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Index sentence structure and style tips, 447–48

verbs, 428–37

A accept, except, G717

A acronyms, periods with, 471
B a, an, 419–20, G717 active voice, 169, 250, 391(box), G769
C abbreviations, 509–13, choosing the, 390, 412

D explaining meaning of, 512–13 forming the, 388–89

forming plural of, 494, 495, 501 function of, 387
misusing, 512–13 A.D., B.C., C.E., B.C.E., G717
F period with, 470, 471, 511 addresses:
G possessive of, forming, 499–500 abbreviations in, 510–11
absolute phrases, G749 commas with, 461, 462
abstracts for social science papers, 673–74 numerals in, 514
I abstract words, 138–39 United States in, 510
J academic communities: adjective(s), G749
language expectations in, 128 comparatives, 265–66, 266–67(box), G753
specialized terms of, 128 compound, forming, 497
L academic disciplines: function of, 263
M abbreviation of, 512 misused as adverbs, 265
humanities, see humanities, writing in the nouns used as, 263
natural sciences, see natural sciences, phrases, see adjective phrases
O writing in the predicate, 249, 497, G763
P social sciences, see social sciences, proper, capitalizing, 503–4
writing in the superlatives, 265–66, 266–67(box), G753
academic English for nonnative speakers adjective (relative) clause(s), 303, G749
R (English as a second language), 417–49 overusing, 308
S articles and other determiners, 417–26, placement of, 305–6

T 426–27(box) punctuating, 306–7

gerunds, 437–40 subordination with, 303
infinitives, 437–40 adjective phrases, G749
V participles, 440–42 beginning with a preposition, 263
W possessives, 445 as modifiers, 263
prepositions, 446 adverb(s), G749–50
progressive verbs, 442–43 adjectives misused as, 265
Y pronouns, 444–45 comparatives, 265–67, 266–67(box), G753
Index alumnus, alumni, alumna, almunae, G720–21
American Chemical Society Style Guide: A Manual

A for Authors and Editors, 2nd ed. (Dodd, ed.),

conjunctive, see conjunctive adverbs
B forming, 264
American Grammar Book (Steer and Carlisi), 417
C function of, 264
American Institute of Physics, 682
phrases, see adverb phrases
D American Mathematical Society, 682
superlatives, 265–67, 266–67(box), G753
American Medical Association Manual of Style, 9th
E adverb clauses, 309–10, G750
ed. (Iverson et al.), 682
F faulty comparisons, avoiding, 314–15, G756
American Psychological Association style for
placement of, 312–13
G writing in the social sciences, see APA style
punctuating, 313
among, between, G721
H adverb phrases, G750
amoral, immoral, G721
I beginning with a preposition, 264–65
amount, number, G721
advice, advise, G717–18
J AMS Author Handbook: General Instructions for
affect, effect, G718
Preparing Manuscripts (American
K afraid, frightened, G731
Mathematical Society), 682
L agent in passive voice, 387, G750
an, a, 419–20, G717
M aggravate, irritate, G718
antecedent(s), G751
N choice of relative pronoun and, 303–5
pronoun-antecedent, see pronoun-
defined, 303, 330
O antecedent agreement
-pronoun agreement, see pronoun-
P subject-verb, see subject-verb agreement
antecedent agreement
AIP Style Manual, 4th ed. (American Institute of
Q use of pronouns with, 330
Physics), 682
use of pronouns without, 331
R airplanes, names of, 506
anthology, selection from an:
S all, 425–26
CMS system for, 668–69
all, almost, most, mostly, most all, G720
T MLA parenthetical style for, 591
all ready, already, G718
anxious, eager, G721
U all right, alright, G718–19
any, 424
V all together, altogether, G719
anyone, any one, G722
allude, refer, G719
W APA style, 674–81
allusion, delusion, illusion, G719–20
X almost, most, mostly, all, most all, G720
editorial, letter to the editor, or review,
Y a lot of, alot of, lots of, G736
Index see also determiners
articles (periodical):

A APA style, see APA style, articles

magazine, 678, 679
CMS system, see CMS (Chicago Manual of
B newspaper, 678–79
Style) system, books
C online magazine, 679
MLA parenthetical style, see MLA (Modern
online scholarly journal, 680
D Language Association) parenthetical style,
in reference book, 678
article or essay
E in scholarly journal, 678, 680
see also magazine articles; newspapers;
F books:
periodicals; scholarly journals
with an editor, 677
G artwork, MLA parenthetical style for, 599
edition after the first, 677
as, as if, like, G722
H more than one work by the same
assure, ensure, insure, G722
I author, 676–77
atlases, 528
by more than two authors, 676
J authorial primary sources, 564
by one author, 675
auxiliaries, G751
K source card for, 562–63
forming tenses with, 364
L translation, 677
modal auxiliaries and subjunctive mood,
M by two authors, 675–76
396–98, 429
capitalization, 675
N avenge, revenge, G722–23
format for research paper, 229
awfully, very, so, G746
O online magazine article, 679

P online scholarly journal article, 680

overview of, 674–75
Q bad, badly, G723
Web site, 680
bare form of a verb, G751
R apostrophe(s), 173, 494–95, 499–502
base (bare-bones) sentence, G751
S misuse of, 173, 501–2
base (or simple) predicate, G763
appositives, G751
T base verb, G751
defined, 268
B.C., C.E., B.C.E., A.D., G717
U placement of, 268
V punctuation of, 268
agreement with subjects, 351, 356
apt, likely, liable, G735
W in subjunctive mood, 399
article(s), G751
using verbs of action instead of, 412
X English as a second language, 417–26,
because, since, “being that,” G723
Y 426–27(box)
because of, due to, G728
Index subject case, 342–47
CBE style:

A citation-sequence system, 683

“being that,” because, since, G723
name-year system, 683
B beside, besides, G723
no author mentioned in text, 683, 684
C between, among, G721
online book, 685
Bible, MLA parenthetical style for documenting,
D online journal, 685
overview of, 683
E CMS (Chicago Manual of Style) system, see
single author mentioned in text, 683, 684
F CMS (Chicago Manual of Style) system
specific pages or paragraphs cited, 684
biology, documentation style for, 682
G three or more authors mentioned in text,
683, 684
H APA style, see APA style, books
two or more authors mentioned in text,
I CMS system, see CMS (Chicago Manual of
683, 684
Style) system, books
J two or more sources cited in one reference,
MLA parenthetical style, see MLA (Modern
K Language Association) parenthetical style,
Web site, 685
L books
M source card for, 562–63
MLA parenthetical style for, 597
subdivisions, abbreviation of, 512
N C.E., B.C.E., A.D., B.C., G717
titles, italics or underlining for, 507
censor, censure, G724
O both, 425–26
chapters of books, quotation marks for titles of,
P brackets to mark changes in quotation, 480

Q chemistry, documentation style for, 682

C Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed., 662, 663
R can hardly, can’t hardly, G724
see also CMS (Chicago Manual of Style)
S capital, capitol, G724
capitalization, 503–4, 507
T childish, childlike, G724
APA style, 675
cite, site, sight, G742–43
U capitalized letters, forming plural of, 494, 501
citing of sources:
V cardinal numbers, 425
parenthetical, 579–82
case, 342–47, G752
W see also documentation
object case, 342–47, G752
clause(s), G752
X possessive, see possessive case
adjective, see adjective (relative) clause(s)
Y reflexive/emphatic case, 342, 346–47
adverb, see adverb clauses
Index source card for, 562–63
by three or more authors, 664

A translations, 668
defined, 247
by two authors, 664
B independent, see independent clauses
citations of several works by same author;
C main, G758
follow-up reference, 663
nonrestrictive, see nonrestrictive elements
D citing source you have cited more than one
noun, see noun clauses
note earlier, 663
E relative, see adjective (relative) clause(s)
citing source your have just cited in
F restrictive, see restrictive elements
subordinate, see subordinate (dependent)
G note, 663
first reference to any book cited, 663
H clichés, 142–43
footnotes and endnotes, 662
I clip art, 217
general format for, 663
CMS (Chicago Manual of Style) system, 662–72
J Ibid., use of, 663
online articles, 672
K anthology selection, 668–69
online books, 671
L in a journal with yearly volume
collective nouns, G752
M numbers, 669–70
subject-verb agreement and, 358
magazine, 669
N colloquialisms, 132
in a newspaper, 670–71
colon, 467–68
O online, 671–72
with quotation marks, 475, 476
P in reference book, signed, 670
Columbia Guide to Online Style, 593
in reference book, unsigned, 670
Q comma(s), 463(box)
with addresses, 461, 462
R chapter in a, 666
with adjective clauses, 306–7
S with corporate author, 668
with adverb clauses, 313
edited, with focus on editor, 665
T with appositives, 268
edited, with focus on original author,
comma splice, 172, 290–91, 455, G752
U 665
in compound sentences, 285–86
V edition other than the first, 666–67
after a conjunction, 454
with editor(s), 665–66
W before conjunctions, 453–54, 460
by one author, 663–64
after conjunctive adverb at beginning of
X online, 671
sentence or clause, 455
Y reprints, 667
with conjunctive adverbs, 288–89
Index compound sentences, 284–93, 319, G754
and, overusing, 286

A comma splice, 172, 290–91

with dates, 461, 462
complex-, G754
B with greetings, 461
conjunctions to form, 285–86
C after introductory elements, 455
conjunctive adverbs used to form, 287–89
with items in a series, 459–60
D defined, 284
with large numbers, 462
joining independent clauses to form,
E with names, 461–62
284–89, 289(box)
F with nonrestrictive elements, 456–57
punctuation of, 285–86, 287
to prevent a misreading, 461
G run-on (fused) sentences, 171, 292–93
with quotation marks, 475–76
sequence of tenses in, 378–79
H with restrictive elements, 270, 306–7,
I 457–58
Internet, see Internet and cyberspace
separating basic parts of a sentence, 172
J notetaking on, 582
between a subject and its predicate, 463–64
spell checkers, 490
K with titles or degrees after a person’s name,
concessions in argument, making, 199
L 461
concise, striving to be, see wordiness
M between a verb and its object, 464
concrete words, 138–39, 170
N conditional sentences, 400–401, G754
imperative mood for, see imperative mood
misusing would have, 401
O mild, period to mark end of, 470
conjunctions, G754
P community, using language of a, see language
comma after, 172, 454
companies, abbreviation of names of, 511
Q comma before, 453–54, 460
comparatives, 265–67, 266–67(box), G753
compound sentences formed with, 285–86
R compare, comparison, contrast, G724
conjunctive adverbs, G754
S complement, compliment, G725–26
defined, 287
complex sentences, G753
T forming compound sentences with, 287–89
compound-, G754
punctuation with, 288–89, 465
U defined, 302
connotation of words, 136
V forming of, 302
conscience, conscious, G726
sequence of tenses in, 379–81
W consul, council, counsel, G726–27
see also subordination
contexts, see rhetorical contexts
X compound phrases, 256–57, G754
continual, continuous, G726
Y contractions, 501
Index declarative sentences, 253, G755
period to mark end of, 470

A definite pronouns, G764

contrast, compare, comparison, G724–25
B coordinating conjunctions, see conjunctions
dictionary, 152
C coordination, 284–93, G754–55
delusion, illusion, allusion, G719–20
subordination used together with, 319
D demonstratives, 424
untangling sentences and, 323
denotation of words, 134–35
E see also compound sentences
dependent clauses, see subordinate (dependent)
F corporate author:
CMS style for, 668
G determiners, 417–26, 426–27(box), G755
MLA parenthetical style for, 586–87
a, an, and the, 419–23
H correlatives, G755
all, both, half, and other predeterminers,
I defined, 296
used with parallelism, 296
J any, no, and not, 424
could care less, couldn’t care less, G726
cardinal numbers, 425
K council, counsel, consul, G726–27
with countable and uncountable nouns,
L Council of Biology Editors, 682, 683
M Council of Science Editors, 682–83
defined, 417
credible, credulous, G727
N demonstratives (this, that, these, those), 424
criterion, criteria, G727
few, several, and many, 425
O cyberspace, see Internet and cyberspace
much and little, 425
P ordinal numbers, 424
D placement of, 417–18
dangling modifiers, 281, G755
diction, 131–33
R dash(es), 268, 485–86
dictionary usage labels and, 152–53
S misuse of, 486
editing for, 170
data, G727
T highly formal, 132
informal or low level, 132
U abbreviation of terms in, 510
middle level, 131–32
V apostrophe to mark omission of numbers
mixed levels of, 133
in, 501
W dictionaries:
commas with, 461, 462
definitions, 152
X numerals in, 514
etymology, 153
Y days of the week, abbreviation of, 512
parts of speech, 152
Index due to, 149
due to, because of, G728

pronunciation, 152
B as research source, 525 E
C spelling, 152 eager, anxious, G721
syllable division, 152 Editing faulty predication, 259–60
synonyms, 153 editorials:
E usage labels, 152–53 APA style, 679
F using the, 151–53 MLA parenthetical style, 590, 595–96
verb usage, 153 effect, affect, G718
word forms, 152, 153 Electronic Style (Li and Crane) (1993), 681
H different from, different than, G727 Electronic Styles: A Handbook for Citing Electronic
I differ from, differ with, G727 Information (Li and Crane) (1996), 672, 681
direct object, 249, G761 ellipsis dots, 480–81
direct reporting, 403–4, G755–56 email
K of questions, 406, 407–8 MLA parenthetical style, 596
L using tenses in tags, 403–4 emigrate, immigrate, G732

M when to use, 403 eminent, imminent, immanent, G728

disinterested, uninterested, G727–28 emphasis, misuse of quotation marks for, 482
do, 429–30 emphatic/reflexive case, 342, 346–47, G752
O documentation: encyclopedias

P CMS system, see CMS (Chicago Manual of CMS system for bibliographies, 670
Style) system end marks, see exclamation point; period;
in the humanities, see CMS (Chicago Manual question mark
R of Style) system endnotes, CMS system, see CMS (Chicago Manual
S MLA parenthetical style, see MLA (Modern of Style) system
Language Association) parenthetical style English as a second language, see academic
in the natural sciences, 682–85 English for nonnative speakers
U CBE style, see CBE style ensure, insure, assure, G722
V in the social sciences, see APA style envelop, envelope, G728–29
does, 429–30 essays:
double negatives, 267–68, G756 MLA parenthetical style, see MLA (Modern
X drama, see plays Language Association) parenthetic style,
Y article or essay

Index footnotes, CMS system, see CMS (Chicago Manual
of Style) system

A foreign words and expressions:

quotation marks for, 507
italics or underlining to identify, 506
B et al., etc., G729
subject-verb agreement, 359
C etc., et al., G729
formally, former, formerly, G730
D former, formerly, formally, G730
in dictionaries, 153
fractions, slash in, 488
E euphemisms, 146
frightened, afraid, G731
F every, subjects beginning with, 358
full-sentence outline, 577–78
everyday, every day, G729
G fun, G731
further, farther, G729–30
H colon to introduce, 467
fused sentences, see run-on (fused) sentences
I except, accept, G717
future perfect tense:
exclamation point, 473
J common, 370
with quotation marks, 476
forming the, 364
K expletives, 253, 448, G756
progressive form of, 370
L using the, 370
M F future tense:

N factor, G729 common, 369

farther, further, G729–30 forming the, 264
fatal, fateful, G730 progressive, 369–70
P fateful, fatal, G730 using the, 369–70

Q faulty comparisons, 314–15, 315, G756

faulty parallelism, 297, G756
faulty predication, 259–60, G756
game scores, numerals for, 514
S faulty tense shifts, 382–84, 386(box), G756
gender, G757
T few, 425
-inclusive language, 128–29
few, little, less, G730
U pronoun-antecedent agreement in, 336
figurative language, 140–41
V films:
hasty, 197
W italics or underlining for titles of, 507
general words, 138–39
MLA parenthetical style for, 597
X geographical entities not part of an address, 512
flaunt, flout, G730
geology, documentation style for, 682
Y flout, flaunt, G730
Index documenting sources, CMS (Chicago Manual
of Style) system

A organization of material, 660–62

Geowriting: A Guide to Writing, Editing, and
see also literature, writing about
B Printing in Earth Science, 5th ed. (Bates et al.
hung, hanged, G731
C eds.), 682
hyphen(s), 496–98
gerunds, 252, 437–40, G757
adding the possessive before, 260–61, 500
E glossary:
idioms, 143–44, 446
F of grammatical terms, G749–69
if clauses in conditional sentences, 400–401
of usage, G717–47
G illusion, delusion, allusion, G719–20
good, well, G731
immigrate, emigrate, G732
H got to, has to, have to, G731–32
imminent, immanent, eminent, G728
I government publications:
immoral, amoral, G721
MLA parenthetical style for documenting,
J imperative mood, 395–96, G759
omitting the subject in imperative sentence,
K grammar:
254, 447
L glossary of grammatical terms, G749–69
imply, infer, G732
M see also specific elements of grammar
in, into, in to, G732–33
greetings, commas with, 461, 462
N In Brief boxes:
group identity:
active voice, 391
O language unique to, 127
agreement of subject and verb, 360
P using respectful terms, 130
commas, use of, 463

Q comparatives, 266–67
H compound sentences, forming, 289
half, 425–26 determiners, 426–27
S hanged, hung, G731 faulty tense shifts, 386

T has to, have to, got to, G731–32 interviews, conducting, 571
headword, G757 invigorating your style, 414
helping verbs, see auxiliaries joining independent clauses, 289
V homonyms, 172–73, 493 misused modifiers, spotting, 282
W hopefully, G732 participles, 271
human, humane, G732 passive voice, 391
humanities, writing in the: phrasal verbs, 436–37
Y asking questions when, 660 pronoun reference, obstacles to clear, 336
Index split, 275, G766–67
tenses of, 371

A infinitive phrases, G758

sentence fragments, 327
as modifiers, 274–75
B subject, writing the, 253
informational primary sources, 564
C subject-verb agreement, 360
insure, ensure, assure, G722
subordinate clauses, 317
D Internet and cyberspace:
superlatives, 266–67
APA style to document:
E tense shifts, faulty, 386
online magazine article, 679
F tenses of verbs, 376
online scholarly journal article, 680
verb-subject agreement, 360
G Web site, 680
verb types, 250–51
CBE style:
H voice, 391
online book, 685
I incredible, incredulous, G733
online journal, 685
indefinite pronouns, 331, 334, G764
J Web site, 685
forming possessive of, 500
CMS system to document:
K you and your, 334
online article, 671–72
L independent clause(s), G757
online book, 671
M defined, 284
email, 596
joining, 284–89, 289(box)
N MLA parenthetical style to document
index cards, notetaking on, 582
online sources, see MLA (Modern
O indicative mood, 395, 400
Language Association) parenthetical style,
P indirect object, 249, G761
electronic sources
indirect questions, period to mark the end of,
Q as research source, 520, 541–59
APA style for documenting, 678–80
R indirect reporting, G755–56
CBE style for documenting, 685
S misuse of quotation marks in, 482
CMS system for documenting, 671–72
of questions, 407–8, 472
T MLA (Modern Language Association)
of statements, 404–5
parenthetical style for documenting,
U infer, imply, G732
see MLA parenthetical style, electronic
V inferior to, inferior than, G733
infinitive(s), 252, 437–40, G758
W interrogative pronoun, G758, G764
as modifier, 274–75
interrogative sentence, G758
X perfect, 371, G762
Y phrases, see infinitive phrases
dashes with, 485
Index online, 594–95
source card for, 562–63

parentheses with, 485, 487
B interviews:
kind of, sort of, G734
C MLA parenthetical style for, 597
kinship, capitalization rules for terms of, 504
into, in to, in, G732–33
intransitive verbs, 153, 249, G768
E invigorating your style, 414(box) L
F by asking questions, 413 language:
by cutting unnecessary words, 413 academic community, expectations in, 128
using active voice more often than the being respectful of other groups, 130
H passive, 412 diction, see diction
I using verbs of action instead of be, 412 figurative, 140–41
by varying sentences, 410–11 gender-inclusive, 128–29
irregardless, regardless, G742 group identity and, 127, 128(ex)
K irregular verbs, G765 sexist, 128
L past participle of, 269 see also words

M principle parts of, 363, 372–75(table) later, latter, G734

irritate, aggravate, G718 lay, lie, G735
italics, use of, 505–6, 507, 508 lead, led, G734
O its, it’s, 501, G733–34 learn, teach, G734

P leave, let, G734

lectures, MLA parenthetical style for, 598
led, lead, G734
jargon, 145–46
R less, little, few, G730
S APA style for articles in scholarly, 678, 680
let, leave, G735
let’s, let us, G735
T CMS system for articles in, with yearly
volume numbers, 669–70
U apostrophe to mark omission of, in
italics or underlining for titles of, 507
V MLA parenthetical style for documenting:
contractions, 501
capitalized, forming plural of, 494, 501
W articles in, see MLA (Modern Language
as letters, italics or underlining of, 506
Association) parenthetical style, article
X in lists, punctuation with, 471
or essay
Y lowercase, forming plural of, 495

Index CMS system for documenting, 669
MLA parenthetical style for documenting,

A 588
letters to the editor, APA style for documenting,
quotation marks for, 507
B 679
source card for, 562–63
C liable, apt, likely, G735
magazine titles, italics or underlining for, 507
lie, lay, G735
D main clause, G758
like, as, as if, G722
main verb, G758–59
E likely, apt, liable, G735
Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and
F linguistics, documentation style for, 682
Dissertations, 6th ed. (Turabian) (rev.
Linguistics Society of America, 682
G Grossman and Bennett), 663
linking verbs, 447–48, G758
many, 425
H lists:
many, much, G736
I colon to introduce, 467
mathematical ratios, numerals for, 514
period to mark letters or numbers in
J mathematics, documentation style for, 682
vertical, 471
maybe, may be, G736
K semicolon, misuse of, 466
L literary works:
abbreviation of units of, 512
M MLA parenthetical style, see MLA (Modern
apostrophe in common phrases of, 500–501
Language Association) parenthetical style,
N numerals for exact, 514
literary work
mechanics, 503–15
O writing about, see literature, writing about
medicine, documentation style for, 682
P literature, see also humanities, writing in the
metaphors, 140–41
little, 425
Q mixed, 142
little, less, few, G730
might have, might of, G736
R loose, lose, G736
minority groups, using respectful terms for, 130
S lose, loose, G736
misplaced modifiers, 278–79, 282(box), G759
lots of, a lot of, alot of, G736
T misspelling, see spelling
LSA Bulletin, 682
mixed constructions, 258, G759
mixed metaphor, 142
V M MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
W machine-readable documents, MLA (Gibaldi), 579
parenthetical style for, 597 MLA (Modern Language Association)
magazine articles: parenthetical style, 579–82, 599, 662
Y APA style for documenting, 678, 679 article or essay, 588–92
Index soucre card for, 562–63
translation, 586

A by two or three authors, 583

anthology, work from an, 591
electronic sources, 593–96
B in daily newspaper, signed, 589
email, 596
C in daily newspaper, unsigned, 590
general format, 593
editorial, 590
D online book, 596
essay or any other short work in book,
online editorial, 595–96
E 588
online journal, 594–95
F in monthly magazine, 588
online newspaper, 595
online, 594–96
G online posting, 596
in reference book, 589
World Wide Web, 594
H in scholarly journal, 589
literary work, 592–93
I work in a collection with more than one
play with act, scene, and line number(s),
editor, 591
J 592
works from different authors cited from
poem with numbered lines, 592–93
K one book, 591–92
poem with numbered sections and
L Bible, 587
numbered lines, 592–93
M books, 583–87
other media or source:
afterword, 585
N artwork, 599
Bible, 587
CD-ROM, 597
O corporate author, 586–87
interview, 597
P edition after the first, 586
lecture, 598
with editor, 584
Q machine-readable document, 597
foreword, 585
movie, 597
R by four or more authors, 583–84
performance, 598
S government publications, 587
recording, 598
introduction, 585
T speech, 599
material quoted by your source, 585
television program, 598
U more than one book by the same
parenthetical citing, 580–81
V author, 584
steps in, 579
multivolume work, 585
W works cited, listing of, 582
by one author, 583
MLA (Modern Language Association) style:
X online, 596
of documentation, see MLA (Modern
Y reprint, 586
Language Association) parenthetical style
Index most, mostly, most all, all, almost, G720
most all, mostly, most, all, almost, G720

A movies, see films

periods in abbreviations, 470
much, 425
B modal auxiliaries and subjunctive mood,
much, many, G736
C 396–98, 429, G759
musical compositions:
Modern Language Association style, see MLA
D italics or underlining for titles of, 507
(Modern Language Association) style
MLA parenthetical style for, 598
E modifiers, 262–83, G759
musicals, italics or underlining for titles of, 507
F adjectives, see adjectives
adverbs, see adverbs
appositives, see appositives
H comparatives, 265–67, 266–67(box), G753
commas with, 461, 462
I dangling, 281, G755
see also personal titles or degrees
defined, 254
J natural sciences, writing in the, 681–85
function of, 262
K infinitives and infinitive phrases, 274–75
documenting sources, 682–85

L CBE style, see CBE style

misplaced, 278–79, 282(box), G759
organization of material, 681–82
M nonrestrictive, G765–66
Newbury House Dictionary of American English,
participles, see participle phrases;
N 417
O newspapers:
placement of, 277–78
APA style for articles in, 678–79
P restricters, 279, G765
CMS system for articles in, 670–71
spotting misused, 282(box)
Q italics or underlining for titles of, 507
squinting, 279, G767
R superlatives, 265–67, 266–67(box), G753
MLA parenthetical style for articles in, see
MLA (Modern Language Association)
S money, using numerals for sums of, 514
parenthetical style, article or essay
months of the year, abbreviation of, 512
T no, 424
mood, 391–401, G759
U conditional sentences, 400–401
none too, not too, not very, G737
nonnative speakers, academic English for, see
V defined, 395
academic English for nonnative speakers
imperative, see imperative mood
W nonrestrictive elements, 457
indicative, 395, 400
X subjunctive, see subjunctive mood
commas with, 456–57
modifiers, G765–66
Y moral, morale, G736–37

Index defined, 251
novels, 622–24

A nowhere, nowheres, G737

see also restrictive elements
number, G760
B Norton Textra Writer, 582
pronoun-antecedent agreement in, 337–39
C not, 424
subject-verb agreement in, 354–59
notetaking, 562–63
D numbers, 494
with a computer, 582
cardinal, 425
E on index cards, 582
commas with large, 461
F not too, none too, not very, G737
forming plurals of numbers written as
not very, none too, not too, G737
G words, 494, 501
noun(s), G760
hyphen with written out, 498
H case, 499–500, G752
ordinal, 424
I collective, 358
using numerals or spelling out, 513–14
compound, 495, 497–98, 500
J number (word):
countable and uncountable, 418
amount, G721
K defined, 251
as subject, 359
L of measurement, 358
M modified, 357
clarifying a spelled out number, parentheses
phrases, see noun phrases
N to enclose, 487
pluralizing compound, 495
in lists, punctuation of, 471, 487
O pluralizing simple, 493–95, 501
spelling out numbers or using, 513–14
P possessive case of, 499–500, G752
predicate, 249, G763
proper, see proper nouns
R spelled the same way in singular and plural,
object, G760–61
complement, 250, G761
S 358
direct, 249, G761
verbal, see verbal nouns
T indirect, 249, G761
noun clauses, G760
U functions of, 316
of a preposition, G761
object case, 342–47, G752
V subject-verb agreement and, 356
OK, O.K., okay, G737
using, 316
W Online! A Reference Guide (Harnack and
noun equivalent, G760
X noun marker, see determiners
Kleppinger), 672
online sources, see Internet and cyberspace
Y noun phrases, G760

Index tenses of, 371, 440–42
participle phrases, 269, G762

A defined, 269
only, G737
punctuating, 270
B Opera News, 127
particle, G761
C operas, italics or underlining for titles of, 507
passed, past, G738
ordinal numbers, 424
D passive voice, 250, 391(box), G769
organizations, abbreviation of names of, 511
the agent in, 387
E ourselves, ourself, G737–38
choosing the, 390–91, 412
F forming the, 388–89
G P function of, 387
page numbers, numerals for, 514 misuse of, 391
paragraphs: progressive form compared to, 389
I sequence of tenses in, 381–82, 383–84 past, passed, G738
J tense shifts in, 381–82, 383–84 past perfect tense:
parallel construction(s), G761 common, 368
faulty, 297, G756 forming the, 364
L progressive form of, 368
reasons for, 294–95
M using correlatives with, 296 using the, 368, 371

N writing, 295 past tense:

parallelism, see parallel construction(s) common, 367–68
parentheses, 486–87 in direct reporting, 403
P citing of sources in, 579–82 forming the, 364

Q to clarify a point, 486–87 progressive, 368

interruptions set off by, 485, 487 using the, 367–68
with letters or numerals in a list, 471, 487 perfect infinitive, 371, G762
S punctuation of parenthetical elements, 487 perfect participle(s), 269, 371, G762

T for side comments, 486–87 performances, MLA parenthetical style for, 598
sparing use of, 487 period, 470–72, 511
participle(s), 268–71, 271(box), 440–42, G761 misuse of, 471–72
V defined, 269 with quotation marks, 476
W past, 269, 270, 440–42 spacing after, 470
perfect, 269, 371, G762 periodicals, source card for, 562–63
present, 269, 371, 440–42 persecute, prosecute, G738
Y punctuating, 270 person, G762
Index of nouns, 493–95, 501
of numbers, 494, 501

A poetry:
personal, personnel, G738
italics or underlining for titles of long
B personal titles or degrees:
poems, 507
C abbreviation of, 509
MLA parenthetical style for, 592–93
capitalization rules, 504
D quotation marks for titles of, 508
commas with, 461
quoting, 404, 478–79
E personnel, personal, G738
political entities:
F persuasion, 619
abbreviation of, 510
phenomenon, phenomena, G738–39
G periods with abbreviations of, 471
phrasal verbs, 431–35, 436(box)
poor, poorly, G739
H phrases, G762
positive form of adjectives and adverbs, G753
I absolute, G749
possessive case, 445, 499–501, G752
adjective, see adjective phrases
J of abbreviations, forming, 499–500
adverb, see adverb phrases
of nouns, 499–500, G752
K compound, 256–57, G754
of pronouns, 342–47, 445, 501, G752
L double quotation marks to enclose, 474,
before a gerund, 260–61, 500
M 475
precede, proceed, proceeds, proceedings, procedure,
figurative, 140–41
N G739
infinitive, see infinitive phrases
predeterminers, 425–26, G763
O misused, 170
predicate, G763
P noun, see noun phrases
base or simple, G763
participle, see participle phrases
Q faulty predication, 259–60, G756
prepositional, G763
function of the, 247
R verb, see verb phrases
verb or verb phrase as part of, 248
S physics, documentation style for, 682
predicate adjective, 249, 497, G763
plagiarism, 571–73
T predicate noun, 249, G763
prefixes, 492, 498
U italics or underlining for titles of, 507
prepositional phrases, G763
V MLA parenthetical style for, 592
prepositions, 446, G763
W adjectives phrases that begin with, 263
of abbreviations, 494, 495, 501
adverb phrases that begin with, 264–65
X apostrophes and, 499–501
idioms using, 143–44
Y of capitalized letters, 494, 501
object of, G761
Index ambiguous, 332
-antecedent agreement, see pronoun-

A antecedent agreement
present perfect tense:
with antecedents, using, 330
B common, 367
without antecedents, using, 331
C forming the, 364
broad reference, 332
progressive form of, 367, 443
D case, 171, 342–47, G752
using the, 367, 371
clear use of, 331
E present tense:
defined, 330, 444
F common, 365–66, 370, 443
definite, G764
in direct reporting, 404
G faulty shifts in pronoun reference, 341
forming the, 363
fixed in number, 355
H of infinitives, 371
free-floating they and it, 333–34
I of participles, 371
function of, 252
progressive, 366, 442–43
J gender-inclusive, 129
subject-verb agreement in, 350
indefinite, see indefinite pronouns
K using the, 365–66
interrogative, G758, G764
L pretentious words, 146
modified, 357
M primary sources, 564, 660
muffled reference, 332–33
principal, principle, G739–40
N object case, 342–47
principal parts, G764
personal, case of, 342–47, G752
O irregular verbs, 363, 372–75 (table)
possessive case, see possessive case, of
P regular verbs, 363
principle, principal, G739–40
Q reflexive/emphatic case, 342, 346–47
proceed, proceeds, proceedings, precede, procedure,
relative, see relative pronouns
R G739
remote reference, 334
S process, explaining a, see explaining a process
subject case, 342–47
progressive forms of verbs, 364, 442–43, G753
T unclear reference, 332–34, 336(box)
passive voice compared to, 389
variable in number, 354–356
U see also specific tenses, e.g. present tense,
who, whoever, use of, 345
V progressive form of
whom, whomever, use of, 345
pronoun-antecedent agreement, G750
W proofreading, spell checkers distinguished from,
in gender, 336
X in number, 337–39
proper nouns:
Y pronouns, 444–45, G764
capitalizing, 503–4
Index prose, several lines of, 404
within quotations, 475

A tags with, 403–4, 474, 476

examples of, 503–4
of verse, 404, 478–79
B prosecute, persecute, G738
see also quotation marks
C Publication Manual of the American Psychological
quote, quotation, G740
Association, 4th ed., 674
race, using respectful terms for, 130
F question mark, 472, 511
radio programs, italics or underlining for titles
with quotation marks, 476–77
G of, 507
H direct reporting of, 406, 407–8
raise, rise, G740–41
rational, rationale, rationalize, G741
I indirect, period to mark the end of, 470
Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature, 536, 538
indirect reporting of, 407–8, 472
J real, really, G741
invigorating your style with, 413
K question mark at end of direct, 472
reason . . . is that, reason . . . is because, G741

L recordings, MLA parenthetical style for, 598

quotation, quote, G740
redundancy, 148
M quotation marks, 403, 474–77
refer, allude, G719
double, 474
N reference book, articles in:
misusing, 482
O APA style, 678
with other punctuation, 475–77
CMS system, 670
P quoting words, phases, and short passages
MLA parenthetical style, 589
of prose, 474, 475, 482
Q reflexive/emphatic case, 342, 346–47, G752
single, 475, 508
R special uses of, 482
regardless, irregardless, G742
regular verbs, G764–65
S titles in, 482, 507, 508
principal parts of, 363
T relative clause, see adjective (relative) clause(s)
changes in, marking, 480–81
U colon to introduce, 467
relative pronouns, 303, G765
choosing, based on the antecedent, 303–5
V of extended dialogue, 404
religious groups, using respectful terms for, 130
fitting into prose, 408–9
W reporting, direct and indirect, see direct
of long prose passages, 477–78
X marking changes in, 480–81
reporting; indirect reporting
reprints, CMS system for book, 667
Y misfitted, 408–9

Index secondary sources, 660, 661
semicolon, 465–66

A in compound sentences, 286, 287, 465

requests, imperative mood for, see imperative
with conjunctive adverbs, 288–89, 465
B mood
misuse of, 466
C research sources:
with quotation marks, 476
secondary, 660, 661
D sentence adverb, see conjunctive adverbs
see also specific types of sources, e.g.
sentence fragments, 325, 471, G766
E encyclopedias
defined, 325
F respectively, respectfully, respectably, G742
spotting and editing, 326–27, 327(box)
restricters, G765
G using and misusing, 325–26
restrictive elements, 457
sentences, G766
H adjective clauses, 307
complex, see complex sentences
I commas with, 270, 306–7, 457–58
compound, see compound sentences
modifiers, 279, G765
J conditional, 400–401, G754
participle phrases, 270
coordination of, see coordination
K see also nonrestrictive elements
declarative, 253, G755
L revenge, avenge, G722–23
English as a second language, tips for,
M rhyme, 622
rise, raise, G740–41
N fragments, see sentence fragments
run-on (fused) sentences, 293–93, G766
imperative, see imperative mood
S interrogative, G758
P salutation of a letter, colon following the, 467 one-clause or simple, 247–61

Q scholarly journals: parallel construction, see parallel

APA style for documenting articles in, 678, construction(s)
680 run-on (fused), 292–93, G766
S italics or underlining for titles of, 507 simple, 247–61, G766

T MLA parenthetical style for documenting subordination, see subordination

articles in, 589 tense shifts in, see sequence of tenses
sciences, natural, see natural sciences, writing in untangling, 323
V the varying length and structure of, 410–11
W Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for sequence of tenses, 378–86, G766
Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 6th ed. in complex sentences, 379–81
(Council of Biology Editors), 682, 683 in compound sentences, 378–79
Y seasons, 504 defined, 378
Index Social Sciences Index, The, 537
some, 424

A sometimes, sometime, G743

faulty tense shifts, 382–84, 386(box), G756
somewhere, somewheres, G743
B in paragraphs, 381–82, 383–84
songs, quotation marks for titles of, 508
C series, items in a:
sort of, kind of, G734
commas with, 459–60
D sources, see research sources
dashes with, 485
specialized terms:
E serif fonts, 213–14
of academic community, 128
F set, sit, G742
group identity and, 127
several, 425
G specifics, strengthening texture by interweaving
sexist language, 128
generalizations with, 161–62
H ships, names of, 506
specific words, 138–39, 170
I short stories:
quotation marks for titles of, 508
J MLA parenthetical style for, 599
sic, marking misspellings in quotations with,
quotation marks for titles of, 508
K 480
L sight, cite, site, G742–43
adding prefixes, 492
M similes, 140–41
adding suffixes, 491–92
simple sentences, 247–61, G766
N checking the dictionary, 152, 173
coordinating to form compound sentences,
demons, keeping a list of your, 491
O see compound sentences
editing, 172–73
P simple subject, G767
homonyms, 172–73, 493
since, because, “being that,” G723
Q marking misspellings in quotations, 480
sit, set, G742
pluralizing compound nouns, 495
R site, cite, sight, G742–43
pluralizing simple nouns, 493–95
S slang, 132, 133
spell checkers, computer, 490
slash, 487–88
T split infinitives, 275, G766–67
so, very, awfully, G746
squinting modifiers, 279, G767
U Social Science Citation Index, 564
states, abbreviations for, 510–11
V social sciences, writing in the, 672–81
stationary, stationery, G743
abstracts, 673–74
W statistics:
asking questions when, 657, 659(box), 672
citing sources of, 185
X documenting sources, see APA style
compilations of, 528
Y organization of material, 672–73
as evidence, 185
Index special verbal forms in, 398–99
using the, 396–99

A subordinate (dependent) clauses, 317(box), 319,

statue, statute, G743–44
B subject(s), 251–52, 253(box), 447, G767
adjective clauses, see adjective (relative)
C agreement with verb, see subject-verb
D adverb clauses, see adverb clauses
complete, G767
defined, 302
E compound, made with and, 357
noun, see noun clauses
F every, beginning with, 358
subordinate verb, G768
finding, 354
G subordination, 317(box), G768
function of the, 247
with adjective clauses, see adjective
H inversion of subject-verb order, 253
(relative) clause(s)
I number of the, recognizing, 354–59
with adverb clauses, see adverb clauses
omitting the, 254
J coordination used together with, 319
placement of, in declarative sentence, 253
with noun clauses, 316
K simple, G767
purpose of, 300–2
L -verb agreement, see subject-verb agreement
subordinate (dependent) clauses, see
M subject case, 342–47
subordinate (dependent) clauses
subject complement, 249, G767
N subordinators, see subordinators
subject headings to locate research sources,
untangling sentences and, 323
O 529–31
subordinators, 310–12, G768
P Library of Congress, 530–31
relations signaled by, 312
subject-verb agreement, 349–59, 360(box), 428,
Q such a, G744
suffixes, adding, 491–92
R academic English, guidelines for, 351–53
superlatives, 265–67, 266–67(box), G753
S be, 351, 356
supposed to, suppose to, G744
defined, 349
T synonyms:
dialectical mistakes in, 351–53
dictionary entries, 153
U examples in different languages, 349
thesaurus for, 153
V finding the subject, 354
number of the subject, 354–59
in present tense, 350
X subjunctive mood, 395, G760
teach, learn, G734
television shows:
Y modal auxiliaries in, 396–98, 429

Index then, than, G744
there, their, they’re, G745

A therefore, thus, thusly, G745

italics or underlining for titles of, 507
thesaurus, 153
B MLA parenthetical style for, 598
these, 424
C tenses of verbs, 362–75, 376(box), 428, G768
they’re, there, their, G745
auxiliaries, formed with, 364
D this, 424
common and progressive forms, 364, G753
those, 424
E faulty shifts in, see sequence of tenses
thus, therefore, thusly, G745
F forming the, 363–64
time (of day):
future, see future tense
G abbreviation of terms specifying, 510
future perfect, see future perfect tense
apostrophe in common phrases of, 500–501
H infinitives, 371
colon to separate hours and minutes in,
I misusing, 370–71
participles, 371
J spelling out numbers or using numerals for,
past, see past tense
K past perfect, see past perfect tense
verb tenses and, 362
L the present, see present tense
M present perfect, see present perfect tense
capitalization rules, 504, 507
principal parts of irregular verbs, 363,
N italicizing or underlining, 506, 507
personal, see personal titles or degrees
O principal parts of regular verbs, 363
in quotation marks, 482
P progressive forms, 364
see also specific types of works, e.g. books
sequence of, see sequence of tenses
Q to, too, G745
shifts in, faulty, see sequence of tenses
too, to, G745
R in subjunctive mood, 398–99
tracking your sources, 562–63
S time and, 362
transitive verbs, 249–50, G768
than, then, G744
T translation of a book:
that, 424
APA style for, 677
U that, which, who, G744
CMS system for, 668
V the, using, 420–23
MLA parenthetical style for, 586
the fact that, 149
W try to, try and, G745
their, there, they’re, G745
type, G745
X theirselves, theirself, themselves, G744
Y themselves, theirselves, theirself, G744

Index agreement
subordinate, G768

A tenses, see tenses of verbs

U transitive, 153, 249–50
uncertainty within a statement, question mark types of, 248–50, 250–51(box)
C to indicate, 472 voice, see voice

D underlining, 505–6, 507, 508 see also mood; voice

Understanding and Using English Grammar verbal nouns, 252, G769
(Schrampfer), 417 gerunds, see gerunds
F unfinished remarks, dash to indicate, 485–86 infinitive, 252
G uninterested, disinterested, G727–28 subject-verb agreement and, 356
unique, G746 verb phrases, G769
United States, abbreviation of, 510 as element of the predicate, 248
I untangling sentences, 323 forming, 429
J URLs (Uniform Resource Locators), 543 mood, see mood
used to, use to, G746 parts of, 248
verse, see poetry
L very, awfully, so, G746
M verb(s), G769
virgule, 487–88

N voice, 387–91, 391(box), G769

of action, 412
active, see active voice
O agreement with subject, see subject-verb
function of, 387
P passive, see passive voice
auxiliary of “helping,” 248
Q as element of the predicate, 248

R intransitive, 153, 249, G768 W

inversion of subject-verb order, 253 wait for, wait on, G746
linking, 248–49, 447–48, G758 way, ways, G746
T main, G758–59 Web sites, see Internet and cyberspace; Web
U mood, see mood page design
phrasal, 431–35, 436(box) well, good, G731
phrases, see verb phrases were, we’re, G747
W placement of, in declarative sentence, 253 which, that, who, G744
X sequence of tenses, see sequence of tenses who, that, which, G744
-subject agreement, see subject-verb whose, who’s, 502, G747

wordiness, 413
B words:

C choosing the right, 155(box)

connotation of, 136
denotation of, 134–35
E euphemisms, 146
F figurative, 140–41
general or abstract, 138–39
idioms, 143–44, 145(ex)
H italics or underlining of word treated as a
I word, 506
jargon, 145–46
order of, 448
K pretentious, 146
L quotation marks to define, 482

M quotation marks to enclose, 474, 475, 482

specific or concrete, 138–39
wordiness, 147–49, 413
O works cited, listing of, in MLA (Modern

P Language Association) parenthetical style, 582

World Wide Web, see Internet and cyberspace
would have misused in conditional clauses, 401
R would have, would of, G747