amino acids;

2 This is tertiary structure;

Tertiary structure;

3 Has similar shape to substrate;


4 Fits / competes for active site;

Shape; allowing formation of receptor/binding site/site into


which

5 Fits at site other than active site;

substance/substrate fits;

6 Distorting active site;


7 Therefore substrate will not fit (active site);

With reference to named parts of the diagram, explain the


difference between the terms:

Explain how the structure of fibrous proteins is related to


their functions.
Long chains of aa;

triglyceride and phospholipid;

Folding of chain into a coil / folds / helix / pleated sheet;

Phospholipid has (one) phosphate / Phosphoric acid;


2

Association of several polypeptide chains together;

replacing fatty acid;

Formation of fibres / sheets explained;

saturated and unsaturated.

Saturated all valencies of C filled / saturated with


hydrogen / all (CC)

H bonds / Disulphide bonding (In context);


Fibres provide strength (and flexibility);

single bonds / no double bonds;

Sheets provide flexibility;

fatty acid 1 is saturated/fatty acids 2 and 3 are unsaturated;

Lipid/protein carbs
Describe how a saturated fatty acid differs in molecular
structure from an unsaturated fatty acid.

Example e.g. keratin in hair, collagen in bone; (MUST be in


context)
Insoluble because external R-groups are non-polar;
Explain how a change in the primary structure of a globular
protein may result in a different three-dimensional structure.
sequence of amino acids changes;

absence of a double bond;


in the (hydrocarbon) chain;
unable to accept more hydrogen / saturated with hydrogen;

tertiary structure changes/folds in a different way;


bonds form in different places;
Explain how proteins are suited for their roles as receptor
molecules.
Many different sorts of proteins;
Different primary structures/sequences of amino acids;
Tertiary structure;
Shape; allowing formation of receptor/binding site/site into
which
substance/substrate fits;

Describe the structure of an amino acid molecule and


explain how amino acids link together.

Polypeptides such as spectrin are formed from


amino acids. Describe the structure of an
amino acid molecule and explain how
amino acids link together.

1 Amino acid based on carbon with four groups attached;


2 Amino/ NH2 and carboxyl / COOH;
3 R-group/ side chain + hydrogen;
4 R-group differs from one amino acid to another;
5 Amino acids joined by condensation;
6 Bond formed between NH2 and COOH;
7 Involves removal of molecule of water;
8 H from NH2 and OH from COOH;

1 Amino acid based on carbon with four groups


attached;
2 Amino/ NH2 and carboxyl / COOH;
3 R-group/ side chain + hydrogen;
4 R-group differs from one amino acid to
another;
5 Amino acids joined by condensation;
6 Bond formed between NH2 and COOH;
7 Involves removal of molecule of water;
8 H from NH2 and OH from COOH;

Biological
molecules
Explain how amino acid molecules may be linked to form a
polypeptide chain which is folded into a specific tertiary
shape.

Use your knowledge of protein structure to explain why


enzymes are specific and may be affected by noncompetitive inhibitors.

Condensation;
removal of water molecule;

1 each enzyme/protein has specific primary structure /


amino acid sequence;

from amino and carboxyl groups;

2 folds in a particular way/ has particular tertiary structure;

forming peptide bonds;


same amino acids in same sequence;
bonds form between R-groups/side chains;
e.g. sulphur-containing amino acids / ionic bonds / hydrogen
bonds;
bonds form in same place;

3 active site with unique structure;


4 shape of active site complementary to/ will only fit that of
substrate;
maximum of three marks for inhibition, points 5 8
5 inhibitor fits at site on the enzyme other than active site;
6 determined by shape;
7 distorts active site;
8 so substrate will no longer fit / form enzyme-substrate
complex;

Describe how you could use Benedicts reagent


to test a urine sample for the presence of
glucose.

Describe a chemical test you could carry out to show


that a piece of coconut contains lipids.
(Crush in) ethanol / alcohol;
Add (to) water (Order of adding is critical for this
point);

Add (Benedicts) reagent (to urine sample) and heat /


heat the mixture;

Emulsion / white colour;

red/ brown/ orange/ green/ yellow;


describe a further biochemical test to find out if
substance D is a non-reducing sugar.
heat with acid, then neutralise / hydrolyse using
enzyme;
(heat) with Benedicts (solution);
Biochemical tests

Describe how you would use a biochemical test to


show that a solution contained protei
Biuret / alkali + copper sulphate;

Describe how standard solutions could be used


to estimate the concentration of reducing
sugar in the samples.

Lilac/purple/mauve/violet;
Sugar solutions of known / specific
concentrations;
Test each concentration with Benedicts
solution;
use equal volumes of solutions / variables
controlled;
Method of comparison, e.g. compare colours,
mass of precipitate.

Explain how the effects of diarrhoea on the body can


be treated.

Describe the difference between an endotoxin and an


exotoxin.

oral rehydration therapy/ORT;


replaces lost water and salts;
OR

endotoxins produced from the breakdown of bacteria


(cell walls);

drinking large amounts of water;

(allow burst / lyse do not allow decompose)

with salts/minerals;

exotoxins secreted / released (from living cells) (not


produced);
endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides;
exotoxins are protein;

Cholera
Suggest why the cholera exotoxin is specific to the
epithelial cells of the small intestine.

Explain how an oral rehydration solution (ORS)


replaces water lost by diarrhoea
Increases uptake of sodium ions/glucose/sugars / salts;

receptor / proteins on membrane;

By co-transport channels/proteins;

complementary shape of exotoxin;


Lowers water potential in cells/tissue;
Water moves out of intestine/into cells;
By osmosis;

The structure of a cholera bacterium is different from the


structure of an epithelial cell from the small intestine.
Describe how the structure of a cholera bacterium is
different.

Give two ways in which pathogens can cause disease


when they enter the body of their host.

Damage/destruction of cells/tissues;

Cholera bacterium is prokaryote;


Does not have a nucleus/nuclear envelope/ has DNA free in
cytoplasm/has loop of DNA;
3 and 4 Any two from
No membrane-bound organelles/no mitochondria / no
golgi/no
endoplasmic reticulum/etc;
Maximum of 2 marks for points 3 and 4.
5Small ribosomes only;
6 and 7 Any two from
Capsule/flagellum/plasmid / cell wall/etc;

Production of toxins;

Cholera
Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) are used to
treat diarrhoeal disease. What does an ORS
consist of and how does it work?(5)
1. Contains glucose/starch/ carbohydrate / sugar;
2. Sodium/salt;
3. Co-transport / symport;
4. Sodium and glucose taken up (from lumen);
5. Lowers water potential in cells/ increases water
potential gradient;
6. Water taken up by osmosis

Describe the role of the enzymes of the digestive system


in the complete breakdown of starch.

Describe and explain the roles of diffusion, facilitated diffusion


and active transport in the absorption of digested food by the
ileum.
Diffusion
movement along / down concentration gradient;
monoglycerides / micelles/fatty acids move into epithelial cells;
monoglycerides move from epithelium into blood;
chylomicrons move into lacteals / lymph;
facilitated diffusion
movement along / down concentration gradient;
reference to carrier / channel proteins;
monosaccharides or named / amino acids move into epithelial cells;
active transport
movement against concentration gradient;
energy / ATP required;
reference to carrier proteins;
monosaccharides or named / amino acids moved into epithelial cells;
reference to co-diffusion e.g. glucose and NaCl;
monosaccharides or named / amino acids move into blood;

Amylase;
(Starch) to maltose:
Maltase;
Maltose to glucose;
Hydrolysis;
(Of) glycosidic bond;

Digestion
Describe the processes involved in the absorption of the
products of starch digestion.
Glucose moves in with sodium (into epithelial cell);
Via (carrier/channel) protein/symport;
Sodium removed (from epithelial cell) by active
transport/sodium-potassium pump;
Into blood;
Maintaining low concentration of sodium (in epithelial cell) /
maintaining sodium concentration gradient (between lumen
and epithelial cell);
Glucose moves into blood;
By (facilitated) diffusion;

Describe how sugars are absorbed from the small intestine


into the blood of a mammal.
Principles:
diffusion into capillaries;
active transport/facilitated diffusion involved;
ATP used by active transport;
Detail:
disaccharidases/enzymes in cell surface membrane;
glucose /monomers/monosaccharides actively transported into
epithelial cells;
via protein carriers/channels (in membranes);
facilitated diffusion from epithelial cell / towards blood;

Explain how the small intestine is adapted to its


function in the absorption of the products of
digestion.

Describe how maltose in the small intestine is digested,


absorbed and transported to the liver as glucose.
Hydrolysed by maltase;

Large surface area provided by villi / microvilli;


long / folds increase surface area / time for absorption;

Maltase enzymes in membranes of epithelial cells of small


intestine;

thin epithelium;

Glucose absorption involves diffusion;

short diffusion pathway;

Associated with uptake of sodium ions;

capillary network absorbs amino acids / sugars;

Involves active transport/energy dependent;

lacteal for absorption of digested fats;

Requires carrier molecules;

Maintains a steep concentration gradient

Role of villi/microvilli in increasing surface area;

mitochondria supply ATP / energy for active transport;

Transported in solution/in plasma;

carrier proteins (in membranes);

To liver via hepatic portal vein;

Digestion
Describe how carbohydrate eaten as starch is digested to
produce glucose.

Describe how glucose is absorbed from the small


intestine.

Starch digested to maltose by amylase;

Glucose absorption involves diffusion;

Found in saliva; Secreted by pancreas;

Associated with uptake of sodium ions;

Maltase converts maltose to glucose;


Found in membranes of cells lining small intestine;
Both reactions involve hydrolysis;

Requires carrier molecules; sodium glucose co-transport


carrier and the sodium potassium pump
Involves active transport/energy dependent;
Where sodium is pumped out of the cell
Glucose leaves the cell by facilitated diffusion
Role of villi and microvilli in increasing surface area;
Transport into capillaries/hepatic portal vein;

Describe and explain the roles of diffusion, facilitated diffusion and


active transport in the absorption of digested food by the ileum.
(allow general points provided correct molecule/particle involved)
diffusion
movement along / down concentration gradient;
monoglycerides / micelles/fatty acids move into epithelial cells;
monoglycerides move from epithelium into blood;
chylomicrons move into lacteals / lymph;
facilitated diffusion
movement along / down concentration gradient;
reference to carrier / channel proteins;
monosaccharides or named / amino acids move into epithelial cells;
active transport
movement against concentration gradient;
energy / ATP required;
reference to carrier proteins;
monosaccharides or named / amino acids moved into epithelial cells;
reference to co-diffusion e.g. glucose and NaCl;
monosaccharides or named / amino acids move into blood;

Describe the role of the enzymes of the digestive system


in the complete breakdown of starch.
Amylase;
(Starch) to maltose:
Maltase;
Maltose to glucose;
Hydrolysis;
(Of) glycosidic bond;

Describe and explain how the small intestine is adapted


to increase the rate of absorption
many / projecting villi (X) (no double penalty for microvilli);
large surface area (for absorption);
large/good blood supply / many capillaries/blood vessels;
maintains concentration gradients / efficient removal of
digested products;
thin outer layer / blood vessels near to surface;
short diffusion pathway;

Digestion
Describe the processes involved in the absorption of the products
of starch digestion.
Glucose moves in with sodium (into epithelial cell);
Via (carrier/channel) protein/symport;
Sodium removed (from epithelial cell) by active transport/sodiumpotassium pump;
Into blood;
Maintaining low concentration of sodium (in epithelial cell) /
maintaining sodium concentration gradient (between lumen
and epithelial cell);
Glucose moves into blood/out of the epithelial cell;
By (facilitated) diffusion;

How small intestine epithelia are adapted for


absorption

1. Microvilli;
2. Large/increased surface area;
3. Many mitochondria;
4. (Mitochondria/respiration) produce ATP / release or
provide energy (for active transport);
5. Carrier proteins for active transport;
6. Channel / carrier proteins for facilitated diffusion;
7. Co-transport of sodium (ions) and glucose or symport
/ carrier protein for sodium (ions) and glucose;
8. Membrane-bound enzymes digest disaccharides /
produce glucose

Digestion

Describe how atheroma may form and lead to a


myocardial infarction.(6)
1 fatty substance / foam cells / cholesterol in artery wall /
under endothelium;
2 formation of plaques / atherosclerosis / atheroma narrows
lumen of artery;
3 atheroma creates turbulence / damage to lining of artery;
4 (turbulence) increases risk of blood clot / embolus;
5 blood clot / thrombus breaks off;
6 (blood clot) lodges in coronary artery;
7 reduced blood supply to heart muscle;
8 reduced oxygen supply;
9 leads to death of heart muscle;

Describe how an atheroma is formed and how it can lead


to a myocardial infarction.(6)
1. fatty material/foam cells/cholesterol in artery wall/under
endothelium;
2. creates turbulence/damage to lining of artery;
3. formation of plaques/atherosclerosis/narrows lumen of
artery;
4. (turbulence) increases risk of blood clot;
5. blood clot breaks off;
6. (blood clot) lodges in coronary artery;
7. reduces blood supply to heart muscle;
8. reduces oxygen supply;

Cigarette smoking and a diet high in saturated fat increase the


risk of myocardial infarction. Explain how.(6)
Carbon monoxide combines with haemoglobin/causes less
oxygen to be transported;
Decreases concentration of antioxidants in blood;
Increases the damage done to artery walls;
Blood clot may occur;*
Blood pressure increased*
Blocks flow of blood to heart/in carotid arteries;*
(4 max)
Saturated fat associated with cholesterol;
Cholesterol deposited in arteries;
Atheroma formation;
Blood clot may occur*;
Blood pressure increased*
Blocks flow of blood to heart/in carotid arteries*;
(4 max)
*Allow reference to these points only once.
Cholesterol / blood clot causes constriction of coronary arteries;
Less oxygen transported to heart muscle tissue;

Lifestyle
and Disease

9. results in death of heart muscle;

Pulmonary tuberculosis is a disease of the lungs.


Describe the transmission and course of infection of
pulmonary tuberculosis.
1 (Bacteria transmitted in) droplets / aerosol;
2 (Bacteria) engulfed / ingested by phagocytes /
macrophages;
3 (Bacteria) encased in named structure e.g. wall /
tubercle / granuloma / nodule;
4 (Bacteria) are dormant / not active / not replicating;
5 If immunosuppressed, bacteria activate / replicate /
released;
6 Bacteria destroy alveoli / capillary / epithelial cells;
7 (Leads to) fibrosis / scar tissue / cavities /calcification;
8 (Damage) leads to less diffusion /less surface area /
increases diffusion distance;
9 (Activation / damage allows bacteria) to enter blood /
spreads (to other organs);

Emphysema is another disease of the lungs. People with


emphysema may feel weak and tired. Explain why.

The structure of a cholera bacterium is different from the


structure of an epithelial cell from the small intestine.
Describe how the structure of a cholera bacterium is
different.

1 Alveoli break down / collapse / rupture / walls thicken;


2 Less surface area / increases diffusion distance / less
diffusion;
3 Loss of elastin / elastic tissue / elastase involved;
4 (Alveoli / lungs) cannot recoil / spring back / have reduced
elasticity / more difficult to expel air;
5 Reduced diffusion gradient / air not replenished / less air
leaves lungs;
6 Less oxygen enters blood / tissues;
7 Less respiration / less energy released / less ATP
produced;

What is atheroma and how may it cause myocardial


infarction?
1. Cholesterol / plaque / lipoprotein / LDL / fatty
material / cells;
2. In artery wall / under lining / endothelium of artery /
blood vessel;
3. Atheroma linked to blood clot / thrombosis;
4. (Blocks) coronary artery / artery supplying heart
muscle / tissue / cells;
5. Reduces oxygen / glucose supply (to heart muscle /
tissues / cells);
6. (Heart muscle / tissue / cells) unable to respire /
dies;

1 Cholera bacterium is prokaryote;


2 Does not have a nucleus/nuclear envelope/ has DNA free
in cytoplasm/has loop of DNA;
3 and 4 Any two from
No membrane-bound organelles/no mitochondria / no golgi/
no endoplasmic reticulum/etc;
5 Small ribosomes only;
6 and 7 Any two from
Capsule/flagellum/plasmid / cell wall/etc;

Lifestyle
and Disease

Cholera
Water borne infection
Rod shaped organism
Ingested and enters the small intestine
Using flagella in cork screw motion through the mucus layer
Attaches to the cells
Releases toxin (only attaches in the upper region of the
small intestine as here there are receptors that
complement the shape of the toxin molecule)
Toxin causes chlorine channels in the membrane to open
Chlorine exits the cell into the intestinal lumen (also Na, K,
bicarbonate)
Intestinal lumen has more negative water potential than
the cell
Water leaves the cell by osmosis
Treated with ORT

Describe how altered DNA may lead to cancer.


1 (DNA altered by) mutation;
2 (mutation) changes base sequence;
3 of gene controlling cell growth / oncogene / that monitors
cell division;
4 of tumour suppressor gene;
5 change protein structure / non-functional protein / protein
not formed;
6 (tumour suppressor genes) produce proteins that inhibit
cell division;
7 mitosis;
8 uncontrolled / rapid / abnormal (cell division);
9 malignant tumour;

Explain what is meant by malignant. (2)

Lifestyle
and Disease

explain what is meant by a malignant tumour and


describe how exposure to cigarette smoke may result in
the formation of a malignant tumour. (6)
(Relative risk of) lung cancer decreases the longer it is since
giving up smoking;
(Relative risk of) lung cancer increases with the number of
cigarettes smoked per day;
2
Mass of abnormal cells;
Idea of spread/ metastasis;
Altered DNA/ biochemical differences;
Rapid rate of cell division/ uncontrolled cell division;
Cigarette smoke contains carcinogens/ mutagens/cancercausing chemicals;
causes changes in DNA;
Of genes that control cell division;
Reference to oncogenes;
reference to tumour suppresser genes;

Explain the relationship between the risk of developing


coronary heart disease and cholesterol and gender

(Cancer = ) mass of cells that divide continuously /


uncontrolled / faster;
(Malignant = ) can spread (to other body parts);

(i)
because formation of
atheroma/deposition of fatty material in
artery walls;
which weakens the wall leading to aneurysm;
or leads to narrowing increasing the chance
of a clot obstructing the artery;
max 2
(ii)
presence of oestrogen protects
women against CHD;

Explain why these factors increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.salt, smoking
Fat
blood cholesterol level increases;
LDLs transport cholesterol in the blood;
LDLs deposit;
cholesterol in arteries / atheroma formed;
blood pressure increased;(*)

Explain how emphysema reduces the efficiency of gas


exchange in the lungs. And suggest two factors that could
increase risk other than smoking
walls of alveoli broken down / fewer alveoli present;
smaller surface for diffusion;
OR
reduced elasticity;
ventilation restricted;
OR
scar tissue formed;
less area for gas exchange / slower gas exchange;
infection eg (chronic) bronchitis;
heredity;
industrial pollution - must contain reference to
inhalation of particles (dust);

Explain why atheroma may result in cardiovascular


disease.

Salt
Increased salt concentration in blood;
decreases water potential of the blood;
water moves into the blood;
blood pressure increased;(*)

Lifestyle
and disease

Smoking
decreases conc. of antioxidants in blood;
phagocytes release more free radicals;
this increases the damage done to artery walls;
raises the number of platelets in the blood;
makes them more sticky;
more blood clots are likely to form;
increase cholesterol / fat concentration in blood;
causes constriction of coronary arteries;
carbon monoxide combines with haemoglobin so less available to
transport oxygen;
blood pressure increased;

Explain how, high blood pressure, smoking and cholesterol


increase chances of CHD

weaken blood vessels may burst / aneurysm;

(high blood cholesterol may lead to) fatty deposition in artery walls;

vessels narrow;

detail e.g. in epithelial / fibrous layer;

blood pressure may rise;


blood clot may occur which restricts or cuts off blood flow;

atheroma formed;
blood pressure increased;
lumen of coronary vessels narrowed;

in coronary artery this leads to myocardial infarction / heart

reduced blood supply to heart muscle;

attack / angina;

angina;

in artery to brain this leads to stroke;

weakness of arterial wall increases chance of aneurysm;


increased risk of blood clot blocking vessels;
increased risk of heart attack; affected heart muscle dies;
high blood pressure puts increased strain on heart;
and greater risk of aneurysm rupturing;
atheroma increases risk of blood clots forming;
smoking increases risk of aneurysm;
less antioxidants / more free radicals;
smoking increases number/activation of platelets

The diet of a person can increase the risk


of coronary heart disease. Explain how.

Explain how these effects of nicotine increase the risk of


cardiovascular disease.
noradrenaline produced by SNS;

1. Too much saturated fat/ cholesterol in diet;


2. Increase in LDL/ cholesterol in blood;
3. Atheroma/ fatty deposits/ plaques in artery walls;
4. Reduces diameter of / blocks coronary arteries;
5. Less oxygen/ glucose to heart muscle /tissue/ cells;
6. Increase in blood pressure;
7. (Increased risk of )clot / thrombosis / embolism/
aneurysm;

stimulates SAN;
increase in heart rate/cardiac output;
blood pressure increases;
increased risk of cerebrovascular accident/stroke;
increased risk of blood clot/thrombosis;

Lifestyle
and disease

Describe the parts played by the sinoatrial node (SAN) and the
atrioventricular node (AVN) in controlling the heart beat.

The heart rate of a sleeping person is low. Explain how


nerves supplying the heart may produce a low heart rate
in a sleeping person.

1SAN initiates / sends heart beat;


2Myogenic / beats spontaneously / does not require nerve impulse;
3Rate of beating influenced by nerves:

Impulses;

4Wave of electrical activity / impulses / excitation passes over

Along parasympathetic/vagus;

atrium;

OR Fewer impulses;

5Triggers contraction of atrium;

Along sympathetic/(cardiac)accelerator;

6Electrical activity can only pass to ventricles / along bundle of


His by way of AVN

Slows activity from SAN/pacemaker;


3

7Fibrous tissue prevents passage elsewhere;

[Reject: decelerator nerve]

8 Delay at AVN;
9 Allows blood to empty into ventricles / atria to empty;

Heart

Describe how the regular contraction of the atria and


ventricles is initiated and coordinated by the heart itself.

Describe the role of the nervous system in modifying the


heart rate in response to an increase in blood pressure.

(cardiac) muscle is myogenic;

pressure receptors;

sinoatrial node/SAN;

in aorta/carotid artery/sinus;

wave of depolarisation/impulses/electrical activity (across


atria);

send impulses (award once only);

initiates contraction of atria

send impulses (award once only);

atrioventricular node/AVN;

along parasympathetic / vagus pathway;

bundle of His/purkyne tissue spreads impulse across


ventricles;

slows heart rate;

ventricles contract after atria/time delay enables ventricles to


fill;

to medulla;

The heart controls and coordinates the


regular contraction of the atria and
ventricles. Describe how.

Explain how a rise in blood pressure results in a decrease


in the rate of heartbeat.
1 pressure receptors / baroreceptors / stretch receptors;
2 in aorta / carotid arteries / carotid sinus; (reject carotid
body)

1. SAN AVN bundle of His /Purkyne fibres;


2. Impulses / electrical activity (over atria);
3. Atria contract;
4. Non-conducting tissue (between atria and ventricles);
5. Delay (at AVN) ensures atria empty/ ventricles fill
before ventricles contract;
6. Ventricles contract from apex upwards;

3 send impulses;
(reject signals / messages / electronic)
4 to cardiovascular centre / medulla / cardio-inhibitory
centre;
5 send impulses;(once only)

1 mark for correct sequence

6 parasympathetic nerves / vagus; (accept inhibitory nerve)


7 to SAN;
8 release of ACh / inhibits SAN / decreases impulses from
SAN;
9 decreases impulses to AVN / decreased stimulation of
AVN /
decreases impulses from AVN;

Increased intensity of exercise leads to an


increased heart rate. Explain how.
1. (Oxygen/carbon dioxide) detected by
chemoreceptors / (pressure) detected by baroreceptors;
2. Medulla/cardiac centre involved;
3. More impulses to SAN/along sympathetic nerve;

Heart

Explain the effect of smoking on blood pressure; (2)


Because arteries cannot dilate / dilate less;
Heart must work harder to force blood through;
Increases blood pressure;

Explain why a blood clot in a coronary artery is likely to


result in a heart attack. (3)

explain how smoking might lead to the formation of a


blood clot. (3)
Higher blood pressure causes damage to blood vessel lining /
endothelium
/ collagen;
Platelets stick together / form a plug / adhere to collagen
fibres;
Release of thromboplastin / thrombokinase;
Fibrinogen converted to insoluble fibrin;
Platelet plug trapped by fibrin mesh;

Cannot respire aerobically / must respire anaerobically;

Region is deprived of (blood and therefore) oxygen;

Lactate is formed;
Muscle cannot contract / eq. ;
Cell death / tissue death;

Diseases
Explain how each of smoking, high blood pressure and
cholesterol increases the risk of heart disease (6)
Plasma cholesterol:
More laid down in lining of arteries;
Walls of arteries damaged / weaken;
Arteries are narrowed;
Aneurysm forms;
Clot forms;
High blood pressure:
Increases rate at which cholesterol is laid down;
Higher fibrinogen levels;
Clots form (once only);
Smoking:
Increases blood pressure:
Muscle in artery becomes thicker / lumen narrower;

Explain how smoking and a high blood cholesterol concentration


increase the risk of developing coronary heart disease. (6)
CHD = heart muscle receives inadequate amount of blood
or oxygen / (coronary) blood supply reduced;
Smoking:
Raises concentration of fibrinogen (in blood) / increased risk of
clotting;
Increases viscosity of blood;
(Nicotine) causes platelets to stick together / causes vasoconstriction;
Carbon monoxide associated with plaque formation;
Reduces ability of arteries to dilate / reduces elasticity;
Cholesterol:
Fatty streaks / deposits adhere to wall of arteries;
Atheroma / atherosclerosis / plaque;
Narrows lumen of artery;
Damages endothelium;
Can lead to formation of thrombus / blood clot;
Clots need to be in context

What is atheroma? (2)

Describe how atheroma may form and lead to a


myocardial infarction.(6)

Plaque/ fatty material/ cholesterol/ foam cells/ lipoprotein


build up;

1 fatty substance / foam cells / cholesterol in artery wall /


under endothelium;

In artery/ blood vessel wall;

2 atheroma creates turbulence / damage to lining of artery;


3 formation of plaques / atherosclerosis / narrows lumen of
artery;

Describe how atheroma can lead to an aneurysm. (2)


Weakens artery wall;

4 (turbulence) increases risk of blood clot / embolus;

So that it swells/ bursts;

5 blood clot / thrombus breaks off;


6 (blood clot) lodges in coronary artery;

Disease
Describe and explain how atheroma can lead to
myocardial infarction.3

7 reduced blood supply to heart muscle;


8 reduced oxygen supply;
Describe how an atheroma is formed and how it can lead
9 leads
to death of
heart muscle;
to
a myocardial
infarction.
(6)

Atheroma/fatty material deposited in wall of artery;

1.
fatty material/foam cells/cholesterol in artery
wall/under endothelium;

Causes turbulence/damage to endothelium/raises blood


pressure;

2.

Blood clot formation;

3.
formation of plaques/atherosclerosis/narrows lumen of
artery;

Atheroma/blood clot lodges in narrowed blood


vessel/coronary artery;

4.

(turbulence) increases risk of blood clot;

5.

blood clot breaks off;

6.

(blood clot) lodges in coronary artery;

7.

reduces blood supply to heart muscle;

8.

reduces oxygen supply;

9.

results in death of heart muscle;

Reduces oxygen (supply) to (region of) heart muscle/heart


cells;

creates turbulence/damage to lining of artery;

Describe how atheroma is caused and how it may result in


a myocardial infarction. (6)

What is atheroma? (2)


Cholesterol/ lipoprotein/ fatty material/cells;

1. High fat diet/high salt diet/lack of exercise/age/gender;

Reject fatty acid

TWO risk factors for one mark

In the artery wall/under lining/endothelium


of artery/blood vessel;

Not hypertension as this is given later


2. Atheroma forms under endothelium/in artery wall;
3. Atheroma may narrow lumen of artery;
4. Atheroma increases blood pressure;
5. Atheroma promotes clotting;
6. Details of effect of atheroma on clotting;
7. Blood clot lodges in coronary artery;
8. Reduced blood supply to heart muscle;

Explain the link between atheroma and the increased risk


of aneurism. (4)
Fatty material within walls of arteries;
Vessels narrow;

9. Reduced oxygen/glucose supply leading to cell


death;

Blood pressure rises;

Diseases
Cigarette smoking and a diet high in saturated fat increase the risk of
myocardial infarction. Explain how.(6)
Carbon monoxide combines with haemoglobin/causes less
oxygen to be transported;
Decreases concentration of antioxidants in blood;
Increases the damage done to artery walls;
Blood clot may occur;*
Blood pressure increased*
Blocks flow of blood to heart/in carotid arteries;*
(4 max)
Saturated fat associated with cholesterol;
Cholesterol deposited in arteries;
Atheroma formation;
Blood clot may occur*;
Blood pressure increased*
Blocks flow of blood to heart/in carotid arteries*;
(4 max)
*Allow reference to these points only once.
Cholesterol / blood clot causes constriction of coronary
arteries;
Less oxygen transported to heart muscle tissue;

Weakened blood vessels may burst;


Atheroma makes it more likely that a blood clot will
form. Describe how a blood clot may lead to a myocardial
infarction. (3)
(Trapped in) coronary artery/artery supplying heart muscle/
tissue/
cells;
i.e. material of heart wall
Prevents oxygen;
Reaching (heart muscle/tissue);
(Heart muscle) dies/stops respiring;

Describe how muscles in the thorax (chest) cause


air to enter the lungs during breathing.

Describe how the structure of the lungs and the red blood
cells enable efficient diffusion and transport of oxygen.

Diaphragm/intercostal muscles contract;

1 Large surface area produced by many alveoli;

Increases volume of thorax/chest/lungs;

2 Single layer of epithelial cells / very thin epithelium /


squamous / pavement;

Negative/lower pressure in lungs;

3 Capillary walls one cell thick;


4 Giving short diffusion pathway;
5 RBC thin / flattened / disc-shaped so large surface area;
6 No nucleus / mitochondria;
7 Haemoglobin for transport of oxygen;
8 Red cell close to capillary wall;

Breathing
In normal breathing, describe the part played by
the intercostal muscles

Describe the difference in the composition of gases in


inhaled and exhaled air. Explain how these differences
are caused.
1 inhaled air contains more oxygen than exhaled air;

Contract;

2 inhaled air contains less carbon dioxide than exhaled air;

ribs move upwards/out;

3 inhaled air contains less water (vapour);

increasing volume/decreasing pressure in


chest/thorax/lungs;

4 relative amount/percentage of nitrogen also changes;


5 respiration results in lower blood oxygen / higher blood
carbon dioxide;
6 oxygen enters blood / carbon dioxide leaves blood in
alveoli;
7 by diffusion;
8 water vapour diffuses from moist surface;

Describe how the medulla in the brain and the stretch


receptors in the lungs maintain the breathing rate when the
body is at rest.
Respiratory centre in medulla;
Impulses from inspiratory centre / medulla / respiratory
centre;
Causes contraction of muscles;
Lungs inflate, stretch receptors stimulated;
Send impulses to expiratory / inspiratory centre;
Fewer impulses to respiratory muscles / inspiration
inhibited /
expiration occurs;

Breathing
Describe how the rate of breathing is increased during
exercise.
Chemoreceptors;
In medulla / carotid body / aortic bodies;
Detect increase in carbon dioxide;
Impulses to medulla / respiratory centre / inspiratory
centre;
Impulses transmitted to respiratory muscles;

Phagocytes and lysosomes are involved in


destroying microorganisms. Describe how.

Describe how these antibodies are produced in response to


foreign antigens.
antigens attach to macrophages / antigen presenting;
T lymphocytes activated by antigens;

Phagocytes engulf pathogens/microorganisms;

helper T lymphocytes activate;

Enclosed in a vacuole / vesicle/ phagosome;

B lymphocytes;

Lysosomes have enzymes;

specific cells (activated);

That digest/hydrolyse
molecules/proteins/lipids/microorganism;

divide (by mitosis) / clone;


plasma cells / lymphocytes secrete antibodies;
(accept T cells/ B cells as alternatives throughout)

Immunity
An antigen in a vaccine leads to the production of
antibodies. Describe the part played by B
lymphocytes in this process.(5)

Antibodies are protein molecules. Explain why


protein molecules are particularly well suited to
carry out the role of antibodies.

1 macrophages present antigens to B lymphocytes;

large variety of different molecules;

2 antigen binds to/is complementary to receptors on


lymphocyte;

range of shapes;

3 binds to a specific lymphocyte;

locks onto / complements specific antigen;

4 lymphocytes become competent/sensitised;


5 (B) lymphocytes reproduce by mitosis /(B)
lymphocytes cloned;
6 plasma cells secrete antibodies;

tertiary shape;

Vaccines protect people against disease. Explain


how.(5)

Describe how antibodies are produced in the body


following a viral infection. (6)
1.virus contains antigen;

1. Vaccines contain antigens / antigens are injected;


2. Dead pathogens / weakened pathogens;
3. Memory cells made;
4. On second exposure memory cells produce
antibodies / become active / recognise pathogens;
5. Rapidly produce antibodies / produces more
antibodies;
6. Antibodies destroy pathogens;
7. Herd effect / fewer people to pass on disease;

2.virus engulfed by phagocyte/macrophage;


3presents antigen to B-cell;
4memory cells/B-cell becomes activated;
5(divides to) form clones;
6by mitosis;
7plasma cells produce antibodies;

Immunity

8antibodies specific to antigen;

What is an antibody?(2)

9correct reference to T-cells/ cytokines;


What is an antigen? (2)

protein/immunoglobulin;

Molecule/part of molecule/protein/glycoprotein;

specific to antigen;

[Allow: polysaccharide]

idea of fit/complementary shape;

Stimulates immune response;

What is a monoclonal antibody? (2)


Reference to hybrid cell from tumour / cancer and
B-lymphocyte/hybridoma;
antibodies all the same / from one type of plasma cell;
specific to / complementary to / fits only one antigen;

Describe how B-lymphocytes respond when antigens


stimulate them.

Explain the role of B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes in the


defence of the body against a virus infection.

Divide by mitosis / form clones;

B lymphocytes produce antibodies/involved in humoral response;


T lymphocytes involved in cell mediated immunity;
Macrophages present antigens;
(specific) B lymphocytes recognise/bind to antigen;
increase in numbers by mitosis;
produce plasma cells (which make antibodies);
antibodies bind to and clump/ agglutinate virus;
memory cells produced by 1st exposure/cloned on 2nd exposure;

produce plasma cells;


(plasma cells) make antibodies;
(plasma cells) produce memory cells;
Divide by mitosis / form clones; produce plasma cells; (plasma
cells)

T lymphocytes(helpers) produce lymphokines/chemicals;


which aid B lymphocyte cloning;
encourages phagocytes to engulf clumped virus;
killer T cells kill virus infected cells;

make antibodies;
(plasma cells) produce memory cells;

Immunity
Immunisation programmes may use either attenuated or
dead microorganisms. Suggest why there might be
problems for the patient when using these vaccines.

Vaccines protect against disease by stimulating the


production of memory cells. Describe how memory cells
protect the body from disease.

Process of killing organisms might not be 100% efficient;

On further exposure to same microorganism;

live organisms might give rise to full-blown disease;

Antigen recognised;

attenuated organisms are non-virulent;

Faster response;

but might mutate to virulent forms;

Greater production of antibodies;

immunity can decline - booster injections required;


named side effects, eg allergies;
less effective due to changed antigens;

Describe how the scientists could use Kochs postulates to show


that the disease is caused by this bacterium.

Give two ways in which passive immunity differs from


active immunity.

Show that bacterium is not present in any animal without the


disease;
Isolate bacterium (from infected animal) and grow in (pure)
culture;
When cultured bacterium introduced to healthy animals,
the disease should develop;
Re-isolate bacterium;
Bacterium (always found) in diseased organism and not in
healthy organism;
Bacterium (can be) cultivated / cultured / isolated;
(Pure) cultures of the bacterium must cause the same disease /
symptoms
when introduced into (susceptible) other organisms;
Can be re-isolated (from the other experimentally infected
animals);

Antibodies not produced by body;


No memory cells;
Short-term / not lifelong;
Antibodies (or context established) donated by mother /
across placenta / in milk;

Immunity
What is vaccination?
Injection of antigens/toxoids;
(Antigen from) attenuated microorganism/non-virulent
microorganisms/dead
microorganisms/isolated from microorganism;
Stimulates the formation of memory cells;
Give two other methods used to prepare vaccines.
killed microorganism;
modified toxin;
attenuated/heat treated/UV treated microorganism;
genetically engineered antigens;
isolated antigen;

Explain how skin, tears, cilia and phagocytes protect against disease
barrier to microorganisms/bacteria/pathogens;
layer of dead cells;
impregnated with keratin/cornified;
fatty acids in sebum inhibit growth of microorganisms;
commensal bacteria compete with other microorganisms;
max 2
contain lysozyme/enzyme;
capable of digesting bacterial cell walls/killing bacteria;
physical washing away;
max 2
transport mucus;
mucus contains trapped bacteria/microorganisms;
microorganisms are moved up the respiratory tract and are swallowed;
killed by acid in the stomach;
max 2
engulf microorganisms;
digested/destroyed by enzymes;

role of macrophages in the immune response;


max 2
[8]

Explain why protein molecules are particularly well


suited to carry out the role of antibodies.

Explain how a host is made less susceptible by the use of


vaccination.
nature of vaccine e.g. attenuated strain;
vaccine introduces antigen;

large variety of different molecules;

stimulate / sensitise lymphocytes;

range of shapes;

memory cells produced;

OR

if host meets pathogen (following vaccination);

tertiary shape;

production of same (B/T) lymphocytes;

locks onto / complements specific antigen;

large number / rapid production of plasma cells / antibodies /


T killer cells;
pathogen destroyed before it can affect host;

Immunity
Explain how the respiratory system stops pathogens
getting and the stomach reduces numbers

Explain how the defence mechanisms of the body


reduce the chance of entry by a pathogen.

(a)

Epidermis of skin is dead / keratinised so pathogens


cannot penetrate;

mucus traps pathogens;

lysozyme breaks down bacterial cell walls;


cilia moves pathogens to pharynx;

mucus in respiratory system is trapping sticky


pathogens;

where they are either swallowed or removed;


max. 3

cilia move fluid / mucus removing pathogens;

(b)

tears / saliva / mucus contain lysozyme breaking down


bacterial cell wall;

enzyme;

stomach contains hydrochloric acid which destroys


bacteria;

in saliva or gastric juice;


acid in stomach;
disrupts bacterial membrane / wall;

blood clot prevents entry;


fluid nature of tears wash away bacteria;
vaginal acid destroys bacteria;
commensal bacteria on skin compete with pathogen;
sebum (fatty acid) inhibits bacterial growth;

Explain how the body responds both generally and specifically to


pathogens that enter the blood.

Explain how vaccination protects against developing a


disease.

action of phagocytes;

T lymphocytes / cells recognize antigen in vaccine;

Interferon production;

T cells attach to antigens / destroy antigens;

body temperature increased;

B lymphocytes / cells clone;

ref to B or T lymphocytes;

Produce Plasma Cells

activated by non-self antigen;

produce antibodies (which kill microbe);

either clone / divide by mitosis;

memory cells; rapidly produce of these antibodies on reinfection

T helper cells role;


B plasma cells produced;
which produces antibodies;
any specific effect (e.g. immobilise /agglutinate / lysis /coat for
recognition /
neutralise toxins);

Immunity

T killer / cytotoxic cell;


perform
Suggestproduced;
two reasons why parents may decide against
vaccination
for their children.
memory
cell produced;

consider vaccines to be unsafe / have side effects / damage


immune system;
consider natural immunity to be more effective; allow in (a)
if not here
religious / ethical objections qualified e.g. objections to use
of fetal /

Many elderly people are vaccinated against influenza.


Explain why it is necessary to vaccinate these people
every year.

influenza virus mutates;


different strains / different - shaped antigen;

animal tissue;

mutant forms will not be recognised by lymphocytes


memory cells

consider low risk of disease when high percentage of


population already

immune system; accept elderly have weaker immune system

vaccinated/Ref. to Head Effect

Suggest how cloning results in the production of Blymphocytes that all have the same antibody-producing
capability

A person who is rhesus negative will produce rhesus


antibodies if rhesus antigens get into the blood. Describe
how

Mitosis;

antigens attach to macrophages / antigen presenting;

Identical genetic material/DNA passed to daughter cells;


(ignore

T lymphocytes activated by antigens;


helper T lymphocytes activate;

reference to chromosomes)

B lymphocytes;

DNA/gene codes for protein;

specific cells (activated);

Antibody is a protein;

divide (by mitosis) / clone;


plasma cells / lymphocytes secrete antibodies;
(accept T cells/ B cells as alternatives throughout)

Immunity
Explain how antibodies are produced more quickly if the
same type of antigen gets into the blood on a second
occasion.

Describe how macrophages help to prevent the spread of


microorganisms that enter the blood and other tissues.
move to site of infection;
phagocytosis/engulf bacteria;

memory (T) cells / lymphocytes;


activate B cells / lymphocytes quickly;
or
memory (B) cells / lymphocytes;
in (large) numbers; (do not allow antibodies produced
quickly)

(digest neutral)
stimulate (T)-lymphocytes/B cells/T cells;

An antigen in a vaccine leads to the production of


antibodies. Describe the part played by B lymphocytes in
this process.

Phagocytes and lysosomes are involved in destroying


microorganisms. Describe how.
Phagocytes engulf pathogens/microorganisms;

1 macrophages present antigens to B lymphocytes;

Enclosed in a vacuole / vesicle/ phagosome;

2 antigen binds to/is complementary to receptors on


lymphocyte;

Lysosomes have enzymes;


That digest/hydrolyse
molecules/proteins/lipids/microorganism;

3 binds to a specific lymphocyte;


4 lymphocytes become competent/sensitised;
5 (B) lymphocytes reproduce by mitosis /(B) lymphocytes
cloned;
6 plasma cells secrete antibodies;

Immunity
When a pathogen enters the body it may
be destroyed by phagocytosis. Describe
how.
1. Phagocyte attracted by a substance/ recognises
(foreign) antigen;
2. (Pathogen)engulfed/ ingested;
3. Enclosed in vacuole/ vesicle/ phagosome;
4. (Vacuole) fuses/joins with lysosome;
5. Lysosome contains enzymes;
6. Pathogen digested/ molecules hydrolysed;

Unit 2

Explain how the structure of DNA is related to its


function.(6)

Describe two features of DNA which make it a


stable molecule.

sugar - phosphate backbone gives strength;

two strands with specific base pairing;

(coiling gives) compact shape;

large number of hydrogen bonds (between strands);

sequence of bases allows information to be stored;

helix/coiling reduces chance of molecular damage /


protects H bonds;

long molecule stores large amount of information;

strong sugar-phosphate backbone;

information can be replicated / complementary base


pairing;

(reject strong bonds between nucleotides)

(double helix protects) weak hydrogen bonds / double


helix makes
molecule stable prevents code being corrupted;
chains held together by weak hydrogen bonds;
chains can split for replication / transcription

Give three ways in which the structure of the DNA


molecule enables it to carry out its functions.(6)
Sugar phosphate backbone gives strength;
Coiling gives compact shape;
Sequence of bases allows information to be stored;
Long molecule / coiling stores large amount of information;
Complementary base pairing enables information to be
replicated /
transcribed;
Double helix protects weak hydrogen bonds / double helix
makes
molecule stable;
Many hydrogen bonds together give molecule stability;
Prevents code being corrupted;
Hydrogen bonding allows chains to split for replication /
transcription OR
molecule unzips easily for replication / transcription.

DNA
structure for
function

Explain how DNA replicates.(5)


hydrogen bonds broken;
semi-conservative replication / both strands used (as
templates);
nucleotides line up;
complementary / specific base pairing / A and T / C
and G;
DNA polymerase;

Describe and explain how the structure of DNA results in


accurate replication.(6)
1 two strands therefore semi-conservative replication
(possible);
2 base pairing/hydrogen bonds holds strands together
3 hydrogen bonds weak/easily broken, allow strands to
separate;
4 bases (sequence) (exposed so) act as template /can be
copied;
5 A with T, C with G / complementary copy;
6 DNA one parent and one new strand;

Describe the molecular structure of DNA and explain


how a sequence of DNA is replicated in the bacteria.(9)
nucleotideas;
composition of a nucleotide,
4 bases named;
sugar-phosphate backbone;
two (polynucleotide) strands;
specific base-pairing;
example e.g. AT / CG;
hydrogen bonding;
uncoiling / unzipping;
semi-conservative replication;
DNA polymerase;
new complementary strands form / identical DNA molecule
produced;
DNA inserted into plasmids;
which are self-replicating;

DNA
structure for
function

Describe the molecular structure of DNA and explain


how a sequence of DNA is replicated in the bacteria. (9)
nucleotides;
composition of a nucleotide,
4 bases named;
sugar-phosphate backbone;
two (polynucleotide) strands;
specific base-pairing;
example e.g. AT / CG;
hydrogen bonding;
uncoiling / unzipping;
semi-conservative replication;
DNA polymerase;
new complementary strands form / identical DNA molecule
produced;
DNA inserted into plasmids;
which are self-replicating;

Describe and explain how the structure of DNA


results in accurate replication.
1 two strands therefore semi-conservative replication
(possible);
2 base pairing/hydrogen bonds holds strands together
3 hydrogen bonds weak/easily broken, allow strands to
separate;
4 bases (sequence) (exposed so) act as template /can be
copied;
5 A with T, C with G / complementary copy;
6 DNA one parent and one new strand;

Explain why DNA replication is described as semiconservative.

Explain how the structure of DNA is related to its function.


sugar - phosphate backbone gives strength;

each strand copied/acts as a template;


2

(coiling gives) compact shape;


sequence of bases allows information to be stored;

(daughter) DNA one new strand and one


original/parent strand;

long molecule stores large amount of information;


information can be replicated / complementary base
pairing;
(double helix protects) weak hydrogen bonds / double helix
makes
molecule stable prevents code being corrupted;
chains held together by weak hydrogen bonds;
chains can split for replication / transcription
DNA structure and
function

Explain how DNA replicates.


hydrogen bonds broken;
semi-conservative replication / both strands used (as
templates);
nucleotides line up;
complementary / specific base pairing / A and T / C
and G;
DNA polymerase;

Describe the behaviour of chromosomes during mitosis


and explain how this results in the production of two
genetically identical cells. (7)
1 chromosomes shorten/thicken/supercoiling;
2 chromosomes (each) two identical
chromatids/strands/copies
(due to replication);
3 chromosomes/chromatids move to equator/middle of the
spindle/cell;
4 attach to individual spindle fibres;
5 spindle fibres contract / centromeres divide / repel;
6 (sister) chromatids/chromosomes (separate)
move to opposite poles/ends of the spindle;
7 each pole/end receives all genetic information/
identical copies of each chromosome;
8 nuclear envelope forms around each group of
chromosomes/ chromatids/at each pole;

Describe what happens to the chromosomes during each of


the following stages of mitosis. Prophase, Metaphase,
Anaphase, Telophase.
prophase coil up/spiralise/condense;
(allow shorter/contract/become visible)
metaphase move to equator or centre of cell / attach
to spindle;
(reject if reference to pairing)
anaphase chromatids separate/centromeres divide;
(reject chromosomes move to poles without further
explanation)
telophase uncoil; (allow lengthen/becomes less
visible)
4
(allow labelled diagrams)

Describe the features which would help you to recognise


when a cell is in metaphase of mitosis; in anaphase of
mitosis
(i)

Chromosomes
or chromatids on equator / in
middle of cell;

Of spindle (once);No nuclear membrane


(once only).
(ii)

Chromatids
moving towards poles / centrioles;

of spindle (once);
Two centromeres per chromosome/
centromeres are being pulled;

Mitosis

No nuclear membrane (once only).

Compare meiosis and mitosis

Describe the role of the spindle in mitosis.

Describe two events which occur during interphase.

Attachment of centromeres;

Increased in volume of cell / amount of cytoplasm /


increase in mass /

Separation of (daughter) chromatids;

cell bigger;
Increase in number of organelles;
Mitosis is important in the life of an
organism. Give two reasons why.

Protein synthesis / specific example;

1. Growth / increase in cell number;


2. Replace cells / repair tissue / organs /body;
3. Genetically identical cells;
4. Asexual reproduction /cloning;

I references to G1, G2 and S phases)

DNA replication / chromosomes become chromatids /


chromosomes copy;
Increase in volume of cell/volume of cytoplasm /
increase in mass / cell bigger; increase in number of
organelles;

Mitosis
Describe the features which would help you to
recognise when a cell is in metaphase and anaphase
Chromosomes or chromatids on equator / in middle of
cell;
Of spindle (once);No nuclear membrane (once only).
(ii) Chromatids moving towards poles / centrioles;
of spindle (once);
Two centromeres per chromosome/ centromeres are
being pulled;
No nuclear membrane (once only).

synthesis of protein/named protein;


DNA replication/increase / chromosomes copied;
ATP synthesis / respiration;
Describe what happens to the chromosomes during
each of the following stages of mitosis. Prophase,
metaphase, anaphase telophase
prophase coil up/spiralise/condense;
(allow shorter/contract/become visible)
metaphase move to equator or centre of cell / attach
to spindle;
(reject if reference to pairing)
anaphase chromatids separate/centromeres divide;
(reject chromosomes move to poles without further
explanation)
telophase uncoil; (allow lengthen/becomes less
visible)
4
(allow labelled diagrams)

Describe what happens to chromosomes in meiosis.(6)

Meiosis results in genetic variation in the gametes which


leads to variation in the offspring formed by sexual
reproduction. Describe how meiosis causes this variation
and explain the advantage of variation to the species.(5)

1. Chromosomes shorten/thicken/condense;
2. Chromosomes associate in homologous/(described) pairs /
formation of bivalents / tetrads;
3. Crossing-over / chiasma formation;
4. Join to spindle (fibres) / moved by spindle;(*)
5. (At) equator/middle of cell;(*)
6. (join via) centromere / kinetochore;(*)
7. (Homologous) chromosomes move to opposite poles /
chromosomes separate/move apart; (ALLOW are pulled
apart)
8. (Pairs of) chromatids separated in 2nd division;
max 6
(*) OR independent assortment

Meiosis

1. Crossing-over; [IGNORE any wrong ref. to timing]


2. Independent/random assortment/orientation/segregation
of (homologous) chromosomes in meiosis I;
3. Independent/random assortment/orientation/segregation
of chromatids in meiosis II;
Any three from:
4. Different adaptations / some better adapted;
5. Some survive / example described;
6. To reproduce;
7. Pass on gene/allele;
8. Allows for changing environment/different
environment/example described;

= 1over
markcan contribute to genetic
Explainunqualified
how crossing
variation.

Explain why the gametes produced by meiosis from a


single cell contain different alleles.

sections of chromatids exchanged;

A gene (may) have more than one type of allele;

sections have different alleles;

Different chromosomes in a homologous / pair have


different alleles;

new combinations of (linked) alleles;

Homologous / pairs of chromosomes separate in


meiosis;
One chromosome from each pair goes to each daughter
cell;

Explain the importance of meiosis in the life cycle of a


sexually reproducing organism.

Give two ways in which meiosis results in genetic variation in


the gametes produced.

Meiosis halves the number of chromosomes;

crossing over;
random assortment of chromosomes;

Restoration of diploid number at fertilisation;


Introduces variation;
Correct reference to natural selection / survival;

Meiosis

Explain the importance of genetic variation in the process


of evolution.
Causes variation in phenotype/characteristics of
organisms/some better
adapted/have more favourable characteristics;
correct reference to (natural) selection of better adapted
organisms;
selection of different phenotypes in different environments;
eventually leads to species change/change in gene pool/change
in gene
frequencies;

Explain why the sperms produced by a man are


genetically different from each other.

Give two processes, other than crossing over, which result in


genetic variation.

produced by meiosis;

Explain how each process contributes to genetic variation.

crossing over;

mutation;

independent assortment of chromosomes;

different/new allele formed / genes deleted or duplicated/


sequence of genes
changed (reject genetic information);
random fusion of gametes / fertilisation;
new combination of alleles;
independent assortment (of chromosomes) (accept random);
shuffling of maternal and paternal chromosomes/new
combination
of alleles;

Give two processes which occur during interphase and


which are necessary for nuclear division to take
place.

If the DNA of the cell is damaged, a protein called p53


stops the cell cycle.

replication of DNA;

Cancer cells often have faulty/damaged DNA;

ATP production;

Protein/p53 faulty/not made;

synthesis of proteins/spindle/replication of
centrioles;

Cell (with faulty /DNA) divides/completes cell cycle;

Mutation in the gene for p53 could cause cancer to


develop. Explain how.

Uncontrolled division produces cancer;


3
p53 refers to the protein so do not accept
reference to p53 mutating.

Mitosis

During meiosis, one chromosome from each


homologous pair goes to each of the cells
produced explain why

Apart from increasing genetic variation, explain why


meiosis is important in organisms which
reproduce sexually.

to get haploid/n/half number of chromosomes (in


cells);

haploid cells produced/halves chromosome number;

so that each cell gets one copy of each


chromosome/gene/full set of genes;

fertilisation/fusion of gametes, diploid number


restored;

so that fertilisation produces diploid/constant


chromosome number;

chromosome number constant at each generation;

results in independent assortment;

Meiosis
xplain how crossing over can contribute to genetic
variation.

sections of chromatids exchanged;


sections have different alleles;
new combinations of (linked) alleles;

Describe the molecular structure of DNA and explain how a


sequence of DNA is replicated in the bacteria.

Give three ways in which the structure of the DNA molecule


enables it to carry out its functions.

nucleotides;

N. B. both structure and advantage needed for each mark


Sugar phosphate backbone gives strength;
Coiling gives compact shape;
Sequence of bases allows information to be stored;
Long molecule / coiling stores large amount of information;
Complementary base pairing enables information to be replicated /
transcribed;
Double helix protects weak hydrogen bonds / double helix makes
molecule stable;
Many hydrogen bonds together give molecule stability;
Prevents code being corrupted;
Hydrogen bonding allows chains to split for replication /
transcription OR
molecule unzips easily for replication / transcription.

composition of a nucleotide,
4 bases named;
sugar-phosphate backbone;
two (polynucleotide) strands;
specific base-pairing;
example e.g. AT / CG;
hydrogen bonding;
uncoiling / unzipping;
semi-conservative replication;
DNA polymerase;
new complementary strands form / identical DNA molecule
produced;

Genetics/DNA

DNA
inserted
plasmids;
Describe
twointo
features
of DNA which make it a stable
molecule.
which are self-replicating;

Explain why specific base pairing is important in DNA


replication.

two strands with specific base pairing;

identical/exact copies made;

large number of hydrogen bonds (between strands);

same base sequence as original DNA;

helix/coiling reduces chance of molecular damage /


protects H bonds;

both strands act as template/complementary base


pairing

strong sugar-phosphate backbone;

occurs on both strands;

Scientists analysis of blood proteins has indicated a


lack of genetic diversity in populations of some
organisms. Describe the processes that lead to a
reduction in the genetic diversity of populations of
organisms.

Give the meaning and explain one possible cause of each


of the following types of variation. Continuous variation
and discontinuous variation
Range between extremes/no discrete types;
strong environmental influence;

1. Mark for general principle of - reduced variety/number of


different alleles/DNA / reduced gene pool (in new
population);
2. Founder effect;
3. A few individuals from a population become isolated/form
colonies:
4. (Genetic) bottlenecks;
5. (Significant) fall in size of population
6. Selective breeding / artificial selection;
7. Using organisms with particular
alleles/traits/phenotypes/characteristics;

polygenic/many genes involved;


quantitative. 2
discrete types;
little/no environmental influence/only genetic;
(often alleles of) 1/2 gene;
qualitative.

Variation
Within each subspecies there is a range of phenotypes.
Explain the factors that give rise to this variation. (4)

Give the meaning and explain one possible cause of


each of the following types of variation
continuous and discontinuous.

phenotype depends on genotype and environment;

(i)

different local environments can produce variation;

range between extremes/no


discrete types;

strong environmental influence;

different selection pressures;

polygenic/many genes involved;

mutations producing new alleles;

quantitative.

meiosis produces new combinations of alleles/example;


random fusion of gametes / sexual reproduction

2
(ii)

discrete types;

little/no environmental influence/only


genetic;
(often alleles of) 1/2 gene;
qualitative.

Describe how blood vessels are adapted for their


function
All vessels have endothelium that reduces friction;
Artery
Thickest wall, enabling it to carry blood at high pressure /
withstand
pressure surges;
most elastic tissue, which smoothes out flow / maintains
pressure;
most muscle which maintains pressure;
muscle in wall to control blood flow;
Capillary
Thin wall, allowing diffusion/exchange;
only endothelium present, allowing short diffusion pathway;
Fenestrations to allow materials to be exchange
Narrow lumen slows down red blood cells and
presses them against the walls of the capillary allowing more time
and increasing the surface area for exchange

Vein
Thin wall does not have to withstand high pressure; so they
have less elastic tissue and muscle tissue, but have a larger
lumen to reduce friction as blood is under lower pressure
Presence of veins to reduce back flow
Blood flow is a result of muscle contraction, squeezing it
along vessels

Describe and explain four ways in which the


structure of a capillary adapts it for the
exchange of substances between blood and
the surrounding tissue.
1. Permeable capillary wall/membrane;
2. Single cell thick/thin walls, reduces diffusion
distance;
3. Flattened (endothelial) cells, reduces diffusion
distance;
4. Fenestrations, allows large molecules through;

Blood
vessels

5. Small diameter/ narrow, gives a large surface


area to volume/ short diffusion distance;
6. Narrow lumen, reduces flow rate giving more
Arteries
arterioles take blood away from the
time for and
diffusion;
heart. Explain how the structures of the walls of
arteries
and arterioles
are related
their pass
7. Red blood
cells in contact
withtowall/
functions.
singly, gives short diffusion distance / more time
for diffusion;
Elastic tissue
1 Elastic tissue stretches under pressure/when heart
(allow 1 mark for 2 features with no explanation)
beats;
2 Recoils/springs back;
3 Evens out pressure/flow;
Muscle
4 Muscle contracts;
5 Reduces diameter of
lumen/vasoconstriction/constricts vessel;
6 Changes flow/pressure;
Epithelium
7 Epithelium smooth;
8 Reduces friction/blood clots/less resistance;

explain how the structures of the walls of arteries, veins and


capillaries are related to their functions.

When the muscles contract, the pressure


of the blood in the part of the vein
between valves A and B changes.
Explain how this change in
pressure, together with the action of
the valves, helps the blood to flow
to the heart

Artery
1. thickest wall, enabling it to carry blood at high pressure /
withstand
pressure surges;
2. most elastic tissue, which smoothes out flow / maintains
pressure;
3. most muscle which maintains pressure;
4. muscle in wall to control blood flow;
Vein
5. thin wall does not have to withstand high pressure;
Capillary
6. thin wall, allowing diffusion/exchange;
7. only endothelium present, allowing short diffusion pathway;
All vessels
8. have endothelium that reduces friction;

Increase in pressure causes valve A to shut;


And valve B to open;
Blood will therefore be squeezed in one
direction /
valves prevent backflow;
Blood vessels

explain how the structure of the walls of arteries, arterioles


and capillaries is related to their function.
1
Thick elastic layer in artery;
2
Evening out flow / associated with recoil;
3
Link between pressure in artery and
ventricle contraction / systole;
4
Arteriole with muscular layer;
5
Muscle contraction results in smaller
diameter / vasoconstriction;
6
Alters blood supply to different organs;
7
Endothelium provides smooth surface /
limits friction;
8
Capillary wall thin / only endothelium;
9
For exchange;

Explain two ways in which the small


diameter of the capillaries results in
the efficient transfer of oxygen
from the alveoli to the red blood
cells.

Red blood cells close to capillary wall/


thin capillary wall;
Short diffusion path/ distance for oxygen
to diffuse;
Longer time for diffusion to take place/
diffusion is slow;

The diameter of a capillary is approximately the


same as the diameter of a red blood cell.
Explain one way in which this increases
the efficiency of the exchange of
respiratory gases.

Describe two ways by which blood flow in the


veins is maintained.

valves prevent backflow;


residual blood pressure from heart;

Close contact between cells and capillary walls;

effect of (skeletal) muscle contraction

Reduces diffusion path;

negative pressure from thorax;

or

suction effect from heart;

Slows passage of cells through capillary;


More time for diffusion/to reach equilibrium;
Blood vessels

Explain how blood capillaries are adapted for their


function of gas exchange.
large numbers /network, so large surface area for
diffusion / gas exchange;
thin walls/one cell thick, so short diffusion distance;
(not just thin, or thin membrane)
flattened cells in walls, so short diffusion distance;
narrow lumen, so red cells touch walls/pass singly;
walls / membranes permeable / porous to gases, for
diffusion;
(not lots of pores)
(accept low rate of flow; so more time for diffusion/gas
exchange)
(allow 1 for two features without explanation)
(reject fenestrated)

Give two ways in which the structure of a artery


is different from the structure of a vein.

Thick muscular walls;


Greater elastic content;
Do not have valves;
Small/narrow lumen;

Explain the difference in thickness between the


pulmonary artery (thicker) and the pulmonary
vein (thinner).

The thickness of the aorta wall changes all the


time during each cardiac cycle. Explain why.
1. (Aorta wall) stretches;
2. Because ventricle/heart contracts / systole / pressure
increases;
3. (Aorta wall) recoils;
4. Because ventricle relaxes / heart relaxes /diastole /
pressure falls;
5. Maintain smooth flow / pressure

High pressure / smoothes out blood flow / artery wall


contains more collagen / muscle / elastic (fibres) /
connective tissue;

Blood
vessels

Scientists studied two species of North American


seahorse. They thought that these two species are
closely related. Describe how comparisons of biological
molecules in these two species could be used to find out
if they are closely related.
(Compare) DNA;
Sequence of bases/nucleotides;
DNA hybridisation;
Separate DNA strands / break hydrogen bonds;
Mix DNA/strands (of different species);
Temperature/heat required to separate (hybrid) strands
indicates
relationship;
Compare same/named protein;
Sequence of amino acids /primary structure;
Immunological evidence not a mark
Inject (seahorse) protein/serum into animal
(Obtain) antibodies/serum;
Add protein/serum/plasma from other (seahorse) species;
Amount of precipitate indicates relationship
Explain the principles biologists use to classify
organisms into groups compared to older
models.
Consider phylogeny
Look at evolutionary lineage/history
Find the point of divergence from a common
ancestor
Consider, genetic, biochemical, embryology,
homology of anatomy
Organisms are arranged in a hierarchy where large
taxa (groups) are subdivided into smaller taxa
(K, P, C, O, F, G,S)
As groups get smaller the similarities between the
species increase
Each species is given a binomial name using the
genus and species
Older models of classification used observable
features to group organisms

How does a phylogenic system differ to a simple


hierarchy? 3 max
Hierarchical classification, large groups are divided into
smaller groups
Process starts with species grouped into genus then
grouped into family, order, class, phylum. As the groups
get larger there is a more distant common ancestory
Initially this was based on shared easily observable
characteristics
(phylogenetic) based on evolutionary history;
shows ancestry of groups / points of divergence;

Classificatio
n

members of a group have features in common; based


on anatomy/fossils/embryology/DNA/specific aspect of
cell biology or homologous structures, reflecting
evolutionary history; phylogeny.
Describe the principles on which the system of
classification of living organisms is based. (4)
hierarchy / groups within groups / KPCOFGS;
no overlap;
common structures / similar characteristics;
reflecting evolutionary history;
binominal nomenclature / example;
definition of a species;
4

Biologists can also use protein structure to


investigate the relationship between different
species of crane. Explain why.
1. More closely related (species) have more similarities
in amino acid sequence/primary structure;
2. In same protein / named protein e.g. albumin;
3. Amino acid sequence is related to (DNA) base/triplet
sequence;
OR
4. Similar species have a similar immune response to a
protein/named protein;
5. More closely related (species) produce more
precipitate / antibody-antigen (complexes) /
agglutination;

Classificatio
n

Describe how haemoglobin is involved in absorbing oxygen in


the lungs and transporting it to respiring tissues.
1. diffusion of oxygen into red cell / haemoglobin in red cells;
2. high affinity of haemoglobin in high oxygen concentration;
3. (therefore) loads / becomes saturated in lungs / where oxygen
abundant;
4. oxyhaemoglobin formed;
5. reference to role of haem e.g. energy changes /role of Fe2+
ions / Hb molecule combines with fewer oxygen molecules;
6. unloads / low affinity in low concentration;
7. explanation in terms of dissociation curve i.e. small changes
in concentration gives large changes in saturation;
8. respiration in tissues gives high CO2 concentration / high
temperature / high H+ concentration / low pH
9. dissociation curve shifts to right / oxyhaemoglobin dissociation
at higher partial pressure

Explain how oxygen is loaded, transported


and unloaded in the blood.(6)
1. Haemoglobin carries oxygen / has a high affinity for
oxygen / oxyhaemoglobin;
2. In red blood cells;
3. Loading/uptake/association in lungs;
4. at high p.O2;
5. Unloads/ dissociates / releases to respiring
cells/tissues;
6. at low p.O2;
7. Unloading linked to higher carbon dioxide
(concentration

Oxygen
dissociation

Describe how haemoglobin normally loads oxygen in the lungs


and unloads it in a tissue cell. (7)
Oxygen combines (reversibly) to produce oxyhaemoglobin;
each haemoglobin molecule/ one haemoglobin may transport 4
molecules of
oxygen;
high partial pressure of oxygen / oxygen tension / concentration in
lungs;
haemoglobin (almost) 95% / 100% saturated;
unloads at low oxygen tension(in tissues);
presence of carbon dioxide displaces curve further to right /
increases oxygen
dissociation;
allows more O2 to be unloaded;
increase temp/ acidity allows more O2 to be unloaded;
low pO2 / increase CO2 / increase term / increase acid occur in
vicinity of
respiring tissue;

Describe how haemoglobin normally loads oxygen in the lungs and


unloads it in a tissue cell.
Oxygen combines (reversibly) to produce oxyhaemoglobin;
each haemoglobin molecule/ one haemoglobin may transport 4
molecules of
oxygen;
high partial pressure of oxygen / oxygen tension / concentration in
lungs;
haemoglobin (almost) 95% / 100% saturated;
unloads at low oxygen tension(in tissues);
presence of carbon dioxide displaces curve further to right /
increases oxygen
dissociation;
allows more O2 to be unloaded;
increase temp/ acidity allows more O2 to be unloaded;
low pO2 / increase CO2 / increase term / increase acid occur in
vicinity of
respiring tissue;

During exercise, the rate of respiration of muscle cells


increases. Explain what causes human haemoglobin to
unload more oxygen to these cells.

xplain how the fetal haemoglobin makes it


possible for the fetus to take oxygen from
the mothers blood.

Partial pressure on oxygen in muscle falls more;


high / more carbon dioxide produced;

Fetal haemoglobin has greater affinity for/binds more


readily to oxygen;

lowers PH;
increase in temperature;
percentage saturation of Hb falls / lowers affinity /

at same ppO2/concentration of oxygen, fetal has higher


saturation;

increase dissociation;

correct use of figures from graph (% and pp);

displaces curve to right / results in Bohr shift;

maintains diffusion gradient across placenta.

Oxygen dissociation

Explain how oxygen in a red blood cell is made


available for respiration in active tissues.
Low pH/(more)H+ ; due to (increased) CO2
(increased) respiration;

There is an advantage to the shrew in having


haemoglobin with a dissociation curve
shifted to the right. Explain this
advantage.

(ignore refs to buffering action of haemoglobin)

(at the tissues at low pp oxygen) the shrews


haemoglobin is less

(increased) dissociation of haemoglobin;

saturated with oxygen / has reduced affinity;

Low oxygen tension in tissues/plasma;

oxyhaemoglobin dissociates more readily /


haemoglobin releases

Oxygen diffuses from r.b.c. to tissues;

oxygen more readily / more oxygen released;


allowing greater demand / respiration rate;

The blood leaving a muscle has a lower pH than the


blood entering it. During vigorous
exercise, the fall in pH is even greater.
Explain what causes this greater fall in
pH.

Describe and explain how an increase in the rate of


respiration in the tissues of a mammal
affects the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation
curve.

(in exercise) - faster


respiration rate;

(more) carbon dioxide;

more CO2 production;

decrease in pH/increased acidity/H ions;

CO2 is acidic / forms carbonic acid;

curve moves to the right/depressed;

lactic acid production;

more oxygen released/H ions combine with Hb/Hb


reduced;

release of H+ ions;

Oxygen dissociation

Explain the advantage to the lugworm of having


the dissociation curve to the right given
that it lives in an area with low oxygen
levels.
Able to be saturated with oxygen in (very) low
concentration;
related to low oxygen concentration in
environment;
able to unload at only slightly lower
concentration;

Carbon dioxide helps haemoglobin to


release oxygen to rapidly respiring
tissues.
Use the graph to explain how.

Displaces
dissociation curve to the right/Bohr
shift;
Lower affinity for oxygen/less saturated
with oxygen;

Suggest the advantage to a


ground squirrel of having haemoglobin
that has an oxygen dissociation curve to
the left of the curve for human
haemoglobin.
In ground squirrel lower
partial pressure of oxygen in lungs;
Haemoglobin can be saturated/load more
oxygen;
at lower partial pressure of oxygen;

Oxygen dissociation

Describe the part played by proteins in the


plasma in returning tissue fluid to the
capillary.

Explain how tissue fluid is formed and how


it may be returned to the circulatory
system.
(Hydrostatic) pressure of blood high at arterial end;
2. Fluid/water/soluble molecules pass out (reject plasma);
3. Proteins/large molecules remain;
4. This lowers the water potential / water potential becomes
more negative;
5. Water moves back into venous end of capillary (reject
tissue fluid);
6. By osmosis / diffusion;
7. Lymph system collects any excess tissue fluid;
8. (Lymph) returns to blood / circulatory system / link with
vena cava/
returns tissue fluid to vein;

The tissues of people who are starving often


swell because of the accumulation of
tissue fluid. Explain what causes this
accumulation of tissue fluid.

Starvation linked to low protein content of


diet/Low protein concentration

Produces lower water potential;


Water moves into capillary;
By osmosis/diffusion;

Tissue Fluid
Describe and explain one way in which the
composition of tissue fluid differs from
that of plasma.
contains little/no protein;
molecules too large (to pass through capillary
wall);
or
contains less glucose;

in plasma/blood;
Water potential of blood higher/smaller water
potential gradient;

some will have entered tissue cells;


2 max

Tissue fluid formed faster than returned/less


tissue fluid returned to blood;

accept any other biologically correct difference


marked in a
similar way.

Describe how tissue fluid is reabsorbed into


blood capillaries.

Histamine increases the permeability of


capillary walls so that large molecules can
pass through. Explain how this change in
permeability results in swelling round the
bite.

General principle:
blood exerts an osmotic force which causes
fluid to move back
into capillaries;

Proteins can move into tissue fluid;

Detail:

Lowers water potential of tissue fluid;

caused by plasma proteins (retained in blood);

Increases tendency to draw water/fluid out/

water moves into blood by osmosis/ diffusion;

Reduces tendency to reabsorb water;

small soluble molecules move into blood by


diffusion;
Tissue fluid

Explain the link between insufficient protein in


the diet and the accumulation of tissue
fluid.

Explain how fluid may be returned to the blood.

Proteins (in blood);


Less protein in blood / plasma / capillary;
Water potential of blood increases;
Less reabsorption occurs / lymph system cannot
drain excess.

Lower water potential / becomes more negative;


Reabsorption of fluid by osmosis;
Via lymph system / lymph vessels;

Suggest an explanation for the link between high


blood pressure and the
accumulation of tissue fluid.

Describe and explain how


water is exchanged between the blood and
tissue fluid as blood flows along the
capillary.

High blood pressure increases rate of filtration /


forces more fluid out;

HP forces water out;


idea that HP is higher than WP;
proteins remain in blood (increases WP);
idea that WP is now higher than HP;
water returns by osmosis / along WP
gradient;
water moves out at arteriole end and back
in (at venule end);

Lymph system cannot cope / higher pressure


reduces reabsorption;

Tissue fluid
Describe how tissue fluid is formed and how it is
returned to the circulatory system.
Formation
1. High blood / hydrostatic pressure / pressure filtration;
2. Forces water / fluid out;
3. Large proteins remain in capillary;
Return
4. Lower water potential in capillary / blood;
5. Due to (plasma) proteins;
6. Water enters capillary / blood;
7. (By) osmosis;
8. Correct reference to lymph;

This insect has more than 1.5 million tracheoles. The


distance between the ends of the tracheoles in the muscle
is approximately 4 pm. Explain how these features allow
efficient oxygen supply.
Large number gives large (total) surface area;

Explain how the features of the alveoli maximise


absorption of oxygen into the blood.
Large surface area;
flattened cells / squamous epithelium / single
layer of epithelial cells;

For diffusion;

short diffusion pathway;

Short distance between tracheoles gives short


pathway;

role of surfactant;
extensive blood supply maintains a high diffusion
gradient;

Movement/diffusion through muscle is slow;


Reject references to muscle simply being close
to tracheoles. Must convey
idea of short pathway to gain credit for third
point.
A thin surface and a diffusion gradient are both features
of gas exchange surfaces. Describe how these are achieved
at the gas exchange surfaces of a mammal;
(Wall of) alveoli / capillaries have single epithelial
layer/
single layer of cells/
alveoli and capillaries close together;
epithelium flattened/pavement epithelium;
ventilation maintains high O2/low CO2
concentration(in alveoli);
blood flow/circulation maintains high CO2 /
low O2 concentration(in blood);

narrow capillaries slows blood flow - more time


for diffusion;

Gas
exchange

Explain how the gills of a fish are adapted to form a


specialised exchange surface.
Structure of filaments;
large number of lamellae;
Flattened epithelial cells;
Short distance between water and blood / short diffusion
pathway / maximum diffusion gradient;
Countercurrent mechanism / description;
maintains diffusion gradient along length / prevents oxygen
concentrations reaching equilibrium;
Role of ventilation mechanism in producing water
flow over gills;
Circulation replacing blood;

Describe the counter current principle of


gas exchange in fish
counter current/ blood flow in opposite direction
to water flow;

A fish uses its gills to absorb oxygen from water.


Explain how the gills of a fish are
adapted for efficient gas exchange.
1 Large surface area provided by lamellae/filaments;
2 Increases diffusion/makes diffusion efficient;
3 Thin epithelium/distance between water and blood;
4 Water and blood flow in opposite
directions/countercurrent;
5 (Point 4) maintains concentration gradient (along
gill) /equilibrium not reached;
6 As water always next to blood with lower
concentration of oxygen;
7 Circulation replaces blood saturated with oxygen;
8 Ventilation replaces water (as oxygen removed);

giving maximum distance for oxygen to flow


in/carbon dioxide out/gas exchange;
description of how a counter current works;
gill lamellae give a large surface area;
thin surface of lamellae/short distance between
surface of lamellae and blood capillaries;
lamellae held edge on to water flow;
flow of water across gills in one direction;
ventilation
system
maintain
thethe
water
flow;
An insect lives
in air.toDescribe
how
insect
is
able to obtain oxygen and limit water loss.
blood circulation to maintain the blood flow;
1 Air enters through (open) spiracles;
2 Through tracheae;
3 Diffusion gradient in trachea
4 Tracheae associated with all cells/closely associated
with cells;
5 Oxygen diffuses into cells;
6 Ventilation replacing air in tracheae;
7 Body covered with (waterproof) waxy layer/cuticle;
8 Spiracles are able to close; 6 max

Gas
exchange

Describe and explain how fish maintain a flow of


water over their gills.(5)
1. mouth opens, operculum/opercular valve shuts;
2. floor of mouth lowered;
3. water enters due to decreased pressure / increased
volume;
4. mouth closes, operculum/opercular valve opens;
5. floor raised results in increased pressure / decreased
volume;
6. high/increased pressure forces/pushes water over
gills;

A thin surface and a diffusion gradient are both features of gas exchange
surfaces. Describe how these are achieved at the gas exchange surfaces of
a mammal and leaf

Describe and explain how the structure of the


mammalian breathing system enables efficient uptake of
oxygen into the blood.(6)
1. alveoli provide a large surface area;
2. walls of alveoli thin to provide a short diffusion pathway;
3. walls of capillary thin/close to alveoli provides
a short diffusion pathway;
4. walls (of capillaries/alveoli) have flattened cells;
5. cell membrane permeable to gases;
6. many blood capillaries provide a large surface area;
7. intercostal/chest muscles/diaphragm muscles / to ventilate
lungs / maintain a diffusion/concentration gradient;
8. wide trachea / branching of bronchi/bronchioles for
efficient flow of air;
9. cartilage rings keep airways open;

Describe how a large difference in oxygen


concentration is maintained between a fish gill and the
surrounding water.

(wall of)alveoli / capillaries have single epithelial layer/


single layer of cells/
alveoli and capillaries close together;
epithelium flattened/pavement epithelium;
ventilation maintains high O2/low CO2 concentration(in alveoli);
blood flow/circulation maintains high CO2 /
low O2 concentration(in blood);
max. 3
(ii) leaf very thin / only a few cells thick;
intercellular spaces exposes cell surface membrane/

Gas
exchange

wall directly to gases;


production of O2 in photosynthesis maintains high oxygen concentration;
use of CO2 in photosynthesis maintains

Describe
adaptations
of a mammalian lung which
low carbon the
dioxide
concentration;
ensure a short diffusion pathway for respiratory gases.

Fish has ventilation system which replaces water;

One cell thick/single layer of(epithelial) cells lining


alveolus;

highly oxygenated water

flattened/pavement/squamous;

(circulatory system brings in) blood with low


concentration of

capillaries surrounded by single layer of cells;

oxygen/blood removes oxygen;


counter current system/description;

capillaries and alveoli are close;

This insect has more than 1.5 million tracheoles. The


distance between the ends of the tracheoles in the
muscle is approximately 4 pm. Explain how these
features allow efficient oxygen supply.

Describe two ways in which the cells of the tissue are adapted
for light absorption and carbon dioxide uptake
(i)
Large numbers of chloroplasts/ grana /
lots of chlorophyll;
Different pigments that can absorb different wavelengths;

Large number gives large (total) surface area;

Tall / thin / long shape (perpendicular to light);

For diffusion;

Chloroplasts can migrate within cells.

Short distance between tracheoles gives short pathway;

(reject: cells near surface; large surface area)


max 2

Movement/diffusion through muscle is slow;

(ii)

Thin cell walls;

Large surface area (: volume ratio) (for diffusion);


Gaps/spaces between adjacent cells / walls not touching.

In the lungs oxygen passes from the alveoli to the


blood.

Gas
exchange

uggest two reasons why it would be very difficult to


extract sufficient oxygen from water by moving water
in and out of lungs.

Describe and explain the features that make this


process rapid and efficient.
Large surface area (for diffusion);

Water too dense to move in and out of lungs;

thin alveolar wall / one cell thick / only 2 cells (from


air to blood);

low oxygen concentration in water;

detail - e.g. flattened cells in alveolar/capillary wall;


ventilation (of alveoli) keeps oxygen-concentration
high;
flow/circulation of blood keeps oxygen concentration
low;
maintains diffusion gradient / short diffusion pathway
(in context);

high metabolic rate in mammals requires high oxygen


intake.

Explain how the countercurrent principle helps fish to


extract oxygen from water.

Explain how the ventilation mechanism of a fish and


the structure of its gills result in the efficient uptake of
oxygen from water.

Water flows in opposite direction to blood;


across (gill) lamellae;
so difference in concentration maintained;
diffusion gradient maintained / diffusion over full
length.

Describe and explain how fish maintain a flow of


water over their gills.

Gas
exchange

Describe and explain how the structure of the mammalian


breathing system enables efficient uptake of oxygen into the blood.
1. alveoli provide a large surface area;
2. walls of alveoli thin to provide a short diffusion pathway;

1. mouth opens, operculum/opercular valve shuts;


2. floor of mouth lowered;
3. water enters due to decreased pressure / increased
volume;
4. mouth closes, operculum/opercular valve opens;
5. floor raised results in increased pressure / decreased
volume;
6. high/increased pressure forces/pushes water over
gills;

3. walls of capillary thin/close to alveoli provides


a short diffusion pathway;
4. walls (of capillaries/alveoli) have flattened cells;
5. cell membrane permeable to gases;
6. many blood capillaries provide a large surface area;
7. intercostal/chest muscles/diaphragm muscles / to ventilate
lungs /
maintain a diffusion/concentration gradient;
8. wide trachea / branching of bronchi/bronchioles for efficient
flow of air;
9. cartilage rings keep airways open;

Describe how the gills of a fish are ventilated after


water has entered through its mouth.

An insect lives in air. Describe how the insect is able to


obtain oxygen and limit water loss.

fish closes mouth and raises the floor of the mouth;


this decreases the volume / increases the pressure (of
mouth);
Increased volume / decreased pressure of opercular
cavity;
water forced over the gills;
operculum / opercular valve opens;

1 Air enters through (open) spiracles;


2 Through tracheae;
3 Diffusion gradient in trachea
4 Tracheae associated with all cells/closely associated
with cells;
5 Oxygen diffuses into cells;
6 Ventilation replacing air in tracheae;
7 Body covered with (waterproof) waxy layer/cuticle;

Gas exchange
Give two explanations as to why the rate of water loss
during gas exchange is very low in most insects.
EITHER
Reference to spiracles;
limits exposure of respiratory surface / can close spiracles;
OR
sunken spiracles / hair round spiracles;
trapping moist air;
OR
trachea cuticle lined;
only lose water through tracheoles;
OR
trachea / tracheoles inside;
limiting exposure of respiratory surface;

8 Spiracles are able to close;

Describe the features of fish gills that give them a large


surface area.

(gills have) lamellae on filaments;


lots of both;

Explain how the relationship between the direction of


flow of water and of blood shown in the micrograph
is useful to a fish.

A fish uses its gills to absorb oxygen from water. Explain how
the gills of a fish are adapted for efficient gas exchange.
1
Large surface area provided by lamellae/filaments;
Q Candidates are required to refer to lamellae or filaments.
Do not penalise for confusion between two
2 Increases diffusion/makes diffusion efficient;
3 Thin epithelium/distance between water and blood;
4 Water and blood flow in opposite directions/countercurrent;
5 (Point 4) maintains concentration gradient (along
gill)/equilibrium
not reached;
5 Not enough to say gives steep concentration gradient
6 As water always next to blood with lower concentration of
oxygen;
7 Circulation replaces blood saturated with oxygen;
8 Ventilation replaces water (as oxygen removed);

Maintains concentration gradient (over whole length


of gill) / diffusion can
occur over whole gill;
More oxygen enters blood (/ more CO2 leaves);
More (aerobic) respiration / more energy release in
muscle / for swimming;
more needed ONCE only

Gas exchange
Air moves into the lungs during inspiration.
Explain how the diaphragm causes this.
1. Diaphragm contracts/moves down/ flattens;
2. Increases volume (of thorax);
3. Decrease in pressure;
4. Air moves from high to lower pressure/down pressure
gradient;

Describe how carbon dioxide in the air


outside a leaf reaches mesophyll cells
inside the leaf.
1. (Carbon dioxide enters) via stomata;
2. (Stomata opened by) guard cells;
3. Diffuses through air spaces;
4. Down diffusion gradient;

Explain how resistance to an antibiotic could


become widespread in a bacterial population
following a gene mutation conferring resistance
in just one bacterium.
1. frequent use of antibiotic creates selection
pressure/ antibiotic kills bacteria;
2. bacteria with natural mutation/ resistance have
(selective) advantage over others / described;
3. (survive to) reproduce more than other types;
4. pass on advantageous allele/ mutated allele in
greater numbers;
5. frequency of (advantageous) allele increases in
subsequent generations;
(penalise use of gene instead of allele once only)
6. frequency of resistant types increases in
subsequent generations;

Give two other ways in which antibiotics can


prevent bacterial growth.

disrupts cell wall/prevents cell wall synthesis;


stops DNA replication;

Antibiotics

Describe one other way in which antibiotics can act against


bacteria. Explain why this mode of action is effective against
the bacteria.
Prevent DNA replication / prevent m-RNA synthesis / prevent
transfer of amino acids to ribosomes / reproduction / transcription /
translation / protein synthesis;
1
Preventing DNA replication: bacterial cell will be unable to divide;
nd
Prevent reproduction 2 point only; population of bacteria will not
increase;
OR
Preventing m-RNA synthesis / no m-RNA means code not passed
to
transcription; ribosomes;no protein synthesis / no new enzymes;
OR
Preventing transfer of amino acid no proteins made;
to ribosomes / translation no enzymes / no proteins structures;
nd
prevent protein synthesis, 2 point only;

Describe how gene transmission and selection


have increased the difficulty of treating bacterial
infections with antibiotics.
1. (Antibiotic) resistant gene/allele;
2. Vertical (gene) transmission;
3. Resistant bacteria (survive and) reproduce /
population of resistant bacteria increases;
4. Increase in frequency of (resistant) allele/gene (in
future generations);
5. Horizontal (gene) transmission;
. Plasmid;
7. Conjugation / pilus (tube);
8. (Horizontal transmission/ conjugation) can occur
between bacteria of different species;

Describe how the structure of xylem is


related to its function.

Describe the structure of a cellulose molecule and explain


how cellulose is adapted for its function in cells.
Made from -glucose;
2. Joined by condensation/removing molecule of
water/glycosidic bond;
3. 1: 4 link specified or described;
4. Flipping over of alternate molecules;
5. Hydrogen bonds linking chains/long straight
chains;
6. Cellulose makes cell walls strong/cellulose
fibres are strong;
7. Can resist turgor pressure/osmotic
pressure/pulling forces;
8. Bond difficult to break;
9. resists digestion/action of
microorganisms/enzymes;

Palisade cells are the main site of


photosynthesis. Explain one way in which a
palisade cell is adapted for photosynthesis.
idea of many chloroplasts / lots of chlorophyll;
to trap or absorb light (energy);
elongated cells with long axis perpendicular to the
surface;
idea oflight has a longer pathway allowing maximum
light absorption / light penetration;
chloroplasts move;
to trap or absorb light (energy);
range of pigments;
can absorb a range of wavelengths / colours / for max
light absorption;
large S.A. or cell wall feature e.g. thin / permeable;
for (rapid) CO2 absorption;

Vessels;
Have no end walls / hollow / no cytoplasm;
Allows unrestricted flow of water.
Lignification;
Provides support / strength / impermeability;
Pits allow lateral transport;
Tracheids with porous end walls.

Structures
and function

Explain how the properties of starch are


related to its role in living organisms (4)
role - storage;
plus
properties - insoluble;
explanation - therefore stays inside cell/membrane;
or
properties - large molecule/coiled/branched;
explanation - lots of glucose/carbohydrate molecules in small
space/stays inside cell;
or
properties - osmotically inactive;
explanation - does not cause the cell to absorb water;

Two ways in which the structure of cellulose is


different
from the structure of starch.

Explain how cellulose gives cotton its strength.


(long) straight/unbranched chains;
(idea of more than 1) chains lie side by side /
form (micro)fibrils;

starch
1. (1,4 and) 1,6 bonds/contains 1,6 bonds /branching
2. All glucoses/ monomers same way up
3. Helix/coiled/compact
4. Alpha glucose
5. No (micro/macro) fibrils/fibres

idea of H bonds holding chains together;

Cellulose
1. 1,4 bonds / no 1,6 bonds / unbranched / straight;
2. Alternate glucoses/monomers upside down;
3. Straight;
4. Beta glucose;
5. Micro/macro fibrils/fibres;

Structures for
function
Explain one way in which the structure of
cellulose is linked to its function.
1. H-bonds / micro/macro fibrils /fibres;
2. Strength / rigidity / inelasticity;

Describe and explain how water moves through the trunk


of a tree to the leaves
In xylem;
evaporation / transpiration from leaves;
through stomata;
cohesion of water molecules;
leaf cells have more negative water potential, so water enters
from xylem;
water drawn up as column/continuous stream;
adhesion of water to walls;
capillarity due to narrow lumen of xylem (vessels);
lignified walls keep xylem (vessels) open;
root pressure forces (some) water up;

Root pressure is a force that is partly responsible for the


movement of water through xylem in stems. Explain how
the active transport of mineral ions into xylem vessels in
the roots results in water entering these vessels and then
being moved up the xylem tissue.
Water potential in xylem reduced (by entry of
ions);
Water potential gradient established between
xylem and surrounding cells;
Plasma membranes of surrounding cells are
partially permeable;
Water enters xylem by osmosis;
Volume of water in xylem increases;
Cannot move back due to gradient;
Pressure in xylem increases (and forces water
upwards);

Explain how water enters a plant root from the soil and
travels through to the endodermis.
Water enters root hair cells;
by osmosis;
because active uptake of mineral ions has created a WP
gradient;
water moves through the cortex;
(by osmosis) down a WP gradient;
through cell vacuoles and cytoplasms / symplastic pathway;
through cell walls / apoplastic pathway;
Not required here but remember that all water is forced into
the symplastic pathway at the endodermis because of the
casparian strip

Plant
transport

Describe the roles of root pressure and cohesion-tension in


moving water through the xylem. (8)
Root pressure
Involves active transport;Secretion / movement of salts into
xylem;
Reference to role of endodermis;Water moves along water
potential gradient.
Cohesion tension
Solar energy source;
Evaporation of water;
Water potential gradient created across leaf / mesophyll
cells;
Tension created in xylem / water column;
Cohesion (or description) of water molecules maintains
column;
Due to H-bonding / polarity / charges of water molecules ;
Adhesive force between water and wall.

In daylight, most of the water evaporates from the leaves but


some is used by the plant.
Describe the ways in which this water could be used by the
plant. (6)
which is in a continuous column / water molecules cohere;
cohesion due to H bonding;
column doesnt break because of adhesion with xylem walls;

From the root, water is transported upwards through the stem.


Explain how evaporation from the leaves can cause the water
to move upwards. (5)

max 4
(water is used in) the light-dependent reactions of
photosynthesis;
electrons from water enable ATP production / H+ are used to

this creates a pull/tension on the water in xylem;

reduce
NADP / produces O2 ;
(water can be used in) hydrolysis reactions within the plant;
to create turgor;
as a solvent for transport;
as a medium for chemical reactions;
component of cells / cytoplasm;
6
[15]
Explain how root pressure and cohesiontension are
responsible for the movement of water in xylem vessels.(7)
Root pressure:
1. Active transport of salts into xylem;
2. Endodermis / Casparian strip;
3. Prevents leakage / water / ions must use symplast pathway;
4. Lower water potential inside xylem;
5. Water (enters xylem) down WP gradient / by osmosis;
6. Upward water movement by root pressure is relatively low;
4 max
Cohesion tension:
7. Transpiration / evaporation of water;
8. From spongy mesophyll / through stomata;
9. Lowers water potential of mesophyll;
10. Water molecules hydrogen bond / stick together;
11. Ref. to columns / chains;
12. Water pulled up xylem (creating tension);
13. Adhesion between water molecules and xylem vessel walls;
14. Responsible for majority of water movement up

WP in leaf cells decreases / becomes more negative;


therefore water moves out of xylem (into surrounding tissues)
by osmosis;
which is in a continuous column / water molecules cohere;
cohesion due to H bonding;
column doesnt break because of adhesion with xylem walls;

Plant
transport

Root pressure is a force that is partly responsible for the


movement of water through xylem in stems. Explain how
the active transport of mineral ions into xylem vessels in
the roots results in water entering these vessels and then
being moved up the xylem tissue. (5)
Water potential in xylem reduced (by entry of ions);
Water potential gradient established between xylem and
surrounding cells;
Plasma membranes of surrounding cells are partially
permeable;
Water enters xylem by osmosis;
Volume of water in xylem increases;
Cannot move back due to gradient;
Pressure in xylem increases (and forces water upwards);

The presence of an air bubble in a xylem vessel in the


stem blocks the movement of water through that vessel.
Use the cohesion-tension theory to explain why.
Evaporation from leaves / transpiration;
Water in xylem under tension*/negative pressure/pulled up;
Water molecules cohere*/stick together/form hydrogen
bonds;
[Ignore: references to adhesion]
So water a single column;
Air bubble breaks column / prevents cohesion;

Use your knowledge of the cohesion-tension theory of


water movement through a plant, to explain why the
diameter of the trunk is smallest at midday.
1. Diameter of trunk minimal at warmest / brightest time of day
/midday = warmest / brightest;
2. Stomata open in light more water loss;
3. Water evaporates more when warm / more heat energy for
water evaporation;
4. Hydrogen-bonding between water molecules;
5. Cohesion (/ described) between water molecules;
6. Adhesion (described) between water molecules and walls of
xylem vessels;
7. (Xylem) pulled inwards by faster flow of water / pulled in by
tension;
8. Reduced pressure at leaves / top of plant / pull from top /
from leaves /
tension from leaves / from top of plant due to transpiration /
evaporation;
9. Water pulled up plant;

Plant
transport

Describe and explain how water moves via the apoplastic and
symplastic pathways from the soil to the xylem in a root.
Apoplastic Via cell walls / spaces external to cell membrane /
external to
cytoplasm / between cells;
As far as endodermis / Casparian strip / layer of wax;
Caused by transpiration pull;
Cohesion / hydrogen-bonding between water molecules;
Symplastic Through cell surface membrane (of epidermis / root
hair cell) / ref.
vacuoles membrane;
High to low / s;
Diffusion / osmosis;
Cell-to-cell via plasmodesmata / via strands of cytoplasm;
Secretion / active transport of ions into xylem by endodermis;
OR
Active uptake of ions from soil at epidemis;
Lowers / s in xylem / increases osmosis into xylem;

Explain how the negative pressure in the xylem


vessels of the leaves causes water to move
up the plant from the xylem in the roots.
1.

continuous / leaf to root


column of water;

2.

H-bonds;

3.

cohesion;

4.

column under tension / pull


transmitted;

Describe and explain how water moves via the apoplastic and symplastic
pathways from the soil to the xylem in a root.

Use your knowledge of the cohesion-tension theory of water


movement through a plant, to explain why the diameter of the trunk
is smallest at midday.

Apoplastic Via cell walls / spaces external to cell membrane / external to

1. Diameter of trunk minimal at warmest / brightest time of day /

cytoplasm / between cells;

midday = warmest / brightest;

As far as endodermis / Casparian strip / layer of wax;

2. Stomata open in light more water loss;

Caused by transpiration pull;


Cohesion / hydrogen-bonding between water molecules;

3. Water evaporates more when warm / more heat energy for water
evaporation;

Symplastic Through cell surface membrane (of epidermis / root hair cell) /
ref.

4. Hydrogen-bonding between water molecules;


5. Cohesion (/ described) between water molecules;

vacuoles membrane;
High to low / s;

6. Adhesion (described) between water molecules and walls of


xylem vessels;

Diffusion / osmosis;

7. (Xylem) pulled inwards by faster flow of water / pulled in by


tension;

Cell-to-cell via plasmodesmata / via strands of cytoplasm;


Secretion / active transport of ions into xylem by endodermis;
OR
Active uptake of ions from soil at epidemis;
Explain
how
pressure and cohesiontension are responsible for the
Lowers
/ root
s in xylem / increases osmosis into xylem;
movement of water in xylem vessels.

Plant transport

8. Reduced pressure at leaves / top of plant / pull from top / from


leaves /
tension from leaves / from top of plant due to transpiration /
evaporation;
9. WaterExplain
pulled uphow
plant;the

negative pressure in the xylem


vessels of the leaves causes water to move
up the plant from the xylem in the roots.

Root pressure:
1. Active transport of salts into xylem;
2. Endodermis / Casparian strip;
3.Prevents leakage / water / ions must use symplast pathway;
4. Lower water potential inside xylem;
5. Water (enters xylem) down WP gradient / by osmosis;
6. Upward water movement by root pressure is relatively low;
4 max

1.
2.

H-bonds;

Cohesion tension:

3.

cohesion;

7. Transpiration / evaporation of water;


8. From spongy mesophyll / through stomata;
9. Lowers water potential of mesophyll;
10. Water molecules hydrogen bond / stick together;
11. Ref. to columns / chains;
12. Water pulled up xylem (creating tension);
13. Adhesion between water molecules and xylem vessel walls;
14. Responsible for majority of water movement up xylem vessels;

4.

column under tension / pull

continuous / leaf to root


column of water;

transmitted;

Describe one piece of evidence that supports the


root pressure theory and explain how it
supports this theory.

The diameter of a tree is less during the day, when the tree is
transpiring, than it is at night. Explain how this supports
cohesion but not root pressure
(i)
only/mainly;

Suitable accepted evidence, 1 mark for evidence and 1


mark for explanation

Evaporation from leaves during daytime

tension/negative pressure (on water) in xylem creates inward


pull

EITHER e.g.guttation

(on walls of xylem vessel);

(only) upward pressure could force liquid water out of


leaves;

xylem vessels become narrower;


due to adhesion of water molecules (to walls of xylem
vessels);

OR
Sap exuding from a cut, rooted stem;

(ii)
root pressure gives outward force/push on
walls of xylem vessels;

(only) upward force could make this happen;


Plant transport

tree would become wider/stay same diameter;


xylem vessels become wider/stay same diameter;

Describe the roles of root pressure and cohesion-tension in


moving water through the xylem.
(i)
Root pressure
Involves active transport;Secretion / movement of salts into
xylem;
Reference to role of endodermis;Water moves along water
potential gradient.
(ii)
Cohesion tension
Solar energy source;
Evaporation of water;
Water potential gradient created across leaf / mesophyll cells;
Tension created in xylem / water column;
Cohesion (or description) of water molecules maintains column;
Due to H-bonding / polarity / charges of water molecules ;
Adhesive force between water and wall.
(Max 5 marks for cohesion-tension)

Explain how the structure of the


endodermis affects the passage of
water by this apoplastic pathway.
Casparian bands; (accept ref to suberin)
which are impermeable/waterproof;
lower water potential in the cytoplasm of
endodermis cell;
enters symplastic pathway / cytoplasm of
cell;
by osmosis;

Explain the effect on the rate of transpiration of


an increase in air temperature and
decrease in water content of soil
(i)

Describe how water is moved through a plant


according to the cohesion-tension
hypothesis.

Higher temperature
provides more kinetic energy;

1. water evaporates/transpires from leaves;

For evaporation / diffusion;

2. reduces water potential in cell /water


potential/osmotic gradient across

Air can hold more water vapour / increases


water potential gradient;
2 max
(ii)

cells (ignore reference to air space);


3. water is drawn out of xylem;

Reduces
transpiration as less water uptake;

4. creates tension (accept negative pressure, not


reduced pressure);

Reference to water potential gradient (leaf


and air / soil and root);

5. cohesive forces between water molecules;


Plant transport

Describe and explain how water in the


mesophyll cells passes out of the
leaf.

6. water pulled up as a column;

Use your knowledge of the cohesion-tension


theory to explain how water in the xylem
in the roots moves up the stem
water evaporates/transpires;

(pathway from cells) along cell walls /


through spaces and out through stoma(ta);
by diffusion (disqualify if osmosis
mentioned);
down a WP/diffusion/concentration
gradient;

reduces water potential / creates water potential


gradient / increases
osmotic gradient /
moves via apoplast pathway;
water drawn out of xylem;
creates tension/pulling effect / creates negative
pressure (in context);
cohesive forces or H bonding between water
molecules / water moves
as a column;

Describe two features you would expect in the leaves of a tree


adapted to a dry environment. Explain how each feature helps
the trees survival. (6)

Explain how the presence of hairs and rolled leaves


reduce water loss in xerophytic plants. (4)
Trap moist air / increase humidity;

Sunken stomata;

Reduce air flow (around leaf surface / stomata);

water evaporation into pit creates local humidity;

Lower WP / water vapour concentration gradient (between


inside

increased humidity reduces gradient for water evaporation;


close arrangement of stomata;

and outside of leaf);

diffusion shells of individual stomata overlap;

Shield stomata from high temperature / high light

interferes with water diffusion and slows evaporation;

intensity / wind; ignore sun

restriction of stomata to lower side of leaf;

Reduce transpiration / evaporation / diffusion of water


(vapour);

rate of air movement below leaf less/ heating effect of sun


less;
gradient for water evaporation reduced/ water molecules have
less
kinetic energy;
continued
thick cuticle/wax/suberin (on upper surface);
(wax/suberin )waterproof;
water unable to diffuse onto surface to
evaporate,
presence of trichomes/ hairs;
surface traps water close to leaf surface;
increased humidity reduces gradient for water
evaporation;
reduced leaves/spines/small surface area to
volume;
less surface area for evaporation;
more distance across leaf for water to diffuse;
rolled leaves;
stomata enclosed in localised humidity;
increased humidity reduces gradient for water evaporation;

Xerophytic
adaptations

Describe and explain how three structural features reduce the rate
of transpiration in xerophytic plants,
Rolled leaves
reduces water potential gradient air movement across stomata /
traps air
which becomes saturated / moist / humid / reduces surface area;
Sunken stomata
reduces water potential gradient air movement across stomata /
traps air
which becomes saturated / moist / humid;
Thick cuticle
Reduces cuticular transpiration / reduces ration greater diffusion
distance;
Hairs traps air which becomes saturated / moist / humid;
Reduced leaves / spines
less surface area / fewer stomata (for evaporation).

Water vapour diffuses through open stomata into the


atmosphere. Describe two structural adaptations of the leaves
of xerophytes that reduce this loss. Using Ficks law, explain
how these two adaptations reduce the rate of diffusion of water
vapour into the atmosphere.(6)
Reduced number of stomata; reduced surface area;
Thick waxy cuticle; increases diffusion distance;
Leaves reduced to spines; reduced surface area ;
(epidermal) hairs; reduce diffusion gradient;
Sunken stomata; reduced concentration gradient;
curled leaves; reduce concentration ; difference
Statement of Ficks law:
Rate of diffusion SA exchange surface conc difference
Thickness of exchange surface;
Low surface area, low concentration difference and high
thickness/equivalent reduce loss / candidate clearly relates features
to equation to show how rate is reduced;
max 6
[15]

Explain how the presence of hairs and rolled


leaves reduce water loss in xerophytic
plants.
Trap moist air / increase humidity;
Reduce air flow (around leaf surface / stomata);
Lower WP / water vapour concentration gradient
(between inside
and outside of leaf);
Shield stomata from high temperature / high
light
intensity / wind; ignore sun
Reduce transpiration / evaporation / diffusion of
water (vapour);

Describe and explain three ways in which the leaves of


xerophytic plants may be adapted to reduce water loss.

Xerophytic
adaptations

Describe two ways in which the leaves of plants may be adapted for
reducing water loss in hot, dry conditions.
Curled leaves;
Thick cuticle;
Sunken stomata;
Hairs;
stomata sunken in pits creates local humidity/ decreases exposure
to air currents;
presence of hairs creates local humidity next to leaf/
decreases exposure to air currents;
stomata mainly located on underside of leaf so less exposed to air
currents/ heat from sun;
stomata close midrib so more sheltered from air currents;
stomata close together so diffusion shells overlap;
thick waxy cuticle makes more waterproof impermeable to water;
double palisade layer increases diffusion distance;
stomata on inside of rolled leaf creates local humidity/ decreases
exposure to air currents;

Many of the mammals found in cold parts of Finland


have a larger size and body mass than related species
found in warmer regions. Explain the importance of this
to their survival.(4)

Explain the link between the size of an organism


and the way in which its cells are supplied with
oxygen.(6)
Small organisms have large surface/volume ratio;

Large animals have small surface area to volume ratio;

as, for example, most protoctista/single-celled

Large mammals are homoiothermic;

organisms/platyhelminths/cnidaria;

Lose less heat to environment;

diffusion/exchange over body surface/skin;

By radiation/convection/conduction;
Fat;

(the need for) specialised respiratory/gas-exchange


surfaces in larger

For insulation;

animals;
diffusion is a slow process;

Many of the mammals found in this part of


Finland have a larger size and body mass
than related species found in warmer
regions. Explain the importance of this to
their survival.

Large animals have small surface area to volume ratio;


Large mammals are homoiothermic;
Lose less heat to environment;
By radiation/convection/conduction;
Fat;
For insulation;

Surface area
to volume
ratio

cells of larger organisms are a long way from gas


exchange surface;
must be supplied by transport system/circulatory
system/blood;
Many large animals have blood systems.
Explain why these animals need
blood systems to supply their cells
with oxygen.

Gas exchange surface long distance from


(some) respiring tissues;
Blood system allows rapid transport/faster
supply;
Diffusion is slow;

Why is it important to keep seeds from old and rare


varieties of vegetables?

limited genetic diversity in modern varieties / greater


genetic
diversity in old varieties / older varieties contain other
(useful)
alleles/genes;
old varieties useful for future breeding programmes;

Genetic diversity

Describe three ways in which antibiotics may


act on bacteria.

Bacteriostatic antibiotics do
not kill bacteria but allow patients to
recover from a bacterial infection. Explain
why they allow patients to recover.

prevent DNA replication;


prevent protein
synthesis/transcription/translation/riboso
me function;

prevent further growth/multiplication of


bacteria;
allow time for immune response (to bacteria);

damage/inhibit formation of cell wall;

antibitoics

Describe how you would obtain the necessary data to


calculate the index of diversity for the tree species growing
in a natural woodland.

The conifers used in plantations are the result of a long


period of selection for desirable characteristics. Explain how
a programme of selection might affect the variety of alleles
in a population.

Grid area;

reduces (the variety of alleles) / genetic diversity;

method of generating coordinates;


to place quadrat at random;

only certain phenotypes allowed / selected to breed;

(max 2 for sampling)

(phenotypic) character controlled by allele;

number of individuals;

some/non-selected alleles eliminated/frequency decreased;

number of each species;

others/selected alleles increase in frequency;

Diversity

Explain why it is more useful to calculate the index of


diversity than to record just the number of species
present.

Measures number of individuals and number of


species;
Some species only present in small numbers;

What is meant by a genetic bottleneck


Genetic bottleneck linked to low genetic
diversity/smaller gene pool;
Reference to very low seal population/population in
1910/under
100 seals/caused by hunting;

The number of species present is one way to


measure biodiversity. Explain why an
index of diversity may be a more useful measure
of biodiversity.

how you would expect the founder effect to have influenced


the genetic diversity of northern elephant seals after 1910.

New colonies formed by small number (of seals)/ small


number
of founders;

Also measures number of individuals in a species /


different proportions of species;
Some species may be present in low/high numbers;

Founders have different/fewer alleles/genes / have smaller


gene pool;

Diversity

Explain how a population of bacteria that is resistant to


an antibiotic develops.
resistance naturally occurs in a population/due to
mutation;
when antibiotic applied more of these survive and
reproduce/selection
of resistant bacteria; pass on genes/alleles for
resistance to offspring/
other bacteria;
increasing frequency of resistant bacteria/alleles for
resistance;

Antibiotic
resistance
Explain how one measure, other than those given in
the passage, is effective in reducing the growth of
resistance.
lower use of antibiotics/lower doses of antibiotics/use
variety of antibiotics;
this reduces selection for resistant bacteria;
or
complete course of treatment;
prevents emergence from dormant state/spores;
or
high doses for a short period;
kills all bacteria;

Use the data about the length of leaves in the two sites to
explain why standard deviation is more useful than range as
a measure of variation within a population.

When comparing variation in size between two groups


of organisms, it is often considered more useful to
compare standard deviations rather than ranges.
Explain why.
Range influenced by single outlier (accept anomaly) /

Definition of range + SD / effect of outliers on range + SD;


Ranges are similar in both areas;
Suggests that variation within populations is similar;
SD smaller in area of high light intensity;
Shows that area of high light intensity is a more uniform
population;

converse for S.D.;


S.D. shows dispersion/spread about mean;
Range only shows highest and lowest values/extremes;
S.D. allows statistical use;
Tests whether or not differences are significant;

Data
Explain why a statistical test should be applied to the
data obtained in this investigation.

To determine the probability; [Accept: Likelihood]


Of the results being due to chance; [Accept:
Coincidence]

Unit 4

A difference in the molecular structure of cytochrome c may arise in


a small population that becomes geographically isolated. Explain
how the difference may arise and how it may spread in the
population.

Explain how geographical isolation can lead to


the formation of new species.
1 Populations separated by physical barrier/
example;
2 No mixing of gene pools;
3 Different selection pressures;
4 Become adapted to local environment;
5 Survive and reproduce;
6 Mutation in one group (different from
other group);
7 Change in allele frequencies; [Reject:
Gene]
8 Isolated populations/ new species
cannot interbreed;

mutation;
there is variation;
genes (coding) for protein / cytochrome c with different structures;
EITHER
individuals with a modified cytochrome c have a selective
advantage / are selected for;
these individuals are more likely to survive to have offspring /
have more offspring;
(must link a comparison of survival to reproduction)

Speciation
Copper-tolerant Agrostis tenuis plants flower at
a different time from those which are not
copper-tolerant. Explain how this might
eventually lead to the production of a new
species of Agrostis.
1. reproductively isolated / no interbreeding (due
to different
flowering times);

selection

gene / allele frequency changes over generations / time;


OR
changed structure does not affect protein function;

Explain the processes which might have led to the


these
structural
differences
over
time; after
evolution
of new
species accumulate
on an island
formed
separating from a mainland continent.
isolation;
no gene flow between populations;
variation;
different environmental factors;

2. conditions different for two populations /


different selection pressures;

natural selection / selection for specific alleles /


characteristics;

3. different features or plants are selected or


survive /different adaptations;

change in allele / phenotype frequency;

4. populations become (genetically) different;


5. unable to produce fertile offspring;
4

changes over a long period of time;

Explain how two species of lemming evolved from the


original species after the melting of a glacier created a
dividing lake.

any populations of insect pest have become resistant to


insecticides. Explain how selection can result in an
insect population which is resistant to a particular
insecticide.

geographical isolation of populations;


Insecticide resistance already in population;

variation present in population(s);

(resulting) from mutation;

different environmental conditions;

resistant insects are not killed (by insecticide)/survive;

different selection pressures/different phenotypes selected;

(And are able to) reproduce/breed;

change in genetic constitution of populations/gene


pools/allele frequency;

passing on the relevant allele/gene to the next


generation/offspring;

(two populations) so unable (to breed) to produce fertile


offspring;

Speciation
Explain how the process of natural selection on the two
islands might have led to the different ranges of beak
depth in G. fortis.
1 Variation (in beak size) already present in population;
2 (Variation) due to inheritance / due to mutation;
3 Beak size relates to food size;
(On Albermarle):
4Competition between birds of similar beak size /
birds with more extreme beak sizes get enough food /
reduce competition;
5OR converse best adapted survive / selected for /
larger beak
sizes (in G. fortis) survive / larger beak an advantage;
nd
(On 2
island):
6G. fortis has smaller seeds available (since no
competition);
7G. fortis does not need large beak to survive / to feed;
8(Survivors) reproduce;
9 Pass on (relevant) allele(s) / gene(s) to offspring;
Worth 2 marks, because subsumes survivors reproduce
marking point
10 Increasing frequency of appropriate allele(s) /
gene(s) (in population);
7 max

selection

resulting in increasing frequency of resistance allele in


population

What is meant by reproductive isolation?


Organisms cannot interbreed/ breed or mate or reproduce
with another
group/ incompatible gametes/ wrong courtship behaviour/
other valid;
Explain how geographical isolation can lead to the formation
of new species.
1 Populations separated by physical barrier/ example;
2 No mixing of gene pools;
3 Different selection pressures;
4 Become adapted to local environment;
5 Survive and reproduce;
6 Mutation in one group (different from other group);
7 Change in allele frequencies; [Reject: Gene]
8 Isolated populations/ new species cannot interbreed;

Explain what is meant by stabilising selection and


describe the circumstances under which it
takes place.

Explain how resistance to an antibiotic could become


widespread in a bacterial population following a gene
mutation conferring resistance in just one bacterium.
1.
frequent use of antibiotic creates selection
pressure/ antibiotic
kills bacteria;
2.
bacteria with mutation/ resistance have
(selective) advantage over
others / described;
3.
(survive to) reproduce more than other types;
4.
pass on advantageous allele/ mutated allele in
greater numbers;
5.
frequency of (advantageous) allele increases in
subsequent
generations;

1. Occurs in an unchanging environment;


1
2. (Initial range of values in which) mean is best
adapted;
3. Selection against extremes / selection for the mean;
4. Mean/median/mode unaltered
5. Range/S.D is reduced;
6. Repeated over many generations;
7. Increasing proportion of populations becomes well
adapted
to environment;
Explain what is meant by stabilising selection and
describe the circumstances under which it
takes place.
1. Occurs in an unchanging environment;
1
+
2. (Initial range of values in which) mean is best
adapted;
3. Selection against extremes / selection for the mean;
4. Mean/median/mode unaltered
5. Range/S.D is reduced;
6. Repeated over many generations;
7. Increasing proportion of populations becomes well
adapted
to environment;

Selection
Explain how natural selection would favour the evolution of
sediment-dwelling bacteria containing a different
photosynthetic pigment that absorbs red and blue light most
effectively rather than green absorbed by those living near the
surface of the water
Little green light reaches bottom as absorbed by surface
dwellers / water;
Red and blue not absorbed and so penetrate;
Variation in pigments of sediment dwellers;
Bacteria with chlorophyll at an advantage;
As chlorophyll absorbs red and blue;
(Survive to) reproduce in greater numbers;
Pass on advantageous alleles/genes in greater numbers /
increase in
frequency of advantageous alleles in subsequent generations;
Increase in frequency/numbers of bacteria with chlorophyll;

A difference in the molecular structure of cytochrome c may arise in


a small population that becomes geographically isolated. Explain
how the difference may arise and how it may spread in the
population.
mutation;
there is variation;
genes (coding) for protein / cytochrome c with different structures;
EITHER
individuals with a modified cytochrome c have a selective
advantage / are selected for;
these individuals are more likely to survive to have offspring /
have more offspring;
(must link a comparison of survival to reproduction)
gene / allele frequency changes over generations / time;
OR
changed structure does not affect protein function;
these structural differences accumulate over time;

Explain how natural selection produces changes within


a species.
variation between members of population/species;
predation/disease/competition results in differential
survival;
some have adaptations that favour survival;
survive to reproduce/have more offspring/ pass on
their alleles/genes;
produces changes in frequency of allele /gene pool/
genotypes/phenotypes;

Selection and
speciation
What is meant by reproductive isolation? (1)
Organisms cannot interbreed/ breed or mate or reproduce
with another
group/ incompatible gametes/ wrong courtship behaviour/
other valid;

These two species are thought to have evolved as a result


of sympatric speciation. Suggest how this might have
occurred. (4)

Explain how geographical isolation can lead to the


formation of new species.4)
1 Populations separated by physical barrier/ example;
2 No mixing of gene pools;
3 Different selection pressures;
4 Become adapted to local environment;
5 Survive and reproduce;
6 Mutation in one group (different from other group);
7 Change in allele frequencies; [Reject: Gene]
8 Isolated populations/ new species cannot interbreed;

the area;

Original population living in one area / 2 species evolved in

Idea of genetic variability;


Concept of reproductive isolation;
Possible mechanism;
Gene pools become increasingly different;
Until interbreeding does not produce fertile offspring;

A difference in the molecular structure of cytochrome c may arise in


a small population that becomes geographically isolated. Explain
how the difference may arise and how it may spread in the
population.
mutation;
there is variation;
genes (coding) for protein / cytochrome c with different structures;
EITHER
individuals with a modified cytochrome c have a selective
advantage / are selected for;
these individuals are more likely to survive to have offspring /
have more offspring;
(must link a comparison of survival to reproduction)
gene / allele frequency changes over generations / time;
OR
changed structure does not affect protein function;
these structural differences accumulate over time;

Suggest how speciation may be occurring in these


salamanders. (4)
(populations) isolated/in different areas;
no interbreeding (between populations)/gene exchange/flow;
variation in each (population); (accept example of variation)
due to mutation/meiosis; (accept reference to types of
mutation)
each population adapting to its own/different environment;
through natural selection;
producing differential survival;
producing changes in allele/phenotype frequencies;
producing
reproductive
isolation;
Describe
how stabilising
selection will affect the
mean and standard deviation. Give the
reason for your answer.

Mean no change; [Accept: 7]


Standard deviation decreases;
Reason selects against/removes (both)
extremes/extremes die/better
survival of middle nos.;

Selection and
speciation

ATP is useful in many biological processes.


Explain why.(5)

Describe two features of an ATP


molecule which make it a biologically
useful source of energy.

1. Releases energy in small / manageable


amounts;
2. (Broken down) in a one-step / single bond
broken;
3. Immediate energy compound/makes energy
available rapidly;
4. Phosphorylates/adds phosphate;
5. Makes (phosphorylated substances) more
reactive / lowers activation energy;
6. Reformed/made again;

Releases energy on breakdown/hydrolysis;


Uses energy from other reactions to form;
Can be readily moved/stored/broken down
when needed;
Allows energy to be released in suitable
amounts;

ATP
Explain why ATP is better than glucose
as an immediate energy source for cell
metabolism.
Energy is available more rapidly because
released in single reaction /
does not go through as many processes;
ATP releases its energy in
small/manageable quantities;
Energy available (more) rapidly / released
in a single reaction;
Energy released in small quantities /
manageable quantities;

Give three uses of energy from ATP in


a liver cell.
Active transport;
Phagocytosis;
Synthesis of glycogen;
Protein / enzyme;
DNA / RNA;
Lipid / cholesterol;
Urea in glycolysis;
Bile production;
Cell division;

ATP is sometimes described as an


immediate source of energy. Explain
why.

Give two advantages of ATP as an


energy-storage molecule within a
cell.

(Energy release) only involves a single


reaction/one-step/

Cannot pass out of cell;


Quickly/easily broken down (hydrolysed) /
broken down in a on-step

(energy released) in ATP ADP (+Pi)/


energy transfer direct to reaction requiring
energy;
1

reaction / immediate source of energy;

[Ignore: reference to speed] [Reject: not


many steps]

Do not credit producing energy

Stores / releases small amounts of energy;

ATP
Explain why humans make more than their body mass
of ATP each day
1. ATP is unstable;
2. ATP cannot be stored / is an immediate source of
energy;
3. Named process uses ATP ;
4. ATP only releases a small amount of energy at a
time;

Plants produce ATP in their chloroplasts


during photosynthesis. They also produce
ATP during respiration. Explain why it is
important for plants to produce ATP during
respiration in addition to during
photosynthesis.(5)
1. In the dark no ATP production in
photosynthesis;
2. Some tissues unable to
photosynthesise/produce ATP;
3. ATP cannot be moved from cell to cell/stored;
4. Plant uses more ATP than produced in
photosynthesis;
5. ATP for active transport;
6. ATP for synthesis (of named substance);
Explain how ATP and reduced NADP are used in the
light-independent reaction of photosynthesis.(4)
GP converted to triose phosphate / GALP;
this involves reduction;
reduced NADP provides reducing power / hydrogens;
ATP supplies energy for this reaction;
phosphate from ATP;
for production of RuBP;

Describe the way in which ATP and reduced NADP are


produced in the light-dependent reaction of photosynthesis.
(5)
In context of ATP formation
light raises energy level of / excites electrons;
pass through carriers;
energy released;
ATP formed from ADP + P;
In context of producing reduced NADP
protons / H+ ions;
from photolysis / water;
electrons;

Photosynthe
sis

describe how the structure of a chloroplast is adapted


to its function in photosynthesis.(5)
Membranes / (disc) shape provides large surface for
light absorption;
layering of membrane allows a lot of pigment;
(permeable) membrane allows diffusion of gases /
carbon dioxide;
membranes provide surface for attachment of
electron / hydrogen
acceptors;
stroma / matrix containing enzymes for Calvin cycle /
lightindependent reactions;

Describe how plants absorb light energy from the sun and
use this energy to produce useful substances in the lightdependent stage of photosynthesis.(5)

Describe how the products of the light-dependent stage of


photosynthesis are used in the Calvin cycle and how
carbohydrate is synthesised as a result of the cycle.(6)
RuBP converted to GP;
RuBP as carbon dioxide acceptor/combines with carbon
dioxide;
GP converted to triose phosphate/TP/GALP;
this reaction is a reduction;
reduced NADP provides hydrogen;
ATP provides energy;
some triose phosphate/TP/GALP converted to
glucose/carbohydrate;
some triose phosphate used to produce RuBP
ATP supplies phosphate for this reaction;

Light absorbed
by/strikes,chlorophyll/photosystem/PSI/PSII;
electrons excited;
pass down chain of carriers;
energy released/transferred;
producing ATP from ADP and phosphate;
reduced NADP/formed with electrons;
photolysis of water /allow light splits water;
(water) supplies protons/H+ ions to reduce NADP;

Describe the similarities between photosynthesis and


respiration.(6)
Both processes involve:
Transfer of energy/conversion of energy from one form to
another;

Photosynth
esis

Describe the light-independent reactions of


photosynthesis and explain how they allow the
continued synthesis of hexose sugars.(6)
1. 5C/RuBP combines with CO2;
2. to form 3C compound / TP / GP;

Use and produce ATP;

3. using ATP;

chain of electron carriers;

4. and reduced NADP / eq;

located on membranes;

5. 2 molecules of 3C compound/ TP / GP form hexose;

detail of process (eg ref to chemiosmotic theory);

6. all RuBP is regenerated;

involve cycle of reactions;

7. 10 molecules of 3C/TP/GP form 6 molecules of


5C/RuBP;

oxidation and reduction/redox reactions involved;


and coenzymes;
processes are controlled by enzymes;
max. 6
some common intermediates/GALP is common to both;

Describe the role of electron transport chains in the


light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.(6)

Photosynthesis generally takes place in a leaf. Describe


how the leaf is adapted to allow this process to occur
effectively.(5)

1. electron transport chain accepts excited electrons;

Large surface area to collect solar energy;

2. from chlorophyll / photosystem;

transparent nature of cuticle to allow light penetration;

3. electrons lose energy along chain;

position of chlorophyll to trap light;

4. ATP produced;

stomata to allow exchange of gases;

5. from ADP and Pi;

thin / max. surface area to volume ratio for diffusion of


gases;

6. reduced NADP formed;


7. when electrons (from transport chain) and H+
combine with NADP;

spongy mesophyll / air spaces for carbon dioxide store;


xylem for input of water;

8. H+ from photolysis;

Explain the roles of water, light and ribulose bisphosphate in


the process of photosynthesis.
water:
provides hydrogen;
to reduce NADP;
provides electron;
to stabilise / reduce chlorophyll;
max. 2
light :
excites / oxidises / removes an electron from chlorophyll /
photosystem;
photophosphorylation / ATP produced;
electron used in reduction of NADP; max. 2
Ribulose bisphosphate:
carbon dioxide acceptor;
forms GP;

phloem for removal of end products;

Photosynth
esis

The carbon dioxide concentration was monitored at ground level in the


centre of a small roundabout. The measurements were made on a summer
day. Describe and explain how you would expect the concentration of
carbon dioxide to fluctuate over the period of 24 hours.
1 Higher carbon dioxide concentration at night/during darkness;
2 Photosynthesis only takes place during light;
3 Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide and respiration adds
carbon dioxide;
4 Respiration taking place throughout 24 hours;
5 Quantitative consideration such as that in plants overall
photosynthetic rate greater than respiration rate;
6 Human effect such as additional carbon dioxide from heavy
daytime traffic/street lighting could prolong photosynthesis;

Describe how light energy absorbed by chlorophyll


molecules is used to synthesise ATP.

Describe the light-independent reactions of


photosynthesis and explain how they allow the continued
synthesis of hexose sugars.(6)

Excitation of chlorophyll molecule/electrons/ energy of


(pairs of)

1. 5C/RuBP combines with CO2;

electrons raised to higher energy level;


Electron(s) emitted from chlorophyll molecule;

2. to form 3C compound / TP / GP;

Electron(s) to electron transport chain;

3. using ATP;

Loss of energy by electron(s) along electron transport


chain;

4. and reduced NADP / eq;

Energy lost by electron(s) is used to synthesise ATP;


From ADP + Pi;

5. 2 molecules of 3C compound/ TP / GP form hexose;


6. all RuBP is regenerated;

Describe the role of electron transport chains in the lightdependent reactions of photosynthesis.(6)
1. electron transport chain accepts excited electrons;
2. from chlorophyll / photosystem;

Photosynth
esis

7. 10 molecules of 3C/TP/GP form 6 molecules of 5C/RuBP;

Photosynthesis generally takes place in a leaf. Describe


how the leaf is adapted to allow this process to occur
effectively. (3)
Large surface area to collect solar energy;
transparent nature of cuticle to allow light penetration;

3. electrons lose energy along chain;

position of chlorophyll to trap light;

4. ATP produced;

stomata to allow exchange of gases;

5. from ADP and Pi;

thin / max. surface area to volume ratio for diffusion of gases;

6. reduced NADP formed;

spongy mesophyll / air spaces for carbon dioxide store;


+

7. when electrons (from transport chain) and H combine


with NADP;
8. H+ from photolysis;

xylem for input of water;


phloem for removal of end products;

Explain the roles of water, light and ribulose bisphosphate


in the process of photosynthesis. (6)

Explain why an increase in temperature will increase the


rate of photosynthesis. (3)

water:
provides hydrogen;
to reduce NADP;
provides electron;
to stabilise / reduce chlorophyll;

Enzymes are involved;


extra kinetic energy / molecules move faster;
molecules collide more often / more enzyme - substrate
complexes

light :
excites / oxidises / removes an electron from chlorophyll /
photosystem;
photophosphorylation / ATP produced;
electron used in reduction of NADP;
Ribulose bisphosphate:
carbon dioxide acceptor;
forms GP;
Describe how light energy absorbed by chlorophyll
molecules is used to synthesise ATP. (5)
Excitation of chlorophyll molecule/electrons/ energy of (pairs
of)
electrons raised to higher energy level;
Electron(s) emitted from chlorophyll molecule;
Electron(s) to electron transport chain;
Loss of energy by electron(s) along electron transport chain;
Energy lost by electron(s) is used to synthesise ATP;
From ADP + Pi;

formed;
increased rate of diffusion of raw materials;

Photosynth
esis

Describe the way in which ATP and reduced NADP are


produced in the light-dependent reaction of
photosynthesis.(5)
In context of ATP formation
light raises energy level of / excites electrons;
pass through carriers;
energy released;
ATP formed from ADP + P;
In context of producing reduced NADP
protons / H+ ions;
from photolysis / water;
electrons;

Explain how ATP and reduced NADP are used in the


light-independent reaction of photosynthesis. (4)

Describe how plants absorb light energy from the sun and
use this energy to produce useful substances in the lightdependent stage of photosynthesis. (5)

GP converted to triose phosphate / GALP;

Light absorbed by/strikes,chlorophyll/photosystem/PSI/PSII;

this involves reduction;

electrons excited;

reduced NADP provides reducing power / hydrogens;

pass down chain of carriers;

ATP supplies energy for this reaction;

energy released/transferred;

phosphate from ATP;

producing ATP from ADP and phosphate;

for production of RuBP;

reduced NADP/formed with electrons;

Describe how the structure of a chloroplast is adapted to


its function in photosynthesis.3

Photosynth
esis

photolysis of water /allow light splits water;


(water) supplies protons/H+ ions to reduce NADP;
Describe how the products of the light-dependent stage of
photosynthesis are used in the Calvin cycle and how
carbohydrate is synthesised as a result of the cycle. (6)

Membranes / (disc) shape provides large surface for light


absorption;

RuBP converted to GP;

layering of membrane allows a lot of pigment;

RuBP as carbon dioxide acceptor/combines with carbon


dioxide;

(permeable) membrane allows diffusion of gases / carbon


dioxide;

GP converted to triose phosphate/TP/GALP;

membranes provide surface for attachment of electron /


hydrogen
acceptors;
stroma / matrix containing enzymes for Calvin cycle /
lightindependent reactions;

this reaction is a reduction;


reduced NADP provides hydrogen;
ATP provides energy;
some triose phosphate/TP/GALP converted to
glucose/carbohydrate;
some triose phosphate used to produce RuBP
ATP supplies phosphate for this reaction;

Describe the similarities between photosynthesis and


respiration. (6)

Give two ways in which the chloroplast is adapted for its


function.
Contains chlorophyll / pigments for light absorption;

Both processes involve:

Different pigments to absorb different wavelengths;

Transfer of energy/conversion of energy from one form to


another;

Stacking / arrangement of grana/thylakoids maximises light


catchment;

Use and produce ATP;

Stroma contains enzymes for photosynthesis;

chain of electron carriers;

Outer membrane keeps enzymes in chloroplast;

located on membranes;

Starch grains / lipid droplets store products of


photosynthesis;

detail of process (eg ref to chemiosmotic theory);

Ribosomes / DNA for enzyme/protein synthesis;

involve cycle of reactions;

Shape of chloroplast gives large surface area for CO 2,


absorption.

oxidation and reduction/redox reactions involved;


and
coenzymes;
During
photosynthesis, oil-palm trees convert
carbon dioxide into organic substances.
processes are controlled by enzymes;
Describe how.
some common intermediates/GALP is common to both;
1. Carbon dioxide combines with ribulose
bisphosphate/RuBP;
2. Produces two molecules of glycerate
(3-)phosphate/GP;
3. Reduced to triose phosphate/TP;
4. Using reduced NADP;
5. Using energy from ATP;
6. Triose phosphate converted to other organic
substances/ named organic substances/ribulose
bisphosphate;
7. In light independent reaction/Calvin cycle;

Photosynth
esis

Describe how ATP is made in mitochondria.


(5)
1. Substrate level phosphorylation / ATP produced
in Krebs cycle;
2. Krebs cycle/link reaction produces reduced
coenzyme/reduced NAD/reduced FAD;
3. Electrons released from reduced /coenzymes/
NAD/FAD;
4. (Electrons) pass along carriers/through electron
transport chain/through series of redox reactions;
5. Energy released;
6. ADP/ADP + Pi;
7. Protons move into intermembrane space;
8. ATP synthase;

Human skeletal muscle can respire both aerobically and anaerobically.


Describe what happens to pyruvate in anaerobic conditions and explain why
anaerobic respiration is advantageous to human skeletal muscle.
Any four from:
Forms lactate; [extras C2H5OH / CO2 CANCEL]
Use of reduced NAD / NADH;

Regenerates NAD;
NAD can be re-used to oxidise more respiratory substrate / correct e.g.
/ allows glycolysis to continue;
Can still release energy/form ATP
when oxygen in short supply/when no oxygen;
max 4

Respiration
Explain why oxygen is needed for the
production of ATP on the cristae of the
mitochondrion.

Describe how oxidation takes place in glycolysis and


in the Krebs cycle.

ATP formed as electrons pass along transport


chain;

by enzymes/dehydrogenases;

oxygen is terminal electron acceptor / accepts


electrons from electron

in Krebs cycle, FAD (used as well);

transport chain;
electrons cannot be passed along electron
transport chain if no O2 to
accept them;
forms H2O / accepts H+ from reduced
NAD/FAD / oxidises reduced
NAD/FAD;

removal of hydrogen/dehydrogenation;
H accepted by NAD/reduced NAD formed;

Describe the roles of the coenzymes and carrier proteins in


the synthesis of ATP.

Water is a waste product of aerobic respiration. Describe


how water is formed at the end of aerobic respiration. (2)

NAD/FAD reduced / hydrogen attached to NAD/FAD;

oxygen is terminal/final electron acceptor;

H ions/electrons transferred from coenzyme to


coenzyme/carrier to carrier /

combines with electron and hydrogen (to form water);

series of redox reactions;


energy made available as electrons passed on;
energy used to synthesise ATP from ADP and phosphate /
using ATPase;
H+ / protons passed into intermembrane space;
H+ / protons flow back through stalked particles/enzyme;
Respiration

H accepted by NAD/reduced NAD formed;

In the presence of oxygen, respiration yields more ATP


per molecule of glucose than it does in the absence of
oxygen. Explain why. (3)
Oxygen as terminal hydrogen/electron acceptor;
Operation of electron transport chain/ oxidative
phosphorylation;
Fate of pyruvate;
Krebs cycle;

in Krebs cycle, FAD (used as well);

Significance of ATP formed in glycolysis;

Describe how oxidation takes place in glycolysis and in


the Krebs cycle. (3)
removal of hydrogen/dehydrogenation;
by enzymes/dehydrogenases;

Explain why oxygen is needed for the production of ATP


on the cristae of the mitochondrion. (3)

Mitochondria in muscle cells have more cristae than


mitochondria in skin cells.

ATP formed as electrons pass along transport chain;

Explain the advantage of mitochondria in muscle cells


having more cristae. (2)

oxygen is terminal electron acceptor / accepts electrons from


electron

(more cristae / larger surface area) for electron transport


chain /

transport chain;

more enzymes for ATP production/oxidative


phosphorylation;

electrons cannot be passed along electron transport chain if


no O2 to

muscle cells use more ATP (than skin cells)(not just more
respiration);

accept them;
forms H2O / accepts H+ from reduced NAD/FAD / oxidises
reduced

Respiration

NAD/FAD;
Human skeletal muscle can respire both aerobically and anaerobically. Describe
what happens to pyruvate in anaerobic conditions and explain why anaerobic
respiration is advantageous to human skeletal muscle. (4)

Describe the roles of the coenzymes and carrier proteins


in the synthesis of ATP. (3)

Any four from:

NAD/FAD reduced / hydrogen attached to NAD/FAD;

Forms lactate; [extras C2H5OH / CO2 CANCEL]


Use of reduced NAD / NADH;

H+ ions/electrons transferred from coenzyme to


coenzyme/carrier to carrier /
series of redox reactions;

Regenerates NAD;
NAD can be re-used to oxidise more respiratory substrate / correct e.g.
/ allows glycolysis to continue;
Can still release energy/form ATP
when oxygen in short supply/when no oxygen;

energy made available as electrons passed on;


energy used to synthesise ATP from ADP and phosphate /
using ATPase;
H+ / protons passed into intermembrane space;
H+ / protons flow back through stalked particles/enzyme;

Give two ways in which anaerobic


respiration of glucose in yeast is
(i) similar to anaerobic respiration of
glucose in a muscle cell;(2)

Describe the effect of lactate production on muscles. (2)


Decrease in acidity / pH;
Increase in acidity / pH;

ATP formed/used;
pyruvate formed/reduced;
NAD/reduced NAD;
glycolysis involved/two stage process;

Muscle fatigue;
Denaturation / alteration of proteins / enzymes;

(ii)different from anaerobic respiration


of glucose in a muscle cell.(2)
ethanol/alcohol formed by yeast, lactate
(allow lactic acid)
by muscle cell; CO2 released by yeast but
not by muscle cell;

Respiration
In the presence of oxygen, respiration
yields more ATP per molecule of glucose
than it does in the absence of oxygen.
Explain why.
Oxygen as terminal hydrogen/electron acceptor;
Operation of electron transport chain/ oxidative
phosphorylation;
Fate of pyruvate;
Krebs cycle;
Significance of ATP formed in glycolysis;

The Krebs cycle, which takes place in the


matrix, releases hydrogen ions. These
hydrogen ions provide a source of energy
for the synthesis of ATP, using coenzymes
and carrier proteins in the inner
membrane of the mitochondrion.
Describe the roles of the coenzymes and
carrier proteins in the synthesis of ATP.
NAD/FAD reduced / hydrogen attached to
NAD/FAD;
H+ ions/electrons transferred from coenzyme
to coenzyme/carrier to carrier /
series of redox reactions;
energy made available as electrons passed on;
energy used to synthesise ATP from ADP and
phosphate /
using ATPase;
H+ / protons passed into intermembrane
space;
H+ / protons flow back through stalked
particles/enzyme;

Most cases of successful biological control using parasites


have involved
1 the search for parasites of the pest in the country of origin,
especially in areas with a similar climate to the planned area
of release;
2 the study of the effect of the parasite on other organisms
under laboratory conditions;
3 release of large numbers of parasites which results in a
decline in the pest population;
4 the stable existence together of both pest and parasite at
low population densities.
Explain the importance of each of the above steps in
achieving successful biological control of a pest.

Suggest two advantages of using biological control rather than


pesticides.

non-target species not killed/host specific;


no toxic residues/no accumulation up the food chain;
no resistance;
no resurgence;
continuous control;
only one application necessary/self-perpetuating;

Answer below
Ecosystem
management
pest and its parasites are likely to occur in same place/more likely
to find suitable parasite;
if climate similar parasite more likely to survive;
laboratory conditions to study possible effect on native species;
as may compete with other species for habitat/food;

Explain how environmental damage may arise from


leaching of fertiliser. (4)
nitrate/phosphate enters into the surrounding rivers /ponds;
possible eutrophication/ excessive plant growth/algal blooms;

may parasitise other species/be preyed on by other species;

high phosphate causing blue - green blooms/

large numbers increases chance of successful introduction;

high nitrate giving blue - green blooms;

decline in pest indicates control is taking place/control is


successful;
numbers of pest must be reduced so that amount of damage is
economically
acceptable;
stable coexistence means no need for further introduction
of parasite/no additional measures are required;
pest needs to be kept at low levels to prevent damage to crop;
if pest dies out parasite may become a pest itself/if parasite dies
out it

excess plant growth exceeds supply of mineral salts;


death and decay of plants by microorganisms/decay increases
BOD;
oxygen depletion causes death of fish/fresh water animals;

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using


biological methods, rather than chemicals, to control
pests.
advantages (max 3)
(if well-screened) only attacks the pest;
forms self-perpetuating population (only one application
required);
cheaper (qualified) e.g. saves cost of repeatedly using
chemicals;
safer because does not leave chemical residue;
organisms do not become resistant to biological control;
disadvantages (max 3)
doesnt completely eradicate pest;
cost of researching / setting up a biological control system;
biological control agent may become a nuisance itself/must
be well screened;
slower to get rid of pest than chemicals;
more subject to environmental factors;
Explain the advantages of conserving a forest ecosystem.
Trees available as a sustainable resource;
Maintain habitats / niches / shelter;
Maintain diversity / avoid loss of species / protect
endangered species.
Maintain stability (of ecosystem);
Maintain food chains / webs / supply of food;
Reduced loss of soil / erosion;
Reduced flooding;
Act as carbon sink / maintainO2and C02 balance reduce
greenhouse effect
Reduce global warming;
Source of medicines;
[Ignore: eutrophication]

Explain how environmental damage may arise from


leaching of fertiliser.(5)
nitrate/phosphate enters into the surrounding rivers /ponds;
possible eutrophication/ excessive plant growth/algal
blooms;
high phosphate causing blue - green blooms/
high nitrate giving blue - green blooms;
excess plant growth exceeds supply of mineral salts;
death and decay of plants by microorganisms/decay
increases BOD;
oxygen depletion causes death of fish/fresh water animals;
max.4
Ecosystem
management
Describe the effect the nitrate concentration may
have in a river.
1. Growth of algae/plants stimulated/increased;
2.death of algae/plants;
3.more bacteria/decomposers/decomposition;
4.respiration;
5.decomposers/bacteria remove oxygen;
6.animals die (because of lack of oxygen);

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using biological


methods, rather than chemicals, to control pests

Explain what is meant by biological control, and


describe one example of how biological control has
been used to control a specific pest.

advantages (max 3)
(if well-screened) a biological control agent only attacks the pest;

using a predator / parasite / pathogen to control (the


numbers of) a

forms self-perpetuating population (only one application required);

pest organism;

safer because does not leave chemical residue;

name of control organism and pest;

organisms do not become resistant to biological control;

explanation of control method;

disadvantages (max 3)

cheaper (qualified) e.g. saves cost of repeatedly using chemicals;

doesnt completely eradicate pest;


cost of researching / setting up a biological control system;
biological control agent may become a nuisance itself/must be well

Ecosystem
management

screened;
slower to get rid of pest than chemicals;
more subject to environmental factors;

Explain the benefits of an integrated pest


management scheme.

Explain why there is concern at the amount of nitrates


being leached into rivers, lakes and reservoirs.

if one method fails, other still partially effective;


reduced amounts of pesticides needed;

increased growth of plants / algae;

increased yield / less chance of resistant species


developing /

(leading to) eutrophication;

less effect on food webs;

increase in microorganisms feeding on dead plants /


algae;

chemical controls initial surges in pest numbers / less


chemicals used;

leading to deoxygenation;

biological gives longer term control of pests;

increased nitrate in drinking water;


causing human illness

What are the advantages and disadvantages for a grower of


cucumbers of using biological control instead of chemicals
for controlling aphids.
advantages:
specific to one pest/ chemicals may kill pollinators/useful
insects
application linked to life cycle of pest;
number of applications depends on survival of control
organism/
self sustaining;
no residues harmful to health left on crop;
does not result in resistant varieties of pest;
max 3
disadvantages:.
can only be used for glasshouse crops;
may create an imbalance in natural ecosystem;
may be labour intensive/costly to maintain;
have to retain some of the pest to maintain the control
organism;
Explain how high concentrations of nitrate applied to
farmland may result in the reduction of the numbers of
fish present in aquatic ecosystems.

Describe and explain the effects of monoculture on the environment.


loss of hedgerows;
since small fields impracticable for large machines;
soil more exposed to wind;
resultant increase in soil erosion (once);
reduction in diversity;
since smaller variety of niches/habitats;
since smaller variety of producers/plants
deeper rooted plants removed;
resultant increased soil erosion (once);
increased risk of large-scale crop failure/increased disease/increased
number of pest;
since large numbers of same crop species grown close to each other;

Ecosystem
management

increased use of fertilisers result in eutrophication/damage to soil


structure;
reduction of gene pool

Explain how increased use of inorganic fertilisers on


the fields may have led to reduction in aquatic life
these changes.

nitrate washed/runs off /leached from fields;

Run off/leaching of nutrients/nitrates;

algal bloom / increase in algal growth;

leads to increased growth of algae/plants;

reduced light to other producers;

competition for light / effect of competition;

death of algae/producers;

death of algae/plants;

increase in decomposers/decomposition;

increases food supply / increases


microorganisms/decomposers;

aerobic respiration/requirement O2 / increased BOD;

respiration (of microorganisms) uses up


oxygen/increases BOD;
fish/animals die due to lack of oxygen;

Describe ways in which the endemic species (those


characteristic of a particular habitat) could be conserved
and suggest reasons for protecting them from extinction.

Explain two environmental problems that are normally


associated with large-scale deforestation.
Soil erosion / mud slides / flooding / leaching

1. protection of habitat;

of minerals trees no longer protect soil from rain / from

2. legal measures, e.g. quotas, hunting bans;

wind / roots no longer hold soil;

3. capture/culling of non-native species;

Increased CO2 (in air) OR greenhouse effect trees


remove

4. captive breeding;
5. surrogacy / artificial insemination / genetic manipulation
techniques;

CO2 / trees photosynthesise / burning releases CO 2;

6. ethical / aesthetic reasons for conservation / tourism;

Less diversity / loss of (forest) species / fewer individuals


loss

7. possible undiscovered benefits, e.g. crop plants, drug


sources;

of food / loss of habitat / niches / ecosystem;

8. maintaining genetic diversity for future breeding


programmes;
9. avoid damage to food webs / control local pests;
Give two aims of biological conservation.
to maintain diversity;
to maintain organisms habitats/ecosystem;

Ecosystem
management

Changed rainfall patterns / drought less transpiration from


trees;

Explain what is meant by biological control, and


describe one example of how biological control has
been used to control a specific pest.
using a predator / parasite / pathogen to control (the
numbers of) a
pest organism;
name of control organism and pest;
explanation of control method;

Explain two possible limitations of biological control


methods.

Give one advantage and one disadvantage of using inorganic


fertilisers instead of manure.

possible effects on non-target species;

Advantage:
ions in readily available form;
effects relatively rapid;
easy to apply;
quantities applied can be controlled/measured;
Disadvantage:
quickly leached;
more likely to cause pollution;
relatively expensive;

possibility of population explosion due to lack of


natural predators;
not all pests killed;
difficulty in maintaining population of control
organism

Ecosystem
management
Describe two features that a predator must have if it is to be a
successful biological control agent.

only feeds on pest species/does not affect non-target


population;
can live in environment of the host/ establish/maintain its
population/
can reproduce under conditions of use/active during the
season;
2
(ignore references to effect on crop)

Explain two advantages of growing cereal crops in rotation


with clover instead of growing them every year in the same
field and applying fertiliser.

clover is a natural/green fertiliser;


}
adds organic material/humus to the soil;
}
clover adds nitrogen compounds/nitrates;
}
needed by crop for protein production;
}
clover releases minerals slowly;
}
less run-off/less pollution;
}
clover cheaper than fertiliser;
}

}
4 max

Describe the principles involved in biological control.

Explain one advantage of using a combination of


chemical and biological approaches to pest control.

control organism a parasite/ predator;

chemical controls initial surges in pest numbers / less


chemicals used;

specific to pest;
population varies with population of pest;

biological gives longer term control of pests;

controls size of pest population but does not kill all;


keeps pest population low enough to prevent significant
(economic)
damage

Ecosystem
management
Give the advantages and disadvantages of using biological
control.(6)

Give two advantages of using an inorganic fertiliser,


rather than manure. (2)

1. Specific (to one pest);


2. Only needs one application/reproduces;
allow long lasting effect
3. Keeps population low;
4. (Pests) do not develop resistance;
5. Does not leave chemical residues in environment; not just
environmentally friendly
6. Does not get rid of pest completely;
7. May become a pest itself;
8. Slow acting/takes time to reduce pest population;

composition known/composition can be varied;

9. Can be used in organic farming;

cleaner to apply/ less smelly;


concentrated/less needed/ more
compact to transport/lighter machinery;
spread evenly/ control the amount you can apply;
no seeds/pests;
immediate release of nutrients;

Fertilisers are added to soils to replace the nutrients lost when


crops are harvested. Give two advantages of using
an organic fertiliser such as farmyard manure; (2)
More micronutrients / greater range of nutrients;
Nutrients released slowly;
Improves soil quality / adds humus / adds microbes / improves soil
structure;
Improves water-holding capacity of soil / reduces
leaching/eutrophication;
Improves soil aeration;
Already available;
an inorganic fertiliser. (2)
Known nutrient content;
Nutrients available immediately/fast acting;
Nutrients distributed evenly;
Doesnt contain pests;
Better to handle / easy to use / easy to store/transport;
Concentrated in nutrients / needed in smaller amounts;
Applied using light machinery so avoids soil compaction;

Explain how each of the following activities associated


with modern farming might reduce the number of species
of invertebrate animal.
the use of herbicides
loss of food/habitat/shelter reduces numbers of invertebrates;
and so less food for carnivorous invertebrates/effect further
down the
food chain described;
using large areas for the growth of single crops
fewer habitats;
limited range of food sources;
unstable ecosystem;

Plants absorb a number of other nutrients from the soil


including phosphates.
Describe why phosphates are needed by a growing plant.
(4)
production of phospholipids;
in cell membranes;
synthesis of ATP;
production of DNA;
production of RNA;
Ecosystem
management

production of NADP;

Fertilisers may leach out of farmland into freshwater


streams and lakes. Explain how this can be harmful to the
environment. (6)
1. more growth of algae/ surface plants;
2. blocks light;
3. plants lower down unable to photosynthesise;
4. less oxygen produced
5. dead (plant) material present;
6. broken down by bacteria/decomposers;
7. respiration;
8. depletes oxygen in water;
9. other organisms unable to live/grow;

Between 1982 and 1992 the number of fish in the lake


decreased. Explain how the change in phosphate
concentration may have resulted in this decrease in the
fish population. (6)

What is meant by conservation?


Concept of preservation/maintenance e.g.
sustainable management/sustainable use of
resources/management to maintain

1. Increased phosphate causes increase in plant growth/algal


bloom;

diversity/maintain forest;
(Allow ref. To keeping / saving / non-destruction)

2. Plants (cover surface and) block out light;


3. Plants (under surface) die;
4. Increase in (aerobic) bacteria/decomposers (which break
down plants);
5. Bacteria/decomposers use up oxygen / reduce oxygen
conc. in water;
6. In respiration;
7.Give
Plants
unable
to photosynthesise;
three
reasons
why tropical rainforests should be
conserved.
8. So less oxygen produced;
To avoid: Any three from:
loss of species / decrease in diversity / loss of habitat / loss
of niche / disruption of food chain;
loss of pharmaceuticals / medicines / timber / wood;
CO2 build-up in atmosphere / global warming / trees take in
CO2 /
trees = carbon sink (described) / to maintain CO2 in air;
(NOT just carbon in air)
leaching of ions / mud slides / flooding / desertification;
max 3
[ALLOW converse of above e.g. Rainforest is a habitat for
(various) species]

Ecosystem
management
Explain how farming practices increase the
productivity of agricultural crops.
1. Fertilisers/minerals/named ion (added to soil);
2. Role of named nutrient or element e.g. nitrate/nitrogen
for proteins / phosphate/phosphorus for ATP/DNA;
3. Pesticides/biological control prevents
damage/consumption of crop;
4. Pesticides/weed killers /herbicides/weeding remove
competition;
5. Selective breeding / genetic modification (of crops);
6. Glass/greenhouses enhance temp/CO2/ light;
7. Ploughing aerates soil/improves drainage;
8. Ploughing/aeration allows nitrification/decreases
denitrification;
9. Benefit of crop rotation in terms of soil
nutrients/fertility/pest reduction;
10. Irrigation/watering to remove limiting factor;
11. Protection of crops from birds/pests/frost by
covers/netting etc.;

Explain how the use of pesticides can result in


resistant strains of insect pests.

The over-application of fertiliser increases the


rate of leaching. Explain the consequences of
leaching of fertiliser into ponds and lakes.

1. Variation/variety in pest population;

1. Increase algae/algal bloom;


2. Light blocked out;
3. Plants cant photosynthesise / plants and/or algae
die;
4. Bacteria/saprobionts/EW feed off/breakdown dead
organisms;
5. Bacteria/saprobionts/EW use up oxygen/bacteria
respire/BOD rises;

2. Due to mutation;
3. Allele for resistance;
4. Reference to selection;
5. Pests with resistance (survive and) breed /
differential reproductive success;
6. Increase in frequency of allele;
Ecosystem
management

Give two conditions necessary for results from markrelease-recapture investigations to be valid. (2)

Describe how the mark-release-recapture method could be used to


estimate the population of mice in the area being studied. What
assumptions would you have to make in using this method? (6)

No immigration/migration (Ignore references to


emigration);
No reproduction (Ignore references to death);
Idea of mixing;
Marking does not influence behaviour / increase
vulnerability
to predation;
Sample/population large enough;

Description involving elements of capture, mark, release, capture;


Detail of one of the following
Method of trapping
Method of marking;
Collection of full range of data
Number marked
Number recaptured
Number of unmarked animals/total in second sample;
Correct method of calculating results;
P=

Mark release recapture

Ground beetles are large black insects. The mark-releaserecapture method can be used to estimate the ground beetle
population on a roundabout. Describe how.

Explain how the students could use the mark-releaserecapture technique to estimate the numbers of insects
collect a sample (of insects in each area) and mark
unobtrusively/in

1 Sample of ground beetles captured and counted (a);


2 Released and second sample captured;
3 Count total number of beetles (B) and number marked
(b);
4 Total population (A) estimated from the relationship ;

a way not harmful to insects;


release and allow time to re-integrate with rest of
population/eq.;
collect second sample and count number marked;

5 Detail of method e.g. pitfall trap/marking with tippex;


6 Refinement to ensure greater accuracy e.g. large number/
marking in position such that does not affect survival;

number in population estimated by:

Mark release and


recapture
Describe how the mark-release-recapture method could be used to estimate
the population of mice in the area being studied. What assumptions would
you have to make in using this method?
Description involving elements of capture, mark, release, capture;
Detail of one of the following
Method of trapping
Method of marking;
Collection of full range of data
Number marked
Number recaptured
Number of unmarked animals/total in second sample;
Correct method of calculating results;
P=
Population is stable between first and second sampling
[Accept as general statement or reference to death/birth/migration];
Random mixing of marked animals in population;
Trapping/marking has no adverse effect on mice;

The mark-release-recapture technique may be used to


estimate population size.
Give two assumptions that must be made when
using this technique.
mixes randomly/completely in population;
marking does not have an effect/does not wear off;
no migration/emigration/immigration;
no change in population size between samples/life
span longer than time
between release and recapture;
no births or deaths;
not trap-happy/trap-shy;

Explain the role of bacteria in making carbon in dead


plant remains available to plants.

Describe how the carbohydrates in the dead leaves


in the beech wood would be recycled by the activity
of detritivores and microorganisms.

decomposers/ saprotrophs;

Detritivores break leaves into small pieces / increase


surface area;

release enzymes and digest detritus/


substances found in detritus/ eq.;

Deposit faeces;

absorb products of digestion/ suitable e.g. that relates to

Increases rate of microbial action;

nd

candidates 2 point;
respired and CO2 released;

Bacterial fungi decompose / break down leaves or


organic matter;

used by plants in photosynthesis/ enters leaves;

Secretion of enzymes for digestion;


Absorption of sugars;
Respiration by detritivores/ microorganisms;
Carbon cycle

Describe how detritivores are involved in the


recycling of nutrients.
(larger detritivores/named example) break up larger
pieces (by feeding);
excrete nitrogenous wastes/faeces/droppings;
increases surface area available to
bacteria/microorganisms/

Release of carbon dioxide;


Carbon dioxide used in photosynthesis;
Explain how carbon-containing compounds present
in the pine leaves that fall from the trees are
absorbed and used for growth by fungi that live in
the soil.
extracellular digestion;
by secretion of enzymes;
absorption of digested/soluble products;

fungi/decomposers;

synthesis of structural compounds/named compound;

decomposition by microorganisms releases


minerals/nutrients to soil;

respiration provide energy for growth;

Substances found in fallen leaves contain the elements carbon and nitrogen.

Explain how microorganisms obtain the carbon


compounds from cell walls.

Explain how the activities of decomposers and nitrifying bacteria recycle the
substances in fallen leaves for re-use by the trees.

secrete enzymes/cellulase/carbohydrase;

(Decomposers):Secretaion/release of enzymes; [REJECT excrete]

extracellular digestion;

Digest/hydrolyse organic matter;

absorption of soluble/digested products/sugars;

Absorption /taken in by named process


e.g. diffusion/active transport; (ALLOW endocytosis)
Respiration
Release carbon dioxide;
Carbon dioxide used in photosynthesis;
Release ammonia/ammonium salts/ions/mineral salts/nutrients;
(ALLOW named small organic molecules)
(Nitrifying bacteria):Ammonia/ammonium to nitrate;
Nitrate to nitrate;OR ammonia nitrate = 1mk
Aerobic/use of oxygen/by oxidation; [ALLOW correct symbols]
Nitrates/nitrites/ammonium used in synthesis of amino acids/protein
/nucleic
acids/other
correct
organic
Explain
how the
carbon
inN;
the dead insects is made
max 7
available to the plant.

hydrolysis/breakdown/digestion of carbon compounds;


respiration (by bacteria);
releasing carbon dioxide;

Carbon Cycle
Clearing the forests and burning the vegetation
affects the carbon dioxide concentration in the
atmosphere.
Describe how and explain why.
1. Carbon dioxide concentration increases;

taken up by the plant during photosynthesis;


Clearing
2. No/Less vegetation so no/less photosynthesis /
photosynthetic organisms;
3. No/Less carbon dioxide removed (from the
atmosphere);
Burning
4. Burning/combustion releases / produces carbon
dioxide;

The processes which naturally form part of the nitrogen


cycle can make nitrogen contained in urine and faeces
available to crop plants. Describe how these processes occur
(6)

Describe the part played by soil bacteria in making the


nitrogen in compounds in the dead spruce seeds
available to pine seedlings.
Release ammonia / ammonium / ammonification;

Organic compounds of nitrogen / named example;

BY

converted to ammonium compounds / ammonia;


by saprophytes / saprobionts / decomposers / equivalent;

Decomposers / putrefying / saprotrophic /


ammonifying bacteria;

to nitrites;

ammonia nitrite nitrate / nitrification;

to nitrates;

BY

by nitrifying bacteria / named bacteria;

nitrifying bacteria / named bacteria;

uptake by roots;
Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen compounds in the detritus are broken down by bacteria to


ammonium ions . Describe how ammonium ions are converted into

Explain how a reduction in the amount of ploughing would


lead to more carbon being stored in the soil (lines 9 12).

a form that can be readily


absorbed by the producers.

(4)

(Ammonium) nitrite;
Nitrite nitrate;
OR
Ammonium nitrate; (1 mark only)
If symbols: correct symbols
e.g. ammonium ( nitrate (NO3) = NO MARKS
By nitrifying bacteria / Nitrosomonas / Nitrobacter / nitrification;
By oxidation / using oxygen / aerobic;
3 max

Less oxygen can enter the soil (from the air);


For saprobionts / soil microorganisms / bacteria / fungi /
decomposers / correctly named soil organisms;
For use in aerobic respiration;
Less breakdown of organic matter / humus / dead plants /
dead animals / other e.g.;
Less carbon dioxide released / formed;

Ploughing can increase the activity of nitrifying


bacteria in the soil. Explain how ploughing can do this
and how the activity of nitrifying bacteria can benefit
crop plants.(5)

Fertiliser, such as manure, contains ammonium


compounds. Explain how the presence of soil
bacteria and the use of manure improve crop yield.
1 Ammonium compounds from proteins / amino
acids urea / N-containing;
2 Converted into nitrite;
3 Into nitrate; [Reject: Incorrect sequence once]
4 By nitrifying bacteria / correctly named;
5 Nitrogen-fixing bacteria;
6 Fix nitrogen from atmosphere / air;
7 Nitrate taken up by plants;
8 Nitrogen needed for protein synthesis / plant
growth;

Oxygen enters the soil / use of oxygen;


Nitrifying bacteria are aerobic;
Ammonia / ammonium ions nitrite;
Nitrite nitrate;
(Ammonia nitrate = 1 mark)
(If formulae used, worth 1 mark only if correct)
Nitrate is absorbed / used by plants;
To make named organic-N e.g. protein / amino
acids / DNA /
ATP / NAD(P) / chlorophyll;
Increased yield / growth;

Nitrogen cycle
how the concentration of nitrates in the soil is restored
8 - 10 years after cultivation is abandoned.

Stage A represents the conversion of organic nitrogencontaining compounds to inorganic compounds.

1 Nitrogen (gas) converted to NOx/nitrates;

Describe the role of microorganisms in this process.

2 By lightning/atmospheric nitrogen fixation;

Putrefying bacteria;

3 Nitrogen (gas) converted to ammonia/ammonium

convert nitrogen compounds into ammonium ions;

compounds/amino acids;
4 By nitrogen-fixing bacteria;
5 Organic material/leaves from plants (fall onto
soil)/animal
droppings/dead animals;
6 Broken down by saprotrophs/decomposition;
7 Release of ammonia/ammonium ions
(from organic matter/from decay);
8 Ammonia/ammonium converted to nitrite;
9 Nitrite converted to nitrate;

nitrifying bacteria;
convert ammonium into nitrate;

Describe the role of microorganisms in making nitrogen


in organic compounds in dead material from leguminous
plants available to other plants.

What is the difference between the ways in which


microbial decomposers and detritivores obtain their
nutrients?

saprophytic / putrefying (microorganisms) /


saprobiotic / ammonifiers / decomposers;
secrete enzymes which digest organic compounds;

Decomposers secrete enzymes / onto organic matter/


food/

releasing ammonia;

extracellular breakdown;

ammonia converted to nitrite;

Detritivores ingest / eat/ take in organic matter/food


first;

then to nitrate;
processes are oxidation reactions;
by nitrifying bacteria / nitrification;
Allow credit for one correctly named example;
e.g. Nitrosomas / Nitrobacter in correct place
Nitrogen cycle
Explain two ways in which the presence of detritivores
may increase the activity of microbial decomposers.

Describe how nitrogen in compounds in a dead plant is


made available for use by other plants.

Break down larger pieces of dead organic matter;


providing more surface for microbial activity;
Add products of excretion
More nutrients/nitrogen / higher nitrogen carbon ratio;

Proteins/amino acids broken down;


by saprophytes/decomposers;
deamination/ammonium compounds/ammonia formed;
Ammonia converted to nitrate;

aeration by e.g. tunnelling;

by nitrifying bacteria;

increases oxygen content for respiration of microorganisms;

Nitrite as intermediate;
Nitrate can be absorbed by roots;

Explain two ways in which a shortage of nitrogencontaining compounds could limit plant
growth.

Explain why plants may fail to grow if high


concentrations of nitrate are applied to the soil.

(max 2 marks for each consequence of shortage and its


effect on growth)

water potential of soil reduced/more negative/


reduced water potential gradient;

reduced/lack of/unable to synthesise protein/amino


acids; }

less water moves into roots/water moves out of roots by


osmosis;

lack of enzymes for metabolism / named metabolic


process;
}
reduced/lack of/unable to synthesise DNA/nucleic
acids/organic bases;
}
mitosis/cell division reduced;
}
reduced NADP/ less chlorophyll;
}
reduced photosynthesis; }
Nitrogen compounds in the mustard plants are made
reduced levels
/ less
NAD;
available
for the
main
crop after ploughing in spring.
} microorganisms in this process. (5)
Describe the role of
reduced respiration;
proteins/amino acids broken down;
deamination/ammonification/ release of ammonium
compounds;
conversion to nitrates;
by nitrifying bacteria/named bacterium;
nitrates absorbed into roots;

Nitrogen cycle
Describe how the action of microorganisms in
the soil produces a source of nitrates for crop
plants.
1. Protein/amino acids/DNA into ammonium
compounds / ammonia;
2. By saprobionts;
3. Ammonium/ammonia into nitrite;
4. Nitrite into nitrate;
5. By nitrifying bacteria/microorganisms;
6. Nitrogen to ammonia/ammonium;
7. By nitrogen-fixing bacteria/microorganisms in soil;

Describe the role of bacteria in making the


nitrogen in dead leaves available to growing
plants.
1. Saprobionts/saprophytes;
2. Digest/break down proteins/DNA/nitrogen-containing
substances;
3. Extracellular digestion/release of enzymes;
4. Ammonia/ammonium produced;
5. Ammonia converted to nitrite to nitrate/ammonia to
nitrate;
6. Nitrifying (bacteria)/ nitrification;
7. Oxidation;

Nitrogen cycle

Explain how energy is transferred into biomass by


producers.

Suggest two reasons why not all of the solar energy can be
used in photosynthesis.
Light missed plant / leaf/ chloroplast / reflected;
wrong wavelength of light / inefficiency of photosynthesis /

Light / solar energy used for photosynthesis;

other limiting factors

Synthesis of materials used in growth / storage;


Chemical energy stored / energy in biomass;

some light reflected/ not absorbed/refracted (if qualified)


back into atmosphere;
some light misses chloroplasts/chlorophyll;
only certain wavelengths of light used (in photosynthesis);

Energy transfer

energy lost at each trophic level/step;

If radioactive carbon had been used for this


investigation, a much lower proportion would be
passed on to the organisms in the next trophic level.
Suggest why.

due to respiration/heat loss/other valid reason;

Form carbohydrates/sugars by photosynthesis;

fewest steps means least energy loss

Carbohydrate is respired;

Explain, in terms of energy, why food chains with the


fewest steps are most efficient.

Carbon dioxide is lost;


Some will form cellulose;
Is not digested/lost in faeces;

Explain why only a small percentage of the energy in the


heather biomass is transferred to the biomass in the next
trophic level.

Only a small percentage of the light energy absorbed by


the chlorophyll is stored as biomass. Suggest two
explanations for this.

only a proportion of heather eaten/not all plants eaten/energy


lost in

energy lost as heat/by respiration/metabolic processes;


qualified comment on the inefficiency of photosynthesis

decay;

e.g. 25% efficient/energy lost as electrons passed on;

not all food eaten is digested/energy lost in faeces;

carbon dioxide/temperature limiting;

heat/energy lost due to respiration;

Energy in ecosystems

Describe what happens to the energy in faeces and


dead organisms which fall to the bottom of the sea.
the energy is transferred to / absorbed by / incorporated
into decomposers /
named decomposer;
stored in / used in growth of decomposers;
respiration (of decomposers);
released as heat;
or
energy stored in fossil fuels;
combustion;
released as heat;

Explain why not all of the energy in producer


biomass can be converted into energy in primary
consumer biomass.
Lost as heat; in respiration; movement; excreted
material:
egested/not all digested:
not all eaten;

Explain why a food chain rarely contains more than four


trophic levels.

Explain why the biomass of the phytoplankton (producer) in


the lake could be less than that of the zooplankton (pprimary
consumer), as shown in the diagram.

Energy losses (at each trophic level) / energy use;

phytoplankton reproduce at rate rate of their consumption;

In named process e.g. excretion / egestion / movement /


respiration / / as heat; (NOT growth CANCEL, ignore
waste)
Not available / (too) little left to sustain higher trophic
levels /
to be passed on;

Energy transfer

Explain why a food chain rarely contains more than four


trophic levels. (3)
Energy losses (at each trophic level) / energy use;
In named process e.g. excretion / egestion / movement /
respiration / / as heat; (NOT growth CANCEL, ignore
waste)
Not available / (too) little left to sustain higher trophic
levels /
to be passed on;

Give two reasons why very little of the sunlight energy


falling on the leaves of a plant can be used in primary
production. (2)
Wrong wavelength / some = heat / UV / used to evaporate
water;
Reflected;
Misses chloroplasts / is transmitted;
Inefficiency of photosynthesis / energy loss in photosynthesis
/
ref. other limiting factor;

Explain why the biomass of the primary consumers is less


than the biomass of the producers in most communities.
(3)

Give two ways in which energy is lost between trophic


levels (2)
energy is lost in respiration;

Loss of energy/heat/use of energy/loss of materials/loss of


mass;

(small amount is) lost as heat;


lost to decomposers/lost in excretion/leaf fall/death and
decay;

By respiration/movement/excretion/excreta/egestion/egesta
IGNORE waste REJECT growth

part of oak tree not eaten/not digested;

Less energy/mass/matter left to sustain higher level/to be


passed on
inedible parts/Non-digestible parts;
Energy transfer

Not all the light energy entering the leaves of the oak tree
is used in photosynthesis. Give one reason for this. (1)

Only a small percentage of the light energy absorbed by


the chlorophyll is stored as biomass. Suggest two
explanations for this. (2)

light is wrong colour/frequency/wavelength/does not strike


chlorophyll

energy lost as heat/by respiration/metabolic processes;

molecule/chloroplasts/there is another limiting factor;

qualified comment on the inefficiency of photosynthesis


e.g. 25% efficient/energy lost as electrons passed on;
carbon dioxide/temperature limiting;

Explain why only a small percentage of the energy in the


heather biomass is transferred to the biomass in the next
trophic level. (3)
only a proportion of heather eaten/not all plants eaten/energy
lost in
decay;
not all food eaten is digested/energy lost in faeces;
heat/energy lost due to respiration;

Energy transfer

Explain how the intensive rearing of domestic


livestock increases net productivity.
1 Slaughtered when still growing/before maturity/while
young so more energy transferred to
biomass/tissue/production;
2 Fed on concentrate /controlled diet /controlled
conditions/so higher proportion of (digested) food
absorbed/lower proportion lost in faeces / valid reason
for
addition;
3 Movement restricted so less respiratory loss / less
energy used;
4 Kept inside/heating/shelter / confined so less heat
loss / no predators;
5 Genetically selected for high productivity;

When a small area of trees has been cut down, it can return naturally to
tropical rainforest. Suggest and explain how re-establishment of the
rainforest ecosystem may occur in such areas.
1. Cleared areas light/tree seeds germinate/grow in light;
2. Light for photosynthesis;
3. Softwoods compete for light;
4. Hardwoods can grow in low light;
5. Additional seeds from close/adjacent areas;
6. Less water evaporation (from hardwood seedlings)
/maintains humididy
7. Less extremes of temperature;/maintains microclimate;
8. (canopy) reduces impact of rainfall (on hardwood seedlings)/ref.
torrential;
9. roots stabilise soil / less soil erosion (by rainfall);
10. less leaching (of ions)(by rainfall);
11. litter fall recycling of ions (for hardwood seedlings);
12. (Trees) provide food for animals;
13. (Trees) provide habitats/niches/cover/shelter/nest sites for animals;
14. Correct ref to succession / climax established;

Explain how bare, cleared land could once again become


forest.
(Before clearing) soil exists / already produced;
(After clearing) recolonisation by new plants / seeds;
(Brings about) change in environment / soil;
(Allows) succession;
(Leading to) climax (community);

Describe the processes by which forest is able to regenerate


after being cleared.
colonisation / description e.g. seeds blown in / pioneer
species;~
succession;
alteration of habitat / more humus / deeper soil;
development of herbaceous / field layer;
followed by shrub layer;

Succession: Change over time


in species (in the habitat /
community);
Change in conditions allowing
new species to colonise;

During colonisation of dry stone walls, lichens are replaced


by a succession of other plants. Explain how changes in the
plant community occur over time in this succession.
lichens able to survive hostile environment;
(death of lichens/ growth of) lichens/other named plant
makes
the habitat less hostile;
example of reduce hostility;
(trap soil particles/ absorb water/ add humus)
other plants move into the changed environment;
slow growth limits spread of lichens/
other plants grow faster/spread over habitat;

Explain how succession resulted in the formation of the


forest.

Explain ecological succession.


1. colonisation/pioneering;

pioneers/suitable example colonise land;

2. microscopic plants at start;

example of change in environment;

3. death / decomposition;

enables change in species;

4. named change in environment e.g. increase in organic


matter/ stabilisation;

conditions change further/example to favour trees;

5. new species colonise once there is a change;


6. increase in number of species/diversity;
7. increase in total amount of living material/biomass/ more
niches;
8. increase in nutrient availability;
9. change from more extreme conditions / more stability;
Succession

Explain succession and climax community


(i)

change in community over time;

either due to change environmental/abiotic factors /


change
is due to species present;
(ii)

stable community/no further succession/final


community;
1

The increase in the index of diversity is one indication


that a biological succession is taking place in the area.
Describe those features of a succession that would
bring about an increase in the index of diversity.
Initial environment hostile / few organisms adapted;
These organisms change the environment / suitable
example;
More niches / more habitats;
Allowing other organisms to become established;

Under natural and suitable conditions, bare soil would


eventually become covered by a woodland community.
Explain how farming practices prevent this from
happening. (4)

Many species in the pioneer community are xerophytes.


Suggest and explain how having sunken stomata is an
advantage to these plants. (3)
sand drains easily/low water retention;
(sunken stomata) reduce transpiration;
as pocket pf saturated air trapped near stomatal pore;

e.g. crops are planted (not native plants);


these compete with native plants;
ploughing returns to bare soil;

this reduces diffusion/water potential gradient;

destroys herbaceous plants/tree/shrub seedlings;


grazing by farm animals;
destroys herbaceous/shrub seedlings/communities

succession
The increase in the index of diversity is one indication
that a biological succession is taking place in the area.
Describe those features of a succession that would bring
about an increase in the index of diversity. (3)
Initial environment hostile / few organisms adapted;
These organisms change the environment / suitable example;
More niches / more habitats;
Allowing other organisms to become established

Describe what will happen to an area of land which is set


aside and not returned to agriculture. (4)
colonisation by pioneer plants/colonisation by herbaceous
plants/change in
herbaceous community already present;
colonisation by woody plants;
reference to succession/climax community in correct context;
specified change in the animal community;
specified change in the soil structure/composition;

The species that are present change during


succession. Explain why.
1. Species/plants/animals change the
environment/conditions/add humus/nutrients etc.;
2. Less hostile (habitat);
3. Species/plants better competitors;

Succession

Using one example of each to illustrate your answer, explain


the difference between density dependent and density
independent factors.

Explain what limits the size of populations in a climax


community.
1. named nutrient availability;

Example of density dependent factor (factors whose effct


change as population size changes), e.g. food, space, disease;

2. numbers of producers providing energy (for a


food chain);

Example of density independent factor, e.g. light,


temperature

3. light intensity affecting the rate of


photosynthesis;

(reject: weather, climate);

4. disease killing (weaker) members of species;

Density dependent factors depend on / affected by size of


population;

5. space for nest building / niches;


6. reproductive rate balancing death rate;

Density independent factors affect organisms whatever the


population size,

7. competition for a named limited resource;


8. (intra and interspecific) competition
explained;

or, examples used to explain, e.g. increasing competition for


food

9. predation described;
Populations
suggest how predation by weasels acts as a densitydependent factor controlling great tit population size. (4)
At low densities / high distance between nests few are killed
by weasels;
so more great tits survive;
Great tit population increases;
so greater percentage taken by weasels;

Using one example of each to illustrate your answer,


explain the difference between density dependent and
density independent factors. (4)
Example of density dependent factor, e.g. food, space,
disease;
Example of density independent factor, e.g. light, temperature
(reject: weather, climate);

or

Density dependent factors depend on / affected by size of


population;

At high densities / low distance between nests more are killed


by weasels;

Density independent factors affect organisms whatever the


population size,

so fewer great tits survive;

or, examples used to explain, e.g. increasing competition for


food.

Great tit population decreases;


so smaller percentage taken by weasels;

Explain how vaccinating a large proportion of the


population reduces the death rate. (2)
herd immunity/effect;
any individual has lower chance of meeting infected
individual;
lower chance of disease being passed on/prevents spread of
disease;

There has been a rapid increase in the size of human


populations during the past two centuries. Suggest three
reasons why this has resulted in the reduction of
populations of many other species.
E.g. predation on other species/eat more of other species;
inter-specific competition/disruption of food chain;
destruction of habitat/damage by pollution;

Explain how two changes in social conditions could have


reduced the death rate. (2)

niche not present;


competition for named abiotic resource;

E.g. better food supply, so fewer deaths by starvation;


clean water supply, so less disease transmission.
Populations

Suggest a genetic explanation for the difference in life expectancy of females


and males. (3)
males have XY, females XX/ males have Y chromosome females do not;

Explain two ways in which the expanding human


population is placing increasing demands on natural
communities. (2)

so males have only one allele for some genes;

e.g. higher demand for food for humans, so more land used

these alleles are expressed;

for farming;

(harmful alleles) increase chance of early death/valid example;

increasing demand for linited resources, so less for other

males have XY, females XX/ males have Y chromosome, females do not;
males develop testes;
which are responsible for testosterone production;
which causes males to take more risks/valid example;
males have XY, females XX/ males have Y chromosomes, females do not;
females develop ovaries;
which are responsible for oestrogen production;
which protects individuals against diseases/valid example, e.g CHD;

organisms.

Differences in cyanide production may affect the total


number of clover plants growing in different areas. Describe
how you would use quadrats in an investigation to determine
whether or not there is a difference in the number of clover
plants in two large areas of equal size.

Describe a practical technique which you could use to


find the mean population density of daisies on a lawn. (3)
random sampling method;
use of large numbers/many/10 or more quadrats in each area;

large (and equal) number of quadrats in each area;

counting daisies and dividing by area;

(reject several)
random sampling method, described;
(accept described systematic method)
percentage cover/point hits per quadrat/count plants;
mean/average value for each area;
statistics test to see if differences significant.
Sampling

Describe the techniques you would use to obtain reliable


data in order to compare the sizes of the populations of
the snail in the muddy area and in the area covered by
vegetation.

Explain how a frame quadrat is used to find percentage


cover of a species of plant in a habitat. (3)

use of large numbers of quadrats in each area (if number


stated then 10+);

(many/ large number/ 10 minimum)

suitable number of quadrats used;

count all the squares occupied (by the leaves of) one species;

random sampling method (e.g. grid + random


numbers)/systematic

reference to randomising;

sampling method (allow regular sampling along a transect);

description of a method of randomising

counting.
OR
(allow capture/recapture method
mark and release;
recapture;

Explain how you would use a quadrat to estimate the


number of dandelion plants in a field measuring 100 m by
150 m. (3)

Describe how the percentage cover of heather plants on


an area of moorland may be measured. (3)
Use of quadrats;
randomly placed;
Estimate percentage of area shaded/covered by heather;

Principle of randomly placed quadrats;


Method of producing random quadrats; (Reject throwing)
Valid method of obtaining no. dandelions in given area (mean
per
quadrat/ total no. in many quadrats);
Multiply to give estimate for total field area;

Sampling

Describe how you could use point quadrats to investigate


the distribution of plants at the edge of a pond. (3)
Transect from water onto bank;
Point quadrat frame placed at regular intervals;
Record species touching points;
Calculate percentage/process with kite diagram/
use statistical test to show..;

Unit 5

Describe the molecular structure of DNA and explain how


a sequence of DNA is replicated in the bacteria. (9)
nucleotides;
composition of a nucleotide,
4 bases named;
sugar-phosphate backbone;
two (polynucleotide) strands;
specific base-pairing;
example e.g. AT / CG;
hydrogen bonding;
uncoiling / unzipping;
semi-conservative replication;
DNA polymerase;
new complementary strands form / identical DNA
molecule produced;
DNA inserted into plasmids;
which are self-replicating;

Compare DNA Vs RNA


Similarities:
Contain phosphate
Made up of nucleotides
Contains organic bases (A, C and G) (not T as
it is replaced by U in RNA)
Pentose sugar
Differences
RNA single stranded
RNA has non-coding strands (introns)
removed
Ribose sugar in RNA deoxyribose in DNA
U in riobose replaces the T
3 types of RNA, only one DNA
Smaller than DNA

Genetics

Compare tRNA vs mRNA


tRNA
Clover shaped
Standard length
Has an amino acid binding site
anticodon
tRNA has H bonds between complementary
base pairs
Limited number of types (64)
mRNA
Linear
Variable length (depends on the length of
gene)
Many different types (depends on the gene)
No H-bonding
No base pairs
Describe how the structure of DNA allows it to
carry out its function
Sugar phosphate backbone gives strength;
Coiling gives compact shape;
Sequence of bases allows information to be stored;
Long molecule / coiling stores large amount of
information;
Complementary base pairing enables information to
be replicated /
transcribed;
Double helix protects weak hydrogen bonds / double
helix makes
molecule stable;
Many hydrogen bonds together give molecule
stability;
Prevents code being corrupted;
Hydrogen bonding allows chains to split for
replication / transcription OR
molecule unzips easily for replication / transcription.

Describe translation and transcription


section of DNA unwinds / uncoils;
DNA separates, h-bonds break
RNA nucleotides align;
complementary base pairing / example of pairing;
U replaces T
mRNA polymerase (joins nucleotides);
mRNA is modified, introns are removed
mRNA moves into cytoplasm / through nuclear pore / to
ribosome;
tRNA carries specific amino acid;
mRNA read in codons / triplets;
anticodon of tRNA matches codon of mRNA;
ATP used in activation / joining amino acids;
amino acids join by peptide bonds;
tRNA used repeatedly;
sequence of bases / codons determines sequence of amino
acids;

Genetics
Comparison of replication and
transcription
Similarities
H bonds break and the DNA unzips
DNA acts as a template for complimentary
base
Polymerase enzymes are involved
Differences
U replaces T in RNA
In replication all the DNA is copied, in
transcription on sections are copied
Only one strand is used as a template in
transcription (antisense strand), both strands
are used in replication
RNA polymerase in transcription whereas DNA
polymerase is sued in replication
mRNA is produced in transcription, DNA is
produced in replication

Describe and explain how gene expression is


controlled (pre and post transcription)
pre
Transcription depends on the activation of
transcription factors
Usually by hormones (like oestrogen)
The transcription factors attach to the promoter
region of the DNA forming a transcription factor
initiation complex
This complex is recognised by RNA polymerase which
binds and begins transcription
post
RNA interference (RNAi) prevents translation of the
mRNA
siRNA is double stranded and shorter than RNA
it is split by an endonuclease into a passenger and
guide strand
The guide strand is loaded into the RISC complex
which then attaches to the complementary section of
how altered
DNA may
to
basesDescribe
on the mRNA
and cleaves
thelead
mRNA

cancer.

1 (DNA altered by) mutation;


2 (mutation) changes base sequence;
3 of gene controlling cell growth / oncogene / that
monitors cell division;
4 of tumour suppressor gene;
5 change protein structure / non-functional protein /
protein not formed;
6 (tumour suppressor genes) produce proteins that
inhibit cell division;
7 mitosis;
8 uncontrolled / rapid / abnormal (cell division);
9 malignant tumour;

Describe how cells use the base sequence of a molecule of DNA to


produce a polypeptide.

Give two ways in which the structure of a molecule of


tRNA differs from the structure of a molecule of
mRNA.

DNA uncoils/two strands separate/unzips;


nucleotides of mRNA align with one strand;
according to specific base pairing;

tRNA clover leaf shape;

RNA polymerase joins up nucleotides;

tRNA standard length, mRNA is variable;

mRNA moves out of nucleus/into cytoplasm/attaches to ribosomes;

tRNA has an amino acid binding site;

tRNA takes specific amino acid to mRNA;

tRNA has anticodon available/ mRNA has codons;

anticodon of tRNA pairs with codon of mRNA/

tRNA has hydrogen bonds between base pairs;

3 bases on tRNA pair with 3 bases on mRNA; peptide bond


between amino acids;
codons read sequentially/ribosome moves along mRNA;

genetics

tRNA collects another amino acid from cytoplasm;


polypeptide/protein released from ribosome/
polypeptide complete when stop codon reached;

Describe how a cell synthesises a protein such as


galactosidase.
mRNA formed;
Detail e.g. RNA polymerase / complementary base
pairing /

Describe what happens during translation.

codons on mRNA;
anticodons on tRNA;

transcription (linked to mRNA formation);

20 types tRNA molecule

mRNA attaches to ribosomes / rough ER;

specific amino acid attached to tRNA;

tRNA molecules bring amino acids;

peptide bonds formed

Anticodons on tRNA complementary to mRNA


codon / translation;
Amino acids joined together / peptide bonds.

Starting from the base sequence of DNA, describe how a


polypeptide is produced

Describe the role of tRNA in the process of translation.


anticodon complementary to codon/reads message on
mRNA;
specific amino acid;
carried/transferred (to ribosome);
correct sequence of amino acids along polypeptide;

DNA uncoils;
strands separate;
formation of mRNA;
complementary base pairing/RNA nucleotides pair with
DNA nucleotides;
RNA polymerase joins nucleotides together/forms mRNA;
mRNA moves to ribosomes/rough ER;
tRNA brings amino acids;
anticodons on tRNA pair with mRNA codon;
amino acids joined together by peptide bonds;
ribosome moves along to next codon;

genetics

Starting with mRNA, describe how the process of


translation leads to the production of a polypeptide.

Describe how the information on mRNA is translated


into CFTR at the ribosome.

mRNA attaches to ribosome;

codon on mRNA;

codon on mRNA;

specific/complementary base pairing with;

binds to an anti-codon on tRNA;

anti-codon on tRNA;

each tRNA brings a specific amino acid;

specific tRNA for each amino acid;

sequence of codons/bases on mRNA determines


order of amino acids;

protein formed by condensation reactions / peptide


bonds formed;

formation of peptide bonds/amino acids joined by


condensation
reactions;

Describe the features of a gene which enable it to code


for a particular protein.

Describe how the new protein is made once the gene


has been inserted into the cell.

Gene is a (length) of DNA;

Unwinding/unzipping of DNA;

Gene is a sequence of bases/chain of nucleotides;

involving breaking of hydrogen bonds;

Triplet (base) code/read in threes;

Assembly of mRNA nucleotides;

On sense/coding strand;

Complementary base pairing/example;

Triplet coding for amino acid;

Role of polymerase enzymes;

Degenerate code; non-overlapping; start/stop code;

mRNA enters ribosomes;

Sequence of triplets/bases code for protein;

Specific tRNA molecule associated with specific


amino acid;
Codon - anticodon relationship;
Formation of peptide bonds;

Genetics

Specific role of ATP/energy; Reference to gene


switched on;

Compare the structures of RNA and DNA;

Compare replication and transcription

Alike

Alike

both have phosphate/phosphoric acid/PO4;

H bonds break/DNA unwinds/DNA unzips;

bases/named bases/accept letters;

between (complementary) bases;

nucleotides;

complementary nucleotides/bases added/DNA acts as


template;

pentose sugar;
Different
DNA deoxyribose;
DNA thymine;
DNA double stranded;
DNA larger/longer;
DNA one form RNA 3 types;

same, correctly named, enzymes e.g. polymerase;


Different
uracil/thymine used;
all copied or only section copied respectively;
one strand used transcription, two in replication;
DNA/mRNA produced;
enzymes that are different, correctly named;

Describe the processes of transcription and translation.

Explain why the genetic code is described as non


overlapping and degenerate

DNA unzips / unwinds / splits / separates / hydrogen


bonds break;

Each base is part of only one codon / TRNA


reads three bases,

To allow assembly of mRNA;

then the next three;

Using RNA nucleotides;

Some amino acids are coded for by more


than one codon/ base

Via RNA polymerase;


Complementary sequence / eq;

sequence;

mRNA joins to ribosome (accept travels to ribosome);


tRNA carries a specific amino acid;
Codon-anticodon relationship / explained;
Peptide bonds form between adjacent amino acids;
genetics

Starting with mRNA in the nucleus of a cell, describe


how a molecule of protein is synthesised.
1. mRNA leaves (nucleus) through nuclear pore;
2. To ribosome;
3. tRNA molecules bring amino acids (to ribosome);
4. Specific tRNA molecule for specific amino acid;
5. Anticodon of tRNA corresponds / complementary to
codon on mRNA;
6. Peptide bonds form between amino acids;
7. tRNA detaches and collects another amino acid;
8. Ribosome moves along mRNA;

Describe the processes by which the sequence of subunits in


DNA determines the mRNA and protein products in a cell.
section of DNA unwinds / uncoils;
RNA nucleotides align;
complementary base pairing / example of pairing;
mRNA polymerase (joins nucleotides);
mRNA moves into cytoplasm / through nuclear pore / to
ribosome;
tRNA carries specific amino acid;
mRNA read in codons / triplets;
anticodon of tRNA matches codon of mRNA;
ATP used in activation / joining amino acids;
amino acids join by peptide bonds;
tRNA used repeatedly;
sequence of bases / codons determines sequence of amino
acids;

Transcriptional factors are important in the


synthesis of particular proteins. Describe how.

Describe and explain how expression of the


target gene is affected by siRNA.

1. Bind to DNA/gene;
2. At specific region/base sequence/promoter
sequence;
3. Stimulate transcription / prevents transcription / turn
on gene / turn off gene;

1. No longer able to make specific protein / cannot


make whole protein / mRNA cannot be translated;
2. Because mRNA has been cut into pieces;

Genetics

A strand of siRNA combines with a protein to


form an siRNA-protein complex. The siRNAprotein complex attaches to an mRNA molecule
that codes for a particular protein. The siRNAprotein complex breaks the mRNA molecule
down into smaller pieces.
Explain what causes the siRNA to attach only to
one sort of mRNA molecule.
Has complementary base sequence;

Scientists have suggested that siRNA may be


useful in treating some diseases. Suggest why
siRNA may be useful in treating disease.
1. Some diseases are genetic / caused by mutations;
2. siRNA will stop product of this gene / the protein
being produced / stops translation;

Describe how the technique of genetic


fingerprinting is carried out and explain
how it can be used to identify a person (6)
1. DNA is cut;

DNA can be copied by PCR. It is then cut


into fragments, and separated by
electrophoresis. Describe the main stages
in the copying, cutting and separation of
the DNA. (6)

2. using restriction enzyme;

heat DNA to 95C / 90C;

3. electrophoresis;

strands separate;

4. separates according to length/mass/size;

cool so that primers bind to DNA;

5. DNA made single-stranded;

add DNA polymerase/nucleotides;

6. transfer to membrane/ Southern blotting;

use of restriction enzymes;

7. apply probe;
8. radioactive/ single stranded/ detected on film/
fluorescent;

Plasmids can be modified and inserted into bacteria


which
can thento
make
useful substances normally made
9. reference
tandem
by another organism. Explain how plasmids are
repeats/VNTRs/minisatellites;
modified and the use of markers enables bacteria
containing these plasmids to be detected.(8)
10.
pattern
uniquefrom
to every
isolate wanted
gene/DNA
anotherindividual;
organism/mRNA from
using restriction enzyme/reverse transcriptase to
get DNA;
produce sticky ends;
use ligase to join wanted gene to plasmid;
also include marker gene;
example of marker e.g. antibiotic resistance;
add plasmid to bacteria to grow (colonies);
(replica) plate onto medium where the marker gene is
expressed;
bacteria/colonies not killed have antibiotic resistance gene
and (probably) the wanted gene;
bacteria/colonies expressing the marker gene have the
wanted gene as well;

Genetic
technology

use of electric current and agar/gel;


shorter fragments move further;
Explain how enzymes and vectors may be used to isolate
genes and insert them into another organism. (6)
Restriction enzymes;
Cut DNA; at specific base sequences;
Same (restriction) enzyme also cuts DNA; into which gene is
inserted/plasmid/virus/Agrobacterium;
(DNA) ligase;
Joins two pieces of DNA together/forms recombinant DNA;
Vector needed to insert DNA into host/plasmid enters
host/second
organism;
Correct ref. to sticky ends; Reverse transcriptase; mRNA
DNA;

Describe how the new protein is made once the gene


has been inserted into the cell.
Unwinding/unzipping of DNA;
involving breaking of hydrogen bonds;
Assembly of mRNA nucleotides;
Complementary base pairing/example;
Role of polymerase enzymes;
mRNA enters ribosomes;
Specific tRNA molecule associated with specific
amino acid;
Codon - anticodon relationship;
Formation of peptide bonds;
Specific role of ATP/energy; Reference to gene
switched on;

Describe how restriction endonuclease and ligase enzymes can


be used in the formation of the modified plasmid
Restriction enzyme:
Any four from:
Cuts (source) DNA / cuts gene;
Cuts plasmid;
By hydrolysis;
Same restriction enzyme used (to cut each type of DNA);
Acts on specific base sequence;
Staggered cut / leaving sticky ends / OR add sticky ends to the cut
DNA
shown on annotated diagram;
Complementary base pairing between 2 DNA molecules (at sticky
ends);
Ligase:
Splices/joins DNA pieces / forms covalent bonds;
By condensation;

Describe how transcription and translation result in the


production of a protein from DNA.(6)
DNA unwinds / splits / separates / hydrogen bonds break;
To allow assembly of mRNA;
Using mRNA nucleotides;
Via RNA polymerase;
Complementary sequence / or equivalent;
mRNA joins to ribosome;
tRNA carries a specific amino acid;
Codon-anticodon relationship / or explained / defined;
Peptide bonds form between amino acids;

Genetic
technology

A laboratory has oat plants containing the resistance


gene and a supply of plasmids. Describe how bacteria
may be produced which have the resistance gene in their
plasmids. (6)
EITHER 1 cut desired gene (from DNA) of oat plant;
2 using restriction endonuclease/restriction enzyme;
OR 1 use mRNA from oat which will code for resistance;
2 and use reverse transcriptase to form desired DNA;
OR 1 make artificial DNA with correct sequence of bases;
2 using DNA polymerase;
3 cut plasmid open;
4 with (same) restriction endonuclease/restriction enzyme;
5 ref. sticky ends/unpaired bases attached;
6 use (DNA) ligase to join / ref. ligation;
7 return plasmid to (bacterial) cells;
2+

(if ref. to insulin allow 5 max.)

Briefly describe the process of genetic engineering and


suggest one advantage it has compared to selective
breeding.

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to


produce large quantities of DNA. Describe how the PCR
is carried out. (6)

use of restriction / endonuclease enzyme;

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

cuts DNA at specific base sequence / recognition site;


reference to vector / method of inserting DNA;
same endonuclease to cut vector/host DNA;
use of ligase enzyme (to join DNA strands);
(allow equivalent mark points for use of reverse transcript)
max. 4

DNA heated to 90 to 95C;


Strands separate;
Cooled / to temperature below 70C
Primers bind;
Nucleotides attach;
By complementary base pairing;
Temperature 70 - 75C;
DNA polymerase joins nucleotides together;
Cycle repeated;

one mark for advantage of genetic engineering


e.g. much quicker / more efficient / several genes can be
inserted at once;
Briefly describe the process of genetic engineering and
suggest one advantage it has compared to selective
breeding.(5)

Genetic
technology

Describe how a gene may be taken from a mammalian cell


and inserted into bacterial cells.
Cells disrupted to remove DNA;

use of restriction / endonuclease enzyme;

Endonuclease / restriction enzyme cuts DNA;

cuts DNA at specific base sequence / recognition site;

Reference to specificity;

reference to vector / method of inserting DNA;

Reference to sticky ends;

same endonuclease to cut vector/host DNA;

Plasmid cut;

use of ligase enzyme (to join DNA strands);

With (same) endonuclease;

(allow equivalent mark points for use of reverse transcript)

Use of ligase;

max. 4

Treatment of recipient bacteria to make them

one mark for advantage of genetic engineering

accept plasmid e.g. heat shock.

e.g. much quicker / more efficient / several genes can be


inserted at once;

Bacteria cultured Fermenter;


Detail;e.g. supplied with appropriate food / oxygen / suitable
temperature

The base sequence of a specific gene is known.


Explain how a mutation of this gene could be detected
in a sample of cells from human blood.

Explain how enzymes and vectors may be used to isolate


genes and insert them into another organism.
Restriction enzymes;
Cut DNA; at specific base sequences;

extract DNA;

Same (restriction) enzyme also cuts DNA; into which gene is

remove specific section;

inserted/plasmid/virus/Agrobacterium;

using restriction endonuclease

(DNA) ligase;

base sequence;

Joins two pieces of DNA together/forms recombinant DNA;

method of finding the base sequence eg gene probe;

Vector needed to insert DNA into host/plasmid enters


host/second

compare with normal sequence for gene;

organism;
Genetic technology

What is a DNA probe?


Piece of DNA;
Single stranded;
Complementary to/binds to known base
sequence/gene;
Strand of DNA;
Short strand / up to 20 bases long;
With base sequence that is complementary to part of
target gene;
Radioactive labelling / fluorescent labelling;

Correct ref. to sticky ends; Reverse transcriptase; mRNA


DNA;

Describe how scientists could genetically engineer


Clostridium bacteria to produce the enzyme which activates
the prodrug
1. Cut gene out of cell/make gene using mRNA/obtain gene
with
restriction enzymes;
2. Cut DNA using restriction enzyme/plasmid cut with
restriction enzyme;
3. Correct reference to sticky ends;
4. Join DNA using ligase/insert gene into vector;
5. Plasmid/named vector transferred to cell;
6. Method of transfer e.g. heat shock;
7. Reference to marker gene;
8. Select bacteria containing new gene;

What are primrs and why are they added in PCR

Explain how enzymes are used to produce a


recombinant plasmid.

(ii) short lengths/fragments of DNA/nucleotides/single stranded


DNA;

Endonuclease / restriction enzyme cuts DNA;


Reference to specificity sticky ends / use the same
restriction

(short) length of DNA;

enzyme on fragment and plasmid;

with specific base sequence/complementary base sequence;

Ligase used to fix ends;

indicates where replication starts/stops annealing;

single stranded; (reject reference to RNA)

1
(iii)to mark beginning and/or ends of the part of DNA needed / for
attachment of enzymes or nucleotides / initiator / keeps strands
apart;
Attaches to / complementary to start of the gene / end of fragment;
Replication of base sequence from here;

Genetic technology

Explain how bacteria that contain the pBR322 recombinant


plasmid could be separated and identified using the
technique of replica plating.
Details of taking a replica:
ef filter paper / felt / nylon membrane;
To obtain an exact copy;
Bacteria spread on agar to obtain separate colonies;
Grown on agar containing ampicillin;
Bacteria containing plasmid survive;
For principles and detail of replica plating:
Placed on agar containing tetracycline;
Bacteria growing on ampicillin, but not tetracycline contain
the recombinant plasmids;
Because foreign DNA has been inserted into the tetracycline
gene;

Describe how genetic fingerprinting is carried out.


1 DNA extracted from sample;
2 DNA cut/hydrolysed into segments using restriction
endonucleases;
3 must leave minisatellites/required core sequences intact;
4 DNA fragments separated using electrophoresis;
5 detail of process e.g. mixture put into wells on gel and electric
current passed through;
6 immerse gel in alkaline solution / two strands of DNA separated;
7 Southern blotting / cover with nylon/absorbent paper (to absorb
DNA);
8 DNA fixed to nylon/membrane using uv light
9 radioactive marker/probe added (which is picked up by required
fragments)
/ complementary to minisatellites;
10 (areas with probe) identified using X-ray film/autoradiography;

Describe the polymerase chain reaction.

Describe how genetic fingerprinting may be carried


out on a sample of panda DNA.

1 Heat DNA;

1. DNA is cut;
2. Using restriction enzyme;
3. Use electrophoresis;
4. Separates according to length/mass;
5. Southern blotting/transfer to (nylon) membrane;
6. Make single-stranded;
7. Apply probe;
8. Radioactive/fluorescent;
9. Reference to tandem repeats/VNTRs/minisatellites;
10. Autoradiography/eq;
8 and 10 should be consistent

2 Breaks hydrogen bonds/separates strands;


3 Add primers;
4 Add nucleotides;
5 Cool;
6 (to allow) binding of nucleotides/primers;
7 DNA polymerase;
8 Role of (DNA) polymerase;
9 Repeat cycle many times;

Genetic technology

Describe how bacteria may be produced which have the


resistance gene in their plasmids.
EITHER1 cut desired gene (from DNA) of oat plant;

Use your knowledge of enzymes to explain why


restriction enzymes only cut DNA at specific
restriction sites.

2 using restriction endonuclease/restriction enzyme;

Different lengths of DNA have different base


sequences / cut at

OR1 use mRNA from oat which will code for resistance;

specific sequence;

2 and use reverse transcriptase to form desired DNA;

Results in different shape / different shape of active


site;

OR1 make artificial DNA with correct sequence of bases;


2 using DNA polymerase;
3 cut plasmid open;
4 with (same) restriction endonuclease/restriction enzyme;
5 ref. sticky ends/unpaired bases attached;
6 use (DNA) ligase to join / ref. ligation;
7 return plasmid to (bacterial) cells;
8 use of Ca2+/calcium salts/electric shock;

Therefore (specific sequence) will only fit active site


of enzyme;

Describe how the technique of genetic fingerprinting is


carried out and explain how it can be used to identify a
person, such as Saddam Hussein.

Explain the meaning of gene therapy.


Replace defective genes/treat genetic diseases with
(healthy) genes;

1. DNA is cut;
2. using restriction enzyme;
3. electrophoresis;
4. separates according to length/mass/size;
5. DNA made single-stranded;
6. transfer to membrane/ Southern blotting;
7. apply probe;
8. radioactive/ single stranded/ detected on film/ fluorescent;
9. reference to tandem repeats/VNTRs/minisatellites;
10.pattern unique to every individual;

Genetic technology

Describe the main stages in the copying, cutting


and separation of the DNA.

Describe how an isolated gene can be replicated


by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

heat DNA to 95C / 90C;

heat DNA to 90 - 95C;

strands separate;

strands separate;

cool so that primers bind to DNA;

add primers;

add DNA polymerase/nucleotides;

and nucleotides;

use of restriction enzymes;

cool so that primers bind to DNA;

use of electric current and agar/gel;

(DNA) polymerase forms new strands/joins


nucleotides;

shorter fragments move further;

Explain how modified plasmids are made by genetic


engineering and how the use of markers enable bacteria
containing these plasmids to be detected.

Give two advantages of using a virus in gene


therapy.
can enter cells / infect cells / inject DNA into cells;

isolate wanted gene/DNA from another


organism/mRNA from

targets specific cells;

cell/organism;

replicates (in cells);

using restriction endonuclease/restriction


enzyme/reverse transcriptase to
get DNA;
produce sticky ends;
use ligase to join wanted gene to plasmid;
also include marker gene;
example of marker e.g. antibiotic resistance;
add plasmid to bacteria to grow (colonies);
(replica) plate onto medium where the marker gene
is expressed;
bacteria/colonies not killed have antibiotic resistance
gene and

Give two ways in which the polymerase chain


(probably)
the wanted
gene;
reaction differs
from the
process of transcription.

bacteria/colonies
the marker gene have
(transcription uses)expressing
RNA polymerase;
the wanted

Genetic technology
Describe how a gene could be removed from cells of
an amaranth plant and inserted into cells of a
potato plant.

RNA
nucleotides / uracil;
gene as well;

(cut out gene using an) endonuclease / restriction


enzyme;

one (template) strand / PCR both strands;

reference to specificity / recognition site;

start / stop codons;

sticky ends;
use the same enzyme to cut;
plasmid / virus / potato DNA;
fixed by ligase;
method of introducing vector e.g. micropipette / virus
injects DNA /
remove plant cell wall;

Explain how the use of a gene probe could enable


the presence of a mutant allele of the cystic fibrosis
gene to be detected.
Probe will attach (to mutant allele);
attaches to one DNA strand;
as a result of complementary base pairing;
radioactivity detected on film/X-ray / by
autoradiography
(if mutant allele present);

Genetic technology

A new variety of tomato has been produced by genetic


engineering. This variety contains a synthetic gene that
blocks the action of a natural gene that would make the fruit
soften rapidly once ripe. It also contains a marker gene.

Genetic engineering has made it possible to transfer


genes from one species to another. For example, a gene
that gives resistance to herbicide and another gene which
gives resistance to insect attack have been transferred
into maize. Some people think that there will be great
advantages in growing maize with these genes. Others
are equally convinced that there are long-term dangers in
growing crops of this maize.
Evaluate both of these viewpoints.(6)
Answers in text box below

The marker gene added by the scientists makes this variety


of tomato resistant to the antibiotic, kanamycin. It is possible
that this gene could be taken up by disease-producing
bacteria in the human gut. In humans, kanamycin is used to
treat certain types of gut infections.
Using information from the passage, evaluate the concept of
putting this new variety of tomato on the market. (6)
Answers in box below

Max 3 Advantages or disadvantages


Advantages e.g.:
food stays firm for longer;
allowing shipment;
longer shelf life;
greater profit;
Disadvantages e.g.
transfer of mutant gene to bacteria / gut bacteria might
become resistant to
kanamycin;
more difficult to treat gut infection;
consumer resistance to GM food;
long term effects unknown

Evaluating
Genetic
Technology

Positive:
less crops lost to insect damage/ diseases spread by insects;
can spray herbicide with no loss to crop/reduce competition
from weeds;
more saleable product;
less use of insecticide;
possibly cheaper food;
max 3
negative:
gene transfer to non-crop species;
consumer resistance to un-natural products;
transfer of genes into food chains/effect of food
chains/examples;
creation of plague weeds/uneconomic plants;
excessive use of herbicides;
Reject disadvantages of selective breeding
max 3

Describe how information is transmitted across a


neuromuscular junction when muscles of the eyeball are
stimulated.(5)

Explain the advantage of having large amounts of


glycogen in fast muscle fibres. Slow muscle fibres have
capillaries in close contact. Explain the advantage of this
arrangement. (4) (2 questions here)

Calcium ions enter synaptic knob;

Anaerobic respiration / glycolysis inefficient / produces little


ATP;

vesicles fuse with presynaptic membrane;


neurotransmitter / acetylcholine released;

requires large amount of glucose to produce enough ATP;

diffuses across (synaptic gap);

glycogen acting as glucose store / glycogen converted to


glucose;

attaches to postsynaptic receptors;


stimulates depolarisation / action potential / end plate
potential;

energy store

(any 2)
max 2

Requires oxygen / glucose;

Muscles

short diffusion pathway / rapid passage of oxygen;


Removal of heat/CO2;

Explain the advantage of possessing both types of muscle


fibres.(4)

Describe the process of transmission across a


neuromuscular junction.(7)

Fast fibres make immediate/fast contraction possible before


the

Nerve impulse depolarises the presynaptic membrane;

circulation/blood supply adjusts/ most energy anaerobically


generated;

calcium ions enter the presynaptic membrane;

calcium channels opened;

fast fibres used in explosive/sprints locomotion;

synaptic vesicles move towards/fuse with, the presynaptic


membrane;

slow fibres allow sustained contraction/anaerobic energy


generation;

release of transmitter substance/ACh/noradrenaline into


synaptic cleft;

slow fibres used in maintaining posture/endurance events;

diffusion of ACh/transmitter substance across cleft;


attachment to receptor sites/protein molecules on post
synaptic membrane;
(ion gated) sodium channels opened;
sodium ion influx;
causing depolarisation of post synaptic
membrane/sarcolemma;

Describe the roles of calcium ions, ATP and


phosphocreatine in producing contraction of a muscle
fibre.(5)
Calcium ions bind to troponin;
Remove blocking action of tropomyosin / exposes actin
binding sites;
ATP allows myosin to join / bind to actin / form cross-bridge;
Re-cocks myosin cross bridge / allows detachment from
actin;
Enables calcium ions to be pumped back in;
Phosphocreatine allows regeneration of ATP without
respiration;
Phosphocreatine releases Pi to join ADP;

Endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, nearly


always have a high proportion of slow fibres in their
muscles. Explain the benefit of this.(6)
Endurance athletes exercise for long periods of time;
Respire / release energy aerobically;
Or too much lactate would accumulate;
Slow twitch fibres adapted to aerobic metabolism;
As have many mitochondria;
Site of Krebs cycle;
And electron transport chain;
Much ATP formed;
Also are resistant to fatigue;

Muscles
Describe the role of calcium ions and ATP in muscle
contraction.(5)
1. Ca2+ removes blocking molecules / uncovers binding site
on actin;
2. correct references to Ca2+ binding to troponin / moving
tropomyosin;
3. allows myosin heads to attach to actin filaments;
4. allows sliding of the actin and myosin filaments;
5. binding of ATP causes myosin (head) to detach (from
actin);
6. (hydrolysis of) ATP releases energy;
7. which changes the configuration / cocking of the myosin
head;

Muscles use energy from respiration for contraction.


Describe how the energy released in mitochondria during
respiration produces contraction of a muscle fibril.
ATP produced by respiration;
Hydrolysis/breakdown of ATP releases energy;
Cross-bridges or links between actin and myosin/ in
actomyosin;
straighten/move myosin along actin;
Actin moves towards centre of sarcomere/ ends of sarcomere
pulled in;
Action of tropomyosin at binding sites / ref. to action of
calcium ions.

Describe the process of transmission across a neuromuscular


junction.

describe the part played by calcium ions in muscle


contraction;

Nerve impulse depolarises the presynaptic membrane;


calcium channels opened;

Moves / detaches / changes position of / shape of / switch

calcium ions enter the presynaptic membrane;

protein / blocking

synaptic vesicles move towards/fuse with, the presynaptic


membrane;

molecule / tropomyosin / troponin;


(Not just switches on)

release of transmitter substance/ACh/noradrenaline into


synaptic cleft;

uncovering binding site (on actin) / allows cross bridges to

diffusion of ACh/transmitter substance across cleft;

form / eq;

attachment to receptor sites/protein molecules on post


synaptic membrane;

activates myosin ATPase / enables myosin head to split ATP;

(ion gated) sodium channels opened;


sodium ion influx;

muscles

causing depolarisation of post synaptic


membrane/sarcolemma;
explain how the muscle cell contracts.

Describe how ATP is used in muscle contraction.

Myosin head changes shape / position / cocks / works


like a

ATP provides energy for release / attachment / movement of


myosin (head)

ratchet;

(from binding site) / removal of calcium ions;

moving (actin and myosin) filaments between / past /


along /
over each other;
[Not just sliding filaments]

Explain the advantage of having large amounts of glycogen


in fast muscle fibres.

Slow muscle fibres have capillaries in close contact. Explain


the advantage of this arrangement.

Anaerobic respiration / glycolysis inefficient / produces little


ATP;

Requires oxygen / glucose;

requires large amount of glucose to produce enough ATP;

short diffusion pathway / rapid passage of oxygen;

glycogen acting as glucose store / glycogen converted to


glucose;

Removal of heat/CO2;

R source of energy/ energy store

Muscles
Explain how ATP and calcium ions (Ca2+) help the myosin
and actin filaments to slide over each other during the
shortening of a muscle cell.
ATP -

energy source;

Explain the advantage of possessing both types of muscle


fibres.
Fast fibres make immediate/fast contraction possible before
the

to enable formation of actomyosin cross bridges /


detachment

circulation/blood supply adjusts/ most energy anaerobically


generated;

movement / of myosin head;


2

fast fibres used in explosive/sprints locomotion;

Ca2+ hydrolyse ATP;

activate myosin / cause myosin to

slow fibres allow sustained contraction/anaerobic energy


generation;
slow fibres used in maintaining posture/endurance events;

bind to / cause change in shape of troponin;

(answers which combine features of both,

cause tropomyosin to detach from actin filament /

without specifying which muscle

expose binding site (in actin);

max. 2
type provides which benefit: max 1)

Describe the roles of calcium ions, ATP and phosphocreatine


in producing contraction of a muscle fibre.

Endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, nearly always


have a high proportion of slow fibres in their muscles.
Explain the benefit of this.

Calcium ions bind to troponin;


Remove blocking action of tropomyosin / exposes actin
binding sites;
ATP allows myosin to join / bind to actin / form crossbridge;
Re-cocks myosin cross bridge / allows detachment from
actin;
Enables calcium ions to be pumped back in;
Phosphocreatine allows regeneration of ATP without
respiration;
Phosphocreatine releases Pi to join ADP;

Endurance athletes exercise for long periods of time;


Respire / release energy aerobically;
Or too much lactate would accumulate;
Slow twitch fibres adapted to aerobic metabolism;
As have many mitochondria;
Site of Krebs cycle;
And electron transport chain;
Much ATP formed;
Also are resistant to fatigue;

muscles

Describe the role of calcium ions and ATP in muscle


contraction.
1. Ca2+ removes blocking molecules / uncovers binding site
on actin;
2. correct references to Ca2+ binding to troponin / moving
tropomyosin;
3. allows myosin heads to attach to actin filaments;
4. allows sliding of the actin and myosin filaments;
5. binding of ATP causes myosin (head) to detach (from
actin);
6. (hydrolysis of) ATP releases energy;
7. which changes the configuration / cocking of the myosin
head;

The myosin-ATPase of fast twitch muscle fibres has a faster


rate of reaction than that in slow twitch 2 fibres. Use your
knowledge of the mechanism of muscle contraction to
explain how this will help type 1 muscle fibres to contract
faster than type 2.
1. overall rate of contraction limited by rate of ATP-splitting;
2. ATPase splits ATP / hydrolyses ATP / converts ATP to
ADP (+ phosphate);
3. ATP-splitting provides energy for any TWO from myosinactin
interaction;myosin head movement / actin to move relative
to myosin; to cock myosin head;

Muscles use energy from respiration for contraction.


Describe how the energy released in mitochondria during
respiration produces contraction of a muscle fibril.

Describe the mechanism that brings about the change in


position of the filaments when the myofibril contracts.
myosin filaments;

ATP produced by respiration;

form cross bridges to actin / bind to actin;

Hydrolysis/breakdown of ATP releases energy;

move actin filaments / actin filaments move;

Cross-bridges or links between actin and myosin/ in


actomyosin;

ratchet mechanism described;


allow relevant reference to ATP as energy source;

straighten/move myosin along actin;

allow reference to calcium switch / tropomyosin;

Actin moves towards centre of sarcomere/ ends of


sarcomere pulled in;
Action of tropomyosin at binding sites / ref. to action of
calcium ions.
muscles

Give three differences in structure between a muscle


fibre and an epithelial cell from the lining of the small
intestine.

Explain the mechanism of muscle contraction.


actin filaments are moved;
ratchet mechanism / description;
bridges formed between myosin and actin;

multi-nucleate;

use of ATP in forming / breaking bridges;

striations / sarcomeres / banding;

reference to role of calcium / tropomyosin;

actin / myosin / contractile protein;


no microvilli / surface not folded;
more mitochondria;
contain myoglobin;

People who have McArdles disease produce less


ATP than healthy people. As a result, they are
not able to maintain strong muscle contraction
during exercise. Use your knowledge of the
sliding filament theory to suggest why.
1. Attachment/cross bridges between actin and myosin;
2. Power stroke / movement of myosin heads / pulling
of actin;
3. Detachment of myosin heads;
4. Myosin heads move back/to original position /
recovery stroke;

Muscles

During exercise, much heat is generated. Describe the


homeostatic mechanisms that restore normal body
temperature following vigorous exercise.(5)

Explain how normal core body temperature is maintained


when a person moves into a cold room.(5)
1. Sensors in skin/hypothalmus detect reduced temperature;
2. heat gain centre activated/inhibition of heat loss centre;
3. vasoconstriction/constriction of arterioles in skin surface;
(R capillaried)
4. dilation of shunt vessels/constriction of capillary
sphincter;
5. less blood to skin surface/capillaries
6. reduced heat loss by radiation;
7. incresed heat gain by increased metabolic rate/respiration/
movement/shivering;
8. decreased heat loss by putting on clothes/huddling/reduced
sweating;

Receptors in hypothalamus detect increase in core temperature


/temperature of blood;
Heat loss centre stimulated;
Skin arteries / arterioles dilate / vasodilation;
Shunt vessels / pre-capillary sphincters constrict;
More blood flows to surface (capillaries);
Heat loss by radiation;
Heat loss by evaporation of sweat;
Reduced metabolic rate;
Remove clothing / seek cooler area / cold drink;

How does maintaining a constant body temperature


allow metabolic reactions in cells to proceed with
maximum efficiency?(5)
1. Body temp./37C is optimum temp for enzymes;
2. excess heat denatures enzymes/alters tertiary
structure/alters
shape of active site/enzyme;
3. substrate cannot bind/eq,;
4. reactions cease/slowed;
5. too little reduces kinetic energy of molecules / molecules
move more slowly;
6. fewer collisions/fewer ES complexes formed

Homeostas
is

Explain how the body of a mammal may respond to a rise in the


environmental temperature.(8)
Hot receptors in skin;
nervous impulse;
to hypothalamus;
blood temperature monitored;
heat loss centre involved;
vasodilation / dilation of arterioles;
more blood to surface / heat lost by radiation;
piloerector muscles relax;
hairs flatten on skin surface;
less insulation;
sweating initiated / increased;
panting / licking;
evaporation removes latent heat;
drop in metabolic rate / use less brown fat;
accept long term changes such as less fat deposition;
thinner fur;
Migration;
accept one behavioural process;

The ears of a rabbit play an important part in helping the


animal to keep its body temperature constant. After a
period of exercise, the insides of a rabbits ears become
redder in colour as the blood flow to the skin surface
increases. Explain how the different components of
nervous communication are involved in the process leading
to the response shown by the rabbits ears. (6)
Answer in box below

Stimulus is increased blood temperature;


Increase in temperature results from
exercise/respiration/metabolism;
Detected by receptors in hypothalamus;
Hypothalamus is coordinator;
In this case, the heat loss centre;
Effectors are muscles;
Of arteriole;
Response involves vasodilation;
Increased blood flow to capillaries;
Allowing heat loss by radiation/convection;
Correct reference to action potential/nerve impulse;

Homeostas
is

Cross-channel swimmers experience a large decrease in


external temperature when they enter the water.
Describe the processes involved in thermoregulation in
response to this large decrease in external temperature.
(7)
1. hypothalamus (contains the thermoregulatory centre);
2. has receptors which detect temperature changes of blood;
3. receives impulses from receptors in skin;
4. nerve impulses transmitted (from hypothalamus / brain);
5. results in vasoconstriction / constriction of arterioles /
dilation of shunt vessels;
6. diversion of blood to core / specified organ / less blood to
skin;
7. muscular contraction /shivering generates heat via
respiration;
8. release of thyroxine / adrenaline;
9. increase in metabolic rate / respiration;
10.correct reference to negative feedback mechanisms;
Describe the important differences between the nervous
and hormonal coordination systems found in a
mammal.(4)
Rapid / slow;
direct / broadcast;
short lived/ long term;
mainly electrical ; chemical;
delivery via nerves / blood vessels;
cause depolarisation of target cell membrane /
receptors in membrane of target cell;

Describe how blood glucose concentration is controlled by


hormones in an individual who is not affected by diabetes.
(6)
For principle, maximum of one mark
Process involves insulin and glucagon;
For detail, up to a total of 6 marks
Insulin / glucagon secreted by pancreas / islets of Langerhans;
Hormone receptors in membrane (of target cells);
(insulin stimulates) conversion of glucose to glycogen /
glycogenesis:
activates / involves enzymes;
stimulates uptake by cells;
conversion of glucose to lipid / protein;
glucagon stimulates conversion of glycogen to glucose;/
glycogenolysis;
glucagon stimulates conversion of lipid / protein to glucose /
gluconeogenesis;

Describe how the body responds to a rise in core


body temperature.(5)
Temperature receptors stimulated in; (in skin
disqualifies)
hypothalamus;
heat loss centre stimulated;
nerve impulses to sweat glands;
increase rate of / start sweat production;
nerve impulses to skin arterioles;

Homeostas
is

increase in blood sugar leads to lower blood sugar

One effect of getting into a cold shower is a reduction in


the amount of blood flowing through the capillaries near
the surface of the skin. Explain how the cold water causes
this response.(4)

(homeostatic principle)/ (more) insulin secreted;

(thermo)receptors in skin;

binds to (specific) receptors on (liver/muscle) cells;


leads to more glucose

(accept receptors in hypothalamus if after reference to cooled


blood)

entering cells/carrier activity/

impulses via nerves/neurones to or from; (once only)

increased permeability to glucose;

hypothalamus;

glucose leaves the blood;

heat gain/temperature centre (in hypothalamus);

glucose entering cell converted to glycogen;

contraction /constriction of arterioles; (not capillaries, or just

Describe the role of insulin in the control of blood glucose


concentration.(4)

vasoconstriction)
diversion through shunt vessels;

Describe the role of hormones in controlling the


development of the changes associated with puberty in
girls.(6)

During the oestrous cycle in a mammal, one or more


follicles mature. Ovulation then takes place. Describe the
part played by hormones in controlling these events.(6)

Production of FSH/LH/pituitary hormones;

FSH secreted by pituitary gland;

Stimulate ovary/follicle development;

Stimulates growth of follicle;

Producing oestrogen;

Ovary/follicle cells produce oestrogen;

Oestrogen stimulating breast development;

Negative feedback/inhibits secretion of FSH;

Oestrogen stimulating pelvic girdle growth;

Oestrogen stimulates secretion of LH/LH from pituitary;

Androgen secretion;

LH stimulating ovulation;

Androgens responsible for growth spurt/pubic hair


development;

Second increase in FSH also associated with ovulation;

Growth hormone also involved;

During the oestrous cycle in a mammal, one or more


follicles mature. Ovulation then takes place. Describe the
part played by hormones in controlling these events.(6)

Homeostas
is

The oestrous cycle in a female mammal is controlled by


hormones. Describe the part played by FSH and LH in
the control of the oestrous cycle. (5)

FSH secreted by pituitary gland;

FSH stimulates growth of a follicle;

Stimulates growth of follicle;

Developing follicle produces oestrogen;

Ovary/follicle cells produce oestrogen;

(FSH) and LH bring about ovulation / oestrus;

Negative feedback/inhibits secretion of FSH;

LH stimulates formation of corpus luteum;

Oestrogen stimulates secretion of LH/LH from pituitary;

LH stimulates production of progesterone;

LH stimulating ovulation;

Fall in LH / FSH means oestrogen production no longer


stimulated;

Second increase in FSH also associated with ovulation;

Explain how oral contraceptives containing


progesterone and oestrogen work.(5)

our own knowledge to explain how changing concentrations


of oestrogen and progesterone regulate the oestrous cycle.

Oestrogen inhibits FSH;

Any six from:

prevents follicle developing;

1 Progesterone inhibits (release of) FSH/LH;

progesterone inhibits LH;

2 Once progesterone falls (on day 16) FSH increases;


3 FSH increase causes follicles to develop;

also inhibits FSH;

4 Developing follicles produce oestrogen;

inhibits ovulation;

5 Oestrogen inhibits FSH (release);

FSH and LH bring about ovulation

6 High oestrogen/approx. day 18 stimulates FSH (release);


7 High oestrogen stimulates LH (release);
8 LH causes ovulation/causes progesterone
(release)/formation

Give two effects of FSH on the ovary of a mammal.


Causes growth of follicle/oocyte;

Homeostas
is

of corpus luteum;

There are very few follicles remaining in the ovaries of


a woman at menopause. Explain why the FSH
concentration in the blood rises at menopause.

Causes secretion of oestrogen;


With LH, stimulates ovulation;

little or no oestrogen;
produced by follicle;
oestrogen inhibits FSH;

After a period of exercise, the insides of a rabbits ears become redder in


colour as the blood flow to the skin surface increases. Explain how the
different components of nervous communication are involved in the
process leading to the response shown by the rabbits ears.

During the oestrous cycle in a mammal, one or more


follicles mature. Ovulation then takes place. Describe
the part played by hormones in controlling these
events.

Stimulus is increased blood temperature;

FSH secreted by pituitary gland;

Increase in temperature results from exercise/respiration/metabolism;

Stimulates growth of follicle;

Detected by receptors in hypothalamus;

Ovary/follicle cells produce oestrogen;

Hypothalamus is coordinator;

Negative feedback/inhibits secretion of FSH;

In this case, the heat loss centre;

Oestrogen stimulates secretion of LH/LH from


pituitary;

Effectors are muscles;

LH stimulating ovulation;

Response involves vasodilation;

Second increase in FSH also associated with ovulation;

Increased blood flow to capillaries;

Of arteriole;

Allowing heat loss by radiation/convection;

Homeostasis

Correct reference to action potential/nerve impulse;

Describe the role of hormones in controlling the


development of the changes associated with puberty in
girls.

The concentration of oestrogen and of FSH in the


blood change after menopause. Use information from
the diagram to explain why.

Production of FSH/LH/pituitary hormones;

Oestrogen secreted by follicles;

Stimulate ovary/follicle development;

Therefore no oestrogen/low concentration of


oestrogen;

Producing oestrogen;
Oestrogen stimulating breast development;
Oestrogen stimulating pelvic girdle growth;
Androgen secretion;
Androgens responsible for growth spurt/pubic hair
development;
Growth hormone also involved;

Oestrogen secretion will not be cyclical;


Not available to inhibit pituitary gland;
Therefore high concentration of FSH;

explain how an injection of a small amount of glucagon into


the body could cause a rapid increase in the concentration of
glucose in the blood plasma.

The blood glucose concentration would return to its


normal value within one hour of injecting glucagon.
Explain how.

Ref to cascade / amplification effect;


1

High glucose concentration stimulates pancreas /


detected by

>1 molecule of cyclic AMP formed per glucagon (molecule);

pancreas / Islets of Langerhans / cells;

each cyclic AMP activates >1 enzyme(molecule) ;

insulin released;

each enzyme causes breakdown of >1 glycogen (molecule);


each glycogen gives >1 glucose / glycogen is a polymer;

insulin causes glucose uptake / glucose glycogen by


liver /

glucose diffuses into blood /

by muscles;

glucose moves high to low concentration;


homeostasis

Humans are able to maintain a constant core


temperature when exposed to cold external
temperatures. Give a pro and con of this

Explain two advantages of endothermy over


ectothermy.

(i)
Maintains/ allows efficient/ high level of
activity/ movement;
[Ignore: Remain active]
OR
Allows/ maintains high/ efficient
level of enzyme reactions;
1
[Ignore: Reactions still occur]
(ii)
Requires more/ high amount of
energy/ food/ respiration rate;
[Ignore Loss of energy / heat]

Enzymes at optimum temperature;

Any two from:


(Metabolic) reactions proceed more quickly;
More independent of environment/better able to
survive in different
environment/equivalent;

explain the role of negative feedback in the control of plasma


glucose concentration.

How does maintaining a constant body temperature


allow metabolic reactions in cells to proceed with
maximum efficiency?

1. Deviation of a value from norm initiates corrective


mechanisms;

1. Body temp./37C is optimum temp for enzymes;

2. fluctuations in plasma glucose concentration detected by


hypothalmus/islet

2. excess heat denatures enzymes/alters tertiary


structure/alters

cells in pancreas;

shape of active site/enzyme;

3. initial decrease, no food given (in plasma glucose) stimulates


(increased)

3. substrate cannot bind/eq,;


4. reactions cease/slowed;

secretion of glucagon;

5. too little reduces kinetic energy of molecules /


molecules

4. increases (in plasma glucose) stimulate (increased) secretion


of insulin;
5. correct ref. to role of and/or cells as secretors;
6. correct ref. to interconversion of glycogen / glucose;
7. increased/decreased uptake of glucose by cells (as
appropriate)/correct
ref to change in membrane permeability;

Suggest how diet and exercise can maintain low


glucose concentrations in the blood of
type II diabetics.

move more slowly;

Homeostasis

6. fewer collisions/fewer ES complexes formed

Describe how insulin reduces the concentration of glucose in


the blood.
insulin binds to specific receptors (on membranes);
insulin activates carrier proteins / opens channels / causes
more
channels to form;
insulin increases the permeability of liver/muscle
cells/tissues to glucose;
insulin action results in glucose conversion to glycogen /
glycogenesis;

Adrenaline binds to receptors in the plasma


membranes of liver cells. Explain how this
causes the blood glucose concentration to
increase.
1. Adenylate cyclase activated / cAMP produced /
second messenger produced;
2. Activates enzyme(s) (in cell);
3. (So) glycogenolysis/ gluconeogenesis occurs /
glycogenesis inhibited;

homeostasis

Cells contain suppressor genes, which code for proteins that


control cell division and growth. Describe what is meant by a
mutation, and explain how a mutation in these genes might
lead to the development of a malignant tumour.(6)

Describe how altered DNA may lead to cancer.(6)

Mutation of suppressor gene up to 4 marks


1. Mutation is a change in the DNA / sense strand;
2. Base sequence altered / e.g.;
3. Suppressor gene produces wrong instructions / has different
code;
4. (Therefore) different amino acid sequence;
5. Different protein structure / non-functional protein;

3 of gene controlling cell growth / oncogene / that monitors


cell division;

Malignant tumour up to 2 marks


6. Cell division by mitosis;
7. Tumour cells growth abnormal / continuous / uncontrolled /
rapid;
8. Tumour cells spread / invade other tissues / form secondary
tumours / metastasis;
9. Via blood / lymph system;

1 (DNA altered by) mutation;


2 (mutation) changes base sequence;

4 of tumour suppressor gene;


5 change protein structure / non-functional protein / protein
not formed;
6 (tumour suppressor genes) produce proteins that inhibit
cell division;
7 mitosis;
8 uncontrolled / rapid / abnormal (cell division);

Mutations

9 malignant tumour;

Explain how mutation of a gene can result in a strain


lacking a particular enzyme.(4)

Describe what is meant by a mutation, and explain how a mutation


in a suppressor gene might lead to the development of a malignant
tumour.

mutation results in incorrect sequence of bases/nucleotides in


DNA/frame
shift of nucleotides;
incorrect codons/base triplets on mRNA;
so incorrect amino acids brought to ribosome/incorrect tRNA
bring amino
acids;
wrong sequence of amino acids changes tertiary structure or
active site
(of enzyme)/no longer functions as enzyme/no or different
enzyme
formed/protein non-functional;

1. Mutation is a change in the DNA / sense strand;


2. Base sequence altered / e.g.;
3. Suppressor gene produces wrong instructions / has different code;
4. (Therefore) different amino acid sequence;
5. Different protein structure / non-functional protein;
Malignant tumour up to 2 marks
6. Cell division by mitosis;
7. Tumour cells growth abnormal / continuous / uncontrolled / rapid;
8. Tumour cells spread / invade other tissues / form secondary
tumours / metastasis;
9. Via blood / lymph system;

A gene mutation may cause no change in the


structure of the protein coded for. Explain
why.

Explain how mutation of a gene can result in an


organism lacking a particular enzyme.

mutation results in incorrect sequence of


bases/nucleotides in DNA/frame

Degenerate code / clear description;


(New triplet) codes for same amino acid;

shift of nucleotides;
incorrect codons/base triplets on mRNA;
so incorrect amino acids brought to ribosome/incorrect
tRNA bring amino
acids;
wrong sequence of amino acids changes tertiary
structure or active site
mutations

Sometimes errors occur during the copying of a sequence of bases.


Use the information given to explain why some errors have less severe
consequences than others.
changes in base sequence will not necessarily affect amino acid

(of enzyme)/no longer functions as enzyme/no or


different enzyme
formed/protein non-functional;
uggest why mutant genes can be identified more
easily in haploid fungi than in diploid
ones.

coded for/most amino acids have more than one code;

haploid fungi have one set of chromosomes,


diploid have two sets of

these codes differ only in the third base;

chromosomes;

so changes in the third base are likely to cause no change in the

in haploid fungi all alleles are expressed;

amino acid sequence/ protein;

in diploid fungi recessive alleles often hidden;

changes in first/second base result in an incorrect amino acid in the

only expressed in homozygous individuals;

sequence/ formation of the incorrect protein/example of mutation


causing this type of change;
change in amino acid present may have no effect on functioning of
protein/some amino acids more important in tertiary structure than
others;

Explain how a gene mutation may result in a different


version of tyrosinase.

Describe one way in which the structure of the DNA of


a gene may be changed as a result of a mutation.

change in code / base sequence;


detail e.g. substitution / addition / deletion;

Addition / deletion / substitution;

of base(s);

Of nucleotide / base

different amino acid(s) inserted into protein


/polypeptide;
role of tRNA

Mutations
Explain how the substitution of a nucleotide may cause
a gene to code for a different protein.

Name a mutagen and Explain how exposure to a mutagenic agent


may result in an inactive enzyme being produced by a cell.
high energy ionized particles/X-rays/ultraviolet light/high energy
radiation/uranium/plutonium/gamma rays/tobacco tar/

Base sequence / codon (of DNA) is changed;


Different (sequence of bases in) mRNA;
Attracts different tRNA / anticodon;
Different amino acid inserted into protein /
polypeptide;

caffeine/pesticides/mustard gas/base analogues/free radicals;


(reject radiation)
1
mutation;
change in the sequence of nucleotides/bases/addition/deletion/
substitution;
changed order of amino acids/different protein/different tertiary;
structure;
inactive enzyme if shape of active site is changed/enzymesubstrate
complex does not form;

Explain how the gene mutation results in failure


to produce the enzyme phenylalanine
hydroxylase.

Using information in the diagram and


your own knowledge, suggest why
defective CFTR, missing one
amino acid, is not functional.

change in base sequence in mRNA / different


mRNA codons;

(loss of amino acid) changes tertiary


structures/3D shape;

different tRNA molecules pair with mRNA;

so sugar molecules cannot be attached (to


form glycoprotein/

with different amino acids / change in primary


structure;

functional protein);

(reject produces different amino acids)

so (defective) unable to bind to chloride


ions/use ATP;

change in tertiary structure of protein;


change in shape of active site;
mutations

Explain why a mutation involving the deletion


of a base may have a greater effect than
one involving substitution of one base for
another.

deletion causes frame shift / alters base sequence


(from point of mutation);
changes many amino acids / sequence of amino
acids (from this point);
substitution alters one codon / triplet;
one amino acid altered / code degenerate / same
amino acid coded for;

Explain why mutation of a mitochondrial gene might


result in no functional cytochrome oxidase being
produced.
change in base/nucleotide (in DNA);
change in base sequence of mRNA/change in
codons/idea of
frameshift following deletion or addition;
incorrect tRNA/anticodon;
incorrect amino acids/ different primary
structure/fomation of new
stop codon;
different tertiary structure/different 3D
structure/different
polypeptide/shortened polypeptide;
different shape of active site/no active site present;

Describe and explain the events which occur in the


motor neurone during the passage/propagation of a
nerve impulse. (7)
Depolarisation / reduced P.D. / 70 to 40 mV;
to threshold;
by local currents;
increased permeability of membrane to sodium ions /
sodium gates open;
sodium ions enter;
by diffusion;
positive pd inside / eq via figures;
then potassium gates open / permeability to potassium
ions increases;
potassium ions leave;
by diffusion (ONCE only);
resting potential re-established;)
by ion pump / by active transport of ions / by Napump;)
Reflexes are described as being rapid, automatic
responses. Explain those features of a reflex arc which
result in the response being rapid and automatic. (6)
Rapid:
Only involves three neurones / receptor, relay and effector
neurone;
myelination / saltatory conduction;
and two / a few synapses;
chemical / synaptic transmission is slow OR electrical /
nervous transmission is fast;
Automatic;
does not necessarily involve passage to brain / only spinal
cord;
same pathway used each time;
higher brain centres not involved / no thinking;

Describe the events which allow transmission to


take place across the synapse (6)
Increased permeability of (presynaptic) membrane to
calcium ions;
Ca 2+enter;
vesicles fuse with membrane;
exocytosis of / release of acetylcholine /
neurotransmitter /
other named e.g.;
diffuses across synaptic cleft;

Nervous
system

binds to receptors on postsynaptic membrane / side;


increased Na + permeability / opens sodium channels /
Describe
the events that take place in a neurone which
depolarises
produce an action potential.(6)
membrane / reference e.p.s.p.;
1 Stimulus to threshold / critical firing level;
2acetylcholine
Sodium channels/gates
broken downopen;
by acetylcholinesterase;
3 Sodium ions enter;
4 Down electrical/chemical gradient;
5 Positive feedback;
6 Depolarisation;
7 Inside becomes positive / membrane potential reverses;
8 Potassium channels/gates open;
9 Potassium ions leave;
10 Down electrical/chemical gradient
[Note: only credit if not awarded earlier in point 4]
11 Repolarisation;
12 Sodium channels/gates close;
13 Undershoot / hyperpolarisation;
14 Sodium-potassium pump restores resting potential;

Explain what is meant by the tertiary structure of a


protein and describe the importance of this in transmission
across a synapse.(5)

Explain how the structure of the retina and its neuronal


connections enable a person to have visual acuity and
sensitivity. (6)

1 Polypeptide (chain) folds;

Cone cells (responsible for acuity);

2 Named bond; [Reject: peptide bond]

Each cone cell connected to an individual neurone;

3 Between R groups;

idea of light striking each individual cone cell to generate a


separate

4 Receptors/binding sites are proteins;

action potential / impulse;

5 Reference to neurotransmitter shape;

very small area of retina stimulated, so very accurate vision;

6 Acetylcholinesterase/breakdown enzyme, is protein;

Rod cells (responsible for sensitivity);

7 Carrier/channel protein;

Several rods connected to each bipolar cell;

8 Protein has a shape;


9 Idea of complementary/fit/bind/attach to;

Describe the process of transmission across a


neuromuscular junction.(7)
Nerve impulse depolarises the presynaptic membrane;
calcium channels opened;
calcium ions enter the presynaptic membrane;
synaptic vesicles move towards/fuse with, the presynaptic
membrane;
release of transmitter substance/ACh/noradrenaline into
synaptic cleft;
diffusion of ACh/transmitter substance across cleft;
attachment to receptor sites/protein molecules on post
synaptic membrane;
(ion gated) sodium channels opened;
sodium ion influx;
causing depolarisation of post synaptic
membrane/sarcolemma;

Nervous
system

Additive effect of small amount of light striking several rod


cells;
creating a large enough depolarisation to generate an action
potential;
Describe the sequence of events which leads to the
transmission of an impulse at a cholinergic synapse.(6)
calcium ions move into synaptic knobs / presynaptic
membrane;
causing synaptic vesicles to move;
towards presynaptic membrane;
where they release acetylcholine into gap;
transmitter/acetylcholine diffuses across gap;
binds onto receptor / protein molecules;
on postsynaptic membrane;
causing depolarisation / opening of sodium gates / action
potential in
postsynaptic cell membrane;

Explain how a resting potential is maintained in a neurone.


(4)

Explain the importance of reflex actions.(5)


1. automatic (adjustments to changes in environment)/
involuntary;

membrane relatively impermeable / less permeable to sodium


ions /
gated channels are closed / fewer channels;

2. reducing/avoiding damage to tissues / prevents


injury/named injury

sodium ions pumped / actively transported out;

e.g. burning;

by sodium ion carrier / intrinsic proteins;

3. role in homeostasis/example;

higher concentration of sodium ions outside the neurone;

4. posture/balance;

inside negative compared to outside / 3 sodium ions out for


two

5. finding/obtaining food/mate/suitable conditions;


6. escape from predators;

potassium ions in;

Give two differences between a cholinergic synapse and a


neuromuscular junction.(4)
neurone to neurone and neurone to muscle;
action potential in neurone and no action potential in muscle/
sarcolemma;
no summation in muscle;
muscle response always excitatory (never inhibitory);
some neuromuscular junctions have different
neurotransmitters;

Nervous
system

When pressure is applied to a Pacinian corpuscle, an


impulse is produced in its sensory neurone. Explain how.
(3)
(Pressure) deforms/ opens (sodium) channels/ pores/ gates;
[Ignore: Deforms corpuscle]
Entry of sodium ions; [Reject: Any other ion] [Accept:
Error carried Forward of wrong ion]
Causes depolarisation/ change in membrane potential/
generator potential;
Reference to threshold potential;

Explain what is meant by a reflex action.

The presence of food in the mouth stimulates glands to


secrete saliva into the mouth. Non-food
items, such as a piece of rubber, have the
same effect. Describe how the component
parts of the nervous system bring about
this reflex action.

Rapid response to a stimulus;


involuntary/invariable/innate;(any 2)

(touch / pressure) receptors in mouth stimulated;


impulses in nerves / neurones to;
coordinator / brain; (not just c.n.s.; via spinal cord
disqualifies)
salivary glands as effector / effector secretes saliva.

Nervous system

Give three ways in which hormonal


coordination differs from nervous
coordination.

Describe the important differences between the


nervous and hormonal coordination
systems found in a mammal.

chemical, (not electrical);

Rapid / slow;

slower (to take effect / transmission);

direct / broadcast;

longer-lasting;

short lived/ long term;

delivered by blood, (not nerves);

mainly electrical ; chemical;

broader targeting.

delivery via nerves / blood vessels;


cause depolarisation of target cell membrane /
receptors in membrane of target cell;

As well as pulling the finger away, the gardener


also feels pain caused by the thorn.

Explain how each of the following leads to paralysis of


fish.blocking sodium channels in nerve cells and Ach
receptors

Explain how she becomes aware of the pain.

(i)
(blocking of sodium channels) blocks
inward flow of sodium ions;

impulses to brain;

prevents depolarisation / action potential;

(reject signal, message, information)

prevents passage of impulses along nerve cell;

sensory areas (in brain);

no impulse - no contraction both needed

(in) cerebral hemispheres;

(ii)
(blocking receptor) prevents
acetyicholine binding onto receptor;

interpretation/processing by association area;

on postsynaptic membrane;
prevents depolarisation / action potential in postsynaptic
nerve cell;
Nervous system

prevents passage of impulse by postsynaptic cell to muscle /


across synapse

When pressure is applied to a Pacinian corpuscle, an


impulse is produced in its sensory
neurone. Explain how.

(Pressure) deforms/ opens (sodium) channels/ pores/


gates;
[Ignore: Deforms corpuscle]
Entry of sodium ions;
[Reject: Any other ion] [Accept:
Error carried Forward of wrong ion]
Causes depolarisation/ change in
membrane potential/ generator
potential;
Reference to threshold potential;

Describe and explain the events which occur in the effector neurone at
point A during the passage of a nerve impulse.
Depolarisation / reduced P.D. / 70 to 40 mV;
to threshold;
by local currents;
increased permeability of membrane to sodium ions / sodium gates open;
sodium ions enter;
by diffusion;
positive pd inside / eq via figures;
then potassium gates open / permeability to potassium ions increases;
potassium ions leave;
by diffusion (ONCE only);
resting potential re-established;
by ion pump / by active transport of ions / by Na-pump;
) start here

Reflexes are described as being rapid, automatic responses. Use


the information in the diagram to explain those features of a reflex
arc which result in the response being rapid and automatic.

Describe the events which allow transmission to take place


across the synapse
labelled B.

Rapid:
Only involves three neurones / receptor, relay and effector
neurone;
myelination / saltatory conduction;
and two / a few synapses;
chemical / synaptic transmission is slow OR electrical /
nervous transmission is fast;
Automatic;
does not necessarily involve passage to brain / only spinal cord;
same pathway used each time;
higher brain centres not involved / no thinking;

Increased permeability of (presynaptic) membrane to


calcium ions;
Ca 2+enter;
vesicles fuse with membrane;
exocytosis of / release of acetylcholine / neurotransmitter /
other named e.g.;
diffuses across synaptic cleft;
binds to receptors on postsynaptic membrane / side;
increased Na + permeability / opens sodium channels /
depolarises

Nervous system

membrane / reference e.p.s.p.;


the resting
of 70 mV is
acetylcholineAbroken
downpotential
by acetylcholinesterase;
maintained;
Negatively charged proteins /
large anions inside axon;
Membrane more permeable
to potassium ions than to
sodium ions;
Potassium ions diffuse* out
faster than sodium ions
diffuse in;
Sodium / potassium pump;
Sodium ions pumped* out
faster than potassium ions
pumped
in / 3 for 2;

The rate of oxygen consumption of a neurone increases


when it conducts a high frequency of
impulses. Explain why.
Oxygen used in respiration; [Reject: Anaerobic
reference]
Valid reference to ATP/energy; [Reject:
Production of energy]
(For) sodium-potassium pump/ active transport
of ions/ uptake/ synthesis
of transmitter/ vesicle movement;
(Higher rate of impulses means) more
high / amount of sodium ion entry/
potassium ion loss / transmitter uptake /
release / vesicle movement;

An action potential is produced in neurone A.


Describe how this action potential
passes along the neurone.

Explain why the transmission of a series of nerve impulses


along neurone B uses less energy than transmission along
neurone A.

Any three from:

Any three from:

(Depolarisation of axon membrane causes) local


currents to be set up;

Neurone B is myelinated/equivalent;
Correct reference to saltatory conduction/description;
+

Change permeability (of adjoining region) to Na /open


Na+ gates

Active transport of ions/ion pumps only used/less active


transport of ions at nodes of Ranvier;

(in adjoining region);

Less respiration needed / less ATP needed;

sodium ions enter adjoining region;

For repolarisation/restoration of ion balance;

adjoining region depolarises;

Nervous system

escribe the events that take place in a neurone which


produce an action potential.
1 Stimulus to threshold / critical firing level;
2 Sodium channels/gates open;
3 Sodium ions enter;
4 Down electrical/chemical gradient;
5 Positive feedback;
6 Depolarisation;
7 Inside becomes positive / membrane potential reverses;
8 Potassium channels/gates open;
9 Potassium ions leave;
10 Down electrical/chemical gradient
[Note: only credit if not awarded earlier in point 4]
11 Repolarisation;
12 Sodium channels/gates close;
13 Undershoot / hyperpolarisation;
14 Sodium-potassium pump restores resting potential;

Describe how transmission


occurs across a synapse.
1 Presynaptic membrane depolarises;
2 Calcium channels/gates open;
3 Calcium ions enter;
4 Vesicles move to/fuse with presynaptic
membrane;
5 Release of transmitter / exocytosis;
6 Diffusion across gap/cleft;
7 Binds to receptors in postsynaptic membrane;
[Reject: references to active site]
8 Sodium channels open / sodium ions enter;

Explain what is meant by the tertiary structure of a


protein and describe the importance of
this in transmission across a synapse.

Suggest two functions of the energy released by


the mitochondria in the synaptic
knob.

1 Polypeptide (chain) folds;


2 Named bond; [Reject: peptide bond]

Active transport of ions/ ionic pump; (reject


active transport of Ach)

3 Between R groups;
4 Receptors/binding sites are proteins;

Synthesis of acetylcholine / neurotransmitter/


reform vacuole;

5 Reference to neurotransmitter shape;

Reabsorption of acetylcholine, or acetyl +


choline (from cleft);

6 Acetylcholinesterase/breakdown enzyme, is
protein;

Movement of vesicles (to membrane);

7 Carrier/channel protein;

Synthesis of relevant enzyme, e.g.


acetylcholinesterase.

8 Protein has a shape;


9 Idea of complementary/fit/bind/attach to;
[Note: in correct context]
Explain how transmission of information in the
nervous system may be modified by
summation.

Nervous system
What is meant by the all or nothing nature of a
nerve impulse?

All action potentials are the same size;


Summation =
addition of a number of impulses converging on
a single post synaptic
neurone;
allows integration of stimuli from a variety of
sources (spatial
summation);
allows weak background stimuli to be filtered
out before reaching
the brain (temporal summation)

threshold value for action potential to occur

Describe how the resting potential is maintained across the cell surface
membrane of a neurone.

Describe the sequence of events which leads to the


transmission of an impulse at a
cholinergic synapse.
calcium ions move into synaptic knobs / presynaptic
membrane;
causing synaptic vesicles to
move;
towards presynaptic
membrane;
where they release
acetylcholine into gap;
transmitter/acetylcholine
diffuses across gap;
binds onto receptor / protein
molecules;
on postsynaptic membrane;
causing depolarisation /
opening of sodium gates / action potential
in
postsynaptic cell membrane;

membrane more permeable to loss of potassium ions;


limits entry of sodium ions;
negatively charged proteins inside;
sodium pump;
active transport/pumping of sodium (ions across membrane);
out of neurone/higher concentration outside;
+
+
differential permeability to K and Na ;
membrane relatively impermeable / less permeable to sodium ions /
gated channels are closed / fewer channels;
sodium ions pumped / actively transported out;
by sodium ion carrier / intrinsic proteins;

Nervous system

higher concentration of sodium ions outside the neurone;


inside negative compared to outside / 3 sodium ions out for two
potassium ions in;

Explain why an action potential was produced in C in experiments 3 and


4, but not in experiments 1 and 2.
postsynaptic neurone has high threshold;
simultaneous arrival of impulses from two presynaptic neurones produces
sufficient transmitter substance;
to cause depolarisation / action potential in postsynaptic neurone /reach
threshold (once only);
this is spatial summation;
impulses in rapid succession from one presynaptic neurone produce
sufficient transmitter
substance;
to cause depolarisation / action potential in postsynaptic neurone /
reach threshold (once only);
this is temporal summation;
insufficient transmitter substance produced in A / B;
to cause depolarisation / action potential in postsynaptic neurone /
reach threshold (once only);

Explain what causes the conduction of impulses


along a non-myelinated axon to be slower
than along a myelinated axon.

Give two differences between a


cholinergic synapse and a
neuromuscular junction.

non-myelinated next section of membrane


depolarised / whole membrane;

neurone to
neurone and neurone to muscle;

myelinated depolarisation / ion movement


only at nodes;

action potential in neurone and no action


potential in muscle/

impulse jumps from node to node /saltatory


conduction;

sarcolemma;
no summation in muscle;
muscle response always excitatory (never
inhibitory);
Nervous system

Explain how this action potential passes


along the motor neurone to the
neuromuscular junction.
Depolarisation of axon membrane/influx of Na+
establishes local
currents;
Change permeability to Na+ /open Na+ gates of
adjoining region;
+

Adjoining region depolarises / influx of Na ;


This process repeated along axon / self
propagation;
Correct reference to/description of saltatory
conduction;

some neuromuscular junctions have


different neurotransmitters;
Substances, called hormones, can also stimulate
effectors.
Humans produce a large number of different
hormones but only a small number of
different neurotransmitters. Explain the
significance of this difference.

Hormones reach all cells (via blood);


Neurotransmitters secreted directly on to target
cell;
Different hormones specific to different target
cells;

Explain how nervous control in a human can cause


increased cardiac output during exercise. (4)

Explain the effect of the parasympathetic division of the


autonomic nervous system on cardiac output. (4)

1. Coordination via medulla (of brain) / cardiac centre;


2. (Increased) impulses along sympathetic (/ cardiac
accelerator) nerve;
3. To S.A. node / pacemaker;
4. Release of noradrenalin;
5. More impulses sent from / increased rate of discharge of
S.A. node /
pacemaker;
Not beats; not speeds up
6. Increased heart rate / increased stroke
volume;

Describe the role of the nervous system in


modifying the heart rate in response to an
increase in blood pressure.
Pressure receptors;
in aorta/carotid artery/sinus;
send impulses (award once only);
to medulla;
send impulses (award once only);
along parasympathetic / vagus pathway;
slows heart rate;

Impulses to SA node;
Along (branch of) vagus nerve;
Acetylcholine;
Decreases activity of SA node/equivalent;
Decreases rate of contraction/decreases heart rate/heartbeat;

Nervous
system
Heart

Heart rate increases during exercise. Describe the part


played by chemoreceptors and the medulla in increasing
heart rate.
chemoreceptors
(located in) carotid/aortic bodies/medulla;
detect high carbon dioxide levels/ H+/low pH;
due to increased respiration;
medulla
more impulses;
(from medulla) to SAN;
via sympathetic nervous system;
(accept converse reference to parasympathetic)
(send nervous) impulse to medulla / respiratory centre;
(3 max for part

Describe how the rate of heartbeat is increased as muscle


activity increases during exercise

Describe how the regular contraction of the atria and


ventricles is initiated and coordinated by the heart itself

Increase in carbon dioxide / hydrogen ions;


detection by / stimulation of chemoreceptors;
pressure receptors detect changes in blood pressure;
(receptors) in aorta / carotid arteries / medulla;
(cardio) acceleratory centre (in medulla) / cardiovascular
centre;
impulses via sympathetic nerves/system;
to SAN;
change in rate of impulse production by SAN;

(cardiac) muscle is myogenic;


sinoatrial node/SAN;
wave of depolarisation/impulses/electrical activity (across
atria);
initiates contraction of atria
atrioventricular node/AVN;
bundle of His/purkyne tissue spreads impulse across
ventricles;
ventricles contract after atria/time delay enables ventricles to
fill;

Describe the role of the nervous system in modifying the


heart rate in response to an increase in blood pressure.
Pressure receptors;
in aorta/carotid artery/sinus;
send impulses (award once only);
to medulla;
send impulses (award once only);
along parasympathetic / vagus pathway;
slows heart rate;

Nervous
system
Heart

Explain the effect of the parasympathetic


division of the autonomic nervous
system on cardiac output.

Impulses to SA node;
Along (branch of) vagus nerve;
Acetylcholine;
Decreases activity of SA
node/equivalent;
Decreases rate of contraction/decreases
heart rate/heartbeat;

Explain how nervous control in a human can cause


increased cardiac output during exercise.

Explain why increased cardiac output is an advantage during


exercise.

1. Coordination via medulla (of brain) / cardiac centre;

In exercise More energy release / more respiration / actively

2. (Increased) impulses along sympathetic (/ cardiac


accelerator) nerve;

respiring muscles / for aerobic respiration;


Higher cardiac output Increases O2 supply (to muscles);

3. To S.A. node / pacemaker;

Increases glucose supply (to muscles);

4. Release of noradrenalin;

Increases CO2 removal (from muscles) /

5. More impulses sent from / increased rate of


discharge of S.A. node /

lactate removal;

pacemaker;

Increases heat removal (from muscles) /

Not beats; not speeds up

for cooling;

6. Increased heart rate / increased stroke volume;


Nervous system heart

A woman takes moderate exercise. Explain what causes her


heart rate to increase while she exercises.
1. rate of respiration increases (in muscle cells);
2. carbon dioxide concentration increases / pH falls / H+
increases /
acidity increases;
3. in blood plasma;
4. chemoreceptors;
5. in aortic / carotid bodies / medulla (accept reference to
aorta /
carotid arteries not sinus);
6. (impulses to) medulla / cardioaccelerator centre;
7. increased frequency of impulses (award only once);
8. along sympathetic pathway;
9. to sinoatrial node/SAN (not pacemaker);

Explain how the connections of rod and cone cells


with neurones in the retina give rise to
differences in sensitivity and acuity

(i)

Rod cells allow us to see objects in dim light.


Explain how the connections of rod cells
to neurones in the retina make this
possible.

Several rod cells to each


neurone/bipolar cell;

Several rods have connections with one


neurone/ bipolar cell;
Idea of summation (of generator
potentials);
Exceed threshold;
Individual (generator potentials) do not
exceed threshold;

additive effect of light striking several rod cells;


(ii)

Each cone is
connected to a specific neurone;

light striking cone cells generating


separate action potentials;

eyes

Use the diagram to help you to explain how the structure of


the retina and its neuronal connections enable a person to
have sensitivity ion low light and acuity

Suggest why rod cells require a large


number of mitochondria.

i)

To maintain sodium pump/ active


transport of ions (from inner

Rod cells (responsible for sensitivity);

Several rods connected to each bipolar cell;


Additive effect of small amount of light striking several rod
cells;
creating a large enough depolarisation to generate an action
potential; max 3
(ii)

Cone cells (responsible for acuity);

Each cone cell connected to an individual neurone;


idea of light striking each individual cone cell to generate a
separate
action potential / impulse;
very small area of retina stimulated, so very accurate vision;

ATP/Energy required constantly/in dark;

segment);
Synthesis of rhodopsin / recombining
opsin & retinene;
Synthesis of transmitter.

Many birds have complex courtship displays involving


bright colours and stereotyped movements. For example, the
peacock attracts females by displaying its massive, brightlycoloured tail and at the same time vibrating its tail feathers.
Explain the benefits to the species of such elaborate
courtship displays, and suggest how they may have
evolved. (6)
Acts as (sign) stimulus for mating behaviour /activity by
female;
Assists species recognition;
Indicates fittest / healthy male;
Male with best display more likely to mate;
(More likely) to pass on genes;
Genes for features of display passed on;
More young from these males likely to survive;
Process repeated through many generations;
Good display linked with other features favouring survival.

Behaviour in the males of a species of cichlid fish. In this


some males are territorial while others are not. Territorial
males have flashy eyebars and reddish- orange patches on
their flanks, while the drab non-territorial males look rather
like females. The territory holders aggressively dominate
males without territories and only the territorial males can
breed. Should a territory holder die, a drab male will quickly
become colourful and behave as aggressively as the previous
owner. Being an underling in this species has dire
physiological consequences. Not only is reproductive
behaviour suppressed, but so is the entire system that links
the brain to the testes. The results are shrunken testes and a
low concentration of androgens. Dominant territorial fish, on
the other hand, have large testes and a high concentration of
androgens.
Suggest how the appearance and behaviour of male
cichlids are likely to lead to success in reproduction.(6)
See box on the right for answer

Give two ways in which courtship is important in species


such as sticklebacks.
enables male / female to recognise opposite sex;
enables recognition of own species;
synchronises mating behaviour;

Courtship
territorial signal / territory holder linked to
colour aggressiveness;
sex recognition;
species recognition;
sexual maturity;
courtship signal;
reduces conflict / warm off other males;
territorial / dominant males have larger testes /
more sperm;

Farmers sometimes give progesterone to sheep


to prevent ovulation. Explain how progesterone
prevents ovulation.

Explain how oral contraceptives containing progesterone


and oestrogen work. (5)
Oestrogen inhibits FSH;
prevents follicle developing;

1. Progesterone has negative feedback effect / inhibits


secretion of FSH/LH;

progesterone inhibits LH;

2. (FSH) stimulates follicle development / ( LH)


stimulates ovulation;

also inhibits FSH;


inhibits ovulation;
FSH and LH bring about ovulation

Female hormones

The relationship between oestrogen and LH is an


example of positive feedback. Explain how.
Answer showing understanding of positive feedback i.e.
more produces more / differs further;
Answer showing understanding of positive feedback
correctly linked to oestrogen and LH i.e. more
oestrogen produces more LH;;