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COLLEGE ALGEBRA

INTERMEDIATE ALGEBRA

BEGINNING ALGEBRA

GRE MATH

THEA/ACCUPLACER

Tutorial 2: Symbols and Sets of Numbers

Tutorial 3: Fractions

Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions and Equations

Tutorial 5: Adding Real Numbers

Tutorial 6: Subtracting Real Numbers

Tutorial 7: Multiplying and Dividing Real Numbers

Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers

Tutorial 9: Reading Graphs

Tutorial 10: Practice Test on Tutorials 2 - 9

Tutorial 12: The Addition Property of Equality

Tutorial 13: The Multiplication Property of Equality

Tutorial 14: Solving Linear Equations (Putting it all together)

Tutorial 15: Introduction to Problem Solving

Tutorial 16: Percent and Problem Solving

Tutorial 17: Further Problem Solving

Tutorial 18: Solving Linear Inequalities

Tutorial 19: Practice Test on Tutorials 11 - 18

Tutorial 21: Graphing Linear Equations

Tutorial 22: Intercepts

Tutorial 23: Slope

Tutorial 24: Graphing Linear Inequalities

Tutorial 25: Practice Test on Tutorials 20 - 24

Tutorial 27: Adding and Subtracting Polynomials

Tutorial 28: Multiplying Polynomials

Tutorial 29: Negative Exponents and Scientific Notation

Tutorial 30: Division of Polynomials

Yes, You Can Learn Math!!!

If you can do it in sports, music, dance, etc., you can do it in math! Try not to

let fear or negative experiences turn you off to math.

It helps you build up your confidence and move your brain away from the

panic button at test time.

If you are a college or high school student, realize that most colleges and

universities require at least college algebra for any bachelor's degree. Some

classes, like chemistry, nursing, statistics, etc. will require some algebra skills

to succeed in them. If you are getting a bachelor's degree, then chances are

you are going for a professional job. Most professional jobs require at least

some math. Granted, some more than others, but nonetheless math (problem

solving, numbers, etc...) is everywhere. So make sure that you embrace

your math experience and make the most of it.

appointment.

(http://www.wtamu.edu/mathlab) as a reference as you go through

your class. Anytime you need to see some more examples, want to go

through some practice problems or want to take a practice test on an

algebra topic, it is just a click away.

4

WTAMU provides the following FREE tutoring services for WT

students:

1. Educational Services Tutoring

o EST offers free one-on-one tutoring to all WT students

in a variety of subjects including math

o Located on campus: Student Success Center, 1st floor

of Classroom Center

2. SMARTHINKING

o SMARTHINKING is an online tutoring service that

WT has contracted with to provide free live one-on-one

and offline web-based tutoring in a variety of subjects

including basic math, algebra, trigonometry, geometry,

calculus I&II and stats for WT students.

o Located online: WT students can access this service by

logging into

and clicking on the

SMARTHINKING link found on your WTClass

homepage.

graphs are used to communicate between the math estructors and students. When posting a math question

to SMARTHINKING, make sure that you type in the

directions, the problem, how far you have gotten on the

problem and your specific questions about it.

o For general information about SMARTHINKING go to

their website at http://www.smarthinking.com/

See if your school has a learning lab for math. Here at WTAMU,

we have a Math Lab located in Classroom Center 411. It is a place

where WT students can work on math homework and, as problems

arise, get help. The workers will be unable to sit with you one on one

for long periods of time like a tutor, however they can help you work

on specific questions. Remember that they are not there to do your

homework, but to answer specific questions that you have. There are

also computer programs, internet connections, and videos in there to

5

help you.

Math is a sequential subject. That means that what you are learning today

builds on what you learned yesterday. Even problems based on a new math

concept will need some old skills to work them. (Think: Can you work

problems with fractions if you dont know the multiplication tables?)

It sounds simple but your time is limited, you have a job to go to, etc.. Think

of it this way: No homework, no learning. Homework helps you practice the

applications of math concepts. Its like learning how to drive: the longer you

practice, the better your driving skills become and the more confidence you

will have on the road. If you only read the drivers manual, youll never learn

to drive with confidence and skill. We suggest you try some of the

unassigned problems, too, for extra practice.

When you work homework problems, ask yourself what you are looking for

and how you are going to get there. Dont just follow the example. Work the

problem step-by-step until you know why you are doing what you are and

have arrived at the solution. If you follow the what, how, and whys, youll

know what to do when you see a similar problem later.

Heres how you do that: When studying for a test, make sure you can

understand the problems on each math concept as well as work them. Then

make the index cards with problems on them. Mix the index cards (yes,

shuffle the cards to mix them up) and set the timer. Start working the

problems in each card as it is dealt to you. Oh, yeah, hide your textbook!

This will simulate a math test taking experience.

Dont be ashamed to ask questions. The instructor WILL NOT make fun of

you. In fact, at least one other person may have the same question.

6

OK, so like most people, you dont want to ask questions in class, OR you

think of a question too late. Then go to the instructors office and ask away.

Make sure that when you get your graded homework back you look over what

you got right as well as what you missed.

Math snowballs. If you dont stay alert to the instructors presentation, you

may miss important steps to learning concepts. Remember, todays

information sets the foundation for tomorrows work.

If you have questions, please ask the instructor. The information you get from

classmates may be mathematically wrong! And if it isnt related to math info

for this class, save it for outside the classroom.

Yes, theres a reason why we ask you to spend all that money on them. If you

look carefully, you will see that your book contains pages with great

examples, explanations and definitions of terms. Take advantage of them.

Practice Problems

In all of the other tutorials at this Beginning Algebra website, we will have practice problems

with links to the answers for you to go through. Since this tutorial did not have any math

concepts there will be no practice problems for this tutorial only.

We do suggest that you go back to the top and reread the tips on how to succeed in a math class

and think about which one(s) will help you the most to be successful in your math class.

Beginning Algebra

Tutorial 2: Symbols and Sets of Numbers

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Know what a set and an element are.

2. Write a mathematical statement with an equal sign or an inequality.

3. Identify what numbers belong to the set of natural numbers, whole numbers, integers,

rational numbers, irrational numbers, and real numbers.

4. Use the Order Property for Real Numbers.

5. Find the absolute value of a number.

Introduction

Have you ever sat in a math class, and you swear the teacher is speaking some foreign language?

Well, algebra does have it's own lingo. This tutorial will go over some key definitions and

phrases used when specifically working with sets of numbers as well as absolute values. Even

though it may not be the exciting part of math, it is very important that you understand the

language spoken in algebra class. It will definitely help you do the math that comes later. Of

course, numbers are very important in math. This tutorial helps you to build an understanding of

what the different sets of numbers are. You will also learn what set(s) of numbers specific

8

(pi) belong to. Some of them belong to more than one set.

I think you are ready to go forward. Let's make you a numeric set whiz kid (or adult).

Tutorial

Sets and Elements

A set is a collection of objects.

Those objects are generally called members or elements of the set.

Roster Form

Roster form just lists out the elements of a set between two set brackets. For example,

{January, June, July}

Equal

=

To notate that two expressions are equal to each, use the symbol = between them.

Inequalities

Not Equal

Read left to right

a < b : a is less than b

a < b : a is less than or equal to b

a > b : a is greater than b

a > b : a is greater than or equal to b

Mathematical Statement

9

A mathematical statement uses the equality and inequality symbols shown above. It can be

judged either true or false.

N = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...}

Makes sense, we start counting with the number 1 and continue with 2, 3, 4, 5, and so on.

Whole Numbers

{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...}

The only difference between this set and the one above is that this set not only contains all the

natural numbers, but it also contains 0, where as 0 is not an element of the set of natural

numbers.

Integers

Z = {..., -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...}

This set adds on the negative counterparts to the already existing whole numbers (which,

remember, includes the number 0).

The natural numbers and the whole numbers are both subsets of integers.

Rational Numbers

Q = { | a and b are integers and

In other words, a rational number is a number that can be written as one integer over

another.

Be very careful. Remember that a whole number can be written as one integer over another

integer. The integer in the denominator is 1 in that case. For example, 5 can be written as 5/1.

The natural numbers, whole numbers, and integers are all subsets of rational numbers.

10

Irrational Numbers

I = {x | x is a real number that is not rational}

In other words, an irrational number is a number that can not be written as one integer over

another. It is a non-repeating, non-terminating decimal.

One big example of irrational numbers is roots of numbers that are not perfect roots - for

example

or

. 17 is not a perfect square - the answer is a non-terminating, nonrepeating decimal, which CANNOT be written as one integer over another. Similarly, 5 is

not a perfect cube. It's answer is also a non-terminating, non-repeating decimal.

Another famous irrational number is

(pi). Even though it is more commonly known as

3.14, that is a rounded value for pi. Actually it is 3.1415927... It would keep going and going and

going without any real repetition or pattern. In other words, it would be a non terminating, non

repeating decimal, which again, can not be written as a rational number, 1 integer over another

integer.

Real Numbers

R = {x | x corresponds to point on the number line}

Any number that belongs to either the rational numbers or irrational numbers would be

considered a real number. That would include natural numbers, whole numbers and

integers.

Above is an illustration of a number line. Zero, on the number line, is called the origin. It

separates the negative numbers (located to the left of 0) from the positive numbers (located to

the right of 0).

I feel sorry for 0, it does not belong to either group. It is neither a positive or a negative number.

Real Numbers

Given any two real numbers a and b,

11

If a is to the right of b on the number line, then a > b.

Absolute Value

Most people know that when you take the absolute value of ANY number (other than 0) the

answer is positive. But, do you know WHY?

Well, let me tell you why!

The absolute value of x, notated |x|, measures the DISTANCE that x is away from the origin

(0) on the real number line.

Aha! Distance is always going to be positive (unless it is 0) whether the number you are taking

the absolute value of is positive or negative.

The following are illustrations of what absolute value means using the numbers 3 and -3:

3? 5

12

7.41 ? 7.41

2.5 ? 1.5

Since 2.5 is to the right of 1.5 on the number line, then 2.5 > 1.5.

2>7

Therefore, the given statement is false.

Since 5 is the same number as 5 and the statement includes where the two

numbers are equal to each other, then this statement is true.

2 is less than 5.

Reading it left to right we get:

13

5>5

2 is less than 5

2 < 5

10 is less than or equal to 20.

Reading it left to right we get:

10 is less than or equal to 20

10 < 20

-2 is greater than -3.

Reading it left to right we get:

-2 is greater than -3

-2 > -3

0 is greater than or equal to -1.

Reading it left to right we get:

0 is greater than or equal to -1

0 > -1

5 is not equal to 2.

Reading it left to right we get:

5 is not equal to 2

14

Example 11: List the elements of the following sets that are also elements of the

given set

{-4, 0, 2.5,

, 11/2, 7}

Natural numbers, whole numbers, integers, rational numbers, irrational numbers, and real

numbers.

Natural numbers?

The numbers in the given set that are also natural numbers are

{

, 7}.

Note that

Whole numbers?

The numbers in the given set that are also whole numbers are

{0,

, 7}.

Integers?

The numbers in the given set that are also integers are

{-4, 0,

, 7}.

Rational numbers?

The numbers in the given set that are also rational numbers are

{-4, 0, 2.5,

, 11/2, 7}.

Irrational numbers?

The numbers in the given set that are also irrational numbers are

{ ,

}.

15

These two numbers CANNOT be written as one integer over another. They are nonrepeating, non-terminating decimals.

Real numbers?

The numbers in the given set that are also real numbers are

{-4, 0, 2.5,

, 11/2, 7}.

|-2.5| ? |2.5|

Since |-2.5| = 2.5 and |2.5| = 2.5, then the two expressions are equal to each other:

|-2.5| = |2.5|

-3 ? |3|

4 ? |-1|

16

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see

if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if

you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians

had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a. 5 ? 0

(answer/discussion to 1a)

1b.

(answer/discussion to 1b)

1c. -2 ? 2

(answer/discussion to 1c)

false?

2a. -3 < -3

2b.

(answer/discussion to 2a)

(answer/discussion to 2b)

2>4

17

3b.

(answer/discussion to 3a)

(answer/discussion to 3b)

(answer/discussion to 3c)

Practice Problems 4a - 4f: List the elements of the following set that are also

elements of the given set: {-1.5, 0, 2,

,

}

(answer/discussion to 4a)

(answer/discussion to 4b)

4c. Integers

(answer/discussion to 4c)

(answer/discussion to 4d)

(answer/discussion to 4e)

(answer/discussion to 4f)

Tutorial 2: Symbols and Sets of Numbers

Answer/Discussion to 1a

5? 0

18

(return to problem 1a)

Answer/Discussion to 1b

First of all,

Next we have

Answer/Discussion to 1c

-2 ? 2

(return to problem 1c)

Answer/Discussion to 2a

-3 < -3

Since -3 is the same number as -3 and the statement includes where the two numbers are

equal to each other, then this statement is true.

19

Answer/Discussion to 2b

2 > 4

So, the above statement is false.

(return to problem 2b)

Answer/Discussion to 3a

-4 is less than 0.

Reading it left to right we get:

-4 is less than 0

-4 < 0

(return to problem 3a)

Answer/Discussion to 3b

3 is not equal to -3.

Reading it left to right we get:

3 is not equal to -3

(return to problem 3b)

Answer/Discussion to 3c

5 is greater than or equal to -5.

20

5 is greater than or equal to -5.

5 > -5

(return to problem 3c)

Answer/Discussion to 4a

Natural numbers

The numbers in the given set that are also natural numbers are

{2,

}.

Note that

Answer/Discussion to 4b

Whole numbers

The numbers in the given set that are also whole numbers are

{0, 2,

}.

Answer/Discussion to 4c

Integers

The numbers in the given set that are also integers are

{0, 2,

}.

Answer/Discussion to 4d

Rational numbers

The numbers in the given set that are also rational numbers are

{-1.5, 0, 2,

}.

21

Answer/Discussion to 4e

Irrational numbers

The number in the given set that is also an irrational number is

{

}.

Answer/Discussion to 4f

Real numbers

The numbers in the given set that are also real numbers are

{-1.5, 0, 2,

}.

Tutorial 3: Fractions

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Know what the numerator and denominator of a fraction are.

2. Find the prime factorization of a number.

3. Simplify a fraction.

4. Find the least common denominator of given fractions.

5. Multiply, divide, add and subtract fractions.

Introduction

22

Do you ever feel like running and hiding when you see a fraction? If so, you are not alone.

But don't fear help is here. Hey that rhymes. Anyway, in this tutorial we will be going over how

to simplify, multiply, divide, add, and subtract fractions. Sounds like we have our work cut out

for us. I think you are ready to tackle these fractions.

Tutorial

Fractions

, where

a = numerator

b = denominator

A numeric fraction is a quotient of two numbers. The top number is called the numerator

and the bottom number is referred to as the denominator. The denominator cannot equal

0.

Prime Factorization

A prime number is a whole number that has two distinct factors, 1 and itself.

Examples of prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, and 13. The list can go on and on.

Be careful, 1 is not a prime number because it only has one distinct factor which is 1.

When you rewrite a number using prime factorization, you write that number as a product

of prime numbers.

For example, the prime factorization of 12 would be

23

12 = (2)(6) = (2)(2)(3).

That last product is 12 and is made up of all prime numbers.

Good question. A fraction is simplified if the numerator and denominator do not have any

common factors other than 1. You can divide out common factors by using the Fundamental

Principle of Fractions, shown next.

In other words, if you divide out the same factor in both the numerator and the denominator, then

you will end up with an equivalent expression. An equivalent expression is one that looks

different, but has the same value.

(or Simplifying the Fraction)

Step 1: Write the numerator and denominator as a product of prime numbers.

Step 2: Use the Fundamental Principle of Fractions to cancel out the common

factors.

24

Step 2: Use the Fundamental Principle of Fractions to cancel out the common

factors.

Note that even though the 7's divide out in the last step, there is still a 1 in the

numerator. 7 is thought of as 7 times 1 (not 0).

Step 1: Write the numerator and denominator as a product of prime numbers.

*Rewrite 90 as a product of primes

*Rewrite 50 as a product of primes

Step 2: Use the Fundamental Principle of Fractions to cancel out the common

factors.

*Div. the common factors of 2 and 5 out of both num. and

den.

Step 1: Write the numerator and denominator as a product of prime numbers.

25

3 and 5 are both prime numbers so the fraction is already written as a quotient of prime

numbers

Step 2: Use the Fundamental Principle of Fractions to cancel out the common

factors.

There was no common factors to divide out. The original fraction 3/5 was already

written in lowest terms.

Multiplying Fractions

In other words, when multiplying fractions, multiply the numerators together to get the

products numerator and multiply the denominators together to get the products

denominator.

Make sure that you do reduce your answers, as shown above. You may do this before you

multiply or after.

*Div. the common factor of 5 out of both num. and den.

26

Reciprocal

In other words, you flip the number upside down. The numerator becomes the denominator and

vice versa.

For example, 5 (which can be written as 5/1) and 1/5 are reciprocals. 3/4 and 4/3 are also

reciprocals of each other.

Dividing Fractions

In other words, when dividing fractions, use the definition of division by rewriting it as

multiplication of the reciprocal and then proceed with the multiplication as explained above.

*Write as prod. of num. over prod. of den.

*Div. the common factor of 2 out of both num. and den.

27

with Common Denominators

or

Step 2: Put the sum or difference found in step 1 over the common denominator.

Step 3: Reduce to lowest terms if necessary.

fractions?????

Another good question. The denominator indicates what type of fraction that you have and

the numerator is counting up how many of that type you have. You can only directly

combine fractions that are of the same type (have the same denominator). For example if 2 was

my denominator, I would be counting up how many halves I had, if 3 was my denominator, I

would be counting up how many thirds I had. But, I would not be able to add a fraction with a

denominator of 2 directly with a fraction that had a denominator of 3 because they are not the

same type of fraction. I would have to find a common denominator first before I could combine,

which we will cover after this example.

AND

Step 2: Put the sum or difference found in step 1 over the common denominator.

28

Since 5 and 7 are prime numbers that have no factors in common, 5/7 is already in

lowest terms.

The LCD is the smallest number divisible by all the denominators.

Equivalent Fractions

Equivalent fractions are fractions that look different but have the same value.

You can achieve this by multiplying the top and bottom by the same number. This is like taking it

times 1. You can write 1 as any non zero number over itself. For example 5/5 or 7/7. 1 is the

identity number for multiplication. In other words, when you multiply a number by 1, it keeps its

identity or stays the same value.

Example 7: Write the fraction as an equivalent fraction with the given denominator.

with the denominator of 20.

*Multiply num. and den. by 4.

29

In this case, we do not want to reduce it to lowest terms because the problem asks us to

write it with a denominator of 20, which is what we have.

Improper Fractions

In some problems you may start off with a mixed number and need to rewrite it as an improper

fraction. You can do this by multiplying the denominator times the whole number and then

add it to the numerator. Then, place this number over the existing denominator.

An improper fraction is a fraction in which the numerator is larger than the denominator.

*Mixed number

*Mult. den. 4 times whole number 7 and add it to num. 3.

*Improper fraction

Without Common Denominators

As mentioned above, you need to have common denominators before you can add or subtract

fractions together.

Step 1: Find the Least Common Denominator (LCD) for all denominators.

30

Step 2: Rewrite fractions into equivalent fractions with the common denominator.

Step 3: Add and subtract the fractions with common denominators as described

above.

Rewriting the numbers as fractions we get:

*Rewrite mixed number 2 3/4 as 11/4

Step 1: Find the Least Common Denominator (LCD) for all denominators.

The first fraction has a denominator of 1 and the second fraction has a denominator of

4. What is the smallest number that is divisible by both 1 and 4. If you said 4, you are

correct?

Therefore, the LCD is 4.

Step 2: Rewrite fractions into equivalent fractions with the common denominator.

*What number times 1 will result in 4?

*Multiply num. and den. by 4.

The fraction 11/4 already has a denominator of 4, so we do not have to rewrite it.

Step 3: Add and subtract the fractions with common denominators as described

above.

31

Note that this fraction is in simplest form. There are no common factors that we can

divide out of the numerator and denominator

Example 10: Add and subtract. Write the final answer in lowest terms.

Step 1: Find the Least Common Denominator (LCD) for all denominators.

The first fraction has a denominator of 3, the second has a denominator of 5, and the

third has a denominator of 15. What is the smallest number that is divisible by 3, 5,

and 15? If you said 15, you are correct?

Therefore, the LCD is 15.

Step 2: Rewrite fractions into equivalent fractions with the common denominator.

Writing an equivalent fraction of 2/3 with the LCD of 15 we get:

*What number times 3 will result in 15?

*Multiply num. and den. by 5.

32

*Multiply num. and den. by 3.

The fraction 1/15 already has a denominator of 15, so we do not have to rewrite it.

Step 3: Add and subtract the fractions with common denominators as described

above.

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see

if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if

you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians

had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

33

1a. 100

(answer/discussion to 1a)

2a.

2b.

(answer/discussion to 2a)

(answer/discussion to 2b)

the lowest terms.

3a.

3b.

(answer/discussion to 3a)

(answer/discussion to 3b)

3c.

3d.

(answer/discussion to 3c)

(answer/discussion to 3d)

3e.

(answer/discussion to 3e)

Tutorial 3: Fractions

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 3: Fractions

34

Answer/Discussion to 1a

100

Answer/Discussion to 2a

*Rewrite 75 as a product of primes

*Rewrite 30 as a product of primes

Step 2: Use the Fundamental Principle of Fractions to cancel out the common

factors.

*Div. the common factors of 3 and 5 out of both num. and den.

35

Answer/Discussion to 2b

Step 2: Use the Fundamental Principle of Fractions to cancel out the common

factors.

Answer/Discussion to 3a

*Div. the common factors of 2 and 5 out of both num. and den.

36

Answer/Discussion to 3b

*Write as prod. of num. over prod. of den.

*Div. the common factor of 7 out of both num. and den.

Answer/Discussion to 3c

AND

Step 2: Put the sum or difference found in step 1 over the common denominator.

37

Answer/Discussion to 3d

*Rewrite mixed number 2 1/4 as 9/4

Step 1: Find the Least Common Denominator (LCD) for all denominators.

The first fraction has a denominator of 1 and the second fraction has a denominator of 4. What is

the smallest number that is divisible by both 1 and 4. If you said 4, you are correct?

Therefore, the LCD is 4.

Step 2: Rewrite fractions into equivalent fractions with the common denominator.

*What number times 1 will result in 4?

*Multiply num. and den. by 4.

38

The fraction 9/4 already has a denominator of 4, so we do not have to rewrite it.

Step 3: Add and subtract the fractions with common denominators as described

above.

Note that this fraction is in simplest form. There are no common factors that we can divide out of

the numerator and denominator

(return to problem 3d)

Answer/Discussion to 3e

Step 1: Find the Least Common Denominator (LCD) for all denominators.

The first fraction has a denominator of 4, the second has a denominator of 5, and the third has a

denominator of 10. What is the smallest number that is divisible by 4, 5, and 10? If you said 20,

you are correct?

Therefore, the LCD is 20.

Step 2: Rewrite fractions into equivalent fractions with the common denominator.

Writing an equivalent fraction of 3/4 with the LCD of 20 we get:

39

*Multiply num. and den. by 5.

*What number times 5 will result in 20?

*Multiply num. and den. by 4.

*What number times 10 will result in 20?

*Multiply num. and den. by 2.

Step 3: Add and subtract the fractions with common denominators as described

above.

and Equations

40

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Evaluate an exponential expression.

2. Simplify an expression using the order of operations.

3. Evaluate an expression.

4. Know when a number is solution to an equation or not.

5. Translate an english expression into a math expression.

6. Translate an english statement in to a math equation.

Introduction

This tutorial will go over some key definitions and phrases used when specifically working with

algebraic expressions as well as evaluating them. We will also touch on the order of operations.

It is very IMPORTANT that you understand some of the math lingo that is used in an algebra

class, otherwise it may all seem Greek to you. Knowing the terms and concepts on this page will

definitely help you build an understanding of what a variable is and get you more comfortable

working with them. Variables are a HUGE part of algebra, so it is very important for you to feel

at ease around them in order to be successful in algebra. So let's get going and help you get on

the road to being variable savvy.

Tutorial

41

Exponential Notation

An exponent tells you how many times that you write a base in a PRODUCT.

In other words, exponents are another way to write MULTIPLICATION.

Lets illustrate this concept by rewriting the product (4)(4)(4) using exponential notation:

In this example, 4 represents the base and 3 is the exponent. Since 4 was written three times in a

product, then our exponent is 3. We always write our exponent as a smaller script found at the

top right corner of the base.

You can apply this idea in the other direction. Lets say you have it written in exponential

notation and you need to evaluate it. The exponent will tell you how many times you write the

base out in a product. For example if you had 7 as your base and 2 as your exponent and you

wanted to evaluate out you could write it out like this:

Example 1: Evaluate

In this problem, what is the base?

If you said 5, you are correct!

What is the exponent?

If you said 4, you are right!

Lets rewrite it as multiplication and see what we get for an answer:

*Multiply

42

Example 2: Evaluate

In this problem, what is the base?

If you said 7, you are correct!

What is the exponent?

If you said 1, you are right!

Lets rewrite it as multiplication and see what we get for an answer:

Example 3: Evaluate

In this problem, what is the base?

If you said 1/3, you are correct!

What is the exponent?

If you said 2, you are right!

Lets rewrite it as multiplication and see what we get for an answer:

*Multiply

43

Note that when you have a 2 as an exponent, which is also known as squaring the

base. In this problem we could say that we are looking for 1/3 squared.

Order of Operations

Please Parenthesis or grouping symbols

Excuse Exponents (and radicals)

My Dear Multiplication/Division left to right

Aunt Sally Addition/Subtraction left to right

When you do have more than one mathematical operation, you need to use the order of operations

as listed above. You may have already heard of the saying "Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally".

It is just a way to help you remember the order you need to go in when applying the order of

operations.

Example 4: Simplify

*Multiply

*Add

*Subtract

Example 5: Simplify

*Inside ( )

*Exponent

*Multiply

*Add

44

Example 6: Simplify

Note that the absolute value symbol | | is a fancy grouping symbol. In terms of the

order of operations, it would be including on the first line with parenthesis.

So in this problem, the first thing we need to do is work the inside of the absolute

value. And then go from there.

*Inside |

*Exponent

*Add in num. and subtract in den.

Variable

A variable is a letter that represents a number.

Don't let the fact that it is a letter throw you. Since it represents a number, you treat it just like

you do a number when you do various mathematical operations involving variables.

x is a very common variable that is used in algebra, but you can use any letter (a, b, c, d, ....) to

be a variable.

Algebraic Expressions

An algebraic expression is a number, variable or combination of the two connected by some

mathematical operation like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponents, and/or

roots.

45

Evaluating an Expression

You evaluate an expression by replacing the variable with the given number and performing the

indicated operation.

Value of an Expression

When you are asked to find the value of an expression, that means you are looking for the result

that you get when you evaluate the expression.

So keep in mind that vary means to change - a variable allows an expression to take on

different values, depending on the situation.

For example, the area of a rectangle is length times width. Well, not every rectangle is going to

have the same length and width, so we can use an algebraic expression with variables to represent

the area and then plug in the appropriate numbers to evaluate it. So if we let the length be the

variable l and width be w, we can use the expression lw. If a given rectangle has a length of 4

and width of 3, we would evaluate the expression by replacing l with 4 and w with 3 and

multiplying to get a value of 4 times 3 or 12.

Lets step through some examples that help illustrate these ideas.

when x = 4, y = 6, z = 8.

Plugging in the corresponding value for each variable and then evaluating the

expression we get:

46

*Exponent

*Multiply

*Add

*Subtract

when x = 3, y = 5, and z = 7.

Plugging in the corresponding value for each variable and then evaluating the

expression we get:

*Exponent

*Multiply

*Add

Equation

Two expressions set equal to each other.

Solution

A value, such that, when you replace the variable with it,

it makes the equation true.

(the left side comes out equal to the right side)

47

Solution Set

Set of all solutions.

Example 9: Is 2 a solution of

*Plug in 2 for x

*Evaluate both sides

Is 2 a solution?

Since we got a TRUE statement (7 does in fact equal 7), then 2 is a solution to this

equation.

*Plug in 5 for x

*Evaluate both sides

Is 5 a solution?

48

Since we got a FALSE statement (16 does not equal 14), then 5 is not a solution.

Translating an

English Phrase Into an

Algebraic Expression

Sometimes, you find yourself having to write out your own algebraic expression based on the

wording of a problem.

In that situation, you want to

1. read the problem carefully,

2. pick out key words and phrases and determine their equivalent mathematical meaning,

3. replace any unknowns with a variable, and

4. put it all together in an algebraic expression.

The following are some key words and phrases and their translations:

Addition: sum, plus, add to, more than, increased by, total

Subtraction: difference of, minus, subtracted from, less than, decreased by, less

The sum of a number and 10.

49

In this example, we are not evaluating an expression, so we will not be coming up with

a value. However, we are wanting to rewrite it as an algebraic expression.

It looks like the only reference to a mathematical operation is the word sum. So,

what operation will we have in this expression?

If you said addition, you are correct!!!

The phrase 'a number' indicates that it is an unknown number. There was no specific

value given to it. So we will replace the phrase 'a number' with the variable x. We

want to let our variable represent any number that is unknown

Putting everything together, we can translate the given english phrase with the

following algebraic expression:

*'sum' = +

*'a number' = variable x

The product of 5 and a number.

Again, we are wanting to rewrite this as an algebraic expression, not evaluate it.

This time, the phrase that correlates with our operation is 'product' - so what

operation will we be doing this time? If you said multiplication, you are right on.

Again, we have the phrase 'a number', which again is going to be replaced with a

variable, since we do not know what the number is.

Lets see what we get for this answer:

number

*'product' = multiplication

*'a number' = variable x

50

Since an equation is two expressions set equal to each other, we will be using the same

mathematical translations we did above. The difference is we will have an equal sign between the

two expressions.

The following are some key words and phrases that translate into an equal sign (=):

Equal Sign (=) : equals, gives, is, yields, amounts to, is the same as

Example 13: Write the sentence as an equation. Let x represent the unknown

number.

The quotient of 3 and a number is .

Do you remember what quotient translates into? If you said division, you are doing

great.

'Is' will be replaced by the symbol =.

Lets put together everything going left to right:

Example 14: Write the sentence as an equation. Let x represent the unknown

51

number.

7 less than 3 times a number is the same as 0.

Do you remember what less than translates into? If you said subtraction, you are

doing great.

Do you remember what times translates into? If you said multiplication, you are

correct.

'Is the same as' will be replaced by the symbol =.

Lets put together everything going left to right:

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see

if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if

you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians

had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

52

1a.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

1b.

(answer/discussion to 1b)

2a.

(answer/discussion to 2a)

2b.

(answer/discussion to 2b)

3a.

(answer/discussion to 3a)

Practice Problems 4a - 4b: Decide whether the given number is a solution of the

given equation.

4a. Is 0 a solution to

? 4b. Is 8 a solution to

(answer/discussion to 4a)

(answer/discussion to 4b)

53

represent the unknown number.

5a. 9 less than 5 times a number. 5b. The product of 12 and a number.

(answer/discussion to 5a)

(answer/discussion to 5b)

the unknown number.

(answer/discussion to 6a)

(answer/discussion to 6b)

Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions

and Equations

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions

and Equations

Answer/Discussion to 1a

54

If you said 2, you are correct!

What is the exponent?

If you said 5, you are right!

Let's rewrite it as multiplication and see what we get for an answer:

*Multiply

Answer/Discussion to 1b

If you said 1/6, you are correct!

What is the exponent?

If you said 3, you are right!

Let's rewrite it as multiplication and see what we get for an answer:

55

*Multiply

Answer/Discussion to 2a

*Inside ( )

*Multiply

*Add

Answer/Discussion to 2b

56

*Exponent

*Add num and subtract den.

*Simplify fraction

Answer/Discussion to 3a

Plugging in the corresponding value for each variable and then evaluating the expression

we get:

*Inside parenthesis

*Exponent in [ ]

*Add in [ ]

*Multiply

Answer/Discussion to 4a

57

*Plug in 0 for x

*Evaluate both sides

Is 0 a solution?

Since we got a FALSE statement (7 does not equal 9), then 0 is not a solution.

Answer/Discussion to 4b

*Plug in 8 for x

*Evaluate both sides

Is 8 a solution?

Since we got a TRUE statement (6 does equal 6), then 8 is a solution.

58

Answer/Discussion to 5a

9 less than 5 times a number.

If you said subtraction you are correct!!!

What operation will we replace times with?

If you said multiplication you are correct!!!

The phrase 'a number' indicates that it is an unknown number. There was no specific value given

to it. So we will replace the phrase 'a number' with the variable x. We want to let our variable

represent any number that is unknown

Putting everything together we can translate the given english phrase with the following

algebraic expression:

9 less than 5 times a number

Answer/Discussion to 5b

The product of 12 and a number.

If you said multiplication you are correct!!!

The phrase 'a number' indicates that it is an unknown number. There was no specific value given

to it. So we will replace the phrase 'a number' with the variable x. We want to let our variable

represent any number that is unknown

Putting everything together we can translate the given english phrase with the following

59

algebraic expression:

The product of 12 and a number

Answer/Discussion to 6a

The sum of 10 and 4 times a number is the same as 18.

If you said addition, you are doing great.

Do you remember what times translates into?

If you said multiplication, you are doing great.

'Is the same as' will be replaced by the symbol =.

Let's put together everything going left to right:

The sum of 10 and 4 times a number is the same as 18

Answer/Discussion to 6b

The quotient of a number and 9 is 1/3.

60

'Is' will be replaced by the symbol =.

Let's put together everything going left to right:

The quotient of a number and 9 is 1/3.

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Add real numbers that have the same sign.

2. Add real numbers that have different signs.

3. Find the additive inverse or the opposite of a number.

Introduction

This tutorial reviews adding real numbers as well as finding the additive inverse or opposite of a

number . I have the utmost confidence that you are familiar with addition, but sometimes

the rules for negative numbers (yuck!) get a little mixed up from time to time. So, it is good

to go over them to make sure you have them down.

61

Tutorial

with the Same Sign

Step 1: Add the absolute values.

If you need a review of absolute values, go to Tutorial 2: Symbols and Sets

of Numbers.

In other words:

If both numbers that you are adding are positive, then you will have a positive

answer.

If both numbers that you are adding are negative then you will have a

negative answer.

-6 + (-8) = -14

The sum of the absolute values would be 14 and their common sign is -. That is how

62

You can also think of this as money. I know we can all relate to that. Think of the

negative as a loss. In this example, you can think of it as having lost 6 dollars and then

having lost another 8 dollars for a total loss of 14 dollars.

-5.5 + (-8.7) = -14.2

The sum of the absolute values would be 14.2 and their common sign is -. That is how

we get the answer of -14.2.

You can also think of this as money - I know we can all relate to that. Think of the

negative as a loss. In this example, you can think of it as having lost 5.5 dollars and

then having lost another 8.7 dollars for a total loss of 14.2 dollars.

with Opposite Signs

Step 1: Take the difference of the absolute values.

If you need a review of absolute values, go to Tutorial 2: Symbols and Sets

of Numbers.

Step 2: Attach the sign of the number that has the higher absolute value.

Which did you have more of, negative or positive?

If the number with the larger absolute value is negative, then your sum is

negative. In other words you have more negative than positive.

63

If the number with the larger absolute value was positive, then your sum is

positive. In other words you have more positive than negative.

Example 3: Add -8 + 6.

-8 + 6 = -2.

The difference between 8 and 6 is 2 and the sign of 8 (the larger absolute value) is -.

That is how we get the answer of -2.

Thinking in terms of money: we lost 8 dollars and got back 6 dollars, so we are still

in the hole 2 dollars.

Example 4: Add

of 6

*Take the difference of the numerators and write over

common denominator 6

*Reduce fraction

The difference between 4/6 and 1/6 is 3/6 = 1/2 and the sign of 4/6 (the larger absolute

value) is +. That is how we get the answer of 1/2.

Thinking in terms of money: we had 2/3 of a dollar and lost 1/6 of a dollar, so we

would come out ahead 1/2 of a dollar.

Note that if you need help on fractions, go back to Tutorial 3: Fractions.

64

In this example, we are needing to combine more than two numbers together, but we

will still follow the same thought process we do if there are only two numbers. Im

going to go ahead and step us through it going left to right.

* -10 + 7 = -3

*-3 + (-2) = -5

Example 6: Add

In this addition problem, we have some absolute values thrown into the mix.

Remember that we need to do what is inside the absolute values (grouping symbol)

first and then add those numbers together. If you need a review on order of

operations go to Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions and Equations.

*Evaluate the absolute values

*Add

Opposites

Opposites are two numbers that are on opposite sides of the origin (0) on the number line,

but have the same absolute value. In other words, opposites are the same distance away from

the origin, but in opposite directions.

The opposite of x is the number -x.

Keep in mind that the opposite of 0 is 0.

65

For every real number a,

-(-a) = a.

When you see a negative sign in front of an expression, you can think of it as taking the opposite

of it. For example, if you had -(-2), you can think of it as the opposite of -2. Since a number can

only have one of two signs, either a '+' or a '-', then the opposite of a negative would have to be

positive. So, -(-2) = 2.

The opposite of 1.5 is -1.5, since both of these numbers have the same absolute value

but are on opposite sides of the origin on the number line.

The opposite of -3 is 3, since both of these numbers have the same absolute value but

are on opposite sides of the origin on the number line.

66

When you have a negative in front of a parenthesis like this, it is another way to write

that you need to find the additive inverse or opposite.

Since the opposite of a negative is a positive, our answer is 10.

-|-5.2| =

-(5.2) =

-5.2

*Find the opposite

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see

if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if

you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians

had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

67

1a. -15 + 7

(answer/discussion to 1a)

1b.

(answer/discussion to 1b)

1d. |- 4 + (-3) + 2|

(answer/discussion to 1c)

(answer/discussion to 1d)

2a.

2b. -20

(answer/discussion to 2a)

(answer/discussion to 2b)

3a. -(- 4)

(answer/discussion to 3a)

3b.

(answer/discussion to 3b)

Tutorial 5: Adding Real Numbers

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 5: Adding Real Numbers

Answer/Discussion to 1a

68

-15 + 7

-15 + 7 = -8

The difference between 15 and 7 is 8 and the sign of 15 (the larger absolute value) is -, that is

how we get the answer of -8.

Answer/Discussion to 1b

*Add the numerators and write over common denominator 10

The sum of the absolute values would be 13/10 and their common sign is -, that is how we get the

answer of -13/10.

(return to problem 1b)

Answer/Discussion to 1c

3.2 + (-1.3) + (- 4.1)

69

*1.9 + (-4.1) = -2.2

Answer/Discussion to 1d

|- 4 + (-3) + 2|

*- 4 + (-3) = -7

* - 7 + 2 = -5

*Evaluate the absolute value

Answer/Discussion to 2a

1/2

The opposite of 1/2 is -1/2, because both of these numbers have the same absolute value, but are

on opposite sides of the origin on the number line.

(return to problem 2a)

Answer/Discussion to 2b

-20

70

The opposite of -20 is 20, because both of these numbers have the same absolute value, but are

on opposite sides of the origin on the number line.

(return to problem 2b)

Answer/Discussion to 3a

-(- 4)

(return to problem 3a)

Answer/Discussion to 3b

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

71

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Subtract real numbers that have the same sign.

2. Subtract real numbers that have different signs.

3. Simplify an expression that has subtraction in it using the order of operations.

Introduction

This tutorial reviews subtracting real numbers and intertwines that with some order of operation

and evaluation problems.

I have the utmost confidence that you are familiar with subtraction, but sometimes the rules for

negative numbers (yuck!) get a little mixed up from time to time. So, it is good to go over them

to make sure you have them down.

Even in this day and age of calculators, it is very important to know these basic rules of

operations on real numbers. Even if you are using a calculator, you are the one that is putting the

information into it, so you need to know things like when you are subtracting versus adding and

the order that you need to put it in. Also, if you are using a calculator you should have a rough

idea as to what the answer should be. You never know, you may hit a wrong key and get a wrong

answer (it happens to the best of us). Also, your batteries in your calculator may run out and you

may have to do a problem by hand (scary!!!). You want to be prepared for those Murphy's Law

moments.

Tutorial

72

a - b = a + (-b)

or

a - (-b) = a + b

Now, you do not have to write it out like this if you are already comfortable with it. This just

gives you the thought behind it.

Example 1: Subtract -3 - 5.

-3 - 5 = -3 + (-5) = -8.

Subtracting 5 is the same as adding a -5.

Once it is written as addition, we just follow the rules for addition, as shown in

Tutorial 5: Adding Real Numbers, to complete for an answer of -8.

-3 - (-5) = -3 + 5 = 2.

Subtracting -5 is the same as adding 5.

Once it is written as addition, we just follow the rules for addition, as shown in

Tutorial 5: Adding Real Numbers, to complete for an answer of 2.

Example 3: Subtract

.

73

*Rewrite as addition

*Mult. top and bottom of 1st fraction by 2 and 2nd by

3 to get the

LCD of 6

*Take the difference of the numerators and write

over common denominator 6

The difference between 14/6 and 3/6 is 11/6 and the sign of 14/6 (the larger absolute

value) is -. That is how we get the answer -11/6

Example 4: Simplify

Since we have several operations going on in this problem, we will have to use the

order of operations to make sure that we get the correct answer.

If you need to review the order of operations go to Tutorial 4: Operations of Real

Numbers.

*Exponent

*Multiply

*25 - 8 = 17

Example 5: Simplify

Since we have several operations going on in this problem, we will have to use the

74

If you need to review the order of operations go to Tutorial 4: Operations of Real

Numbers.

*Exponent

*Multiplication

*7 + 6 = 13

*13 - 15 = -2

if x = -2 and y = 5.

Expressions and Equations.

Plugging -2 for x and 5 for y and simplifying we get:

*Rewrite num. as addition of opposite

*Add

*Simplify fraction

75

Example 7: Is -1 a solution of -x + 4 = 6 + x?

If you need a review on what a solution to an equation is go to Tutorial 4:

Introduction to Variable Expressions and Equations.

Replacing x with -1 we get:

*Plug in -1 for x

*Take the opposite of -1

*Add

Is -1 a solution?

Since we got a TRUE statement (5 does in fact equal 5), then -1 is a solution to this

equation.

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see

if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if

you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians

had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

76

(answer/discussion to 1a)

(answer/discussion to 1b)

2a.

(answer/discussion to 2a)

2b.

(answer/discussion to 2b)

3a.

(answer/discussion to 3a)

4a.

(answer/discussion to 4a)

Tutorial 6: Subtracting Real Numbers

77

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 6: Subtracting Real Numbers

Answer/Discussion to 1a

-10 - (-2)

Subtracting -2 is the same as adding 2. Once it is written as addition, we just following the rules

for addition to complete.

Answer/Discussion to 1b

- 4.1 - 5.3

Subtracting 5.3 is the same as adding -5.3. Once it is written as addition, We just following the

rules for addition to complete.

Answer/Discussion to 2a

78

Since we have several operations going on in this problem, we will have to use the order of

operations to make sure that we get the correct answer.

If you need to review the order of operations go to Tutorial 4: Operations of Real Numbers.

*Exponent

*Multiplication

*27 + (-2) = 25

Answer/Discussion to 2b

Since we have several operations going on in this problem, we will have to use the order of

operations to make sure that we get the correct answer.

If you need to review the order of operations go to Tutorial 4: Operations of Real Numbers.

*Exponent

*Multiplication

*16 - 4 = 12

79

Answer/Discussion to 3a

and Equations.

Plugging 2 for x and -2 for y and simplifying we get:

Answer/Discussion to 4a

Variable Expressions and Equations.

Replacing x with -2 we get:

*Plug in -2 for x

Is -2 a solution?

80

Since we got a TRUE statement (7 does in fact equal 7), then -2 is a solution to this equation.

Numbers

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Find the reciprocal of a number.

2. Multiply positive and negative numbers.

3. Divide positive and negative numbers.

4. Multiply by zero.

5. Know that dividing by zero is undefined.

Introduction

This tutorial reviews multiplying and dividing real numbers and intertwines that with some order

of operation and evaluation problems. It also reminds you that dividing by 0 results in an

undefined answer. In other words, it is a big no, no.

I have the utmost confidence that you are familiar with multiplication and division, but

sometimes the rules for negative numbers (yuck!) get a little mixed up from time to time. So, it is

good to go over them to make sure you have them down.

81

Tutorial

Multiplicative Inverse

(or reciprocal)

For each real number a, except 0,

there is a unique real number

such that

In other words, when you multiply a number by its multiplicative inverse the result is 1.

A more common term used to indicate a multiplicative inverse is the reciprocal.

A multiplicative inverse or reciprocal of a real number a (except 0) is found by flipping a

upside down. The numerator of a becomes the denominator of the reciprocal of a and the

denominator of a becomes the numerator of the reciprocal of a.

The reciprocal of -3 is -1/3, since -3(-1/3) = 1.

When you take the reciprocal, the sign of the original number stays intact.

Remember that you need a number that when you multiply times the given number

you get 1. If you change the sign when you take the reciprocal, you would get a -1,

instead of 1, and that is a no no.

82

The reciprocal of 1/5 is 5, since 5(1/5) = 1.

If a and b are real numbers and

b is not 0, then

Since dividing is the same as multiplying by the reciprocal, dividing and multiplying have the

same sign rules.

Step 2: Put the correct sign.

If the two numbers have the same sign, the product or quotient is positive.

If they have opposite signs, the product or quotient is negative.

(-4)(3) = -12.

83

The product of the absolute values 4 x 3 is 12 and they have opposite signs, so our

answer is -12.

*Mult. den. together

*(-)(-) = (+)

*Reduce fraction

The product of the absolute values 2/3 x 9/10 is 18/30 = 3/5 and they have the same

sign, so that is how we get the answer 3/5.

Note that if you need help on fractions go to Tutorial 3: Fractions

Working this problem left to right we get:

*(3)(-2) = -6

*(-6)(-10) = 60

84

(-10)/(-2) = 5

The quotient of the absolute values 10/2 is 5 and they have the same signs, so our

answer is 5.

Example 7: Divide

*Mult. num. together

*Mult. den. together

*(+)(-) = *Reduce fraction

The quotient of the absolute values 4/5 and 8 is 4/40 = 1/10 and they have opposite

signs, so our answer is -1/10.

Note that if you need help on fractions go to Tutorial 3: Fractions

Multiplying by and

Dividing into Zero

a(0) = 0

and

0/a = 0 (when a does not equal 0)

In other words, zero (0) times any real number is zero (0) and zero (0) divided by any real

number other than zero (0) is zero (0).

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0() = 0.

Multiplying any expression by 0 results in an answer of 0.

0/5 = 0.

Dividing 0 by any expression other than 0 results in an answer of 0.

Dividing by Zero

a/0 is undefined

Zero (0) does not go into any number, so whenever you are dividing by zero (0) your answer is

undefined.

5/0 = undefined.

Dividing by 0 results in an undefined answer.

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order of operations to make sure that we get the correct answer.

If you need to review the order of operations go to Tutorial 4: Operations of Real

Numbers.

*Subtract

*(-)/(-) = +

if x = -2 and y = - 4.

Expressions and Equations.

Plugging -2 for x and - 4 for y and simplifying we get:

*Exponent

*Multiply

*Add

Practice Problems

87

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see

if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if

you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians

had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a. (-2)(-25)

1b.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

(answer/discussion to 1b)

(0)(-100)

1c. (-2)(3)(5)

(answer/discussion to 1c)

2a.

2b.

(answer/discussion to 2a)

(answer/discussion to 2b)

2c.

(answer/discussion to 2c)

88

3a.

(answer/discussion to 3a)

4a.

(answer/discussion to 4a)

Tutorial 7: Multiplying and Dividing Real

Numbers

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 7: Multiplying and Dividing Real

Numbers

Answer/Discussion to 1a

(-2)(-25)

(-2)(-25) = 50.

89

The product of the absolute values 2 and 25 is 50 and they have the same sign, so that is how we

get the answer 50.

Answer/Discussion to 1b

(0)(-100)

(0)(-100) = 0.

(return to problem 1b)

Answer/Discussion to 1c

(-2)(3)(5)

(-2)(3)(5) =

(-6)(5) =

-30

(return to problem 1c)

90

Answer/Discussion to 2a

(-25)/(5) = -5.

The quotient of the absolute values (25)/(5) = 5 and they have opposite signs, so that is how we

get the answer -5.

Answer/Discussion to 2b

7/0 = undefined.

(return to problem 2b)

Answer/Discussion to 2c

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*Mult. num. together

*Mult. den. together

*(-)(-) = *Reduce fraction

Answer/Discussion to 3a

operations to make sure that we get the correct answer.

If you need to review the order of operations go to Tutorial 4: Operations of Real Numbers.

*Multiply

*Add

*Reduce fraction

92

Answer/Discussion to 4a

and Equations.

Plugging 5 for x and -5 for y and simplifying we get:

*Exponent

*Multiply

*Subtract

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Identify and use the addition and multiplication commutative properties.

2. Identify and use the addition and multiplication associative properties.

3. Identify and use the distributive property.

4. Identify and use the addition and multiplication identity properties.

5. Identify and use the addition and multiplication inverse properties.

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Introduction

It is important to be familiar with the properties in this tutorial. They lay the foundation that you

need to work with equations, functions, and formulas all of which are covered in later tutorials, as

well as, your algebra class. In some cases, it isn't very helpful to rewrite an expression, but in

other cases it helps to write an equivalent expression to be able to continue with a problem and

solve it. An equivalent expression is one that is written differently, but has the same value. The

properties on this page will get you up to speed as to how you can write expressions in equivalent

forms.

Tutorial

Addition and Multiplication

a+b=b+a

and

ab = ba

The Commutative Property, in general, states that changing the ORDER of two numbers

either being added or multiplied, does NOT change the value of it.

The two sides are called equivalent expressions because they look different but have the same

value.

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+ 3y.

Using the commutative property of addition (where changing the order of a sum does

not change the value of it) we get

2.5x + 3y = 3y + 2.5x.

to

.

Using the commutative property of multiplication (where changing the order of a

product does not change the value of it), we get

Addition and Multiplication

a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c

and

a(bc) = (ab)c

The Associative property, in general, states that changing the GROUPING of numbers that

are either being added or multiplied does NOT change the value of it. Again, the two sides

are equivalent to each other.

At this point it is good to remind you that both the commutative and associative properties

do NOT work for subtraction or division.

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5b) + 2c.

Using the associative property of addition (where changing the grouping of a sum does

not change the value of it) we get

(a + 5b) + 2c = a + (5b + 2c).

(1.5x)y.

Using the associative property of multiplication (where changing the grouping of a

product does not change the value of it) we get

(1.5x)y = 1.5(xy)

Distributive Properties

a(b + c) = ab + ac

or

(b + c)a = ba + ca

In other words, when you have a term being multiplied times two or more terms that are

being added (or subtracted) in a ( ), multiply the outside term times EVERY term on the

inside.

Remember terms are separated by + and -.

This idea can be extended to more than two terms in the ( ).

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*Distribute the (-1) to EVERY term inside ( )

*Multiply

Basically, when you have a negative sign in front of a ( ), like this example, you can

think of it as taking a -1 times the ( ). What you end up doing in the end is taking the

opposite of every term in the ( ).

3(2a + 3b + 4c).

As mentioned above, you can extend the distributive property to as many terms as are

inside the ( ). The basic idea is that you multiply the outside term times EVERY term

on the inside.

*Multiply

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Identity Properties

Addition

The additive identity is 0

a+0=0+a=a

In other words, when you add 0 to any number, you end up with that number as a result.

Multiplication

Multiplication identity is 1

a(1) = 1(a) = a

And when you multiply any number by 1, you wind up with that number as your answer.

Additive Inverse (or negative)

For each real number a, there is a unique real

number,

denoted -a, such that

a + (-a) = 0.

In other words, when you add a number to its additive inverse, the result is 0. Other terms that are

synonymous with additive inverse are negative and opposite.

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Multiplicative Inverse

(or reciprocal)

For each real number a, except 0, there is a unique

real number

such that

In other words, when you multiply a number by its multiplicative inverse the result is 1. A more

common term used to indicate a multiplicative inverse is the reciprocal. A multiplicative inverse

or reciprocal of a real number a (except 0) is found by "flipping" a upside down. The numerator

of a becomes the denominator of the reciprocal of a and the denominator of a becomes the

numerator of the reciprocal of a.

These two inverses will come in big time handy when you go to solve equations later on.

Keep them in your memory bank until that time.

Example 8: Write the opposite (or additive inverse) and reciprocal (or

multiplicative inverse) of -3.

The reciprocal of -3 is -1/3, since -3(-1/3) = 1.

When you take the reciprocal, the sign of the original number stays intact. Remember

that you need a number that when you multiply times the given number you get 1. If

you change the sign when you take the reciprocal, you would get a -1, instead of 1, and

that is a no no.

Example 9: Write the opposite (or additive inverse) and reciprocal (or

multiplicative inverse) of 1/5.

The opposite of 1/5 is -1/5, since 1/5 + (-1/5) = 0.

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These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see

if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if

you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians

had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

expression.

1a. xy

1b. .1 + 3x

(answer/discussion to 1a)

(answer/discussion to 1b)

expression.

2a. (a + b) + 1.5

2b. 5(xy)

(answer/discussion to 2a)

(answer/discussion to 2b)

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Practice Problems 3a - 3b: Use the distributive property to find the product.

3a. -2(x - 5)

(answer/discussion to 3a)

(answer/discussion to 3b)

Practice Problems 4a - 4b: Write the opposite (additive inverse) and the

reciprocal (multiplicative inverse) of each number.

4a. -7

4b. 3/5

(answer/discussion to 4a)

(answer/discussion to 4b)

Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers

Answer/Discussion to 1a

xy

Using the commutative property of multiplication (where changing the order of a product does

not change the value of it), we get

xy = yx

(return to problem 1a)

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Answer/Discussion to 1b

.1 + 3x

Using the commutative property of addition (where changing the order of a sum does not change

the value of it), we get

.1 + 3x = 3x + .1

(return to problem 1b)

Answer/Discussion to 2a

(a + b) + 1.5

Using the associative property of addition (where changing the grouping of a sum does not

change the value of it), we get

(a + b) + 1.5 = a + (b + 1.5)

(return to problem 2a)

Answer/Discussion to 2b

5(xy)

Using the associative property of multiplication (where changing the grouping of a product does

not change the value of it), we get

5(xy) = (5x)y

(return to problem 2b)

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Answer/Discussion to 3a

-2(x - 5)

*Multiply

Answer/Discussion to 3b

7(5a + 4b + 3c)

*Multiply

Answer/Discussion to 4a

-7

The opposite of -7 is 7, since -7 + 7 = 0.

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(return to problem 4a)

Answer/Discussion to 4b

3/5

The opposite of 3/5 is -3/5, since 3/5 + (-3/5) = 0.

The reciprocal of 3/5 is 5/3, since (3/5)(5/3) = 1.

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Read a bar graph.

2. Read a line graph.

3. Read a double line graph.

4. Draw and read a Venn diagram.

Introduction

In this tutorial we will be reading graphs. Graphs can be used to visually represent the

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relationship of data. It can help organize and show people statistics, which can be good for some

and not so good for others, depending on what the statistics show. Organizing data graphically

can come in handy in fields like business, sports, teaching, politics, advertising, etc.. Let's start

looking at some graphs.

Tutorial

Bar Graph

A bar graph can be used to give a visual representation of the relationship of data that has been

collected.

It is made up of a vertical and a horizontal axis and bars that can run vertically or horizontally.

If the bars are vertical, match the top of the bar with the vertical axis found at the side of the

overall graph to find the information the bar associates with on the vertical axis. You will find

what the bar associates with on the horizontal axis at the base of the bar.

The bar graph below has vertical bars:

The horizontal axis represents years and the vertical axis represents profit in

thousands of dollars.

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The first bar on the left associates with the year 1999 AND the profit of

$20,000. The red line shows how the top of the bar lines up with 20 on the

vertical axis.

The second bar from the left associates with the year 2000 and the profit of

$30,000. The blue line shows how the top of the bar lines up with 30 on the

vertical axis.

If the bars are horizontal, match the right end of the bar with the horizontal axis found at the

bottom of the overall graph to find the information the bar associates with on the horizontal axis.

You will find what the the bar associates with on the vertical axis at the left end of the bar.

The bar graph below has horizontal bars:

(Note that this graph shows the same information the above graph does, just with horizontal bars

instead of vertical bars.)

The vertical axis represents years and the horizontal axis represents profit in

thousands of dollars.

The first bar on the bottom associates with the year 1999 AND the profit of

$20,000. The red line shows how the right end of the bar lines up with 20 on

the horizontal axis.

The second bar from the bottom associates with the year 2000 and the profit

of $30,000. The blue line shows how the right end of the bar lines up with 30

on the horizontal axis.

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Example 1: The bar graph below shows the number of students in a math class that

received the grades shown. Use this graph to answer questions 1a - 1d.

1a. Find the number of students who received an A.

1b. Find the number of students who received an F.

1c. Find the number of students who passed the course (D or higher).

1d. Which grade did the most students receive?

(return to bar graph)

The bar that associates with the grade A is the first bar on the left. The top of that bar

matches with 6 on the vertical axis.

6 students received an A.

(return to bar graph)

The bar that associates with the grade F is the fifth bar from the left. The top of that

bar matches with 2 on the vertical axis.

2 students received an F.

1c. Find the number of students who passed the course (D or higher).

(return to bar graph)

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We will have to do a little calculating here. We will need to find the number of

students that received an A, B C, and D and then ad them together.

The bar that associates with the grade A is the first bar on the left. The top of that bar

matches with 6 on the vertical axis.

The bar that associates with the grade B is the second bar from the left. The top of that

bar matches with 16 on the vertical axis.

The bar that associates with the grade C is the third bar from the left. The top of that

bar matches with 12 on the vertical axis.

The bar that associates with the grade D is the fourth bar from the left. The top of that

bar matches with 4 on the vertical axis.

6 + 16 + 12 + 4 = 38 students passed the course.

(return to bar graph)

It looks like more students received a B than any other single grade.

Example 2: The bar graph below shows the number of civilians holding various

federal government jobs. Use the graph to answer questions 2a - 2d.

2a. About how many civilians work for Congress?

2b. About how many civilians work for the State Department?

2c. About how many civilians work for the armed forces (Navy, Air Force, and Army)?

2d. Which federal government job listed has the most civilian workers?

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(return to bar graph)

The bar that associates with Congress is the fourth bar up. The right of that bar lines

up a little to the left of 50 on the horizontal axis. Note how the question asks ABOUT

how many. In some cases, if it does not directly line up with a number that is marked

you may need to approximate. This is very close to and less than 50. A good

approximation is 25.

About 25,000 civilians work for Congress.

2b. About how many civilians work for the State Department?

(return to bar graph)

The bar that associates with the State Department is the sixth bar up. The right of that

bar lines up with 50 on the horizontal axis.

About 50,000 civilians work for the State Department.

2c. About how many civilians work for the armed forces (Navy, Air Force, and Army)?

(return to bar graph)

We will have to do a little calculating on this one. We will need to find the number of

civilians that work for each branch of the armed services and then add them up.

The bar that associates with the Navy is the third bar up. The right of that bar ends

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between 300 and 350 on the horizontal axis. 310 is a good approximation for this

number.

The bar that associates with the Air Force is the second bar up. The right of that bar

ends between 200 and 250 on the horizontal axis. 210 is a good approximation for

this number.

The bar that associates with the Army is the first bar from the bottom. The right of

that bar ends just under 350 on the horizontal axis. 340 is a good approximation for

this number.

About 310,000 + 210,000 + 340,000 = 860,000 civilians work for the State

Department.

2d. Which federal government job listed has the most civilian workers?

(return to bar graph)

Line Graph

A line graph is another way to give a visual representation of the relationship of data that has

been collected.

It is made up of a vertical and horizontal axis and a series of points that are connected by a line.

Each point on the line matches up with a corresponding vertical axis and horizontal axis value on

the graph.

In some cases, you are giving a value from the horizontal axis and you need to find its

corresponding value from the vertical axis. You find the point on the line that matches the given

value from the horizontal axis and then match it up with its corresponding vertical axis value to

find the value you are looking for. You would do the same type of process if you were given a

vertical axis value and needed to find a horizontal axis value.

The graph below is a line graph:

(Note that this graph shows the same information the above graphs under vertical and horizontal

graphs do, just with a line instead of bars.)

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The horizontal axis represents years and the vertical axis represents profit in

thousands of dollars.

The first point on the left associates with the year 1999 AND the profit of

$20,000. The red line shows how it lines up with 20 on the vertical axis and

1999 on the horizontal axis.

The second point from the left associates with the year 2000 and the profit of

$30,000. The blue line shows how it lines up with 30 on the vertical axis and

2000 on the horizontal axis.

Example 3: The line graph below shows the distance traveled of a vacationer going

70 mph down I-40 from 0 to 4 hours. Use the graph to answer questions 3a - 3b.

3a. How far has the vacationer traveled at 3 hours?

3b. How long does it take the vacationer to travel 140 miles?

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(return to line graph)

The point that matches with 3 on the horizontal axis also matches with 210 on the

vertical axis.

The vacationer has traveled 210 miles.

3b. How long does it take the vacationer to travel 140 miles?

(return to line graph)

The point that matches with 140 on the vertical axis also matches with 2 on the

horizontal axis.

It takes the vacationer 2 hours to travel 140 miles.

Example 4: The line graph below shows the profit a local candy company made

over the months of September through December of last year. Use the graph to answer questions

4a - 4c.

4a. About how much was the profit in the month of October?

4b. Which month had the lowest profit?

4c. What is the difference between the profits of November and December?

4a. About how much was the profit in the month of October?

(return to line graph)

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The point that matches with October on the horizontal axis also matches between 20

and 25 on the vertical axis. It looks to be about 23.

The profit for the month of October is about $23,000.

(return to line graph)

4c. What is the difference between the profits of November and December?

(return to line graph)

The point that matches with November on the horizontal axis also matches with 15 on

the vertical axis.

The point that matches with December on the horizontal axis also matches with 20 on

the vertical axis.

The difference between the profits of November and December would be 20,000 15,000 = $5,000.

A double line graph is another way to give a visual representation of the relationship of data that

has been collected.

It is similar to the line graph mentioned above. The difference is there are two lines of data

instead of one.

It is made up of a vertical and horizontal axis and two series of points each one connected by a

line.

The legend will show which line represents what set of points. Most times a solid line and a

dashed line are used. But varying colors can also distinguish the two lines apart.

Each point on each line matches up with a corresponding vertical axis and horizontal axis value

on the graph.

In some cases, you are giving a value from the horizontal axis and you need to find its

corresponding value from the vertical axis. You find the point on the line that matches the given

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value from the horizontal axis and then match it up with its corresponding vertical axis value to

find the value you are looking for. You would do the same type of process if you were given a

vertical axis value and needed to find a horizontal axis value.

The graph below is a double line graph:

The horizontal axis represents the year and the vertical axis represents profit

in thousands of dollars.

The legend towards the top of the graph indicates which line represents which

product. The solid line corresponds with Product A and the dashed line goes

with Product B.

The first point on the solid line on the left associates with the year 1995 AND

the profit of $30,000.

The second point on the solid line from the left associates with the year 1996

AND the profit of $40,000.

The third point on the solid line from the left associates with the year 1997

AND the profit of $40,000.

The fourth point on the solid line from the left associates with the year 1998

AND the profit of $30,000.

The fifth point on the solid line from the left associates with the year 1999

AND the profit of $60,000.

The first point on the dashed line on the left associates with the year 1995

AND the profit of $20,000.

The second point on the dashed line from the left associates with the year

1996 AND the profit of $20,000.

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The third point on the dashed line from the left associates with the year 1997

AND the profit of $15,000.

The fourth point on the dashed line from the left associates with the year 1998

AND the profit of $40,000.

The fifth point on the dashed line from the left associates with the year 1999

AND the profit of $50,000.

Example 5: The double line graph below shows the total enrollment of students in a

local college from 1990 - 1995, broken down into part-time and full-time students. Use the graph

to answer questions 5a - 5c.

5a. What was the full-time enrollment in 1992?

5b. For what year shown on the graph did the number of part-time students exceed the previous

years number of part-time students by the greatest number?

5c. What was the total enrollment from 1993 to 1995?

(return to double line graph)

Since we are looking for full-time students, are we going to look at the solid or dashed

line?

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The point that is on the dashed line and matches with 1992 on the horizontal line also

matches with 200 on the vertical line.

There were 200 full-time students enrolled in 1992.

5b. For what year shown on the graph did the number of part-time students exceed the

previous years number of part-time students by the greatest number?

(return to double line graph)

Since we are looking for part-time students, are we going to look at the solid or dashed

line?

According to the legend, we need to look at the solid line.

When looking at the graph, we are only interested in a rise in the number of part-time

students. From 1990 to 1991, the number of part-time students went up 100 to 150.

From 1991 to 1992, it went down from 150 to 50. From 1992 to 1993, there was

increase from 50 to 250. From 1993 to 1994, there was another increase, this time

from 250 to 300. The last years, 1994 - 1995, it held steady at 300.

So, what year exceeded the previous number of part-time students by the greatest

number?

Looks like 1993. There were 200 more part-time students in 1993 than there were

in 1992.

(return to double line graph)

Looking at the dashed line to see the number of full-time students we get 250 + 400 +

500 = 1150.

Looking at the solid line to see the number of part-time students we get 250 + 300 +

300 = 850.

Putting those together, we have 1150 + 850 = 2000 students who were enrolled

from 1993 to 1995.

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Venn Diagrams

Venn diagrams are a visual way of organizing information. It can be very helpful when you have

a problem to solve that categorizes or shows relationships between things.

A common use for Venn diagrams is analyzing the results of a survey. For example, you may

have a survey of students asking them which classes they like and perhaps you listed math and

english. The student could check 0, 1, or 2 of these choices. You would strategically place the

results in a Venn diagram. If they only choose math, then they would go in a particular region of

the diagram that shows that, if they picked both, they would go into the area of the diagram that

depicts that, etc. Of course there are other uses for the Venn diagram, that is one of the more

common ones.

The graph below is a Venn diagram:

This diagram represents the results of a survey of people who were asked if they liked Coke or

Pepsi. They could choose only Coke, only Pepsi, both, or neither.

Note that a lot of times you do not see the letter U or the roman numerals on a Venn

Diagram (just the box and the circles), I use them as references so you know what area of

the diagram I'm talking about in the lesson.

The rectangle box represents the universal set U. The universal set is the set of all elements

considered in a problem. In this example, the universal set are all the people who took the

survey.

The circles represent the categories or subsets involving the universal set. In this example,

the two categories or choices on the survey were Coke and Pepsi.

When you draw a Venn diagram, you want to overlap the circles in case there are some that pick

both categories. We need to make sure we accurately place those people and do not count them

more than one time.

The roman numerals are called region numbers.

Region I represents everyone who selected ONLY Coke which was 575 people.

Region II is where the two circles intersect or overlap. It represents everyone who selected

BOTH Coke and Pepsi which was 100 people.

Region III represents everyone who selected ONLY Pepsi which was 225 people.

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Region IV is inside the rectangle, but outside the circles. It represents everyone who selected

NEITHER Coke nor Pepsi which was 15 people.

said they had a cat. 9 students said they had a dog. 2 said they had both a cat and a dog. How

many students picked neither? How many students had only a cat? How many students had only

a dog?

The first thing we need to do is draw a Venn diagram with two adjoining circles - one

for cats and one for dogs.

Now we need to fill in numbers into the correct regions based on the information that

was given.

We need to start with something that only goes with one region and then work

our way out from that.

The only statement that deals with one region is 2 said they had both a cat and a

dog. That would correlate with region II. So in region II, we would put a 2 as shown

below:

Next let's look at the statement 12 students said they had a cat. Be careful here. It is

very tempting to put a 12 in region I - but region I is reserved for those students who

ONLY have a cat, which is different. When it says they had a cat, it means they

checked it off on the survey and may or may not have checked off dog also. The cat

circle includes regions I and II. Since we already have region II filled in with a 2, we

can use that with the fact that I and II have to add up to be 12 to figure out what goes

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in region I - what do you think??? If we take 12 - 2 we get 10 left that have no other

place to go but region I.

This puts everybody in the correct spot AND does not count students more than 1

time.

We can use the same type of argument when working with the statement "9 students

said they had a dog." Again, it did not say ONLY dog - so 9 will have to fit into

regions II and III and since we already have II filled in with 2 students that will

leave 9 - 2 = 7 to go into region III.

That leaves us with having to fill in region IV. We can use the fact that 40 students

answered the survey and that we have three of the four regions filled in. So we can

take the total of 40 and subtract everyone that is already accounted for and that will

leave us who is in region IV: 40 - 10 - 2 - 7 = 21.

Overall, you need to start with the information that goes with only one region first. If

you start with something that goes with more than one part, then you will not know

how to split it up appropriately so everyone is in the right spot AND is not

counted more than one time. For example, if we would have started with the fact

that there were 40 students, we would have had trouble because all four regions would

make up all the students surveyed. We wouldn't know how to appropriately split that

40 up. Or if we looked at the fact that 12 choose a cat to start with, we would not

know how to split it between the two regions that make up the cat circle.

Final answer:

Looking at the Venn diagram, the students that chose neither would be in region IV,

which comes out to be 21. The students who chose only a cat would be in region I,

which is 10. The students who chose only a dog would be in region III, which is 7.

119

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see

if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if

you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians

had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

Practice Problems 1a - 1c: The bar graph below shows the profit a cd store made

over the months of September through December of last year. Use the graph to answer

questions 1a - 1c.

(answer/discussion to 1a - 1c)

(answer/discussion to 1a - 1c)

1c. What is the difference between the profits of October and November?

(answer/discussion to 1a - 1c)

120

Practice Problems 2a - 2c: The line graph below shows last week's high

temperatures in Fahrenheit. Use the graph to answer questions 2a - 2c.

(answer/discussion to 2a - 2c)

(answer/discussion to 2a - 2c)

(answer/discussion to 2a - 2c)

Practice Problems 3a - 3c: The double line graph below shows the total

enrollment of people who work out at a local gym from 1998 - 2002, broken down into

males and females. Use the graph to answer questions 3a - 3c.

121

3a. What was the ratio between male gym members and female gym members in

2000?

(answer/discussion to 3a - 3c)

3b. For what year shown on the graph did male gym membership not change from the

year before?

(answer/discussion to 3a - 3c)

3c. What was the total enrollment of the gym from 1998 to 2000?

(answer/discussion to 3a - 3c)

Practice Problems 4a - 4c: A group of students were asked if they liked rock or

country music. The results were as follows: 27 said they liked rock, 20 said they liked

country, 5 liked both, and 3 liked neither.

(answer/discussion to 4a - 4c)

(answer/discussion to 4a - 4c)

122

(answer/discussion to 4a - 4c)

Tutorial 9: Reading Graphs

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 9: Reading Graphs

Answer/Discussion to 1a - 1c

The bar that associates with September is the first bar on the left. The top of

that bar is in between 5 and 10 on the vertical axis. A good approximation is

8.

The profit in September is about $8000.

It looks like December had the highest profit.

1c. What is the difference between the profits of October and November?

The bar that associates with October is the second bar from the left. The top

of that bar matches with 5 on the vertical axis.

The bar that associates with November is the third bar from the left. The top

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The difference between the profits of October and November would be

10,000 - 5,000 = $5,000.

(return to problem 1)

Answer/Discussion to 2a - 2c

The point that matches with Thursday on the horizontal axis also matches 80

on the vertical axis.

Thursday's high temperature was 80 degrees Fahrenheit.

It looks like Saturday had the lowest high temperature.

It looks like 85 degrees Fahrenheit occurred three times which is the

most.

124

(return to problem 2)

Answer/Discussion to 3a - 3c

3a. What was the ratio between male gym members and female gym members in 2000?

When setting up a ratio you need to write the number that corresponds to the

first part first and then compare it to the number that corresponds to the

second part of the ratio.

What do you think the first part of the ratio is, males or females? Since

males are listed first, that is what our first number of our ratio has to

correspond to.

What is the number attached to males gym members in 2000? Looking at

the solid line, I believe it is 50.

That leaves the number associated with females to be our second part of the

ratio. Looking at the dashed line we get 15.

So the ratio of male gym members to female gym members in 2000 would be

50 to 15.

You can think of ratios as fractions, and simplify them in the same manner.

Since 50 and 15 have a greatest common factor of 5, we can reduce this to be

10 to 3.

The reduced ratio of male gym members to female gym members is 10 to

125

3.

Note that if you had started with 15 to 50, this would be incorrect. 15 to 50

would be the ratio of females to males. You write a ratio, just like you read it,

left to right.

3b. For what year shown on the graph did male gym membership not change from the year

before?

Are we going to look at the solid or dashed line for this question? Since

we are only interested in the male membership, we will need to look at the

solid line.

Going from left to right on the solid lines it appears that male membership

goes up from 1998 to 1999 to 2000. Then it goes down from 2000 to 2001.

But look how the line is horizontal from 2001 to 2002. Male gym goers

numbered 30 in both 2001 and 2002.

So the answer would be in 2002 male gym membership did not change

from the previous year.

3c. What was the total enrollment of the gym from 1998 to 2000?

Lets break this down into female and male gym members.

Looking at the dashed line to see the number of females we get 20 + 20 + 15

= 55.

Looking at the solid line to see the number of males we get 40 + 45 + 50 =

135.

Putting those together we have 55 + 135 = 190 gym members from 1998

to 2000.

(return to problem 3)

126

Answer/Discussion to 4a - 4c

A group of students were asked if they liked rock or country music. The results were as follows:

27 said they liked rock, 20 said they liked country, 5 liked both, and 3 liked neither.

The first thing we need to do is draw a Venn diagram with two adjoining circles - one for rock

and one for country.

Now we need to fill in numbers into the correct regions based on the information that was given.

We need to start with something that only goes with one region and then work our way out

from that.

Two statements deal with only one region. If more than one does, it doesn't matter the order you

fill them in as long as they go with only one area.

It says that 5 liked both. The only region that both circles meet in is region II, so we will have to

put a 5 there.

Another statement that pertains to only one region is 3 like neither. That means we will be

putting the number 3 in region IV.

Let's put those into our Venn diagram and see what is left:

It says that 27 said they liked rock - the rock circle is composed of regions I and II. Since II

already had 5, then region I is going to have to be 27 - 5 = 22.

It also says that 20 said they liked country - the country circle is composed of regions II and III.

127

Final answers:

4a. How many students chose only rock?

This would be region I.

The number of students that chose only rock is 22.

This would be region III.

The number of students that chose only country is 15.

This would be regions, I, II, III, and IV.

To find the total we simply add up all the regions: 22 + 5 + 15 + 3 = 45

The number of students that were interviewed about rock and country is 45.

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

128

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Take a test on topics covered in tutorials 1 - 9 in this website.

I can not guarantee you will pass your test after going though any of the tutorials in this

website or this practice test. However, it will definitely help you to better understand the

topics covered better.

Disclaimer: WTAMU and Kim Seward are not responsible for how a student does on any

test or any class for any reason including not being able to access the website due to any

technology problems.

Introduction

It is important to note that, chances are, I'm not your math instructor. You need to check with

your math teacher as to things like when your next math test is and what it covers. It may

cover more material on the test than what is in this practice test. Just note that there are other

practice tests at this website. So, after finding out what is on your test (if you have one) do the

practice test(s) problems that go with the test you are preparing for. If you are not in a class or

are not having a test soon, this practice test is still good practice to go through and check to make

sure you are understanding this material before moving on - kind of like a spot check. The

material on this practice test goes with Tutorial 2: Symbols and Sets of Numbers, Tutorial 3:

Fractions, Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions and Equations, Tutorial 5:

Adding Real Numbers, Tutorial 6: Subtracting Real Numbers, Tutorial 7: Multiplying and

Dividing Real Numbers, Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers, Tutorial 9: Reading

Graphs.

Also note that your teacher may word the problems on their test a little differently, may

have some different kinds of problems, or may have a different number of problems than

what is in this practice test. Again, since I'm probably not your math instructor, I don't know

exactly how your teacher will set up your math test. Just note that these problems will help you

build an understanding of the concepts presented and the terms used in math problems. If you

have an understanding of the problems instead of just memorizing them, then you should

129

1. Work through problems. If you are in a class, you should have done this on completion

of any homework you have done. For anyone, you can accomplish this by doing the

practice problems found in each tutorial.

2. Check work on problems. The practice problems in each tutorial have links to the

answers to them so you can instantly check how you are doing. Also, in most math books,

the odd answers are found in the back of the book.

3. Review concepts. Whether you got the problems right or wrong, make sure you review

over them. If you did get a problem wrong, make sure you either review that concept in

it's respective tutorial or ask your math teacher about it. If you don't ask about a problem

before a test, you are going to kick yourself when it comes up on the test.

4. Work through problems as if you were taking the test - no notes, book, webpages,

etc. This practice test is a perfect way to do that. After taking this practice test, check

your answers by clicking on the link to the answer key found at the bottom of the

practice test (before the 'need extra help on these topics' section)

It is to your benefit to show as much of the work as possible on the problems that have several

steps involved.

Make sure that you read the directions carefully, you wouldn't believe how many points get

taken off math tests for people not following directions.

Pace yourself. You do not have to be the first one done to do well on the test. Do not panic if

there is still time left to take the test and others are turing it in. Sometimes that means they do not

know the material and left some of the answers blank. Do not worry about anyone else but

yourself.

Don't rush through a problem. Another thing that math teachers take points off for are careless

mistakes made by people that rush through a problem. When those students get their tests back,

they bonk themselves on the head at some of the things that got counted wrong, things that they

knew how to do.

Check your answers. If you have time, go back and check your answers.

Remember to breathe!!!! I know some of you are scared to death at the thought of having to

take a math test of any kind. For you guys, try to relax and don't forget to breathe. (Even if you

aren't scared to take a math test, it is probably a good idea to remember to breathe, I wouldn't

130

want you to pass out during the test). If it feels like your brain has left the building during

your test, just close your eyes and breathe in and out and in and out and your brain will

return.

Good luck on your test. If you are taking a math test soon, don't panic, you are going to do

great!!!

Practice Test

1a. -5 ? 5

1b. 10 ? 5

1c. |-5| ? |5|

2a. - 4 > 4

2b. - 4 < - 4

3a. 5 is not equal to -5.

3b. -2 is less than or equal to 0.

131

Problems 4a - 4f : List the elements of the following set that are also elements of the given

set.

{-, 0, 5,

4c. Integers

5a. 90

6a.

Problems 7a - 7d: Perform the following operations. Write answers in the lowest terms.

7a.

7b.

7c.

7d.

132

8a.

8b.

Problems 9a - 9b: Write each phrase as an algebraic expression. Let x represent the

unknown number.

9a. The quotient of 7 and a number.

9b. 10 less than 2 times a number.

Problems 10a - 10b: Write each sentence as an equation. Let x represent the unknown

number.

10a. The sum of 2 and 10 times a number is the same as 30.

10b. The product of 5 and a number is 2/3.

11a. -9 + (-10)

11b.

12a. -(-17)

12b.

13a. -15 - (-3)

133

14a. (-5)(-12)

14b. (3)(-5)(2)

14c. (-15)(0)

15a.

15b.

15c.

16a.

16b.

17a.

17b.

when x = 2 and y = -2

Problems 18a - 18b: Decide whether the given number is a solution of the given equation.

18a. Is 1 a solution to 3x - 1 = 4?

18b. Is -3 a solution to 7 - x = 2x + 16?

134

19a. 3a + 2b

20a. 8(xy)

Problems 21a - 21b: Use the distributive property to find the product.

21a. -5(a - 7)

Problems 22a - 22b: Write the opposite (additive inverse) and the reciprocal (multiplicative

inverse) of each number.

22a. -10

22b.

Problem 23a - 23c: The bar graph below shows the profit a cd store made over the months

of September through December of last year. Use the graph to answer questions 23a - 23c.

135

23c. What is the sum of the profits of October and November?

Problems 24a - 24b: The line graph below shows last week's high temperatures in

Fahrenheit. Use the graph to answer questions 24a - 24b.

24b. Which day had the highest high temperature?

Tutorial 10: Practice Test on Tutorials 1 - 9

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 10: Practice Test on Tutorials 1 - 9

1a. -5 ? 5

Answer:

Since -5 is to the left of 5 on the number line, then -5 < 5.

136

1b. 10 ? 5

Answer:

Since 10 is to the right of 5 on the number line, then 10 > 5.

Answer:

First of all, |-5| = 5.

Next we have |5| = 5.

Since both absolute values equal the same number 5, then |-5| = |5| .

2a. - 4 > 4

Answer:

Since - 4 is to the left of 4 on the number line, then - 4 < 4.

So, the above statement is false.

2b. - 4 < - 4

Answer:

Since - 4 is the same number as - 4 and the statement includes where the two numbers

are equal to each other, then this statement is true.

137

Answer:

Reading it left to right we get:

5 is not equal to -5

Answer:

Reading it left to right we get:

-2 is less than or equal to 0

-2 < 0

Answer:

Reading it left to right we get:

7 is greater than 0

7 > 0

Problems 4a - 4f : List the elements of the following set that are also elements of the given

set. {-, 0, 5,

Answer:

The numbers in the given set that are also natural numbers are

{5,

138

Answer:

The numbers in the given set that are also whole numbers are

{0, 5,

4c. Integers

Answer:

The numbers in the given set that are also integers are

{0, 5,

Answer:

The numbers in the given set that are also rational numbers are

{-1/2, 0, 5,

Answer:

The number in the given set that is also an irrational number is

{

Answer:

The numbers in the given set that are also real numbers are

{-, 0, 5,

139

5a. 90

Answer:

6a.

Answer:

Problems 7a - 7d: Perform the following operations. Write answers in the lowest terms.

7a.

Answer:

140

7b.

Answer:

7c.

Answer:

141

7d.

Answer:

8a.

Answer:

8b.

Answer:

142

Problems 9a - 9b: Write each phrase as an algebraic expression. Let x represent the

unknown number.

9a. The quotient of 7 and a number.

Answer:

The quotient of 7 and a number

Answer:

10 less than 2 times a number

Problems 10a - 10b: Write each sentence as an equation. Let x represent the unknown

number.

10a. The sum of 2 and 10 times a number is the same as 30.

Answer:

The sum of 2 and 10 times a number is the same as 30

Answer:

The product of 5 and a number is 2/3

143

11a. -9 + (-10)

Answer:

-9 + (-10) = -19

11b.

Answer:

Answer:

6.5 + (-1.2) + (-3.1) =

5.3 + (-3.1) =

2.2

12a. -(-17)

Answer:

-(-17) = 17

144

12b.

Answer:

13a. -15 - (-3)

Answer:

-15 - (-3) =

-15 + 3 =

-12

Answer:

-1.5 - 2.5 =

-1.5 + (-2.5) =

-4

14a. (-5)(-12)

145

Answer:

(-5)(-12) = 60

14b. (3)(-5)(2)

Answer:

(3)(-5)(2) =

(-15)(2) =

-30

14c. (-15)(0)

Answer:

(-15)(0) = 0

15a.

Answer:

15b.

Answer:

146

is undefined.

15c.

Answer:

16a.

Answer:

16b.

Answer:

147

17a.

Answer:

when x = 2 and y = -2

17b.

Answer:

Problems 18a - 18b: Decide whether the given number is a solution of the given equation.

18a. Is 1 a solution to 3x - 1 = 4?

148

Answer:

Is 1 a solution?

Since we got a FALSE statement (2 does not equal 4), then 1 is not a solution.

Answer:

Is -3 a solution?

Since we got a TRUE statement (10 does equal 10), then -3 is a solution.

19a. 3a + 2b

Answer:

Using the commutative property of addition (where changing the order of a sum does

not change the value of it), we get

3a + 2b = 2b + 3a

149

20a. 8(xy)

Answer:

Using the associative property of multiplication (where changing the grouping of a

product does not change the value of it), we get

8(xy) = (8x)y

Problems 21a - 21b: Use the distributive property to find the product.

21a. -5(a - 7)

Answer:

Answer:

Problems 22a - 22b: Write the opposite (additive inverse) and the reciprocal (multiplicative

inverse) of each number.

22a. -10

Answer:

150

The reciprocal of -10 is -1/10, since -10(-1/10) = 1.

22b.

Answer:

The opposite of 4/7 is - 4/7, since 4/7 + (- 4/7) = 0.

The reciprocal of 4/7 is 7/4, since (4/7)(7/4) = 1.

Problem 23a - 23c: The bar graph below shows the profit a cd store made over the months

of September through December of last year. Use the graph to answer questions 23a - 23c.

Answer:

The bar that associates with December is the fourth bar from the left. The top of that

bar is in between 20 and 25 on the vertical axis. A good approximation is 22.

The profit in December is about $22000.

151

Answer:

It looks like October had the lowest profit.

Answer:

The bar that associates with October is the second bar from the left. The top of that

bar matches with 5 on the vertical axis.

The bar that associates with November is the third bar from the left. The top of that

bar matches with 10 on the vertical axis.

The sum of the profits of October and November would be 5,000 + 10,000 =

$15,000.

Problems 24a - 24b: The line graph below shows last week's high temperatures in

Fahrenheit. Use the graph to answer questions 24a - 24b.

Answer:

The point that matches with Monday on the horizontal axis also matches 85 on the

vertical axis.

Monday's high temperature was 85 degrees Fahrenheit.

152

Answer:

It looks like Wednesday had the highest high temperature.

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Identify a term, coefficient, constant term, and like terms.

2. Combine like terms.

3. Simplify an expression using distributive property and combining like terms.

Introduction

In this tutorial we will be looking at various components of terms. Then we will move on to

adding like terms together. Some of these concepts are based on ideas that were covered in

earlier tutorials. A lot of times in math you are using previous knowledge to learn new concepts.

The trick is to not reinvent the wheel each time, but recognize what you have done before and

draw on that knowledge to help you work through the problems.

153

Tutorial

Term

A term is a number, variable or the product of a number and variable(s).

Examples of terms are

,z

Coefficient

A coefficient is the numeric factor of your term.

Here are the coefficients of the terms listed above:

Term

Coefficient

3

5

2

Constant Term

A constant term is a term that contains only a number. In other words, there is no variable in a

constant term.

Examples of constant terms are 4, 100, and -5.

Like Terms

154

Like terms are terms that have the exact same variables raised to the exact same exponents.

One example of like terms is

. Another example is

You can only combine terms that are like terms. You think of it as the reverse of the

distributive property.

It is like counting apples and oranges. You just count up how many variables you have the

same and write the number in front of the common variable part.

Example 1: Simplify

It looks like it. Both terms have the same variable part, a.

Example 2: Simplify

It looks like it. Two terms have the same variable part, b. The other pair of terms are

constant terms that can be combined together.

155

From here on out I will not be showing the distributive property step when combining like

terms. I will go right into adding or subtracting the coefficients of the like terms. I showed

you the distributive property in the above examples to give you the thought behind

combining like terms.

It looks like we have two terms that have an x squared that we can combine and we

have two terms that have an x that we can combine. The poor 5 does not have

anything it can combine with so it will have to stay 5.

Grouping like terms together and combining them we get:

and then the x terms together

*Distribute the (-1) to EVERY term inside ( )

*Multiply

Basically, when you have a negative sign in front of a ( ), like this example, you can

think of it as taking a -1 times the ( ). What you end up doing in the end is taking the

opposite of every term in the ( ).

156

Let's first apply the distributive property (found in Tutorial 8: Properties of Real

Numbers) and see what we get:

*Dist. -3 to EVERY term of 2nd ( )

*Multiply

*Reverse Dist. Prop with x

*Subtract

possible.

Add 3a + 9 to 7a - 2.

Writing this as an algebraic expression we get:

157

possible.

The sum of 5 times a number and 2, subtracted from 12 times a number.

x is representing the unknown number. The sum of 5 times a number and 2 can be

written as 5x + 2. From there we need to subtract that from 12x.

Writing this as an algebraic expression we get:

Numbers) and then combining like terms we get:

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see

if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if

you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians

had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

158

1a.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

2a.

(answer/discussion to 2a)

2b.

(answer/discussion to 2b)

simplify if possible.

3a. The sum of 9 times a number and 5, subtracted from 4 times a number.

(answer/discussion to 3a)

Tutorial 11: Simplifying Algebraic Expressions

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 11: Simplifying Algebraic Expressions

159

Answer/Discussion to 1a

It looks like it. All three terms have the same variable part, c.

(return to problem 1a)

Answer/Discussion to 2a

Let's first apply the distributive property (found in Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers),

then regroup and combine like terms:

Answer/Discussion to 2b

160

Answer/Discussion to 3a

The sum of 9 times a number and 5, subtracted from 4 times a number.

x is representing the unknown number. The sum of 9 times a number and 5 can be written as 9x

+ 5. From there we need to subtract that from 4x.

Writing this as an algebraic expression we get:

Using the distributive property (found in Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers) and then

combining like terms we get:

*Combine like terms

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

161

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Know what a linear equation is.

2. Know if a value is a solution or not.

3. Use the addition and subtraction properties of equalities to solve linear equations.

Introduction

This is where we start getting into the heart of what algebra is about, solving equations. In this

tutorial we will be looking specifically at linear equations and their solutions. In this and the next

tutorial, we will start off slow and solve equations that use only one property to make sure you

have the individual concepts down. Then, in later tutorials, we will pick up the pace and mix 'em

up where you need to use several properties and steps to get the job done. Equations can be used

to help us solve a variety of problems. The tutorial is ready when you are.

Tutorial

Equation

Two expressions set equal to each other.

Linear Equation

in One Variable

162

ax + b = c

where a, b, and c are constants.

Note that the exponent (definition found in Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions

and Equations) on the variable of a linear equation is always 1.

The following is an example of a linear equation:

3x - 4 = 5

Solution

A value, such that, when you replace the variable with it,

it makes the equation true.

(the left side comes out equal to the right side)

Variable Expressions and Equations.

Solution Set

Set of all solutions

in General

Get the variable you are solving for alone on one side

and everything else on the other side using INVERSE

operations.

163

If a = b, then a + c = b + c

If a = b, then a - c = b - c

In other words, if two expressions are equal to each other and you add or subtract the exact

same thing to both sides, the two sides will remain equal.

Note that addition and subtraction are inverse operations of each other. For example, if you

have a number that is being added that you need to move to the other side of the equation,

then you would subtract it from both sides of that equation.

Note that if you put 7 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 7 is the

solution to our problem.

*LCD = 4

*1/2 = 2/4

If you put -1/4 back in for y in the original problem you will see that -1/4 is the

solution to our problem.

164

In this problem, our variable a is on both sides of the equation. As mentioned above,

when solving a linear equation you need to get the variable you are solving for

alone on one side and everything else on the other side using INVERSE

operations.

At this point we are limited. We only have talked about using the addition and

subtraction properties of equality. In Tutorial 13, we will address the multiplication

and division properties of equality. But since this was made before that, we have to

make ado with addition and subtraction.

We can solve this with what we know so far. We move a term that has a variable

exactly the same way we were moving constants in examples 1 and 2. In this problem

we need to get a on one side and everything else on the other. We have a -.7a on the

right side. To move it to the other side, so a is only on one side, we will do the inverse

of minus, which is add .7a to both sides.

After that it looks like examples 1 and 2 above, and we continue doing inverse

operations until we have a on one side and everything on the other side of the

equation.

Let's see what we get:

*Inverse of add 1.2 is sub. 1.2

If you put -3.6 back in for a in the original problem you will see that -3.6 is the

solution to our problem.

In this problem, we need to simplify the left side first before we can start adding or

165

subtracting things around. We can accomplish this by using the distributive property

(found in Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers).

Using the distributive property and then combining like terms to simplify the left

side of the equation we get:

*Combine like terms

*Inverse of sub. 14 is add. 14

If you put 15 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 15 is the solution

to our problem.

Example 5: Two numbers have a sum of 100. If one number is x, express the other

number in terms of x.

Lets put this one in terms that everyone can relate to, MONEY. Let's say that you

owe two people a total of $100. You owe the first person $75. How much do you owe

the second person? The answer would be $100 - $75 = $25. To figure it out you

would take the total and then subtract out the known amount to get the other amount.

We can use that concept to figure out our problem. Anytime you know the total of two

numbers, you subtract the given from the total to either find the other number or

express the other number in terms of a variable.

Since our total is 100 and we are letting x represent one number, the other number

would be expressed as the total minus x or 100 - x.

So, 100 - x is our answer.

166

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see

if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if

you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians

had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

1b.

(answer/discussion to 1b)

1c.

1d.

(answer/discussion to 1c)

(answer/discussion to 1d)

2a. Two numbers have a sum of 200. If one number is x, express the other number in

terms of x.

(answer/discussion to 2a)

167

Tutorial 12: Addition Property of Equality

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 12: Addition Property of Equality

Answer/Discussion to 1a

If you put 4/5 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 4/5 is the solution to our

problem.

(return to problem 1a)

Answer/Discussion to 1b

If you put -9 back in for b in the original problem you will see that -9 is the solution to our

problem.

(return to problem 1b)

168

Answer/Discussion to 1c

*Inverse of sub. 7.1 is add 7.1

If you put 5.9 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 5.9 is the solution to our

problem.

(return to problem 1c)

Answer/Discussion to 1d

Using the distributive property and then combining like terms to simplify the left side of the

equation we get:

*Combine like terms

169

*Inverse of add 13 is sub. 13

If you put -15 back in for x in the original problem you will see that -15 is the solution to our

problem.

(return to problem 1d)

Answer/Discussion to 2a

Two numbers have a sum of 200. If one number is x, express the other number in terms of x.

Since our total is 200 and we are letting x represent one number, the other number would be

expressed as the total minus x or 200 - x.

So, 200 - x is our answer.

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Use the multiplication and division properties of equalities to solve linear equations.

2. Solve an equation using more than one property.

3. Know how to express consecutive integers in terms of x, if the first integer is x.

170

4. Know how to express even consecutive integers in terms of x, if the first even integer is x.

5. Know how to express odd consecutive integers in terms of x, if the first odd integer is x.

Introduction

As mentioned in Tutorial 12: Addition Property of Equality, solving equations is getting into

the heart of what algebra is about. As we did in Tutorial 12, we will be looking specifically at

linear equations and their solutions. We will start off slow and solve equations that use only the

multiplication or division property of equality to make sure you have the individual concepts

down. Then we will pick up the pace and mix 'em up where you need to use several properties

and steps to get the job done.

Equations can be used to help us solve a variety of problems. In later tutorials, we will put them

to use to solve word problems.

Tutorial

The following definitions for equation, linear equation, solution and solution set can also be

found in Tutorial 12: The Addition Property of Equality.

Equation

Two expressions set equal to each other.

Linear Equation

in One Variable

171

ax + b = c

where a, b, and c are constants.

Note that the exponent (definition found in Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions

and Equations) on the variable of a linear equation is always 1.

The following is an example of a linear equation:

3x - 4 = 5

Solution

A value, such that, when you replace the variable with it,

it makes the equation true.

(the left side comes out equal to the right side)

Variable Expressions and Equations.

Solution Set

Set of all solutions

in General

Get the variable you are solving for alone on one side

and everything else on the other side using INVERSE

operations.

172

In Tutorial 12: The Addition Property of Equality, we showed you how to solve equations

using the addition and subtraction properties of equality. In this tutorial we will be looking at

the multiplication and division properties.

If a = b, then a(c) = b(c)

If a = b, then a/c = b/c where c is not equal to 0.

In other words, if two expressions are equal to each other and you multiply or divide (except

for 0) the exact same constant to both sides, the two sides will remain equal.

Note that multiplication and division are inverse operations of each other. For example, if you

have a number that is being multiplied that you need to move to the other side of the equation,

then you would divide it from both sides of that equation.

If you put 10 back in for x in the original problem, you will see that 10 is the solution

we are looking for.

173

If you put 7/5 back in for x in the original problem, you will see that 7/5 is the

solution we are looking for.

(or mult. by reciprocal -2/3)

If you put -6 back in for a in the original problem you will see that -6 is the solution

we are looking for.

Note that it doesnt matter what side the variable is on. -6 = a means the same thing as

a = -6.

The examples above and the ones from Tutorial 12: The Addition Property of Equality

were using only one property at a time to help you understand the different properties that

we use to solve equations.

However, most times, we have to use several properties to get the job done. The following is

a strategy that you can use to help you solve linear equations that are a little bit more

involved.

Note that your teacher or the book you are using may have worded these steps a little differently

than I do, but it all boils down to the same concept - get your variable on one side and

everything else on the other using inverse operations.

174

Step 2: Use Add./Sub. Properties to move the variable term to one side and all

other terms to the other side.

Step 3: Use Mult./Div. Properties to remove any values that are in front of the

variable.

Step 4: Check your answer.

What it boils down to is that you want to get the variable you are solving for alone on one side

and everything else on the other side using INVERSE operations.

Be careful going from line 4 to line 5. Yes, there is a negative sign. But, the

operation between the -3 and x is multiplication not subtraction. So if you were to

add 3 to both sides you would have ended up with -3x + 3 instead of the desired x.

If you put 1 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 1 is the solution we

are looking for.

175

*Inverse of sub. 5 is add 5

*Inverse of mult. by -1 is div. by -1

If you put -2 back in for x in the original problem you will see that -2 is the solution

we are looking for.

*Inverse of add 2x is sub. 2x

*Inverse of sub. 2 is add 2

*Inverse of mult. by 7 is div. by 7

If you put 2 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 2 is the solution we

are looking for.

Consecutive Integers

Consecutive integers are integers that follow one another in order.

For example, 5, 6, and 7 are three consecutive integers.

If we let x represent the first integer, how would we represent the second

consecutive integer in terms of x? Well if we look at 5, 6, and 7 - note that 6

176

In general, we could represent the second consecutive integer by x + 1.

And what about the third consecutive integer.

Well, note how 7 is 2 more than 5. In general, we could represent the third

consecutive integer as x + 2.

Consecutive EVEN integers are even integers that follow one another in order.

If we let x represent the first EVEN integer, how would we represent the

second consecutive even integer in terms of x? Note that 6 is two more than

4, the first even integer.

In general, we could represent the second consecutive EVEN integer by x

+ 2.

And what about the third consecutive even integer? Well, note how 8 is 4

more than 4. In general, we could represent the third consecutive EVEN

integer as x + 4.

Consecutive ODD integers are odd integers that follow one another in order.

If we let x represent the first ODD integer, how would we represent the

second consecutive odd integer in terms of x? Note that 7 is two more than

5, the first odd integer.

In general, we could represent the second consecutive ODD integer by x +

2.

And what about the third consecutive odd integer? Well, note how 9 is 4

more than 5. In general, we could represent the third consecutive ODD

integer as x + 4.

Note that a common misconception is that because we want an odd number

that we should not be adding a 2 which is an even number. Keep in mind that

177

x is representing an ODD number and that the next odd number is 2 away, just

like 7 is 2 away form 5, so we need to add 2 to the first odd number to get to

the second consecutive odd number.

If x represents the first of four consecutive integers, express the sum of the four integers in terms

of x.

We can represent them the following way:

= 1st integer

x + 2 = 3rd consecutive integer

x + 3 = 4th consecutive integer

Second we need to write it as a sum of the four integers and then simplify it:

*Combine like terms

If x represents the first of three odd consecutive integers, express the sum of the first and third

integers in terms of x.

First of all, we need to have all three consecutive ODD integers in terms of x.

178

x + 4 = 3rd consecutive odd integer

Second we need to write it as a sum of the first and third odd integers in terms of x

and then simplify it:

*Combine like terms

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see

if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if

you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians

had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

1b.

(answer/discussion to 1b)

179

1d.

1c.

(answer/discussion to 1d)

(answer/discussion to 1c)

2a. If x represents the first of three consecutive integers, express the sum of the three

integers in terms of x.

(answer/discussion to 2a)

Tutorial 13: Multiplication Property of Equality

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 13: Multiplication Property of Equality

Answer/Discussion to 1a

If you put -3 back in for a in the original problem you will see that -3 is the solution we are

looking for.

(return to problem 1a)

Answer/Discussion to 1b

180

(or mult. by reciprocal 3/2)

If you put 12 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 12 is the solution we are

looking for.

(return to problem 1b)

Answer/Discussion to 1c

*Inverse of mult. by 6 is div. by 6

If you put 0 back in for y in the original problem you will see that 0 is the solution we are

looking for.

(return to problem 1c)

181

Answer/Discussion to 1d

*Inverse of sub. 3 is add 3

*Inverse of mult. by 2 is div. by 2

If you put 5 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 5 is the solution we are

looking for.

(return to problem 1d)

Answer/Discussion to 2a

If x represents the first of three consecutive integers, express the sum of the three integers in

terms of x.

We can represent them the following way:

= 1st integer

x + 2 = 3rd consecutive integer

Second we need to write it as a sum of the three integers and then simplify it:

182

*Combine like terms

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

properties of equality.

Introduction

In Tutorial 12: The Addition Property of Equality we looked at using the addition property of

equality to help us solve linear equations. In Tutorial 13: The Multiplication Property of

Equality we looked at using the multiplication property of equality and also put these two ideas

together. In this tutorial we will be solving linear equations by using a combination of

simplifying and various properties of equality.

Knowing how to solve linear equations will open the door to being able to work a lot of other

types of problems that you will encounter in your various algebra classes. It is very important

to have this concept down before moving ahead. Make sure that you do not savor the mystery

of finding your variable, but work through some of these types of problems until you have this

concept down.

183

Tutorial

Note that your teacher or the book you are using may have worded these

steps a little differently than I do, but it all boils down to the same concept

- get your variable on one side and everything else on the other using

inverse operations.

This would involve things like removing ( ), removing fractions,

removing decimals, and adding like terms.

Properties of Real Numbers.

To remove fractions: Since fractions are another way to write division, and

the inverse of divide is to multiply, you remove fractions by multiplying both

sides by the LCD of all of your fractions. If you need a review on the LCD,

go to Tutorial 3: Fractions.

Step 2: Use Add./Sub. Properties to move the variable term to one side and all

other terms to the other side.

Step 3: Use Mult./Div. Properties to remove any values that are in front of the

variable.

Step 4: Check your answer.

I find this is the quickest and easiest way to approach linear equations.

184

sign. But, the operation between the -3 and x is multiplication not

subtraction. So if you were to add 3 to both sides you would have ended

up with -3x + 3 instead of the desired

x.

If you put 1 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 1 is the solution we

are looking for.

*Inverse of add. 3 is sub. 3

185

If you put 9 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 9 is the

solution we are looking for.

..

mult. both sides by the LCD of 4

If you put 4/3 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 4/3 is

the solution we are looking for.

186

mult. both sides by 100

*Inverse of sub. 20 is add 20

If you put 3/2 back in for y in the original problem you will see that 3/2 is

the solution we are looking for.

Contradiction

A contradiction is an equation with one variable that

has no solution.

Where did our variable, x, go??? It disappeared on us. Also note how

we ended up with a FALSE statement, -1 is not equal to 12. This does not

mean that

x = 12 or x = -1.

187

Whenever your variable drops out AND you end up with a false statement, then

after all of your hard work, there is NO SOLUTION.

So, the answer is no solution.

Identity

An identity is an equation with one variable

that has all numbers as a solution.

TRUE statement. Whenever that happens your answer is ALL REAL

NUMBERS.

Practice Problems

188

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

1b.

(answer/discussion to 1b)

1c.

1d.

(answer/discussion to 1c)

(answer/discussion to 1d)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 14: Solving Linear Equations

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 14: Solving Linear

Equations

Answer/Discussion to 1a

189

If you put 4 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 4 is the solution

we are looking for.

Answer/Discussion to 1b

mult. both sides by the LCD of 8

*Inverse of sub. 1 is add. 1

190

If you put - 4 back in for x in the original problem you will see that - 4 is the

solution we are looking for.

Answer/Discussion to 1c

mult. both sides by 100

*Inverse of sub. 5 is add. 5

*Inverse of mult. by 5 is div. by 5

we are looking for.

Answer/Discussion to 1d

191

This time when our variable dropped out, we ended up with a FALSE

statement. Whenever that happens your answer is NO SOLUTION.

Solving

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Use Polya's four step process to solve word problems involving numbers,

rectangles, supplementary angles, and complementary angles.

Introduction

Whether you like it or not, whether you are going to be a mother, father, teacher, computer

192

lawyer, banker (the list can go on and on). Some people think that you either can do it or you

can't. Contrary to that belief, it can be a learned trade. Even the best athletes and musicians had

some coaching along the way and lots of practice. That's what it also takes to be good at problem

solving.

George Polya, known as the father of modern problem solving, did extensive studies and wrote

numerous mathematical papers and three books about problem solving. I'm going to show you

his method of problem solving to help step you through these problems.

Tutorial

As mentioned above, I use Polyas four steps to problem solving to show students

how to solve word problems. Just note that your math teacher or math book

may word it a little differently, but you will see it all basically means the

same thing.

If you follow these steps, it will help you become more successful in the world of problem

solving.

Polya created his famous four-step process for problem solving, which is used all over to aid

people in problem solving:

Sometimes the problem lies in understanding the problem. If

you are unclear as to what needs to be solved, then you are

probably going to get the wrong results. In order to show an

understanding of the problem, you, of course, need to read the

problem carefully. Sounds simple enough, but some people jump

the gun and try to start solving the problem before they have read

the whole problem. Once the problem is read, you need to list all

the components and data that are involved. This is where you will

be assigning your variable.

193

When you devise a plan (translate), you come up with a way to

solve the problem. Setting up an equation, drawing a diagram, and

making a chart are all ways that you can go about solving your

problem. In this tutorial, we will be setting up equations for each

problem. You will translate them just like we did in Tutorial 4:

Introduction to Variable Expressions and Equations.

The next step, carry out the plan (solve), is big. This is where

you solve the equation you came up with in your 'devise a plan'

step. The equations in this tutorial will all be linear equations. If

you need help solving them, by all means, go back to Tutorial 12:

The Addition Property of Equality, Tutorial 13: The

Multiplication Property of Equality, or Tutorial 14: Solving

Linear Equations (Putting it all together) and review that

concept.

You may be familiar with the expression 'don't look back'. In

problem solving it is good to look back (check and interpret)..

Basically, check to see if you used all your information and that the

answer makes sense. If your answer does check out, make sure

that you write your final answer with the correct labeling.

Numeric

Word Problems

statements into mathematical ones. If you need a review on these translations, you

can go back to Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions and

Equations.

194

number. Find the number.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

x = a number

*Inv. of sub. 2 is add 2

195

If you take twice the difference of 6 and 1, that is the same as 4 more than

6, so this does check.

FINAL ANSWER:

The number is 6.

the two numbers is 177, find each number.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are looking for two numbers, and since we can write the one number in terms of

another number, we will let

x = another number

x - 3 = one number

196

*Inv. of mult. 2 is div. 2

FINAL ANSWER:

One number is 90.

Rectangle Problem

197

more than 3 times the width. Find the dimensions if the perimeter is to be 26

inches.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are looking for the length and width of the rectangle. Since length can be written

in terms of width, we will let

w = width

1 + 3w = length

198

*Combine like terms

*Inv. of mult. by 8 is div. by 8

If width is 3, then length, which is 1 inch more than 3 times the width

would have to be 10. The perimeter of a rectangle with width of 3 inches

and length of 10 inches does come out to be 26.

FINAL ANSWER:

Width is 3 inches.

Length is 10 inches.

Supplementary and

Complementary Angles

199

Example 4: Find the measure of each angle in the figure below. Note

that since the angles make up a straight line, they are supplementary to each other.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

x = 1 angle

5x = other angle

200

are supplementary angles.

FINAL ANSWER:

The two angles are 30 degrees and 150 degrees.

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a. The sum of a number and 2 is 6 less than twice that number.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

201

1b. A rectangular garden has a width that is 8 feet less than twice the

length. Find the dimensions if the perimeter is 20 feet.

(answer/discussion to 1b)

each angle in the figure below. Note that since the angles make up a right

angle, they are complementary to each other.

(answer/discussion to 1c)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 15: Introduction to Problem

Solving

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 15: Introduction to

Problem Solving

Answer/Discussion to 1a

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are looking for a number, we will let

202

x = a number

If you take the sum of 8 and 2 it is 6 less than twice 8, so this does check.

FINAL ANSWER:

The number is 8.

(return to problem 1a)

Answer/Discussion to 1b

203

A rectangular garden has a width that is 8 feet less than twice the length. Find the dimensions if

the perimeter is 20 feet.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are looking for the length and width of the rectangle. Since width can be written in terms of

length, we will let

L = length

Width is 8 feet less than twice the length:

2L - 8 = width

*Mult. ( ) by 2

*Combine like terms

*Inv. of mult. by 6 is div. by 6

If length is 6, then width, which is 8 feet less than twice the length, would have to be 4. The

204

FINAL ANSWER:

Width is 4 feet.

Length is 6 feet.

(return to problem 1b)

Answer/Discussion to 1c

Complimentary angles, sum up to be 90 degrees. Find the measure of each angle in the figure

below. Note that since the angles make up a right angle, they are complementary to each other.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are already given in the figure that

x = 1 angle

x + 30 = other angle

205

*Inv. of mult. by 2 is div. by 2

If x is 30, then x + 30 = 60. 60 and 30 do add up to be 90, so they are complementary angles.

FINAL ANSWER:

The two angles are 30 degrees and 60 degrees.

Solving

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

206

2. To convert decimal numbers into percents.

3. Use Polya's four step process to solve word problems involving percents.

4. Work problems involving pie charts and percents.

Introduction

In this tutorial we will be solving problems involving percentages. Since we are still problem

solving, I will use Polyas four steps to Problem Solving as introduced in Tutorial 15:

Introduction to Problem Solving to step us through the percent problems in this tutorial. It is a

good idea to be comfortable working with percents, you never know when you will be confronted

with them. Let's see how we can help you out with percents.

Tutorial

Percents

207

15% = 15/100 = .15

25% = 25/100 = .25

100% = 100/100 = 1.00

Writing a Percent as

a Decimal Number

When you are going from percent to decimal, drop the percent sign and

then move your decimal two places to the left.

Dropping the percent sign and then moving the decimal two places to the

left we get:

57% = . 57

Dropping the percent sign and then moving the decimal two places to the

left we get:

208

145% = 1.45

Dropping the percent sign and then moving the decimal two places to the

left we get:

.34% = .0034

as a Percent

When you are going from decimal to percent, move your decimal place two

to the right and then put a % sign at the end of the number.

Moving the decimal place two to the right and then putting a % sign at the

end of the number we get:

.78 = 78%

209

Moving the decimal place two to the right and then putting a % sign at the

end of the number we get:

8 = 800%

Moving the decimal place two to the right and then putting a % sign at the

end of the number we get:

.0325 = 3.25%

for Problem Solving

(revisited)

As mentioned above, since we are still problem solving, we will use the exact same

four step process we used in Tutorial 15: Introduction to Problem Solving. To

refresh your memory, here they are again:

Step 2: Devise a plan (translate).

Step 3: Carry out the plan (solve).

210

Percent Problems

Whenever you are working with a percent problem you need to make sure

you write your percent in an equivalent decimal form as shown above.

When you are looking for a percent, make sure that you convert your decimal into a

percent, as shown above, for the final answer.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

211

*Multiply

FINAL ANSWER:

The number is 56.25.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are looking for the percent we would have to take of 35 to get 5.25.

212

FINAL ANSWER:

The answer is 15%.

213

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are looking for the number that you when you take 40% of it you would get 32.

32 is 40% of 80.

FINAL ANSWER:

The number is 80.

passed their last math test. How many students passed the last math test?

214

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are looking for how many students passed the last math test, we will let

x = number of students

*Multiply

21 is 70% of 30.

FINAL ANSWER:

21 students passed the last math test.

215

A pie chart or circle graph is another way to give a visual representation of the

relationship of data that has been collected.

It is made up of a circle cut up in sectors. Each sector represents the percentage that a category of

data is of the whole pie.

Keep in mind that a circle is 360 degrees.

Each sector of the circle represents the percentage of profits that the given ice cream flavor made.

The top sector shows that chocolate made 41% of the profits in 2002.

The bottom right sector shows that vanilla made 29% of the profits in 2002.

The bottom left sector shows that strawberry made 30% of the profits in 2002.

With all of this talk about pies and ice cream, is anyone else hungary????

216

Example 11: The pie chart or circle graph below shows the total

enrollment of students at State College during the Fall 2002 semester, broken down

into seniors, juniors, sophomores, and freshmen. Use the graph to answer questions

11a - 11c.

11a. In the Fall 2002 semester, what was the ratio of freshmen to seniors at the college?

11b. If the number of sophomores in the Fall 2002 semester was 20% higher than the number of

sophomores in the Fall 2001 semester, how many sophomores were enrolled in Fall 2001?

11c. If the areas of sectors in the circle graphs are drawn in proportion to the percentages shown,

what is the measure, in degrees, of the central angle sector representing the percentage of juniors?

11a. In the Fall 2002 semester, what was the ratio of freshmen to seniors

at the college?

(return to pie chart)

When setting up a ratio you need to write the number that corresponds to

the first part first and then compare it to the number that corresponds to

the second part of the ratio.

What do you think the first part of the ratio, freshmen or seniors? Since freshmen

are listed first, that is what our first number of our ratio has to correspond to.

What is the percentage attached to freshmen? Looking on the pie chart, I believe it

is 40%.

That leaves the number associated with seniors to be our second part of the ratio.

217

So the ratio of freshman to seniors would be 40 to 12. You can think of ratios as

fractions, and simplify them in the same manner. Since 40 and 12 have a greatest

common factor of 4, we can reduce this to be 10 to 3.

Note that if you had started with 12 to 40, this would be incorrect. 12 to 40 would be

the ratio of seniors to freshman. You write a ratio, just like you read it, left to right.

11b. If the number of sophomores in the Fall 2002 semester was 20%

higher than the number of sophomores in the Fall 2001 semester, how

many sophomores were enrolled in Fall 2001?

(return to pie chart)

Wow, where do we start? Since we know the total number and percent of

sophomores from Fall 2002, we can start by finding the number of

sophomores there were in the Fall 2002 semester.

What percentage were sophomores in the Fall 2002 semester? If you said 30% you

are correct!!!

So what would be the number of sophomores for the Fall 2002 semester? When

we take a percentage of a number, we write the percentage in decimal form and then

multiply it times the number we are taking the percentage of.

Taking 30% of the total of 6542 we get:

(.3)(6542) = 1962.6 which rounds up to 1963.

Using this found information we need to find out how many sophomores were enrolled

in the Fall 2001 semester.

The problem says that the Fall 2002 semester has 20% more sophomores than the Fall

2001 semester.

We are going to let x be the number of sophomores in Fall 2001.

We are needing an equation that represents the English phrase "the Fall 2002 semester

218

has 20% more sophomores than the Fall 2001 semester". Going left to right, the Fall

2002 semester would be 1963, has would be our = sign, 20% more than the Fall 2001

semester, would be starting with the Fall 2001 semester, which is x and adding on 20%

of that, which is .2x. From all of this we get the following equation:

up to be 1636.

11c. If the areas of sectors in the circle graphs are drawn in proportion to

the percentages shown, what is the measure, in degrees, of the central

angle sector representing the percentage of juniors?

(return to pie chart)

On this problem, the key is to know that a circle measures 360 degrees. So

if we know the percentage of the circle that a sector represents, then we

can take that percentage of 360 degrees and find the measure of just that

sector.

What percentage of the students were juniors in the Fall 2002 semester? If you

said 18% you are correct!!!

So what would be the measure of the central angle for juniors for the Fall 2002

semester?

Since a full circle is 360 degrees, we are basically wanting to know what 18% of 360

degrees is.

As shown above, when we take a percentage of a number, we write the percent in

219

decimal form and then multiply it times the number we are taking the percentage of.

Taking 18% of the total of 360 degrees we get:

(.18)(360degrees) = 64.8 degrees

The central angle sector for the juniors measures 64.8 degrees.

A table is another way to give a visual representation of the relationship of data that

has been collected.

Yummy Ice Cream Profits

Flavor

2001

(%)

2002

(%)

Vanilla

35.3

29

Chocolate

40

41

Strawberry

24.7

30

100.0%

100.0%

$98 million

$105 million

Total Profits:

The first column identifies the flavors of ice cream that made a profit.

The second column represents the percentage of profits that each flavor made in 2001 as well as

220

The third column represents the percentage of profits that each flavor made in 2002 as well as the

total profits in dollars.

Vanilla made 35.3% of the profits in 2001 and 29% of the profits in 2002.

Chocolate made 40% of the profits in 2001 and 41% of the profits in 2002.

Strawberry made 24.7% of the profits in 2001 and 30% of the profits in 2002.

beverage preference taken with customers of the Good Eats Caf in 2001 and 2002.

Each customer voted for only one beverage. Use the table to answer questions 12a

- 12c.

12a. Approximately how many customers preferred Sprite in 2002?

12b. By approximately what percent did the preference of root beer decrease from 2001 to 2002?

12c. What was the difference between the number of votes for Coca Cola in 2001 versus 2002?

Survey of Customers Beverage Preference at the Good Eats Caf.

Each customer voted for only one beverage.

Beverage

2001

(%)

2002

(%)

Coca Cola

35

30

Diet Coke

22.3

23

Sprite

15.9

14.4

tea

12

15

raspberry tea

11.5

12

root beer

2.7

1.1

Diet Sprite

.6

4.5

100.0%

100.0%

8950

9432

221

(return to table)

What percent of customers in 2002 voted for Sprite? Looking at the third column

(2002), it looks like it is 14.4%.

How many votes were taken in 2002? Looking at the bottom of the third column

(2002), it says that the total number of votes in 2002 is 9432.

When we take a percentage of a number, we write the percentage in decimal form

and then multiply it times the number we are taking the percentage of.

(.144)(9432) = 1358.208 which rounds down to 1358.

decrease from 2001 to 2002?

(return to table)

Basically we are looking for the difference in percent. That means we will

not have to take a percentage of any numbers. We just need to find the

difference between those two percents.

What was the percent of customers that voted for root beer in 2001? If you said

2.7, you are correct. You find that by going to the second column (2001) and going

down to root beer.

What was the percent of customers that voted for root beer in 2002? If you said

1.1, you are correct. You find that by going to the third column (2002) and going

222

So what is their difference? 2.7 - 1.1 = 1.6

There was a 1.6% decrease of votes for root beer from 2001 to 2002.

12c. What was the difference between the number of votes for Coca Cola

in 2001 versus 2002?

(return to table)

Now we are looking for a difference in the number of votes, so we will have

to do a little bit more work here then in 12b above. We will have to take

the appropriate percentage of the corresponding totals for each year and

find the number of votes for each year. Then we will have the numbers

that we need to take the difference of.

What percent of customers in 2001 voted for Coca Cola? Looking at the second

column (2001), it looks like it is 35%.

How many votes were taken in 2001? Looking at the bottom of the second column

(2001), it says that the total number of votes in 2001 is 8950.

When we take a percentage of a number, we write the percentage in decimal form

and then multiply it times the number we are taking the percentage of.

Taking 35% of the total of 8950 we get:

(.35)(8950) = 3132.5 which rounds up to 3133.

Approximately 3133 customers voted for Coca Cola in 2001.

What percent of customers in 2002 voted for Coca Cola? Looking at the third

column (2002), it looks like it is 30%.

How many votes were taken in 2002? Looking at the bottom of the third column

(2002), it says that the total number of votes in 2002 is 9432.

When we take a percentage of a number, we write the percentage in decimal form and

then multiply it times the number we are taking the percentage of.

Taking 30% of the total of 9432 we get:

(.3)(9432) = 2829.6 which rounds up to 2830.

223

Finding the difference between the two values that we found we get:

3133 - 2830 = 303

There was a 303 difference between the number of customers that voted for Coca

Cola in 2001 versus 2002.

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a. 82%

1b. 325%

(answer/discussion to 1a)

(answer/discussion to 1b)

224

2a. .64

2b. .0003

(answer/discussion to 2a)

(answer/discussion to 2b)

number?

(answer/discussion to 3a)

(answer/discussion to 3b)

3c. A local furniture store is having a terrific sale. They are marking down

every price 45%. If the couch you have our eye on was $800 before the

markdown, find the decrease and the sale price.

(answer/discussion to 3c)

Practice Problems 4a - 4c: The pie chart or circle graph below shows the profit

breakdown of the paper products sold by ABC Paper Company in 2001.

Use the graph to answer questions 4a - 4c.

4a. In 2001, what was the ratio of profit of toilet paper to profit of paper cups?

225

(answer/discussion to 4a)

4b. If the profit for napkins in 2001 was 35% lower than its profit in 2000, how much

profit was made from napkins in 2000?

(answer/discussion to 4b)

4c. If the areas of sectors in the circle graphs are drawn in proportion to the

percentages shown, what is the measure, in degrees, of the central angle sector

representing the percentage of profit of tissues?

(answer/discussion to 4c)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 16: Percent and Problem

Solving

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 16: Percent and Problem

Solving

Answer/Discussion to 1a

82%

Dropping the percent sign and then moving the decimal two places to the left we get:

82% = . 82

226

Answer/Discussion to 1b

325%

Dropping the percent sign and then moving the decimal two places to the left we get:

325% = 3.25

Answer/Discussion to 2a

.64

Moving the decimal place two to the right and then putting a % sign at the end of the number we

get:

.64 = 64%

Answer/Discussion to 2b

.0003

Moving the decimal place two to the right and then putting a % sign at the end of the number we

get:

.0003 = .03%

227

Answer/Discussion to 3a

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are looking for a number, we will let

x = the number

54 is 60% of 90.

228

FINAL ANSWER:

The number is 90.

(return to problem 3a)

Answer/Discussion to 3b

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are looking for a percent, we will let

x = the percent

229

50.4 is 42% of 120.

FINAL ANSWER:

The answer is 42%.

(return to problem 3b)

Answer/Discussion to 3c

A local furniture store is having a terrific sale. They are marking down every price 45%. If the

couch you have our eye on was $800 before the markdown, find the decrease and the sale price.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are looking for the decrease in price, we will let

230

*Multiply

360 is 45% of 800.

FINAL ANSWER:

The decrease is $360.

The sale price is $800 - $360 = $440.

(return to problem 3c)

Answer/Discussion to 4a

In 2001, what was the ratio of profit of toilet paper to profit of paper cups?

When setting up a ratio you need to write the number that corresponds to the first

part first and then compare it to the number that corresponds to the second part of

the ratio.

What do you think the first part of the ratio, toilet paper or paper cups? Since toilet paper is

231

listed first, that is what our first number of our ratio has to correspond to.

What is the percentage of profit attached to toilet paper? Looking on the pie chart, I believe

it is 10%.

That leaves the percentage associated with paper cups to be our second part of the ratio. Looks

like that will be 15%.

So the ratio of profit of toilet paper to profit of paper cups would be 10 to 15. You can think

of ratios as fractions, and simplify them in the same manner. Since 10 and 15 have a greatest

common factor of 5, we can reduce this to be 2 to 3.

Note that if you had started with 15 to 10, this would be incorrect. 15 to 10 would be the ratio of

profit of paper cups to profit of toilet paper. You write a ratio, just like you read it, left to right.

The simplified ratio of profit of toilet paper to profit of paper cups would be 2 to 3.

Answer/Discussion to 4b

If the profit for napkins in 2001 was 35% lower than its profit in 2000, how much profit was

made from napkins in 2000?

232

Wow, where do we start? Since we know the total profit and percent of profit of

napkins from 2001, we can start by finding the profit of napkins there was in 2001.

What percentage or profit was napkins in 2001? If you said 52% you are correct!!!

So what would be the profit of napkins in 2001? When we take a percentage of a number, we

write the percentage in decimal form and then multiply it times the number we are taking the

percentage of.

Taking 52% of the total profit of 275 million we get:

(.52)(275 million) = 143 million

143 million is the profit made on napkins in 2001.

Using this found information we need to find out the profit of napkins in 2000.

The question says that the profit for napkins in 2001 was 35% lower than its profit in 2000.

We are going to let x be the profit for napkins in 2000

We are needing an equation that represents the English phrase "the profit for napkins in 2001 was

35% lower than its profit in 2000". Going left to right, the profit for napkins in 2001 would be

143 million, was would be our = sign, 35% lower than the its profit in 2000, would be starting

with the profit in 2000, which is x and subtracting 35% of that, which is .35x. From all of this

we get the following equation:

233

Answer/Discussion to 4c

If the areas of sectors in the circle graphs are drawn in proportion to the percentages shown, what

is the measure, in degrees, of the central angle sector representing the percentage of profit of

tissues?

What percentage of the profit in 2001 did tissues make? If you said 12% you

are correct!!!

So what would be the measure of the central angle for tissues in 2001? Keep in mind that a

full circle is 360 degrees. We are basically wanting to know what 12% of 360 degrees is.

When we take a percentage of a number, we write the percentage in decimal form and then

multiply it times the number we are taking the percentage of.

Taking 12% of the total of 360 degrees we get:

(.12)(360degrees) = 43.2 degrees

234

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Use Polya's four step process to solve word problems involving geometry

concepts, distance, mixtures and interest.

Introduction

In this tutorial we will be solving problems involving geometry concepts, distance, mixtures and

interest. Since we are still problem solving, I will use Polyas four steps to Problem Solving as

introduced in Tutorial 15: Introduction to Problem Solving to step us through the problems in

this tutorial. After finishing this tutorial, you will be able to answer those tricky word problems.

Let's see how you do on these problems.

Tutorial

for Problem Solving

235

(revisited)

As mentioned above, since we are still problem solving, we will use the exact same

four step process we used in Tutorial 15: Introduction to Problem Solving. To

refresh your memory, here they are again:

Step 2: Devise a plan (translate).

Step 3: Carry out the plan (solve).

Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

Rectangle Problem

more than 3 times the width. Find the dimensions if the perimeter is to be 26

inches.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

236

We are looking for the length and width of the rectangle. Since length can be written

in terms of width, we will let

w = width

1 + 3w = length

*Combine like terms

*Inv. of mult. by 8 is div. by 8

If width is 3, then length, which is 1 inch more than 3 times the width

would have to be 10. The perimeter of a rectangle with width of 3 inches

and length of 10 inches does come out to be 26.

237

FINAL ANSWER:

Width is 3 inches.

Length is 10 inches.

Distance Problem

Example 2: It takes you 4.5 hours to drive from your home to your

favorite weekend get away, which is 315 miles away. What is your average speed?

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are looking for speed, we can use the distance/rate formula:

d = rt

The variables in this formula represent the following:

d = distance

r = rate

t = time

238

If you go at a rate of 70 miles per hour for 4.5 hours, you would travel 315

miles.

FINAL ANSWER:

The average speed is 70 mph.

Mixture Problem

239

Example 3: How much 20% alcohol solution and 50% alcohol solution

must be mixed to get 12 gallons of 30%?

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are looking for the amount of 20% solution and 50% solution needed to get 12

gallons of 30%.

Since the two mixtures together need to be 12 gallons, then we can take the total (12)

and subtract from it the given number of gallons (x):

12 - x = number of gallons of the 50%.

240

*Inv. of add. 60 is sub. 60

gallons of the 50% solution.

If you have 8 gallons of 20% solution and 4 gallons of 50% solution you do get 12

gallons of 30% alcohol solution.

FINAL ANSWER:

8 gallons of the 20% solution.

4 gallons of the 50% solution.

money in corporate bonds paying 12% per year and the rest in a certificate of

deposit paying 8% per year. If she wishes to obtain an overall return of $6300 per

year, how much should she place in each investment?

241

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since the two accounts together need to be $70000, then we can take the total (70000)

and subtract from it the given number in the 12% account (x):

70,000 - x = amount invested in 8%

Note that you could have reverse those, the problem would still work out the same.

.12x + .08(70000 - x) = 6300

*Inv. of add. 5600 is sub. 5600

242

If she invested $17500 in corporate bonds, then she would have to invest

$70000 - $17500 = $52000 in the certificate of deposit.

If you take 12% of $17500 and add it to 8% of $52500 you do get $6300.

FINAL ANSWER:

She invested $17500 at 12% and $52500 at 8%.

Practice Problems

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a. A rectangular garden has a width that is 8 feet less than twice the length. Find

the dimensions if the perimeter is 20 feet.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

1b. In Nebraska on I-80, the speed limit is 75 mph. How long would it take you to

travel 525 miles in Nebraska on I-80 if you went the speed limit the whole time?

243

(answer/discussion to 1b)

1c. How much 25% antifreeze and 50% antifreeze should be combined to give 40

liters of 30% antifreeze?

(answer/discussion to 1c)

1d. You recently came into $20,000 (lucky you!) and you want to place part of your

money in a savings account paying 7% per year and part in a certificate of deposit

paying 9% per year. If you wish to obtain an overall return of $1700 per year, how

much would you place in each investment?

(answer/discussion to 1d)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 17: Further Problem Solving

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 17: Further Problem

Solving

Answer/Discussion to 1a

A rectangular garden has a width that is 8 feet less than twice the length. Find the dimensions if

the perimeter is 20 feet.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are looking for the length and width of the rectangle. Since width can be written in terms of

length, we will let

L = length

Width is 8 feet less than twice the length:

2L - 8 = width

244

*Mult. ( ) by 2

*Combine like terms

*Inv. of mult. by 6 is div. by 6

If length is 6, then width, which is 8 feet less than twice the length, would have to be 4. The

perimeter of a rectangle with width of 4 feet and length of 6 feet is 20 feet.

FINAL ANSWER:

Width is 4 feet.

Length is 6 feet.

(return to problem 1a)

Answer/Discussion to 1b

245

In Nebraska on I-80, the speed limit is 75 mph. How long would it take you to travel

525 miles in Nebraska on I-80 if you went the speed limit the whole time?

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are looking for how long it would take you to travel, we can use the distance/rate

formula:

d = rt

The variables in this formula represent the following:

d = distance

r = rate

t = time

246

If you go at a rate of 75 miles per hour for 7 hours, you would travel 525 miles.

FINAL ANSWER:

It would take 7 hours.

Answer/Discussion to 1c

How much 25% antifreeze and 50% antifreeze should be combined to give 40 liters

of 30% antifreeze?

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are looking for the amount of 25% antifreeze and 50% antifreeze needed to get 40 liters of

30% antifreeze.

Since the two mixtures together need to be 40 liters, then we can take the total (40) and subtract

from it the "given" number of liters (x):

40 - x = number of liters of the 50%.

247

*Inv. of add. 2000 is sub. 2000

If there are 32 liters of the 25%, then there would have to be 40 - 32 = 8 liters of the

50% solution.

If you have 32 liters of 20% solution and 8 liters of 50% solution you do get 40 liters of 30%

alcohol solution.

FINAL ANSWER:

32 liters of the 25% antifreeze.

8 liters of the 50% antifreeze.

248

Answer/Discussion to 1d

You recently came into $20,000 (lucky you!) and you want to place part of your

money in a savings account paying 7% per year and part in a certificate of deposit

paying 9% per year. If you wish to obtain an overall return of $1700 per year, how

much would you place in each investment?

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

x = amount invested in 7%

Since the two accounts together need to be $20000, then we can take the total (20000) and

subtract from it the "given" number in the 7% account (x):

20,000 - x = amount invested in 9%

Note that you could have reverse those, the problem would still work out the same.

249

*Inv. of add. 1800 is sub. 1800

If you invested $5000 at 7%, then you would have to invest $20000 - $5000 =

$15000 at 9%.

FINAL ANSWER:

You invested $5000 at 7% and $15000 at 9%.

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Use the addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division properties of

inequalities to solve linear inequalities.

250

Introduction

When solving linear inequalities, we use a lot of the same concepts that we use

when solving linear equations. Basically, we still want to get the variable on one

side and everything else on the other side by using inverse operations. The

difference is, when a variable is set equal to one number, that number is the only

solution. But, when a variable is less than or greater than a number, there are an

infinite number of values that would be a part of the answer.

Tutorial

Inequality Signs

a < b a is less than or equal to b

a > b a is greater than b

a > b a is greater than or equal to b

Graphing Inequalities

251

x<c

When x is less than a constant, you darken in the part of the

number line that is to the left of the constant.

Also, because there is no equal line, we are not including where x is equal to

the constant. That means we are not including the endpoint. One way to

notate that is to use an open hole at that point.

x>c

When x is greater than a constant, you darken in the part of the

number line that is to the right of the constant.

Also, because there is no equal line, we are not including where x is equal to

the constant. That means we are not including the endpoint. One way to

notate that is to use an open hole at that point.

x<c

When x is less than or equal to a constant, you darken in the part

of the number line that is to the left of the constant.

Also, because there is an equal line, we are including where x is equal to the

constant. That means we are including the endpoint. One way to notate that

is to use an closed hole at that point.

252

x>c

When x is greater than or equal to a constant, you darken in the

part of the number line that is to the right of the constant.

Also, because there is an equal line, we are including where x is equal to the

constant. That means we are including the endpoint. One way to notate that

is to use a closed hole at that point.

Since we needed to indicate all values greater than 5, the part of the number line that

is to the right of 5 was darkened.

Since there is no equal line under the > symbol, this means we do not include the

endpoint 5 itself. We can notate that by using an open hole (or you can use a curved

end).

253

Since we needed to indicate all values less than or equal to 2, the part of the number

line that is to the left of 2 was darkened.

Since there is an equal line under the < symbol, this means we do include the endpoint

2. We can notate that by using a closed hole (or you can use a boxed end).

If a < b, then a + c < b + c

If a < b, then a - c < b - c

an inequality does not change the inequality.

Graph:

*Visual showing all numbers less than 4 on the

number line

Note that the inequality stayed the same throughout the problem. Adding

or subtracting the same value to both sides does not change the inequality.

254

The answer 'x is less than 4' means that if we put any number less than 4 back in the

original problem, it would be a solution (the left side would be less than the right

side). As mentioned above, this means that we have more than just one number for our

solution, there are an infinite number of values that would satisfy this inequality.

Graph:

Since we needed to indicate all values less than 4, the part of the number line that was

to the left of 4 was darkened.

Since we are not including where it is equal to, an open hole was used.

Graph:

to -5 on the number line.

Note that the inequality stayed the same throughout the problem. Adding

or subtracting the same value to both sides does not change the inequality.

The answer 'x is greater than or equal to -5' means that if we put any number greater

than or equal to -5 back in the original problem, it would be a solution (the left side

would be greater than or equal to the right side). As mentioned above, this means that

we have more than just one number for our solution, there are an infinite number of

values that would satisfy this inequality.

Graph:

Since we needed to indicate all values greater than or equal to -5, the part of the

number line that was to the right of -5 was darkened.

255

Since we are including where it is equal to, a closed hole was used.

Inequalities

when multiplying/dividing by a positive value

If a < b AND c is positive, then a/c < b/c

sides of an inequality does not change the inequality.

Graph:

number line

Note that the inequality sign stayed the same direction. Even though the

right side was a -10, the number we were dividing both sides by, was a

positive 5. Multiplying or dividing both sides by the same positive

value does not change the inequality.

Graph:

256

Since we needed to indicate all values less than -2, the part of the number line that was

to the left of -2 was darkened.

Since we are not including where it is equal to, an open hole was used.

Graph:

the number line

not change the inequality.

Graph:

Since we needed to indicate all values greater than 3, the part of the number line that

was to the right of 3 was darkened.

Since we are not including where it is equal to, an open hole was used.

Inequalities

when multiplying/dividing by a negative value

257

If a < b AND c is negative, then a/c > b/c

sides of an inequality reverses the sign of the inequality.

The reason for this is, when you multiply or divide an expression by a negative number, it

changes the sign of that expression. On the number line, the positive values go in a reverse or

opposite direction than the negative numbers go, so when we take the opposite of an expression,

we need to reverse our inequality to indicate this.

reverse inequality sign

Graph:

number line

in one step.

In line 2, note that when I did show the step of multiplying both sides by a -2, I

reversed my inequality sign.

Graph:

Since we needed to indicate all values less than -14, the part of the number line that

was to the left of -14 was darkened.

258

Since we are not including where it is equal to, an open hole was used.

reverse inequality sign

Graph:

-3 on the number line

In line 2, note that when I did show the step of dividing both sides

by a -3, that I reversed my inequality sign.

Graph:

Since we needed to indicate all values greater than or equal to -3, the part of the

number line that was to the right of -3 was darkened.

Since we are including where it is equal to, a closed hole was used.

This would involve things like removing ( ), removing fractions,

adding like terms, etc.

259

Step 2: Use Add./Sub. Properties to move the variable term on one side and all

other terms to the other side.

Step 3: Use Mult./Div. Properties to remove any values that are in front of the

variable.

Note that it is the same basic concept we used when solving linear equations as shown in

Tutorial 14: Solving Linear Equations.

reverse inequality sign

Graph:

*Visual showing all numbers greater than -3 on

the number line

Graph:

Since we needed to indicate all values greater than -3, the part of the

number line that was to the right of -3 was darkened.

Since we are not including where it is equal to, an open hole was used.

260

Example 10: Solve the inequality and graph the solution set.

*Distributive property

*Get x terms on one side, constants on

the other side

Graph:

*Visual showing all numbers less than -1/2 on

the number line.

Even though we had a -2 on the right side in line 5, we were dividing both

sides by a positive 2, so we did not change the inequality sign.

Graph:

Since we needed to indicate all values less than -1/2, the part of the number line that

was to the left of -1/2 was darkened.

Since we are not including where it is equal to, an open hole was used.

Example 11: Solve the inequality and graph the solution set.

261

side

*Inv. of mult. by -1 is div. by -1, so reverse

inequality sign

Graph:

*Visual showing all numbers less than or equal

to 4 on the number line.

value, as shown in line 6. Once we do that, we need to remember

to change the inequality. Note that we still keep the equal part of

it.

Graph:

Since we needed to indicate all values less than or equal to 4, the part of the number

line that was to the left of 4 was darkened.

Since we are including where it is equal to, a closed hole was used.

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

262

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

Practice Problems 1a - 1c: Solve the inequality and graph the solution set.

1a.

1b.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

(answer/discussion to 1b)

1c.

(answer/discussion to 1c)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 18: Solving Linear Inequalities

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 18: Solving Linear

Inequalities

Answer/Discussion to 1a

263

inequality sign

Graph:

line

Notice how our variable was on the right side of the inequality. It doesn't matter

what side you have the variable on, as long as it by itself on one side and everything

else is on the other side. What you do have to be careful about is graphing it

properly. It is almost like reading it backwards this way. So, if you feel more

comfortable writing it with your variable on the left side, by all means, go ahead and

do that.

Graph:

Since we needed to indicate all values less than -2, the part of the number line that was to the left

of -2 was darkened.

Since we are not including where it is equal to, an open hole was used.

(return to problem 1a)

Answer/Discussion to 1b

264

*Distributive property

*Inv. of mult. by 2 is div. both sides by 2

Graph:

*Visual showing all numbers less than or equal to 4 on the

number line

Graph:

Since we needed to indicate all values less than or equal to 4, the part of the

number line that was to the left of 4 was darkened.

Since we are including where it is equal to, a closed hole was used.

(return to problem 1b)

Answer/Discussion to 1c

265

Graph:

*Visual showing all numbers greater than or equal to 3 on

the number line

Graph:

Since we needed to indicate all values greater than or equal to 3, the part of the

number line that was to the right of 3 was darkened.

Since we are including where it is equal to, a closed hole was used.

11 - 18

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

I can not guarantee you will pass your test after going though any of the

tutorials in this website or this practice test. However, it will definitely help

you to better understand the topics covered better.

Disclaimer: WTAMU and Kim Seward are not responsible for how a student

does on any test or any class for any reason including not being able to

access the website due to any technology problems.

266

Introduction

It is important to note that, chances are, I'm not your math instructor. You need to

check with your math teacher as to things like when your next math test is

and what it covers. It may cover more material on the test than what is in

this practice test. Just note that there are other practice tests at this website. So,

after finding out what is on your test (if you have one) do the practice test(s)

problems that go with the test you are preparing for. If you are not in a class or are

not having a test soon, this practice test is still good practice to go through and

check to make sure you are understanding this material before moving on - kind of

like a spot check. The material on this practice test goes with Tutorial 11:

Simplifying Algebraic Expressions, Tutorial 12: The Addition Property of

Equality, Tutorial 13: The Multiplication Property of Equality, Tutorial 14:

Solving Linear Equations (Putting it all together), Tutorial 15: Introduction

to Problem Solving, Tutorial 16: Percent and Problem Solving, Tutorial 17:

Further Problem Solving, and Tutorial 18: Solving Linear Inequalities.

Also note that your teacher may word the problems on their test a little differently, may

have some different kinds of problems, or may have a different number of problems than

what is in this practice test. Again, since I'm probably not your math instructor, I don't know

exactly how your teacher will set up your math test. Just note that these problems will help you

build an understanding of the concepts presented and the terms used in math problems. If you

have an understanding of the problems instead of just memorizing them, then you should

do fine on these concepts, no matter how the test is set up.

1. Work through problems. If you are in a class, you should have done this on

completion of any homework you have done. For anyone, you can

accomplish this by doing the practice problems found in each tutorial.

2. Check work on problems. The practice problems in each tutorial have links

to the answers to them so you can instantly check how you are doing. Also, in

most math books, the odd answers are found in the back of the book.

3. Review concepts. Whether you got the problems right or wrong, make sure

you review over them. If you did get a problem wrong, make sure you either

review that concept in it's respective tutorial or ask your math teacher about

it. If you don't ask about a problem before a test, you are going to kick

yourself when it comes up on the test.

267

book, webpages, etc. This practice test is a perfect way to do that. After

taking this practice test, check your answers by clicking on the link

to the answer key found at the bottom of the practice test (before

the 'need extra help on these topics' section)

It is to your benefit to show as much of the work as possible on the problems that have several

steps involved.

Make sure that you read the directions carefully, you wouldn't believe how many points get

taken off math tests for people not following directions.

Pace yourself. You do not have to be the first one done to do well on the test. Do not panic if

there is still time left to take the test and others are turing it in. Sometimes that means they do not

know the material and left some of the answers blank. Do not worry about anyone else but

yourself.

Don't rush through a problem. Another thing that math teachers take points off for are careless

mistakes made by people that rush through a problem. When those students get their tests back,

they bonk themselves on the head at some of the things that got counted wrong, things that they

knew how to do.

Check your answers. If you have time, go back and check your answers.

Remember to breathe!!!! I know some of you are scared to death at the thought of having to

take a math test of any kind. For you guys, try to relax and don't forget to breathe. (Even if you

aren't scared to take a math test, it is probably a good idea to remember to breathe, I wouldn't

want you to pass out during the test). If it feels like your brain has left the building during

your test, just close your eyes and breathe in and out and in and out and your brain will

return.

Good luck on your test. If you are taking a math test soon, don't panic, you are going to do

great!!!

Practice Test

268

1a.

1b.

possible.

number.

3a.

3b.

3c.

each angle in the figure below. Note that since the angles make up a right

269

4d. You are wanting to buy a stereo system that costs $325 plus tax. If

you are going to be taxed 8.25%, how much will be the final cost of the

stereo system? (round to the nearest cent)

4e. You are traveling down I-40 at a constant speed of 70 mph. How many

hours will it take you to travel 385 miles?

one account the annual simple interest rate is 5% and on the second

account the annual simple interest rate is 7%. The amount of interest

earned for 1 year was $64. How much is invested in each account?

Problems 5a - 5c: Solve the inequality and graph the solution set.

5a.

5b.

5c.

270

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 19: Practice Test on Tutorials

11 - 18

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 19: Practice Test on

Tutorials 11 - 18

1a.

Answer:

1b.

Answer:

271

possible.

number.

Answer:

3a.

Answer:

3b.

Answer:

272

3c.

Answer:

Answer:

Let x = the number

273

The number is 4.

each angle in the figure below. Note that since the angles make up a right

angle, they are complementary to each other.

Answer:

Answer:

Let x = the percent

274

x is 24%.

4d. You are wanting to buy a stereo system that costs $325 plus tax. If

you are going to be taxed 8.25%, how much will be the final cost of the

stereo system? (round to the nearest cent)

Answer:

Let x = final cost

4e. You are traveling down I-40 at a constant speed of 70 mph. How many

hours will it take you to travel 385 miles?

Answer:

Let t = the number of hours

one account the annual simple interest rate is 5% and on the second

account the annual simple interest rate is 7%. The amount of interest

earned for 1 year was $64. How much is invested in each account?

275

Answer:

x = amount in 5%

1000 - x = amount in 7%

Problems 5a - 5c: Solve the inequality and graph the solution set.

5a.

Answer:

5b.

276

Answer:

5c.

Answer:

277

Coordinate System

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Plot points on a rectangular coordinate system.

2. Identify what quadrant or axis a point lies on.

3. Tell if an ordered pair is a solution of an equation in two variables or not.

Introduction

This section covers the basic ideas of graphing: rectangular coordinate system,

ordered pairs and solutions to equations in two variables. Graphs are

important in giving a visual representation of the correlation between two variables.

Even though in this section we are going to look at it generically, using a general

and y variable, you can use two-dimensional graphs for any application where you

have two variables. For example, you may have a cost function that is dependent

on the quantity of items made. If you needed to show your boss visually the

correlation of the quantity with the cost, you could do that on a two-dimensional

graph. I believe that it is important for you learn how to do something in general,

then when you need to apply it to something specific you have the knowledge to do

so. Going from general to specific is a lot easier than specific to general. And that is

what we are doing here looking at graphing in general so later you can apply it to

something specific, if needed.

278

Tutorial

1. The horizontal number line is the

2. The vertical number line is the

x- axis.

y- axis.

The origin is where the two intersect. This is where both number lines are

0.

It is split into four quadrants which are marked on this graph with Roman numerals.

279

Each point on the graph is associated with an ordered pair. When dealing with an x,

y graph, the x coordinate is always first and the y coordinate is always second in the

ordered pair (x, y). It is a solution to an equation in two variables. Even though there

are two values in the ordered pair, be careful that it associates to ONLY ONE point on

the graph, the point lines up with both the x value of the ordered pair (x-axis) and

the y value of the ordered pair (y-axis).

Example 1:

A(2, 3), B(-1, 2), C(-3, -4), D(2, 0), and E(0, 5).

Remember that each ordered pair associates with only one point

on the graph. Just line up the

your location.

C(-3, -4) lies in quadrant III.

D(2, 0) lies on the x-axis.

280

Example 2:

Find the

points

Remember that each ordered pair associates with only one point on the

graph. Just line up the

pair.

Since point A corresponds to 2 on the x-axis and -3 on the y-axis, then As ordered

pair is (2, -3).

Since point B corresponds to 3 on the x-axis and 2 on the y-axis, then Bs ordered

pair is (3, 2).

Since point C corresponds to -2 on the x-axis and 3 on the y-axis, then Cs ordered

pair is (-2, 3).

Since point D corresponds to -3 on the x-axis and - 4 on the y-axis, then Ds ordered

pair is (-3, - 4).

Since point E corresponds to -3 on the x-axis and 0 on the y-axis, then Es ordered

pair is (-3, 0).

Since point F corresponds to 0 on the x-axis and 2 on the y-axis, then Fs ordered

pair is (0, 2).

281

Solutions of Equations

in Two Variables

The solutions to equations in two variables consist of two values that when

substituted into their corresponding variables in the equation, make a true

statement.

In other words, if your equation has two variables x and y, and you plug in a value for x and its

corresponding value for y and the mathematical statement comes out to be true, then the x and y

value that you plugged in would together be a solution to the equation.

Equations in two variables can have more than one solution.

We usually write the solutions to equations in two variables in ordered pairs.

equation.

y = 5x - 7; (2, 3), (1, 5), (-1, -12)

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value? If you said x = 2 and y =

3, you are correct!

Lets plug (2, 3) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in 2 for

x and 3 for y

282

= 5x - 7.

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value?

5, you are right!

Lets plug (1, 5) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in 1 for

x and 5 for y

that (1, 5) is NOT a solution to the equation 5x - 7.

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value?

-12, you are right!

Lets plug (-1, -12) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in -1 for

solution to the equation

y = 5x - 7.

283

Note that you were only given three ordered pairs to check, however, there are an

infinite number of solutions to this equation. It would very cumbersome to find them

all.

given equation.

This equation looks a little different than the one on example 3. In this

3, then we have a solution to the equation. It doesnt matter what ys

equation, we only have an

value is.

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value? If you said x = 3 and y =

5, you are correct!

Lets plug (3, 5) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in 3 for

= 3.

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value?

284

Lets plug (2, 3) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in 2 for

that (2, 3) is NOT a solution to the equation

x = 3.

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value?

4, you are right!

Lets plug (3, 4) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in 3 for

solution to the equation

x = 3.

Note that you were only given three ordered pairs to check, however, there are an

infinite number of solutions to this equation. It would very cumbersome to find them

all.

Pair

285

Again, the solutions to equations in two variables consist of two values that when

substituted into their corresponding variables in the equation, make a true

statement.

Sometimes you are given a value of one of the variables and you need to find the

corresponding value of the other variable. The steps involved in doing that are:

Step 2: Solve the equation for the remaining variable.

equation

(1,

) and (

, -1).

x or the y value?

Plugging in 1 for x into the given equation and solving for y we get:

*Plug in 1 for

*Solve for y

286

equation.

In the ordered pair ( , -1), is the -1 that is given the x or the y value?

If you said y, you are correct.

Plugging in -1 for y into the given equation and solving for x we get:

*Plug in -1 for

*Solve for x

So, the ordered pair (4, -1) would be another solution to the given

equation.

y

0

-1

1

The only difference between this one and example 5 above is that we are

using a table to match up our values of our variables instead of writing it in

287

an ordered pair. The concept is still the same, we need to find the

corresponding values of our variables that are solutions to the

given equation.

Plugging in 0 for y into the given equation and solving for x we get:

equation.

Plugging in -1 for y into the given equation and solving for x we get:

So, the ordered pair (-1/2, -1) would be another solution to the

given equation.

Plugging in 1 for y into the given equation and solving for x we get:

given equation.

-1/2

0

288

-1/2

-1

-1/2

Practice Problems

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

Practice Problem 1a: Plot each point and name the quadrant or axis in which

the point lies.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

Practice Problem 2a: Find the x- and y- coordinates of the following labeled

points.

289

2a.

(answer/discussion to 2a)

given equation.

3a.

y = 4x - 10 ;

(answer/discussion to 3a)

3b.

y = -5 ;

(answer/discussion to 3b)

equation

290

(answer/discussion to 4a)

Practice Problem 5a: Complete the table of values for the equation

5a.

0

-1

1

(answer/discussion to 5a)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 20: The Rectangular

Coordinate System

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 20: The Rectangular

Coordinate System

Answer/Discussion to 1a

291

B(-2, -1/2) lies in quadrant III.

C(2, -2) lies in quadrant IV.

D(0, 1) lies on the y axis.

(return to problem 1a)

Answer/Discussion to 2a

Since point A corresponds to 4 on the x-axis and 2 on the y-axis, then A's ordered pair is (4, 2).

Since point B corresponds to 0 on the x-axis and 4 on the y-axis, then B's ordered pair is (0, 4).

Since point C corresponds to -2 on the x-axis and 2 on the y-axis, then C's ordered pair is (-2,

292

2).

Since point D corresponds to - 4 on the x-axis and 0 on the y-axis, then D's ordered pair is (- 4,

0).

Since point E corresponds to -2 on the x-axis and -3 on the y-axis, then E's ordered pair is (-2,

-3).

Since point F corresponds to 3 on the x-axis and -3 on the y-axis, then F's ordered pair is (3, -3).

(return to problem 2a)

Answer/Discussion to 3a

y = 4x - 10

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value? If you said x = 0 and y = -10, you are

correct!

Let's plug (0, -10) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in 0 for

10.

y = 4x -

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value?

293

are right!

Let's plug (1, -14) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in 1 for

y=

4x - 10.

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value?

are right!

Let's plug (-1, -14) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in -1 for

10.

(return to problem 3a)

Answer/Discussion to 3b

294

y = 4x -

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value? If you said x = 2 and y = -5, you are

correct!

Let's plug (2, -5) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in -5 for

y = -5.

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value?

right!

Let's plug (-5, 1) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in -5 for

-5.

y=

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value?

right!

Let's plug (0, -5) into the equation and see what we get:

295

*Plug in -5 for

y = -5.

Answer/Discussion to 4a

; (0, ) and ( , 1)

x or the y value?

Plugging in 0 for x into the given equation and solving for y we get:

*Plug in 0 for

*Solve for y

So, the ordered pair (0, - 4) would be a solution to the given equation.

In the ordered pair ( , 1), is the 1 that is given the x or the y value?

296

Plugging in 1 for y into the given equation and solving for x we get:

*Plug in 1 for

*Solve for x

So, the ordered pair (5, 1) would be another solution to the given

equation.

(return to problem 4a)

Answer/Discussion to 5a

Plugging in 0 for

So, the ordered pair (0, 3/2) would be a solution to the given equation.

Plugging in -1 for x into the given equation and solving for y we get:

297

So, the ordered pair (-1, 3/2) would be another solution to the given

equation.

Plugging in 1 for x into the given equation and solving for y we get:

So, the ordered pair (1, 3/2) would be another solution to the given

equation.

3/2

-1

3/2

3/2

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Recognize when an equation in two variables is a linear equation.

298

Introduction

In Tutorial 20: The Rectangular Coordinate System, we went over the basics of

the rectangular coordinate system. In this tutorial we will be adding on to this by

looking at graphing linear equations by plotting points that are solutions. Basically,

when you graph, you plot solutions and connect the dots to get your

graph. Specifically, when you graph linear equations, you will end up with a straight

line. Let's see what you can do with these linear equations.

Tutorial

Linear Equation in

Two Variables

Standard Form:

Ax + By = C

A linear equation in two variables is an equation that can be written in the form

Ax + By = C, where A and B are not both 0.

299

not.

If we subtract 5x from both sides, then we can write the given equation as

-5x +

y = -3.

equation.

If we were to graph this equation, we would end up with a graph of a straight line.

or

not.

If we subtract the

as opposed to

x squared

It looks like we cannot write it in the form Ax + By = C because the x has to be to the

one power, not squared. So this is not a linear equation.

by Plotting Points

300

Step 1: Find three ordered pair solutions.

corresponding y values.

Yes, it can be ANY three values you want, 1, -3, or even 10,000.

Remember there are an infinite number of solutions. As long as you find

the corresponding y value that goes with each x, you have a solution.

To review ordered pair solutions go to Tutorial 20: The Rectangular

Coordinate System.

Remember that each ordered pair corresponds to only one

point on the graph.

The point lines up with both the x value of the ordered pair (x-axis) and

the y value of the ordered pair (y-axis).

To review how to plot points on the graph go to Tutorial 20: The

Rectangular Coordinate System.

A linear equation will graph as a straight line.

If you know it is a linear equation and your points dont line up, then you

either need to check your math in step 1 and/or that you plotted all the

points found correctly.

y = 5x - 3.

301

x values that you are using and the corresponding y value found

when you used a particular x value.

of the

If you do this step the same each time, then it will make it easier for you to remember

how to do it.

I usually pick out three points when I know Im dealing with a line. The three x values

Im going to use are -1, 0, and 1. (Note that you can pick ANY three x values that

you want. You do not have to use the values that I picked.) You want to keep it as

simple as possible. The following is the chart I ended up with after plugging in the

values I mentioned for x.

y = 5x - 3

(x,

y)

-1

y = 5(-1) - 3 = -8

(-1, -8)

y = 5(0) - 3 = -3

(0, -3)

y = 5(1) - 3 = 2

(1, 2)

302

x values that you are using and the corresponding y value found

when you used a particular x value.

of the

If you do this step the same each time, then it will make it easier for you to remember

how to do it.

I usually pick out three points when I know Im dealing with a line. The three x values

Im going to use are -1, 0, and 1. (Note that you can pick ANY three x values that

you want. You do not have to use the values that I picked.) You want to keep it as

simple as possible. The following is the chart I ended up with after plugging in the

values I mentioned for x.

y = 1/2x

(x,

y)

-1

y = (1/2)(-1) = -1/2

(-1, -1/2)

y = (1/2)(0) = 0

(0, 0)

303

y = (1/2)(1) = 1/2

(1, 1/2)

304

Practice Problems

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a.

y = 2x - 1

(answer/discussion to 1a)

1b.

(answer/discussion to 1b)

2a. y = 2x - 1

(answer/discussion to 2a

2b.

(answer/discussion to 2b)

305

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 21: Graphing Linear Equations

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 21: Graphing Linear

Equations

Answer/Discussion to 1a

y = 2x - 1

If we subtract 2x from both sides, then we can write the given equation as -2 x +

= -1.

Since we can write it in the standard form, Ax + By = C, then we have a linear equation.

(return to problem 1a)

Answer/Discussion to 1b

. Is this a linear

equation? Note how we have an x squared as opposed to x to the one power.

If we add

It looks like we cannot write it in the form Ax + By = C, because the x has to be to the one power,

not squared. So this is not a linear equation.

306

Answer/Discussion to 2a

y = 2x - 1

The three x values I'm going to use are -1, 0, and 1. (Note that you can pick ANY three x

values that you want. You do not have to use the values that I picked.) You want to keep it as

simple as possible. The following is the chart I ended up with after plugging in the values I

mentioned for x.

y = 2x - 1

(x,

y)

-1

y = 2(-1) - 1 = -3

(-1, -3)

y = 2(0) - 1 = -1

(0, -1)

y = 2(1) - 1 = 1

(1, 1)

307

Answer/Discussion to 2b

The three x values I'm going to use are -1, 0, and 1. (Note that you can pick ANY three x

values that you want. You do not have to use the values that I picked.) You want to keep it as

simple as possible. The following is the chart I ended up with after plugging in the values I

mentioned for x.

y = -1/2x

(x,

y)

-1

y = -1/2(-1) = 1/2

(-1, 1/2)

y = -1/2(0) = 0

(0, 0)

308

y = -1/2(1) = -1/2

(1, -1/2)

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

309

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Find the

x- and y-intercepts.

Introduction

equations by plotting points. In this tutorial the concept of using intercepts to help

graph will be introduced, as well as vertical and horizontal lines. Actually, the

process of graphing by plotting points and graphing by using intercepts are

essentially the same. Intercepts are just special types of solutions, but solutions

none the less. So once we find them, we plot them just the same as any other

ordered pair that is a solution. Once we plot them, we draw our graph in the same

fashion as when we had non-intercept points. So, basically, when you graph, you

plot solutions (whether they are intercept points or not) and connect the dots to get

your graph. Just keep in mind that intercepts work with the number 0, which is a

nice easy number to work with when plugging in and solving. (It is one of those

types of problems that I warn students to not make harder than it is).

Tutorial

310

x-intercept

The

The word 'intercept' looks like the word 'intersect'. Think of it as where the graph intersects

the x-axis.

With that in mind, what value is y always going to be on the x-intercept? No matter where

you are on the x-axis, ys value is 0, that is a constant. We will use that bit of information to

help us find the x-intercept when given an equation.

y-intercept

x-intercept is where the graph crosses the x-axis where do you think the

graph crosses for the y-intercept? If you said the y-axis, you are absolutely

If the

right.

This time it is xs value that is 0. Any where you would cross the y-axis, xs value is always 0.

We will use this tidbit to help us find the y-intercept when given an equation.

Below is an illustration of a graph of a linear function which highlights the x and y intercepts:

In the above illustration, the x-intercept is the point (2, 0) and the y-intercept is the point (0,

3).

311

Keep in mind that the x- and y- intercepts are two separate points. There is only one point

that can be both an x- and y- intercept at the same time, do you know what point that is?

If you said the origin (0, 0), give yourself a pat on the back.

Sketching a Graph

Using Intercepts

y value.

This is just like we showed you in Tutorial 21: Graphing Linear Equations.

2.

Remember that intercepts are points on the graph, too. They are plotted

just like any other point.

Coordinate System.

312

x-intercept.

You are correct if you said

y?

y = 0.

*Inverse of add 5 is sub. 5

The

What value are we going to plug in for x?

313

*Find

The

y-intercept is (0, 5)

corresponding

*Replace

x with 1

Note that we could have plugged in any value for x: 5, 10, -25, ..., but it is best to keep

it as simple as possible.

(x, y)

314

5/3

(5/3, 0)

(0, 5)

(1, 2)

2.

315

Example 2: Graph each linear function by finding the x- and yintercepts. -3x = y

x-intercept.

You are correct if you said

y?

y = 0.

*Inverse of mult. by -3 is div. by -3

The

What value are we going to plug in for x?

If you said x = 0, you are right.

*Find

The

y-intercept is (0, 0)

Hey, look at that, we ended up with the exact same point for both our x- and yintercepts. As mentioned above, there is only one point that can be both an x- and y316

Since we really have found only one point this time, we better find

two additional solutions so we have a total of three points.

We can plug in any x value we want as long as we get the right corresponding y value

and the function exists there.

Lets put in an easy number x = 1:

*Replace

x with 1

*Replace

x with -1

Note that we could have plugged in any value for x: 5, 10, -25, ..., but it is best to keep

it as simple as possible.

317

(x, y)

(0, 0)

-3

(1, -3)

-1

(-1, 3)

2.

318

Vertical Lines

x=c

it on a two dimensional graph, this would be a vertical line with x-intercept of (c, 0).

If you have an equation

Even though you do not see a y in the equation, you can still graph it on a two dimensional

graph. Remember that the graph is the set of all solutions for a given equation. If all the points

are solutions then any ordered pair that has an x value of c would be a solution. As long as x

never changes value, it is always c, then you have a solution. In that case, you will end up with a

vertical line.

Horizontal Lines

y=c

319

y- intercept of (0,

c).

Even though you do not see an x in the equation, you can still graph it on a two dimensional

graph. Remember that the graph is the set of all solutions for a given equation. If all the points

are solutions then any ordered pair that has an y value of c would be a solution. As long as y

never changes value, it is always c, then you have a solution. In that case, you will end up with a

horizontal line.

Below is an illustration of a horizontal line y = c:

With that in mind, what kind of line are we going to end up with?

Horizontal.

Note how the directions did not specify that we had to use intercepts to do our

graph. Any time you take a math test or do homework, make sure that you

follow directions carefully. If it specifies a certain way to do a problem, then you

need to follow that plan (like in the above examples 1 and 2). If it does not

specify, like in this example, then you can use what ever legitimate way works

to get the job done.

320

AND

Step 2: Find at least one more point.

Since this is a special type of line, I thought I would talk about steps 1 and

2 together.

It doesnt matter what x is, y is always 4. So for our solutions we just need three

ordered pairs such that y = 4.

Note that the y-intercept (where x = 0) is at (0, 4).

Do we have a x-intercept? The answer is no. Since y has to be 4, then it can never

equal 0, which is the criteria of an x-intercept. Also, think about it, if we have a

horizontal line that crosses the y-axis at 4, it will never ever cross the x-axis.

So, some points that we can use are (0, 4), (1, 4) and (2, 4). These are all ordered

pairs that fit the criteria of y having to be 4.

Of course, we could have used other solutions, there are an infinite number of them.

(x, y)

(0, 4)

(1, 4)

(2, 4)

2.

321

which means it can be written in the form x = c.

So, what type of line are we going to end up with?

Vertical.

322

x = -3,

AND

Step 2: Find at least one more point.

Since this is a special type of line, I thought I would talk about steps 1 and

2 together.

Note that the x-intercept is at (-3, 0).

Do we have a y-intercept? The answer is no. Since x can never equal 0, then there

will be no y-intercept for this equation.

Some points that would be solutions are (-3, 0), (-3, 1), and (-3, 2).

Again, I could have picked an infinite number of solutions.

(x, y)

-3

(-3, 0)

-3

(-3, 1)

-3

(-3, 2 )

2.

323

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

324

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

Practice Problems 1a - 1b: Graph each linear function by finding x- and yintercepts.

1a. 2x - 3y = -6

1b.

x = 3y

(answer/discussion to 1a)

(answer/discussion to 1b)

2a. x = 4

2b. y + 5 = 0

(answer/discussion to 2a)

(answer/discussion to 2b)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 22: Intercepts

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 22: Intercepts

325

Answer/Discussion to 1a

2x - 3y = -6

Let's first find the x-intercept.

What value are we going to use for y?

You are correct if you said y = 0.

*Find

The

What value are we going to plug in for x?

If you said x = 0, you are right.

*Find

326

The

y-intercept is (0, 2)

We can plug in any x value we want as long as we get the right corresponding y value and the

function exists there.

Let's put in an easy number x = 1:

*Replace

x with 1

Note that we could have plugged in any value for x: 5, 10, -25, ..., but it is best to keep it as

simple as possible.

(x, y)

-3

(-3, 0)

(0, 2)

8/3

(1, 8/3)

327

2.

Answer/Discussion to 1b

x = 3y

328

What value are we going to use for y?

You are correct if you said y = 0.

*Find

The

What value are we going to plug in for x?

If you said, x = 0 you are right.

*Find

The

y-intercept is (0, 0)

Since we really have found only one point this time, we better find two additional solutions

so we have a total of three points.

We can plug in any x value we want as long as we get the right corresponding y value and the

function exists there.

Let's put in an easy number x = 1:

329

*Replace

x with 1

*Replace x with -1

*Inverse of mult. by 3 is div. by 3

(x, y)

(-3, 0)

1/3

(1, 1/3)

-1

-1/3

(-1, -1/3)

2.

330

Answer/Discussion to 2a

x=4

So, what type of line are we going to end up with?

Vertical.

331

AND

Step 2: Find at least one more point.

Since this is a special type of line, I thought I would talk about steps 1 and 2 together.

It does not matter what y is, as long as x is 4.

Note that the x-intercept is at (4, 0).

Do we have a y-intercept? The answer is no. Since x can never equal 0, then there will be no

y-intercept for this equation.

Some points that would be solutions are (4, 0), (4, 1), and (4, 2).

Again, I could have picked an infinite number of solutions.

(x, y)

(4, 0)

(4, 1)

(4, 2 )

2.

332

Answer/Discussion to 2b

y+5=0

= c.

With that in mind, what kind of line are we going to end up with?

Horizontal.

AND

Step 2: Find at least one more point.

Since this is a special type of line, I thought I would talk about steps 1 and 2 together.

It doesn't matter what x is, y is always -5. So for our solutions we just need three ordered pairs

such that y = -5.

Note that the y-intercept (where x = 0) is at (0, -5).

333

Do we have a x-intercept? The answer is no. Since y has to be -5, then it can never equal 0,

which is the criteria of an x-intercept.

So some points that we can use are (0, -5), (1, -5) and (2, -5). These are all ordered pairs

that fit the criteria of y having to be -5.

Of course, we could have used other solutions, there are an infinite number of them.

(x, y)

-5

(0, -5)

-5

(1, -5)

-1

-5

(1, -5)

2.

334

Tutorial 23:Slope

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Find the slope given a graph or two points.

2. Know the relationship between slopes of parallel lines.

Introduction

This tutorial takes us a little deeper into linear equations. We will be looking at the

slope of a line. We will also look at the relationship between the slopes of parallel

335

lines as well as perpendicular lines. Let's see what you can do with slopes.

Tutorial

Slope

Most of you are probably familiar with associating slope with "rise over run".

Rise means how many units you move up or down from point to point. On

the graph that would be a change in the

y values.

Run means how far left or right you move from point to point. On the graph, that

would mean a change of x values.

Positive slope:

336

Note that when a line has a positive slope it goes up left to right.

Negative slope:

Note that when a line has a negative slope it goes down left to right.

Zero slope:

337

slope = 0

Note that when a line is horizontal the slope is 0.

Undefined slope:

slope = undefined

Note that when the line is vertical the slope is undefined.

Given two points

and

338

The subscripts just indicate that these are two different points. It doesn't matter

which one you call point 1 and which one you call point 2 as long as you are

consistent throughout that problem.

Example 1: Find the slope of the straight line that passes through (-5, 2) and (4, -7).

*Plug in

*Simplify

Make sure that you are careful when one of your values is

negative and you have to subtract it as we did in line 2. 4 - (-5) is

not the same as 4 - 5.

Example 2: Find the slope of the straight line that passes through (1,

339

*Plug in

*Simplify

Example 3: Find the slope of the straight line that passes through (3, 4)

and (3, 6).

*Plug in

*Simplify

Since we did not have a change in the x values, the denominator of our

slope became 0. This means that we have an undefined slope. If you

were to graph the line, it would be a vertical line, as shown above.

340

Note that two lines are parallel if there slopes are equal and they have different y-intercepts.

341

Practice Problems

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

342

1b.

(answer/discussion to 1b)

1c.

(answer/discussion to 1c)

1d.

343

(answer/discussion to 1d)

Practice Problems 2a - 2b: Find the slope of the straight line that passes through

the given points.

(answer/discussion to 2a)

(answer/discussion to 2b)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 23: Slope

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 23: Slope

Answer/Discussion to 1a

344

Answer/Discussion to 1b

345

Answer/Discussion to 1c

slope = 0

(return to problem 1c)

Answer/Discussion to 1d

slope = undefined

(return to problem 1d)

346

Answer/Discussion to 2a

*Plug in

*Simplify

(return to problem 2a)

Answer/Discussion to 2b

*Simplify

347

Inequalities

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

Introduction

In this tutorial we will be looking at linear inequalities in two variables. It will start

out exactly the same as graphing linear equations and then we get to color in the

region of the coordinate system that correlates with the inequality. Some of these

problems may get a little long. Don't let that discourage you, you can do it. Hang in

there, a lot of the steps are concepts from the past, things you should already have

seen and done before. I will put in links to the material that you need to remember

from the past, in case you need a review. A lot of times math works that way, use

what you know to learn the new concept. Let's see what you can do with these

inequalities.

Tutorial

348

A linear inequality in two variables is any expression

that can be put in the form

Note that the above definition can be applied to any of the following four

inequalities: <, >, <, or >.

The solution set and graph for a linear inequality is a region of the rectangular coordinate

system. Recall that the graph of a linear equation is a straight line. The inequality sign extends

this to being on one side of the line or the other on the graph.

Essentially you graph the boundary line the same as if the problem was a

linear equation. Pretend that there is an equal sign and use an appropriate

method to graph the line. Unless the directions to a problem indicate

otherwise, you can use any method to graph it. The ways covered in our

past tutorials are plotting any three points as shown in Tutorial 21:

Graphing Linear Equations or using the x and y intercepts as

shown in Tutorial 22: Intercepts.

When you draw the boundary line, you need to have a way to indicate if the line is

included or not in the final answer.

349

If the problem includes where it is equal, then you will have a solid boundary line. In

other words, if you have < or > , you will have a solid line for your boundary line.

This shows the boundary line for x + y < 6:

(note that this does not show the inequality part)

If the problem does not include where it is equal, then you will use a dashed boundary

line. In other words, if you have < or >, you will have a dashed line for your boundary

line.

(note that this does not show the inequality part)

350

In either case, you still graph the line the same. You just have to decide if you are

needing a solid line or a dashed line.

The boundary line separates the rectangular coordinate system into two parts. One of

those parts will make the inequality true and be its solution.

Pick a test point on either side of the boundary line and plug it into the

original problem. This will help determine which side of the boundary line

is the solution.

If you get a true statement when you plug in the test point in step 2,

then you have found a solution. Shade the region that the test point

is in.

If you get a false statement when you plug in the test point in step 2, then you dont

have a solution. Shade in the region that is on the other side of the test point.

It doesnt matter what you use for the test point as long as it is not on the

boundary line. You want to keep it as simple as possible.

351

Im going to use the intercepts to help me graph the boundary line. Again,

you can use any method that you want, unless the directions say

otherwise.

When Im working with only the boundary line, I will put an equal sign between

the two sides to emphasize that we are working on the boundary line. That

doesnt mean that I changed the problem. When we put it all together in the end, I will

put the inequality back in.

What value is y on the x-intercept?

If you said 0, you are correct.

If you need a review on x-intercepts, go to Tutorial 22: Intercepts.

*Replace y with 0

*x-intercept

x-intercept is (2, 0)

What is the value of x on the y-intercept?

If you said 0, you are correct.

If you need a review on y-intercepts, go to Tutorial 22: Intercepts.

*Replace x with 0

*y-intercept

Plug in 1 for x to get a third solution:

352

*Replace x with 1

*Inverse of add 1 is sub. 1

Solutions:

(x, y)

(2, 0)

(0, 2)

(1, 1)

Since the original problem has a >, this means it DOES NOT include the boundary

line.

So are we going to draw a solid or a dashed line for this problem?

It looks like it will have to be a dashed line.

Putting it all together, we get the following boundary line for this problem:

353

An easy test point would be (0, 0). Note that it is a point that is not on the boundary

line. In fact, it is located below the boundary line.

Lets put (0, 0) into the original problem and see what happens:

*Replacing x and

*False statement

y with 0

Since our test point (0, 0) made our inequality FALSE, this means it is

not a solution.

Since it has to be on one side or the other of the boundary line, and it is not below it,

then our solution would lie above the boundary line. This means we will shade in

the part that is above it.

Note that the gray lines indicate where you would shade your final answer.

354

Im going to use the intercepts to help me graph the boundary line. Again,

you can use any method that you want, unless the directions say

otherwise.

When Im working with only the boundary line, I will put an equal sign between

the two sides to emphasize that we are working on the boundary line. That

doesnt mean that I changed the problem. When we put it all together in the end, I will

put the inequality back in.

What value is y on the x-intercept?

If you said 0, you are correct.

If you need a review on x-intercepts, go to Tutorial 22: Intercepts.

*Replace

y with 0

*x-intercept

x-intercept is (3, 0)

What is the value of x on the y-intercept?

If you said 0, you are correct.

If you need a review on y-intercepts, go to Tutorial 22: Intercepts.

355

*Replace

x with 0

*y-intercept

Plug in 1 for x to get a third solution:

*Replace

x with 1

*Inverse of mult. by -3 is div. by -3

Solutions:

(x, y)

(3, 0)

-2

(0, -2)

-4/3

(1, -4/3)

Since the original problem has a <, this means it DOES include the boundary line.

So are we going to draw a solid or a dashed line for this problem?

It looks like it will have to be a solid line.

356

Putting it all together, we get the following boundary line for this problem:

An easy test point would be (0, 0). Note that it is a point that is not on the boundary

line. In fact, it is located above the boundary line.

Lets put (0, 0) into the original problem and see what happens:

*True statement

Since our test point (0, 0) made our inequality TRUE, this means it is

a solution.

Our solution would lie above the boundary line. This means we will shade in the

part that is above it.

Note that the gray lines indicate where you would shade your final answer.

357

Do you remember what type of line x = c graphs as?

It comes out to be a vertical line.

If you need a review on vertical lines, go to Tutorial 22: Intercepts

Every xs value on the boundary line would have to be 4.

Solutions:

(x, y)

(4, 0)

(4, 1)

(4, 2)

358

Since the original problem has a <, this means it DOES NOT include the

boundary line.

It looks like it will have to be a dashed line.

Putting it all together, we get the following boundary line for this problem:

An easy test point would be (0, 0). Note that it is a point that is not on the boundary

line. In fact, it is located to the left of the boundary line.

Lets put (0, 0) into the original problem and see what happens:

*Replace x with 0

*True Statement

359

Since our test point (0, 0) made our inequality TRUE, this means it is

a solution.

Our solution would lie to the left of the boundary line. This means we will shade in

the part that is to the left of it

Note that the gray lines indicate where you would shade your final answer.

Practice Problems

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

360

1a.

1b.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

(answer/discussion to 1b)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 24: Graphing Linear

Inequalities

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 24: Graphing Linear

Inequalities

Answer/Discussion to 1a

I'm going to use the intercepts to help me graph the boundary line. Again, you can

use any method that you want, unless the directions say otherwise.

When I'm working with only the boundary line, I will put an equal sign between the two

sides to emphasize that we are working on the boundary line. That doesn't mean that I

changed the problem. When we put it all together in the end, I will put the inequality back in.

What value is y on the x-intercept?

If you said 0, you are correct.

If you need a review on x-intercepts, go to Tutorial 22: Intercepts.

361

*Replace y with 0

*Inverse of mult. by -3 is div. by -3

*x-intercept

x-intercept is (0, 0)

Since the x-intercept came out to be (0, 0), then it stands to reason that when we put in 0 for x to

find the y-intercept, we will get (0, 0).

*Replace

x with 1

*Replace

x with -1

Solutions:

(x, y)

(0, 0)

362

-3

(1, -3)

-1

(-1, 3)

Since the original problem has a >, this means it DOES include the boundary line.

So are we going to draw a solid or a dashed line for this problem?

It looks like it will have to be a solid line.

Putting it all together, we get the following boundary line for this problem:

An easy test point would be (1, 1). Note that it is a point that is not on the boundary line. In

fact, it is located above the boundary line.

Let's put (1, 1) into the original problem and see what happens:

*Replacing x and

*True statement

y with 1

363

Since our test point (1, 1) made our inequality TRUE, this means it is a

solution.

Our solution would lie above the boundary line. This means we will shade in the part that is

above it.

Note that the gray lines indicate where you would shade your final answer.

Answer/Discussion to 1b

one of our "special" lines.

It comes out to be a horizontal line.

If you need a review on horizontal lines, go to Tutorial 22: Intercepts

Every y's value on the boundary line would have to be 3.

364

y = c, which is

Solutions:

(x, y)

(0, 3)

(1, 3)

(2, 3)

Since the original problem has a <, this means it DOES NOT include the boundary

line.

It looks like it will have to be a dashed line.

Putting it all together, we get the following boundary line for this problem:

An easy test point would be (0, 0). Note that it is a point that is not on the boundary line. In

fact, it is located below the boundary line.

Let's put (0, 0) into the original problem and see what happens:

365

*Replace y with 0

*True statement

Since our test point (0, 0) made our inequality TRUE, this means it is a

solution.

Our solution would lie below the boundary line. This means we will shade in the part that is

below it

Note that the gray lines indicate where you would shade your final answer.

20 - 24

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

366

I can not guarantee you will pass your test after going though any of the

tutorials in this website or this practice test. However, it will definitely help

you to better understand the topics covered better.

Disclaimer: WTAMU and Kim Seward are not responsible for how a student

does on any test or any class for any reason including not being able to

access the website due to any technology problems.

Introduction

It is important to note that, chances are, I'm not your math instructor. You need to

check with your math teacher as to things like when your next math test is

and what it covers. It may cover more material on the test than what is in

this practice test. Just note that there are other practice tests at this website. So,

after finding out what is on your test (if you have one) do the practice test(s)

problems that go with the test you are preparing for. If you are not in a class or are

not having a test soon, this practice test is still good practice to go through and

check to make sure you are understanding this material before moving on - kind of

like a spot check. The material on this practice test goes with Tutorial 20: The

Rectangular Coordinate System, Tutorial 21: Graphing Linear Equations,

Tutorial 22: Intercepts, Tutorial 23: Slope, and Tutorial 24: Graphing Linear

Inequalities.

Also note that your teacher may word the problems on their test a little differently, may

have some different kinds of problems, or may have a different number of problems than

what is in this practice test. Again, since I'm probably not your math instructor, I don't know

exactly how your teacher will set up your math test. Just note that these problems will help you

build an understanding of the concepts presented and the terms used in math problems. If you

have an understanding of the problems instead of just memorizing them, then you should

do fine on these concepts, no matter how the test is set up.

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1. Work through problems. If you are in a class, you should have done this on

completion of any homework you have done. For anyone, you can

accomplish this by doing the practice problems found in each tutorial.

2. Check work on problems. The practice problems in each tutorial have links

to the answers to them so you can instantly check how you are doing. Also, in

most math books, the odd answers are found in the back of the book.

3. Review concepts. Whether you got the problems right or wrong, make sure

you review over them. If you did get a problem wrong, make sure you either

review that concept in it's respective tutorial or ask your math teacher about

it. If you don't ask about a problem before a test, you are going to kick

yourself when it comes up on the test.

book, webpages, etc. This practice test is a perfect way to do that. After

taking this practice test, check your answers by clicking on the link

to the answer key found at the bottom of the practice test (before

the 'need extra help on these topics' section)

It is to your benefit to show as much of the work as possible on the problems that have several

steps involved.

Make sure that you read the directions carefully, you wouldn't believe how many points get

taken off math tests for people not following directions.

Pace yourself. You do not have to be the first one done to do well on the test. Do not panic if

there is still time left to take the test and others are turing it in. Sometimes that means they do not

know the material and left some of the answers blank. Do not worry about anyone else but

yourself.

Don't rush through a problem. Another thing that math teachers take points off for are careless

mistakes made by people that rush through a problem. When those students get their tests back,

they bonk themselves on the head at some of the things that got counted wrong, things that they

knew how to do.

Check your answers. If you have time, go back and check your answers.

Remember to breathe!!!! I know some of you are scared to death at the thought of having to

take a math test of any kind. For you guys, try to relax and don't forget to breathe. (Even if you

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aren't scared to take a math test, it is probably a good idea to remember to breathe, I wouldn't

want you to pass out during the test). If it feels like your brain has left the building during

your test, just close your eyes and breathe in and out and in and out and your brain will

return.

Good luck on your test. If you are taking a math test soon, don't panic, you are going to do

great!!!

Practice Test

Problems 1a - 1b: Name the quadrant or axis in which the point lies.

1a. (2, - 4)

1b. (0, 4)

equation.

2a.

Problem 3a: Determine whether the equation is linear or not. Then graph

the equation by plotting points.

3a.

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intercepts.

4a.

4b.

5a.

6a.

6b.

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x- and y-

Problems 7a - 7b: Find the slope of the straight line that passes through

the given points.

8a.

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 25: Practice Test on Tutorials

20 - 24

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 25: Practice Test on

Tutorials 20 - 24

Problems 1a - 1b: Name the quadrant or axis in which the point lies.

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1a. (2, - 4)

Answer:

(2, -4) lies in Quadrant IV.

1b. (0, 4)

Answer:

(0, 4) lies on the y-axis.

equation.

2a.

Answer:

Let's plug (0, 5) into the equation and see what we get:

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Let's plug (4, -4) into the equation and see what we get:

Let's plug (-4, -6) into the equation and see what we get:

Problem 3a: Determine whether the equation is linear or not. Then graph

the equation by plotting points.

3a.

Answer:

If we subtract 3x from both sides, then we can write the given equation as

-3x +

y = - 4.

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equation.

This means that we will have a line when we go to graph this.

Solutions:

(x,

y)

0 y = 3(0) - 4 = - 4 (0, - 4)

1

y = 3(1) - 4 = -1

(1, -1)

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intercepts.

x- and y-

4a.

Answer:

Let's first find the x-intercept.

*Find

The

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*Find

The

We can plug in any x value we want as long as we get the right corresponding y value

and the function exists there.

Let's put in an easy number x = 1:

*Replace

x with 1

it as simple as possible.

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Solutions:

(x, y)

1/2

(1/2, 0)

-1

(0, -1)

(1, 1)

1 and 2.

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4b.

Answer:

Let's first find the x-intercept.

*Find

The

Since the x-intercept came out to be (0, 0), then it stands to reason that when we put in

0 for x to find the y-intercept we will get (0, 0).

Since we really have found only one point, this time we better find two additional

solutions so we have a total of three points.

We can plug in any x value we want as long as we get the right corresponding y value

and the function exists there.

Let's put in an easy number x = 1:

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*Replace

x with 1

*Replace

x with -1

it as simple as possible.

Solutions:

(x, y)

(0, 0)

(1, 4)

-1

-4

(1, -4)

1 and 2.

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5a.

Answer:

form

y = c.

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With that in mind, what kind of line are we going to end up with?

Horizontal.

AND

Step 2: Find at least one more point

Since this is a special type of line, I thought I would talk about steps 1 and 2 together.

It doesn't matter what x is, y is always - 4. So for our solutions we just need three

ordered pairs such that y = - 4.

Note that the y-intercept (where x = 0) is at (0, - 4).

Do we have an x-intercept? The answer is no. Since y has to be - 4, then it can

never equal 0, which is the criteria of an x-intercept. Also, think about it, if we have a

horizontal line that crosses the y-axis at - 4, it will never ever cross the x-axis.

So some points that we can use are (0, - 4), (1, - 4) and (-1, - 4). These are all

ordered pairs that fit the criteria of y having to be 4.

Of course, we could have used other solutions, there are an infinite number of them.

Solutions:

(x, y)

-4

(0, - 4)

-4

(1, - 4)

-1

-4

(-1, - 4)

1 and 2.

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6a.

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6b.

Problems 7a - 7b: Find the slope of the straight line that passes through

the given points.

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Answer:

*Plug in

*Simplify

Answer:

*Plug in

*Simplify

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8a.

Answer:

I'm going to use the intercepts to help me graph the boundary line. Again,

you can use any method that you want, unless the directions say

otherwise.

When I'm working with only the boundary line, I will put an equal sign between

the two sides to emphasize that we are working on the boundary line. That doesn't

mean that I changed the problem. When we put it all together in the end, I will put the

inequality back in.

x-intercept:

*Replace

y with 0

*x-intercept

x-intercept is (3, 0)

y-intercept

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*Replace

x with 0

*y-intercept

Plug in 1 for x to get a third solution:

*Replace x with 1

Solutions:

(x, y)

(3, 0)

-3

(0, -3)

-2

(1, -2)

Since the original problem has a <, this means it DOES NOT include the boundary

line.

So are we going to draw a solid or a dashed line for this problem?

It looks like it will have to be a dashed line.

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Putting it all together, we get the following boundary line for this problem:

An easy test point would be (0, 0). Note that it is a point that is not on the boundary

line. In fact, it is located above the boundary line.

Let's put (0, 0) into the original problem and see what happens:

*Replacing x and

*True statement

y with 0

Since our test point (0, 0) made our inequality TRUE, this means it is

a solution.

Our solution would lie above the boundary line. This means we will shade in the

part that is above it.

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Note that the gray lines indicate where you would shade your final answer.

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Use the definition of exponents.

exponent, dividing like bases, raising a base to two exponents, raising a

product to an exponent and raising a quotient to an exponent.

Introduction

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This tutorial covers the basic definition and some of the rules of exponents. The

rules it covers are the product rule, quotient rule, power rule, power of a product

rule and power of a quotient rule as well as the definitions for zero and negative

exponents. Exponents are everywhere in algebra and beyond. Let's see what we

can do with exponents.

Tutorial

Definition of Exponents

x = base,

n = exponent

The exponent tells you how many times a base appears in a PRODUCT.

Example 1: Evaluate

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*Multiply

Example 2:

Evaluate

*Multiply

Note how I included the - when I expanded this problem out. If the - is

inside the ( ) of an exponent, then it is included as part of the base.

Example 3:

Evaluate

*Negate 6 squared

*Put a - in front of 6 written in a product 2 times

*Multiply

It may look alike, but they ARE NOT exactly the same. Can you see the difference

between the two?? Hopefully, you noticed that in example 2, there was a ( ) around

the - and the 6. In this problem, there is no -. This means the - is NOT part of the

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It is interpreted as finding the negative or opposite of 6 squared.

(The Product Rule for Exponents)

Specific Illustration

understand how we get to the law for multiplying like bases with

exponents:

Note that 2 + 3 = 5, which is the exponent we ended up with. We had 2 xs written in a product

plus another 3 xs written in the product for a total of 5 xs in the product. To indicate that we put

the 5 in the exponent.

(The Product Rule for Exponents)

in general,

In other words, when you multiply like bases you add your exponents.

The reason is, exponents count how many of your base you have in a product, so if you are

continuing that product, you are adding on to the exponents.

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Example 5:

expression

.

Zero as an exponent

Except for 0, any base raised to the 0 power simplifies to be the number 1.

Note that the exponent doesnt become 1, but the whole expression simplifies to be the number 1.

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Example 6: Evaluate

to be 1

Example 7: Evaluate

Introduction to Variable Expressions and Equations says to evaluate

exponents before doing any multiplication. This means we need to find

raised to the 0 power first and then multiply it by 3.

*Multiply

(Quotient Rule for Exponents)

Specific Illustration

understand how we get to the law for dividing like bases with exponents:

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Note how 5 - 2 = 3, the final answers exponent. When you multiply you are adding on to your

exponent, so it should stand to reason that when you divide like bases you are taking away from

your exponent.

Let's put this idea together into a general rule:

(Quotient Rule for Exponents)

in general,

In other words, when you divide like bases you subtract their exponents.

Keep in mind that you always take the numerators exponent minus your denominators

exponent, NOT the other way around.

exponents

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exponents

(Power Rule for Exponents)

Specific Illustration

Lets first start by using the definition of exponents as well as the law for multiplying like

bases to help you to understand how we get to the law for raising a base to two exponents:

Note how 2 times 3 is 6, which is the exponent of the final answer. We can think of this as 3

groups of 2, which of course would come out to be 6.

(Power Rule for Exponents)

in general,

In other words, when you raise a base to two exponents, you multiply those

exponents together.

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Example 10: Use the power rule for exponents to simplify the expression

exponents

(Power of a Product Rule)

Specific Illustration

Lets first start by using the definition of exponents to help you to understand

how we get to the law for raising a product to an exponent:

Note how both bases of your product ended up being raised by the exponent of 3.

(Power of a Product Rule)

in general,

In other words, when you have a PRODUCT (not a sum or difference) raised

to an exponent, you can simplify by raising each base in the product to

that exponent.

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Example 11: Use the power of a product rule to simplify the expression

each base of the product to that exponent

(Power of a Quotient Rule)

Specific Illustration

Lets first start by using the definition of exponents to help you to understand

how we get to the law for raising a quotient to an exponent:

Since, division is really multiplication of the reciprocal, it has the same basic idea as when we

raised a product to an exponent.

(Power of a Quotient Rule)

in general,

In other words, when you have a QUOTIENT (not a sum or difference) raised

to an exponent, you can simplify by raising each base in the numerator

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Example 12: Use the power of a quotient rule to simplify the expression

the quotient to that exponent

*Use def. of exponents to evaluate

written one time with one exponent.

A lot of times you are having to use more than one rule to get the job done. As long as you are

using the rule appropriately, you should be fine.

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each base of the product to that exponent

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

399

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a.

1b.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

(answer/discussion to 1b)

1c.

(answer/discussion to 1c)

1d.

(answer/discussion to 1d)

1e.

(answer/discussion to 1e)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 26: Exponents

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 26: Exponents

Answer/Discussion to 1a

400

*note that 5 is NOT raised to the zero power

Answer/Discussion to 1b

Answer/Discussion to 1c

401

Answer/Discussion to 1d

*Mult. your exponents

Answer/Discussion to 1e

402

Polynomials

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Identify a term, coefficient, constant term, and polynomial.

2. Tell the difference between a monomial, binomial, and trinomial.

3. Find the degree of a term and polynomial.

4. Combine like terms.

Introduction

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we will move on to evaluating polynomial functions as well as adding and

subtracting them. Some of these concepts are based on ideas that were covered in

earlier tutorials. A lot of times in math you are using previous knowledge to learn

new concepts. The trick is to not reinvent the wheel each time, but recognize what

you have done before and draw on that knowledge to help you work through the

problems.

Tutorial

Lets start with defining some words before we get to our polynomial.

Term

,z

Coefficient

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Term

Coefficient

3

5

2

Constant Term

A constant term is a term that contains only a number. In other words, there

is no variable in a constant term.

is called the leading coefficient.

is a constant.

the variables are non-negative integers. Note that the terms are separated by

+s and -s.

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Degree of a Term

contained in the term.

The degree of the polynomial is the largest degree of all its terms.

Descending Order

Note that the standard form of a polynomial that is shown above is written in

descending order. This means that the term that has the highest degree is

written first, the term with the next highest degree is written next, and so

forth.

Also note that a polynomial can be missing terms. For example, the polynomial written above

starts with a degree of 5, but notice there is not a term that has an exponent of 4. That means the

coefficient on it is 0, so we do not write it.

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Type

Definition

Example

Monomial

5x

Binomial

5x - 10

Trinomial

Since the degree is the sum of the variable exponents and 5 is the only exponent, the

degree would have to be 5.

This one is a little bit tricky. Where is the variable? When you have a constant term,

its degree is always 0, because there is no variable there.

Since this is a constant term, its degree is 0.

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Since the degree is the sum of the variable exponents and it looks like we have a 1 and

a 3 as our exponents, the degree would have to be 1 + 3 = 4.

the polynomial is a monomial, binomial, trinomial, or none of these.

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it

looks like the degree is 2.

the polynomial is a monomial, binomial, trinomial, or none of these.

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it

looks like the degree is 6.

Make sure that you dont fall into the trap of thinking it is always the degree of

the first term. This polynomial is not written in standard form (descending

order). So we had to actually go to the second term to get the highest degree.

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the polynomial is a monomial, binomial, trinomial, or none of these. -20

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it

looks like the degree is 0.

Recall that like terms are terms that have the exact same variables raised to

the exact same exponents. One example of like terms is

example is

. Another

You can only combine terms that are like terms. You think of it as the reverse of the

distributive property.

It is like counting apples and oranges. You just count up how many variables you have the

same and write the number in front of the common variable part.

Lets rewrite this so that we have the like terms next to each other.

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combine and we have two terms that have an x that we can combine. The

It looks like we have two terms that have an

poor 5 does not have anything it can combine with so it will have to stay

5.

together

and then the x terms together

Adding Polynomials

Step 1:

Remove the ( ) .

the same when you remove the ( ).

simplify:

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*Remove the ( )

*Add like terms together

Subtracting Polynomials

Step 1:

Remove the ( ) .

in the ( ) by a -1 .

simplify:

*Combine like terms

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Subtract

from

*Combine like terms

Practice Problems

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a. -3

(answer/discussion to 1a)

1b.

(answer/discussion to 1b)

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Practice Problems 2a - 2c: Find the degree of the polynomial and indicate

whether the polynomial is a monomial, binomial, trinomial, or none of these.

2a.

2b.

(answer/discussion to 2a)

(answer/discussion to 2b)

2c.

(answer/discussion to 2c)

3a.

(answer/discussion to 3a)

3b.

(answer/discussion to 3b)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 27: Adding and Subtracting

Polynomials

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 27: Adding and

Subtracting

413

Answer/Discussion to 1a

-3

Since this is a constant term, then the degree is 0.

Answer/Discussion to 1b

Since the degree is the sum of the variable exponents and it looks like we have a 7 and a 1 as our

exponents, the degree would have to be 7 + 1 = 8.

Answer/Discussion to 2a

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it looks like the degree

is 3.

Since there are two terms, this is a binomial.

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Answer/Discussion to 2b

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it looks like the degree

is 1.

Since there is one term, this is a monomial.

Answer/Discussion to 2c

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it looks like the degree

is 2.

Since there are three terms, this is a trinomial.

Answer/Discussion to 3a

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*Remove the ( )

*Add like terms together

Answer/Discussion to 3b

*Combine like terms

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Multiply any polynomial times any other polynomial.

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Introduction

multiplying polynomials together. We will look at using the distributive property,

initially shown in Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers, to help us out.

Again, we are using a concept that you have already seen to apply to the new

concept. After going through this tutorial you should have multiplying polynomials

down pat.

Tutorial

Multiplying Polynomials

property, initially shown in Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers, until

every term of one polynomial is multiplied times every term of the other

polynomial. Make sure that you simplify your answer by combining any like terms.

On this page we will look at some of the more common types of polynomials to illustrate this

idea.

(Monomial)(Monomial)

In this case, there is only one term in each polynomial. You simply multiply

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(Monomial)(Polynomial)

In this case, there is only one term in one polynomial and more than one

term in the other. You need to distribute the monomial to EVERY term of

the other polynomial.

*Dist. -2a

*Mult. like bases add exp.

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(Binomial)(Binomial)

In this case, both polynomials have two terms. You need to distribute both terms of

one polynomial times both terms of the other polynomial.

Use the FOIL method. Note that this method only works on (Binomial)(Binomial).

First terms

Outside terms

Inside terms

Last terms

This is a fancy way of saying take every term of the first binomial times every term of the second

binomial. In other words, do the distributive property for every term in the first binomial.

*Combine like terms

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*Rewrite as base

(3y - 2) times itself

*Combine like terms

(Polynomial)(Polynomial)

As mentioned above, use the distributive property until every term of one

polynomial is multiplied times every term of the other polynomial. Make

sure that you simplify your answer by combining any like terms.

twice

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Practice Problems

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a.

1b.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

(answer/discussion to 1b)

1c.

1d.

(answer/discussion to 1c)

(answer/discussion to 1d)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 28: Multiplying Polynomials

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 28: Multiplying

Polynomials

421

Answer/Discussion to 1a

*Dist. -5x

*Mult. like bases add exp.

Answer/Discussion to 1b

*Combine like terms

Answer/Discussion to 1c

422

*Rewrite as base

(4x + 3) times itself

*Combine like terms

Answer/Discussion to 1d

Scientific Notation

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

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2. Write a number in scientific notation.

Introduction

This tutorial picks up where Tutorial 26: Exponents left off. It finishes the rules of

exponents with negative exponents. Also we will go over scientific notation. Like it

or not, the best way to master these exponents is to work through exponent

problems. So I guess we better get to it.

Tutorial

Negative Exponents

or

Be careful with negative exponents. The temptation is to negate the base, which

write multiplication and the negative is in the exponent, to

write it as a positive exponent we do the multiplicative

inverse which is to take the reciprocal of the base.

would not be a correct thing to do.

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Example 1: Simplify

base

Example 2: Simplify

base

written one time with one POSITIVE exponent.

In other words, write it in the most condense form you can making sure that all your exponents

are positive.

A lot of times you are having to use more than one rule to get the job done. As long as you are

using the rule appropriately, you should be fine.

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Except for the negative exponent rule, examples of the following rules can

be found in Tutorial 26: Exponents.

Product Rule:

Power Rule for Exponents:

Power of a Product:

Power of a Quotient:

Zero Exponent:

Negative Exponent:

Example 3:

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Example 4:

*Mult. your exponents

Example 5:

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*Mult. your exponents

Example 6:

Be careful going into the last line. Note that you do not see an exponent

written with the number 5. This means that the exponent on 5 is

understood to be 1. Since it doesn't have a negative exponent, we DO NOT

take the reciprocal of 5. The only base that has a negative exponent is

so

Scientific Notation

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a,

written in the form:

that is between 1 and 10.

In other words, you will put your decimal after the first non zero number.

Step 2:

1.

If the decimal point was moved to the left, the count is positive.

and 10 raised to the power of the count (found in Step 2).

Example 7:

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that is between 1 and 10.

Step 2:

1.

We started at the end of the number 483000000 and moved it between the

4 and 8. That looks like a move of 8 places.

Looks like we moved it to the left.

So, our count is +8.

and 10 raised to the power of the count (found in Step 2).

Note how the number we started with is a bigger number than the one we

are multiplying by in the scientific notation. When that is the case, we will

end up with a positive exponent

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Example 8:

that is between 1 and 10.

Step 2:

1.

We started at the beginning of the number .00054 moved it between the 5

and 4. That looks like a move of 4 places.

Looks like we moved it to the right.

So, our count is - 4.

and 10 raised to the power of the count (found in Step 2).

Note how the number we started with is a smaller number than the one we

are multiplying by in the scientific notation. When that is the case we will

end up with a negative exponent.

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Basically, you just multiply the first number times the power of 10.

Whenever you multiply by a power of 10, in essence what you are doing is moving your

decimal place.

If the power on 10 is positive, you move the decimal place that many units to the right.

If the power on 10 is negative, you move the decimal place that many units to the left.

Make sure you add in any zeros that are needed

exponents.

exponents.

432

Practice Problems

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

Practice Problems 1a - 1b: Simplify, use positive exponents to write each answer.

1a.

1b.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

(answer/discussion to 1b)

2a.

.00000146

(answer/discussion to 2a)

433

exponents.

3a.

(answer/discussion to 3a)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 29: Negative Exponents and

Scientific Notation

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 29: Negative Exponents

and Scientific Notation

Answer/Discussion to 1a

434

*Mult. your exponents

Answer/Discussion to 1b

*Mult. your exponents

435

Answer/Discussion to 2a

.00000146

that is between 1 and 10.

Step 2:

1.

We started at the beginning of the number .00000146 and moved it between the 1

and 4. That looks like a move of 6 places.

Looks like we moved it to the right.

So, our count is -6.

and 10 raised to the power of the count (found in Step 2).

436

Answer/Discussion to 3a

=

71000000000

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Divide a polynomial by a monomial.

Introduction

437

In this tutorial we revisit something that you may not have seen since grade school:

long division. In this tutorial we are dividing polynomials, but it follows the same

steps and thought process as when you apply it numbers. Let's forge ahead.

Tutorial

Divide

Polynomial

Monomial

numerator over the monomial in the denominator.

If you need a review on the distributive property, go to Tutorial 8:

Properties of Real Numbers.

If you need a review on simplifying fractions, go to Tutorial 3:

Fractions.

Example 1: Divide

.

438

numerator over the monomial in the denominator

AND

Step 2: Simplify the fractions.

Divide

Polynomial

Polynomial

The divisor (what you are dividing by) goes on the outside of the

box. The dividend (what you are dividing into) goes on the inside of

the box.

When you write out the dividend, make sure that you insert 0's for any

missing terms. For example, if you had the polynomial

, the first

term has degree 4, then the next highest degree is 1. It is missing degrees 3

and 2. So if we were to put it inside a division box, we would write it like

this:

439

This will allow you to line up like terms when you go through the problem.

get first term of the quotient.

Make sure that you line up the first term of the quotient with the term of the dividend

that has the same degree.

the divisor.

Make sure that you line up all terms of this step with the term of the

dividend that has the same degree.

Make sure that you subtract EVERY term found in step 3, not just the first

one.

Your answer is the quotient that you ended up with on the top of the

440

division box.

If you have a remainder, write it over the divisor in your final answer.

Example 2: Divide

get first term of the quotient.

Note that the "scratch work" that you see at the right of the long

division shows you how that step is filled in. It shows you the

"behind the scenes" of how each part comes about.

Scratch work:

the divisor.

441

Scratch work:

Scratch work:

We keep going until we can not divide anymore. It looks like we can go

one more time on this problem.

We just follow the the same steps 2 - 4 as shown above. Our "new divisor" is the last

line 8x + 1.

term of divisor to get first term of the quotient.

Scratch work:

442

Scratch work:

Scratch work:

Example 3: Divide

443

get first term of the quotient.

Scratch work:

the divisor.

Scratch work:

Scratch work:

444

We just follow the the same steps 2 - 4 as shown above. Our "new divisor" is always

going to be the last line that was found in step 4.

term of divisor to get first term of the quotient.

AND

Step 3 (repeated): Take the term found in step 1 and multiply it times

the divisor.

AND

Step 4 (repeated): Subtract this from the line above.

The following is the scratch work (or behind the scenes if you will)

for the rest of the problem. You can see everything put together

following the scratch work under "putting it all together". This is just to

show you how the different pieces came about in the final answer. When

you work a problem like this, you don't necessarily have to write it out like

this. You can have it look like the final product shown after this scratch

work.

for the last three terms of the quotient

2nd term:

445

3rd term:

4th term:

446

Practice Problems

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

1b.

(answer/discussion to 1b)

1c.

(answer/discussion to 1c)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 30: Division of Polynomials

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 30: Division of

Polynomials

447

Answer/Discussion to 1a

numerator over the monomial in the denominator

AND

Step 2: Simplify the fractions.

Answer/Discussion to 1b

448

get first term of the quotient.

Note that the "scratch work" that you see at the right of the long division

shows you how that step is filled in. It shows you the "behind the scenes"

of how each part comes about.

Scratch work:

the divisor.

Scratch work:

449

Scratch work:

We keep going until we can not divide anymore. It looks like we can go one more

time on this problem.

We just follow the the same steps 2 - 4 as shown above. Our "new divisor" is the last line, 6x - 9.

term of divisor to get first term of the quotient.

Scratch work:

multiply it times the divisor.

Scratch work:

450

Scratch work:

Answer/Discussion to 1c

451

Note that the "scratch work" that you see at the right of the long division

show you how that step is filled in. It shows you the "behind the scenes"

of how each part comes about.

Scratch work:

the divisor.

Scratch work:

Scratch work:

452

We keep going until we can not divide anymore. It looks like we can go one more

time on this problem.

We just follow the the same steps 2 - 4 as shown above. Our "new divisor" is the last line, -2x 1.

term of divisor to get first term of the quotient.

Scratch work:

multiply it times the divisor.

Scratch work:

Scratch work:

453

26 - 30

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

tutorials in this website or this practice test. However, it will definitely help

you to better understand the topics covered better.

does on any test or any class for any reason including not being able to

access the website due to any technology problems.

454

Introduction

It is important to note that, chances are, I'm not your math instructor. You need to

check with your math teacher as to things like when your next math test is

and what it covers. It may cover more material on the test than what is in

this practice test. Just note that there are other practice tests at this website. So,

after finding out what is on your test (if you have one) do the practice test(s)

problems that go with the test you are preparing for. If you are not in a class or are

not having a test soon, this practice test is still good practice to go through and

check to make sure you are understanding this material before moving on - kind of

like a spot check. The material on this practice test goes with Tutorial 26:

Exponents, Tutorial 27: Adding and Subtracting Polynomials, Tutorial 28:

Multiplying Polynomials, Tutorial 29: Negative Exponents and Scientific

Notation, and Tutorial 30: Division of Polynomials.

Also note that your teacher may word the problems on their test a little differently, may

have some different kinds of problems, or may have a different number of problems than

what is in this practice test. Again, since I'm probably not your math instructor, I don't know

exactly how your teacher will set up your math test. Just note that these problems will help you

build an understanding of the concepts presented and the terms used in math problems. If you

have an understanding of the problems instead of just memorizing them, then you should

do fine on these concepts, no matter how the test is set up.

1. Work through problems. If you are in a class, you should have done this on

completion of any homework you have done. For anyone, you can

accomplish this by doing the practice problems found in each tutorial.

2. Check work on problems. The practice problems in each tutorial have links

to the answers to them so you can instantly check how you are doing. Also, in

most math books, the odd answers are found in the back of the book.

3. Review concepts. Whether you got the problems right or wrong, make sure

you review over them. If you did get a problem wrong, make sure you either

review that concept in it's respective tutorial or ask your math teacher about

it. If you don't ask about a problem before a test, you are going to kick

yourself when it comes up on the test.

book, webpages, etc. This practice test is a perfect way to do that. After

taking this practice test, check your answers by clicking on the link

to the answer key found at the bottom of the practice test (before

the 'need extra help on these topics' section)

455

It is to your benefit to show as much of the work as possible on the problems that have several

steps involved.

Make sure that you read the directions carefully, you wouldn't believe how many points get

taken off math tests for people not following directions.

Pace yourself. You do not have to be the first one done to do well on the test. Do not panic if

there is still time left to take the test and others are turing it in. Sometimes that means they do not

know the material and left some of the answers blank. Do not worry about anyone else but

yourself.

Don't rush through a problem. Another thing that math teachers take points off for are careless

mistakes made by people that rush through a problem. When those students get their tests back,

they bonk themselves on the head at some of the things that got counted wrong, things that they

knew how to do.

Check your answers. If you have time, go back and check your answers.

Remember to breathe!!!! I know some of you are scared to death at the thought of having to

take a math test of any kind. For you guys, try to relax and don't forget to breathe. (Even if you

aren't scared to take a math test, it is probably a good idea to remember to breathe, I wouldn't

want you to pass out during the test). If it feels like your brain has left the building during

your test, just close your eyes and breathe in and out and in and out and your brain will

return.

Good luck on your test. If you are taking a math test soon, don't panic, you are going to do

great!!!

Practice Test

456

1a.

1c.

1e.

1b.

1d.

1f.

2a. 73,200,000

3a.

4a.

4b. -8

457

Problems 5a - 5c: Find the degree of the polynomial and indicate whether

the polynomial is a monomial, binomial, trinomial, or none of these.

5a.

5b.

5c.

6a.

6b.

7a.

7b.

7c.

7d.

458

8b.

8a.

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 31: Practice Test on Tutorials

26 - 30

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 31: Practice Test on

Tutorials 26 - 30

Problem 1a:

Answer:

Problem 1b:

459

Answer:

Problem 1c:

Answer:

Problem 1d:

Answer:

460

Problem 1e:

Answer:

Problem 1f:

Answer:

461

Problem 2a:

73,200,000

Answer:

Problem 3a:

Answer:

462

Problem 4a:

Answer:

Since the degree is the sum of the variable exponents and it looks like we have a 2 and

a 3 as our exponents, the degree would have to be 2 + 3 = 5.

Problem 4b:

-8

Answer:

Since this is a constant term, it's degree is 0.

Problem 5a:

Answer:

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it looks like

the degree is 5.

Since there are two terms, this is a binomial.

463

Problem 5b:

Answer:

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it looks like

the degree is 3.

Since there is one term, this is a monomial.

Problem 5c:

Answer:

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it looks like

the degree is 2.

Since there are two terms, this is a trinomial.

Problem 6a:

464

Answer:

Problem 6b:

Answer:

Problem 7a:

Answer:

Problem 7b:

465

Answer:

Problem 7c:

Answer:

Problem 7d:

Answer:

466

Problem 8a:

Answer:

Problem 8b:

Answer:

AND

Step 2: Divide 1st term of divisor by first term of dividend to get first

term of the quotient

AND

Step 3: Take the term found in step 1 and multiply it times the divisor

AND

467

AND

AND

Final answer:

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Solve a formula for a given variable.

Introduction

468

In this tutorial we will be solving problems using formulas to help us. We will be

looking at such formulas as area of a rectangle, volume of a sphere, Pythagorean

theorem and so on. After going through this tutorial, you will be an old pro at solving

problems involving formulas.

Tutorial

Formulas

A formula is an equation that involves two or more variables that have a specific

relationship with each other.

2-Dimensional Figures

Area of a Parallelogram

469

In other words, to get the area of a parallelogram, you multiply the base and

height.

Keep in mind that a rectangle and square are two special types of parallelograms, and would

follow this same formula.

So what would be the area of the following parallelogram be?

*multiply

Area of a Triangle

In other words, to get the area of a triangle, you take one half of the base times the

height

470

*multiply

a Circle

Area:

Circumference:

In other words, to get the area of a circle, you take pi times the radius squared. And

to get the circumference of a circle, you take 2 times pi times the radius.

471

*Area

*radius = 8

*8 squared is 64

*Circumference

*radius = 8

*multiply

The area is 64

pi square centimeters.

The circumference is 16

pi centimeters.

3-Dimensional Figures

Rectangular Solid

Surface Area:

472

Volume:

In other words, to get the surface area of a rectangular solid, you take two times the

length times the width plus two times the length times the height plus tow times the

width times the height. And to get the volume of a rectangular solid, you take the

length times the width times the height.

So what would be the surface area and volume of the following rectangular solid?

*Surface Area

*length = 5, width = 2 and height = 3

*multiply

*Volume

*length = 5, width = 2 and height = 3

*multiply

473

Surface Area:

Volume:

In other words, to get the surface area of a sphere, you take four times pi times the

radius squared. And to get the volume of a sphere, you take the 4/3 of pi times the

radius cubed.

So what would be the surface area and volume of the following sphere?

*Surface Area

*radius = 18

*multiply

*Volume

*radius = 18

*multiply

474

pi square units.

Circular Cylinder

Surface Area:

Volume:

In other words, to get the surface area of a right circular cylinder, you take two times

pi times the radius times the height and add that to two times pi times the radius

squared. And to get the volume of a right circular cylinder, you take pi times the

radius squared times the height.

So what would be the surface area and volume of the following right circular cylinder?

475

*Surface Area

*radius = 5 and height = 10

*multiply

*Volume

*radius = 5 and height = 10

*multiply

pi square millimeters.

Solving a Formula

for a Specified Variable

Basically, you want to get the variable you are solving for alone on one

side and everything else on the other side (including variables you are not

solving for) using INVERSE operations.

Even though there is more than one variable in a formula, you solve for a specific variable using

the exact same steps that you do with an equation in one variable, as shown in Tutorial 14:

Solving Linear Equations (Putting it all together).

It is really easy to get overwhelmed when there is more than one variable involved. Sometimes

your head feels like it is spinning when you see all of those variables. Isnt math suppose to be

about numbers? Well, just remember that a variable represents a number, so if you need to

move it to the other side of the equation you use inverse operations, just like you would do

with a number.

476

for

L.

This happens to be the formula for the perimeter of a rectangle, where

perimeter,

P=

In this problem, we need to solve for L. This means we need to get L on one side

and EVERYTHING ELSE on the other side using inverse operations.

Lets solve this formula for L:

for r.

This happens to be the formula for the circumference of a circle, where

C = circumference,

= pi, and

r = radius.

In this problem, we need to solve for r. This means we need to get r on one side

and EVERYTHING ELSE on the other side using inverse operations.

Lets solve this formula for r:

477

*Formula solved for r

for

y.

In this problem, we need to solve for y. This means we need to get y on one side

and EVERYTHING ELSE on the other side using inverse operations.

Lets solve this formula for y:

*Formula solved for y

478

for

h.

This happens to be the formula for the volume of a rectangular solid,

where

In this problem, we need to solve for h. This means we need to get h on one side

and EVERYTHING ELSE on the other side using inverse operations.

Lets solve this formula for h:

*Inverse of mult. by

lw is div. by lw

Solving Problems

Involving

Formulas

For example, are you working with a circle, cylinder, square, etc? Are you

working with more than one figure? These are the questions you need to

answer.

For example, are you looking for the perimeter, area , volume, etc. of the

figure(s) you identify in step 1?

479

Sometimes the problem is cut and dry and you just simply plug in to a

formula and go.

Sometimes you need to do a little figuring. You may need to add, subtract, or take a

fraction of the formula(s) you came up with in step 2.

Area of a Rectangle

Example 5: One bag of fertilizer will cover 500 square feet of lawn.

Your rectangular lawn is 70 feet by 50 feet. How many bags of fertilizer will you

need to cover it?

AND

Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are needing to find the area of a rectangle, we can use this formula:

A = Area of a rectangle

L = length

W = width

480

In this problem,

L = 70

W = 50

*Multiply

For every 500 square feet, you need 1 bag of fertilizer. So, we need to

see how many times 500 sq. feet goes into 3500 sq. feet to find

the number of bags of fertilizer needed.

*Divide

FINAL ANSWER:

7 bags of fertilizer.

Volume of a Sphere

481

What is the volume of this beach ball?

AND

Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are looking for the volume of a sphere, we can use this formula:

V = volume of a sphere

r = radius

In this problem,

r = 9 (radius is half the diameter, so r = 18/2 = 9)

482

*Cube 9

*Multiply

FINAL ANSWER:

cubic inches.

Pythagorean Theorem

which is 5 feet above the ground. What is the distance from the ramps contact

point with the ground and the base of the platform?

AND

Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

483

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are looking for the side of a right triangle, we can use the Pythagorean

formula:

c = hypotenuse of the right triangle

In this problem,

b=5

c = 13

484

*Square 5 and 13

*What squared gives you 144?

FINAL ANSWER:

The distance from the ramps contact point with the ground and the base of the

platform is 12 feet.

Putting Figures Together

feet and a diameter of 2 feet. The pedestals base is to be a rectangular solid that is

9 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 2 feet thick. What volume of cement is needed to

construct the pedestal and its base?

AND

Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since part of the problem is looking for the volume of a cylinder, we can use the

formula :

485

= volume of the cylinder

r = radius

h = height

Since part of the problem is looking for the volume of a rectangular solid, we can use

also use the formula:

= Volume of the rectangular solid

l = length

w = width

h = height

In this problem,

r = 1 (radius is half the diameter, so r = 2/2 = 1)

h (of cylinder) = 5

l=9

w=4

h (of rectangular solid)= 2

If we take the volume of the cylinder and add it to the volume of the rectangular

solid, then we will have the volume that we are looking for:

486

*Multiply

FINAL ANSWER:

cubic inches.

Taking Out Parts of a Figure

Example 9: Using the figure shown, find the area in square feet of the

middle region in the square?

AND

Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since part of the problem involves the area of a square, we can use the formula :

487

= area of square

s = side

Since part of the problem involves the area of a circle, we can use also use the

formula:

= area of the four quarter circle corners (four quarters = 1 whole circle)

r = radius

In this problem,

s = 20

r = 10

If we take the area of the square and subtract out the area of the four quarter

circles (whole circle) we will have the area of the middle region of the given figure

above:

488

*Square 20 and 10

FINAL ANSWER:

square feet.

Only Have a Portion of a Figure

meters and is built using 8 equal sections. What formula would describe the surface

area of each section?

AND

Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are looking for the surface area of 1/8 of a hemisphere (half of a sphere),

we can use the formula :

SA = surface area

r = radius

489

In this problem,

r = 16

*Multiply

FINAL ANSWER:

square meters.

Practice Problems

490

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

Practice Problems 1a - 1b: Solve each equation for the specified variable.

1a.

; for

(answer/discussion to 1a)

1b.

; for

(answer/discussion to 1b)

2a. Sally is training for the Olympics. She likes to run around a circular

track that has a diameter of 60 yards, 20 times during a workout. How

many yards does she run during her workout?

(answer/discussion to 2a)

2b. A ramp 5 feet long is leaning against a raised platform which is 4 feet

above the ground. What is the distance from the ramps contact point with

the ground and the base of the platform?

(answer/discussion to 2b)

2c. In the figure, ABCD is a square, with each side of length 8 inches. The

width of the border (shaded portion) between the outer square EFGH and

491

(answer/discussion to 2c)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 32: Formulas

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 32: Formulas

Answer/Discussion to 1a

; for

This happens to be the formula for simple interest, where

principal,

I = simple interest, P =

In this problem we need to solve for T. This means we need to get T on one side and

EVERYTHING ELSE on the other side using inverse operations.

Lets solve this formula for T:

492

*Inverse of mult. by

PR is div. by PR

Answer/Discussion to 1b

; for

one side and EVERYTHING ELSE on the other side using inverse operations.

*Formula solved for y

*Divide num. by -7

*Another way to write it

493

Answer/Discussion to 2a

Sally is training for the Olympics. She likes to run around a circular track that has a

diameter of 60 yards, 20 times during a workout. How many yards does she run

during her workout?

AND

Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are needing to find the circumference of a circle, we can use this formula:

C = circumference of a circle

r = radius

In this problem,

r = 30 (radius is half of the diameter, so r = 60/2 = 30)

494

*Multiply

For every workout, she runs around the track 20 times. So, we need to multiply

the circumference by 20 to find the number of yards that she runs during

her workout.

*Multiply

FINAL ANSWER:

or approximately 3768.

Answer/Discussion to 2b

A ramp 5 feet long is leaning against a raised platform which is 4 feet above the

ground. What is the distance from the ramps contact point with the ground and the

495

AND

Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are looking for the side of a right triangle, we can use the Pythagorean formula:

c = hypotenuse of the right triangle

In this problem,

496

b=4

c=5

*Square 4 and 5

*What squared gives you 9?

FINAL ANSWER:

The distance from the ramps contact point with the ground and the base of the platform is

3.

Answer/Discussion to 2c

In the figure, ABCD is a square, with each side of length 8 inches. The width of the

border (shaded portion) between the outer square EFGH and ABCD is 2 inches. Find

the area of the border.

497

AND

Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since part of the problem involves the area of the big square, we can use the formula :

= area of the big square

s1= side of the big square

Since part of the problem involves the area of the inner square, we can use also use the formula:

= area of the inner square

s2= side of the inner square

In this problem,

498

s1 = 8 + 2 + 2 = 12

s2 = 8

If we take the area of the bigger square and subtract out the area of the smaller square we

will have the area of the border:

*Square 20 and 10

FINAL ANSWER:

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

1. Know what a line is.

2. Identify the different types of angles.

499

4. Find a supplementary angle to a given angle.

5. Know what a polygon is.

6. Identify types of triangles.

7. Know what a quadrilateral is.

8. Find the value of a corresponding angle or side given congruent figures.

9. Find the value of a corresponding angle or side given similar figures.

10.Know the relationship of the angles formed when a transversal cuts through

two parallel lines.

11.Know the parts of a circle.

12.

Introduction

In this tutorial we will be looking at basic concepts of geometry. This lesson is designed to get

you familiar with the terminology used in some basic geometry problems. We will be looking at

lines, angles, polygons, triangles, quadrilaterals, congruent figures, similar figures, parallel lines,

and circles. I guess you better get to it.

Tutorial

500

Lines

A line extends infinitely and is named by labeling two points on the line

with capital letters or by putting a lower case letter near it. Both are

illustrated below:

The symbol

, which includes the arrow heads at both ends indicates the whole

line where

, which does not have the arrow heads, indicates a line segment,

which is finite in length (only the part of the line from A to B).

Angles

When two lines intersect at one point, they form four angles as shown

below:

The opposite angles of the figure above are called vertical angles.

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measurement.

and

measurements.

and

are another set of vertical angles on this illustration and would have equal

Types of Angles

degrees:

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Complementary Angles

Lets set it up and solve it algebraically, letting x be the missing angle and see

what we get:

Supplementary Angles

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Supplementary angles are two angles whose sum measures 180 degrees.

Lets set it up and solve it algebraically, letting x be the missing angle and see

what we get:

Parallel Lines

Perpendicular Lines

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Polygons

intersect at their endpoints.

The intersection at the endpoints is called the vertex.

Keep in mind that the number of sides and number of interior angles of a polygon are the same.

Polygons are named by the number of sides they have.

Two common polygons are

Quadrilateral (4 sides)

Triangle (3 sides)

is

.

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n-sided polygon

For example, if you have a triangle, which has 3 sides, the sum of the measures of the interior

angles would be

The perimeter of any polygon is simply the sum of all the sides of that

polygon.

A regular polygon is one in which all of the interior angles have the same

measure and all of the sides have the same length.

angles of a pentagon? What would be the measure of each interior angle of a

regular pentagon?

First of all, we need to know how many sides we are dealing with. How

many sides are there on a pentagon? If you said 5, you are right on!!

Putting 5 into the sum of the measures of the interior angles of an n-sided polygon

formula we get:

So for any pentagon, whether it is regular or not, the sum of the measures

of the interior angles is 540 degrees.

Next we need to figure out what would be the measure of each interior angle of a

regular pentagon.

Since we are talking specifically about a regular pentagon, that means all interior

angles have the same measure. And since the total of those measures is 540, what do

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you think the measure of each interior angle is? If you said 108 degrees give yourself

a high five.

Just divide the total, 540, by the number of angles, in this case 5 and

viola

.

Types of Triangles

of triangles are

categorized by their

angles:

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The hypotenuse is the side opposite the right angle and the legs are the sides that

meet at the right angle.

of triangles are

categorized by their sides:

508

Quadrilaterals

Rectangle

length and parallel to each other and the four interior angles are each 90

degrees:

Note that a square is a special type of rectangle, one in which all four sides are equal to each

other

Parallelogram

have equal length and opposite interior angles have the same measure:

Trapezoid

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parallel:

Congruent Figures

Note: Corresponding angles and sides are found by matching up the letters of each figures name

in the order that they are listed.

Note how A corresponds with F, B corresponds with E, C corresponds with H and D corresponds

with G.

In other words, side AB is the same as side FE, side BC is the same as side EH, side CD is the

same as side HG and side DA is the same as side GF.

Matching up the corresponding points, the proper way of to say this is figure ABCD is

congruent to figure FEHG.

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If

C = 50 degrees and

J?

Note: Corresponding angles and sides are found by matching up the letters

of each figures name in the order that they are listed. A corresponds with

F, B corresponds with G and so forth.

degrees.

J=

E = 75

Since side GF (or FG) corresponds to side AB and the figures are congruent, then side

GF (or FG) = side AB = 20.

Similar Figures

Note: Corresponding angles and sides are found by matching up the letters of each figures name

in the order that they are listed.

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All of the sides are in proportion to each other. In this example, side AB is twice as large as side

DE, side BC is twice as large as side EF, and side CA is twice as large as side FD.

Matching up the corresponding points, the proper way of to say this is figure ABC is similar

to figure DEF.

If

C = 25,

E = 40, and

L?

Since

= 40.

L corresponds to

L=

Since side IJ corresponds to side BC and the figures are similar to each other, then IJ

and BC are in proportion to each other. Similarly, AG and HN are in proportion to

each other.

When setting up the proportion, make sure that you set it up the same on both sides.

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in proportion to each other

*Cross multiply

Side IJ = 160.

Parallel Lines

Cut by a

Transversal

alternate interior angles are equal, alternate exterior angles are equal and

corresponding angles are equal.

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transversal.

4 and

3 and

the transversal.

1 and

2 and

Corresponding angles are one interior and one exterior angle that

are on the same side of the transversal.

1 and

2 and

3 and

4 and

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Find

8 if

1 = 120 degrees.

Find

4 if

5 = 120 degrees.

Find

7 if

3 = 60 degrees.

Find

3 if

5 = 120 degrees.

Find

8 if

1 = 120 degrees.

Since 8 and 1 are alternate exterior angles and the two lines are parallel, then

8 = 1 = 120 degrees.

Find

4 if

5 = 120 degrees.

Since 4 and 5 are alternate interior angles and the two lines are parallel, then

= 5 = 120 degrees.

Find

7 if

3 = 60 degrees.

Since 7 and 3 are corresponding angles and the two lines are parallel, then

= 3 = 60 degrees.

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Find

3 if

5 = 120 degrees.

Since 3 and 5 are not alternate exterior, alternate interior or corresponding angles,

they are not guaranteed to be equal.

However, since 3 and 4 make a straight angle (180 degrees) and 4 and 5 are

alternate interior angles (which means they are equal), we can find the measure of 3.

*Straight angle = 180

3 = 60 degrees.

Circles

A circle is a set of points that are equidistant from a fixed point called the

center.

The radius (r on the diagram below) is the distance from the center of the circle to any point on

the circle and can be shown as a line segment connecting the center to a point on the circle.

The diameter is a line segment that connects two points on the circle and goes through the center

of the circle. It is always twice as long as the radius.

A chord (line segment PQ on the diagram below) is any line segment whose endpoints are any

two points on the circle.

The circumference of a circle is the distance around the circle.

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An arc of a circle is the set of all points between and including two given points.

One way to measure it is in degrees. Keep in mind that the whole circle is 360

degrees.

When naming an arc, it is best to use three points - the two endpoints and a point in between versus just the two endpoints. The reason is you can go clockwise or counterclockwise, which

can make a difference when looking at the length of an arc.

Arc ADC would start at point A and go clockwise through D and end at C. Arc ADC is

a 95 degree arc.

Arc ABC would start at point A and go counterclockwise through B and end at C. Since a circle

is 360 degrees, then Arc ABC is a 360 - 95 = 265 degree arc.

Tangent to a Circle

The tangent line and the radius of the circle that has an endpoint at the point of tangency are

perpendicular to each other.

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Circumscribed and

Inscribed

the circle.

In this situation we can also say that the circle is circumscribed about the polygon.

tangent to the circle.

In this same situation we can say that the circle is inscribed in the polygon.

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Concentric Circles

Concentric circles are two or more circles that share the same center.

Practice Problems

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

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(answer/discussion to 1a)

(answer/discussion to 2a)

If

B = 55,

C = 45, and

G?

(answer/discussion to 3a)

If

A = 30,

C = 40, and

(answer/discussion to 4a)

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F?

Practice Problems 5a - 5d: Use the following figure to answer the questions

5a. Find

degrees.

2 if

7 = 50

(answer/discussion to 5a)

5c. Find

degrees.

1 if

5 = 130

(answer/discussion to 5c)

5b. Find

3 if

6 = 50 degrees.

(answer/discussion to 5b)

5d. Find

4 if

6 = 50 degrees.

(answer/discussion to 5d)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 33: Basic Geometry

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 33: Basic Geometry

Answer/Discussion to 1a

What is the complementary angle to 33 ?

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Let's set it up and solve it algebraically, letting x be the missing angle and see what we get:

Answer/Discussion to 2a

What is the supplementary angle to 33 ?

Let's set it up and solve it algebraically, letting x be the missing angle and see what we get:

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Answer/Discussion to 3a

Figure ABCD is congruent to figure EFGH

If

B = 55,

Since

C = 45, and

G corresponds with

G?

G=

C = 45 degrees.

Since side EH corresponds to side AD and the figures are congruent,

then side EH = side AD = 10.

(return to problem 3a)

Answer/Discussion to 4a

Figure ABCDE is similar to figure FGHIJ.

If

A = 30,

Since

C = 40, and

F corresponds to

F=

F?

A = 30.

Since side GH corresponds to side BC and the figures are similar to each other, then GH and BC

are in proportion to each other. Similarly, FJ and AE are in proportion to each other. When

setting up the proportion, make sure that you set it up the same on both sides.

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proportion to each other

*Cross multiply

Side GH = 80.

(return to problem 4a)

Answer/Discussion to 5a

Find

2 if

Since 2 and

50 degrees.

7 = 50 degrees.

7 are alternate exterior angles and the two lines are parallel, then

Answer/Discussion to 5b

Find

3 if

6 = 50 degrees.

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2 =

7=

Since 3 and

50 degrees.

6 are alternate interior angles and the two lines are parallel, then

3=

6=

Answer/Discussion to 5c

Find

1 if

Since 1 and

degrees.

5 = 130 degrees.

5 are corresponding angles and the two lines are parallel, then

1=

5 = 130

Answer/Discussion to 5d

Find

4 if

6 = 50 degrees.

Since 4 and 6 are not alternate exterior, alternate interior or corresponding angles, they are

not guaranteed to be equal.

However, since 2 and 4 make a straight angle (180 degrees) and 2 and 6 are

corresponding angles (which means they are equal), we can find the measure of 4.

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*Straight angle = 180

4 = 130 degrees.

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

1. Find the mean of a list of values.

2. Find the median of a list of values.

3. Find the mode of a list of values.

4. Find the range of a list of values.

5. Find the standard deviation of a list of values.

Introduction

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In this tutorial we will be looking at basic concepts of central tendencies. We will go over how to

find the mean, median and mode of a list of values as well as the range and standard deviation. I

think you are ready to get started on these central tendencies.

Tutorial

Mean

You can find the mean by adding up all the values and then dividing that sum by the number of

values that you have.

There is only one mean to a list of values.

The mean may or may not be a number that is in the original list of values.

Median

The median of a list of values is the middle value compared to the other

values.

This does not necessarily mean it is the middle number in the original list. You need to make sure

that your values are in numeric order from smallest to largest before you find the median.

There is only one median to a list of values.

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The median may or may not be a number that is in the original list of values.

Mode

The mode of a list of values is the value that occurs the most often.

You can have more than one mode, if more than one value occurs the same amount of times and

that is the highest occurrence.

history course: 80, 88, 75, 93, 79, 95, 75, and 96.

Find the mean, median and mode of the quizzes.

So we need to sum up all of the quizzes and then divide by 8, since there are 8 quizzes:

*Add numerator

*Divide by 8

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75, 75, 79, 80, 88, 93, 95, 96

If we pick 80 for our median we have 3 values below it and 4 above it. If we pick 88

for our median then we have 4 values below it and 3 above it. So neither of those

values are the median. This does not mean we dont have a median.

Note how there is an even number of values listed. If that is the case, we need to draw

a line down the middle of the list and take the mean of the two numbers next to that

line:

75, 75, 79, 80 | 88, 93, 95, 96

The mean of 80 and 88 is

middle of 80 and 88

84 is the median. It is the value that is right smack dab in the middle of

this list of values.

75, 75, 79, 80, 88, 93, 95, 96

Note how 75 occurs two times, which is the value that occurs the most.

75 is the mode.

Example 2: The number of points a kicker made during the first five

games of the season are given in the table:

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Game

Points

So we need to sum up all of the points and then divide by 5, since there are 5 games:

*Add numerator

*Divide by 5

3, 3, 6, 6, 9

This time we have an odd number of values. Our median is going to be 6 (the first 6

listed). That number has two values above it and two below it, so it is the middle

value.

6 is the median. It is the value that is right smack dab in the middle of this list of

values.

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3, 3, 6, 6, 9

Note how both 3 and 6 occur two times, which is the most.

Both 3 and 6 are the mode.

Example 3: If your scores of the first four exams are 98, 100, 90 and

97, what do you need to make on the next exam for your overall mean to be at least

90?

This time we are given the mean and we need to find one of our values.

Keep in mind that this is still a mean problem. We will still use the idea that we need

to sum up the exams and then divide it by 5 to get the mean. We can let our unknown

exam be x.

*Inverse of div. by 5 is mult. by 5

90.

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quizzes. If the tests count twice as much as the quizzes, what is the lowest score

the student can get on the next test to achieve an average score of at least 80?

This is similar to example 3, except that the test score counts twice instead

of one time. So when we set this up we need to make sure that we notate

that properly.

mean

*Need 2

twice

*Solve for

x (missing test)

mean of 80.

Measures of Dispersion

Range

One way to measure dispersion (variability) among numerical values is to find the

range of those numbers. The range of a set of numerical data points is the

difference between the largest value and the smallest value. In other words

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Standard Deviation

Another way to measure dispersion of a data set is to find the standard deviation of

its values. The standard deviation is a relative measure of the dispersion of

a set of data.

Note that the range only involves two values in its calculation - the highest and the lowest.

However, the standard deviation involves every value of its data set.

Step 2: Find the difference between the mean and each separate value of the data

set.

Step 3: Square each difference found in step 2.

Step 4: Add up all of the squared values found in step 3.

Step 5: Divide the sum found in step 4 by the number of data values in the set.

Step 6: Find the nonnegative square root of the quotient found in step 5.

Example 5: Find the range and the standard deviation of the following

sample: 3, 10, 8, 20, 4, 4, 3, 8, 8, 8, 12.

I don't know about you, but I find it easier to work with a group of numbers

like this when they are in chronological order. Let's put them in order from

lowest to highest: 3, 3, 4, 4, 8, 8, 8, 8, 10, 12, 20.

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Looking at the difference between the largest value, which is 20 and the smallest

value, which is 3, it looks like the range is 17.

Now lets tackle the standard deviation.

So we need to sum up all of the values and then divide by 11, since there

are 11 numbers:

*Add numerator

*Divide by 11

separate value of the data set,

AND

Step 3: Square each difference found in step 2,

AND

Step 4: Add up all of the squared values found in step 3.

x-8

-5

25

-5

25

-4

16

-4

16

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10

12

16

20

12

144

SUM:

246

data values in the set

AND

Step 6: Find the nonnegative square root of the quotient

found in step 5.

squared)/(# of values)]

Frequency

Distributions

Sometimes there are a lot of values in a data set and some of them are repeated. In

that case, it may be easier to group those values using a frequency distribution.

This is a chart that lists each unique value and then next to the number

indicates the frequency, or number of times, that value occurs in the data

set.

For example, if you had the list of test scores for a class:

75, 80, 90, 80, 75, 75, 50, 65, 65, 50, 100, 90, 100, 90, 75, 40, 60, 60

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Writing these values (x) in a frequency (f) distribution chart you would have:

40

50

60

65

75

80

90

100

Total

18

Example 6: Find the mean of the test scores 75, 80, 90, 80, 75, 75, 50,

65, 65, 50, 100, 90, 100, 90, 75, 40, 60, 60, using a frequency distribution.

This combines two ideas covered in this tutorial, finding the mean and

setting up a frequency distribution.

40

50

60

2

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65

75

80

90

100

Total

18

mean formula. Instead repeating numbers in my sum, Im going to

indicate a repetition by taking that value times the number of times it

occurs in the list. For example, 75 occurs 4 times. Instead of writing it out

4 times in my sum, I will find 75(4) which is the equivalent.

*(sum of scores)/

(# of scores)

*calculate

numerator

*divide

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

537

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a. The number of cds sold by Daves Discs for the last 6 days are given in the table.

Day

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Day 6

CD's

15

10

10

10

18

15

(answer/discussion to 1a)

2a. A student received scores of 92, 83, and 71 on three quizzes. If tests count twice

as much as quizzes, what is the lowest score that the student can get on the next test to

achieve a mean of at least 80?

(answer/discussion to 2a)

Practice Problem 3a: Find the range and standard deviation of the list of scores

that were made by a football team during a season.

538

(answer/discussion to 3a)

4a.

10

15

20

10

Total

22

(answer/discussion to 4a)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 34: Central Tendencies

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 34: Central Tendencies

Answer/Discussion to 1a

The number of cd's sold by Dave's Discs for the last 6 days are given in the table:

Day

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Day 6

CD's

15

10

10

10

18

15

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So we need to sum up all of the CD's sold and then divide by 6, since there are 6 days:

10, 10, 10, 15, 15, 18

If we pick 10 (the third one) for our median we have two values below it and three above it. If

we pick 15 (the first one) for our median then we have three values below it and two above it. So

neither of those values are the median. This does not mean we don't have a median.

Note how there is an even number of values listed. If that is the case, we need to draw a line

down the middle of the list and take the mean of the two numbers next to that line.

The mean of 10 and 15 is

12.5 is the median. It is the value that is right smack dab in the middle of this list

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of values.

10, 10, 10, 15, 15, 18

Note how 10 occurs three times, which is the value that occurs the most.

10 is the mode.

Answer/Discussion to 2a

A student received scores of 92, 83, and 71 on three quizzes. If tests count twice as

much as quizzes, what is the lowest score that the student can get on the next test

to achieve a mean of at least 80?

Keep in mind that the test score counts twice instead of of time. So when we set this up we need

to make sure that we notate that properly.

*Need 2

*Inverse of div. by 5 is mult. by 5

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The student would have to score a 77 on the next test to have a mean of

80.

Answer/Discussion to 3a

Find the range and standard deviation of the list of scores that were made by a

football team during a season:

7, 21, 21, 17, 17, 14, 7, 0

I don't know about you, but I find it easier to work with a group of numbers like this

when they are in chronological order. Let's put them in order from lowest to

highest: 0, 7, 7, 14, 17, 17, 21, 21.

Looking at the difference between the largest value, which is 21 and the smallest value, which is

0, it looks like the range is 21.

Now lets tackle the standard deviation.

So we need to sum up all of the values and then divide by 8, since there are 8

numbers:

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*Add numerator

*Divide by 8

Step 2: Find the difference between the mean and each separate value of the data

set,

AND

Step 3: Square each difference found in step 2,

AND

Step 4: Add up all of the squared values found in step 3.

x - 13

-13

169

-6

36

-6

36

14

17

16

17

16

21

64

21

64

SUM:

402

data values in the set

AND

Step 6: Find the nonnegative square root of the quotient

found in step 5.

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values)]

Answer/Discussion to 4a

10

15

20

10

Total

22

formula. Instead repeating numbers in my sum, I'm going to indicate a repetition by

taking that value times the number of times it occurs in the list. For example, 20

occurs 10 times. Instead of writing it out 10 times in my sum, I will find 20(10)

which is the equivalent.

*calculate numerator

*divide

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WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

1. Use inductive reasoning to solve problems.

2. Find the next terms in a sequence.

Introduction

In this tutorial we will be looking at basic concepts of reasoning skills. We will be looking at

both deductive and inductive reasoning. One thing that this can be helpful with is looking for

patterns. Looking for patterns to find a solution can be found in a variety of fields. Teachers can

use patterns to determine a course of direction for a student. For example, if a student is

exhibiting the same kind of learning pattern that a teacher has seen in a student with dyslexia

before, they can act upon that accordingly. Psychologists and law enforcement study behavioral

patterns to solve some of their problems. Scientific researchers study patterns to determine end

results in their experiments. Doctors and Veterinarians use patterns to help diagnose a patient's

illness. Weather forecasters use patterns in weather to predict temperature, tornadoes, hurricanes,

etc. In fact some aspects of weather forecasting uses Chaos Theory - the science of seeing order

and pattern where formerly only the random, the erratic, and the unpredictable had been

observed. Patterns of all kinds are lurking everywhere around us. I think you are ready to forge

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Tutorial

Inductive Reasoning

from specific instances.

For example, when a detective puts together specific clues to solve a mystery.

(Sequences)

In math, an example of inductive reasoning would be when you are given a pattern

and you need to come up with the rule for the pattern.

A lot of what we will be working with in this lesson are sequences. In general, a sequence is an

ordered arrangement of numbers, figures, or objects.

Specifically, sequences of math are a string of numbers that are tied together with some sort of

consistent rule, or set of rules, that determines the next number in the sequence.

Arithmetic sequence: a sequence such that each successive term is obtained from the previous

term by addition or subtraction of a fixed number called a difference. The sequence 4, 7, 10, 13,

16, ... is an example of an arithmetic sequence. The pattern is that we are always adding a fixed

number of three to the previous term to get to the next term. Be careful that you don't think that

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every sequence that has a pattern in addition is arithmetic. It is arithmetic if you are always

adding the SAME number each time.

Geometric sequence: a sequence such that each successive term is obtained from the previous

term by multiplying by a fixed number called a ratio. The sequence 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, .... is an

example of a geometric sequence. The pattern is that we are always multiplying by a fixed

number of 2 to the previous term to get to the next term. Be careful that you don't think that

every sequence that has a pattern in multiplication is geometric. It is geometric if you are

always multiplying by the SAME number each time.

Fibonacci sequence: a basic Fibonacci sequence is when two numbers are added together to get

the next number in the sequence. 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, .... is an example of a Fibonacci sequence

where the starting numbers (or seeds) are 1 and 1, and we add the two previous numbers to get

the next number in the sequence.

Note that not all sequences fit into the specific patterns that are described above. Those are

just the more common ones. So as you look at patterns, look for those as a possibility, but if it

doesn't fit one listed above, don't assume it doesn't have a pattern.

In general, when looking for a pattern start simple and then go from there. For example, see if

there is some pattern in adding, subtracting, multiplying, or dividing. Maybe you are always

adding the same number to the previous term to get the new term. Or maybe you are subtracting

the next multiple of three from the previous number. Or you are multiplying by a sequence of

even numbers. Perhaps, you are always adding or subtracting the two previous terms to get to the

next one. Exponential growth is another good pattern to look for. Maybe you are always

squaring or cubing the term number to get your result. Also, don't forget that sometimes the

pattern of a sequence is a combination of operations. Maybe you have to multiply by 2 and then

add 5 to get to the next number in a sequence or the output of a function. If a problem seems like

it is taking forever to work, try a different approach - a different kind of sequence.

Once you find your pattern, you can use it to find the next terms in the sequence.

17, 25, ...

are not adding the same number each time to get to the next number.

But, it looks like we have 5 +2, 7 +4, 11 +6, 17 +8, 25, .... I see a pattern

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in addition - do you see it? We are always adding the next even number.

Final Answer:

The pattern is to add the next even number. The next three terms would have to be

35, 47, and 61, since 25+10 = 35, 35 +12 = 47, 47 +14 = 61.

Example 2: Write the next three numbers in the sequence 7, -7, 14,

-42, 168, ...

Since we are bouncing back and forth between positive and negative

numbers, a pattern in addition doesn't look promising. Let's check out

multiplication. At first glance, I would say that a negative number is

probably what we are looking for here, since it does alternate signs. It

doesn't appear to be the same number each time, because 7 times -1 is -7,

but -7 times -2 equals 14. It looks like we have 7 (-1), -7 (-2), 14 (-3),

-42 (-4), 168, ... Aha, we have a pattern in multiplication - we are

multiplying by the next negative integer.

Final Answer:

The pattern is multiplying by the next negative integer. The next three terms are

-840, 5040, and -35280, since 168(-5) = -840, -840(-6) = 5040, 5040(-7) = -35280.

Example 3: Write the next three numbers in the sequence 100, 97,

88, 61, ...

Since the numbers are decreasing that should tell you that you are not

adding a positive number or multiplying. So we want to check out

subtraction or division. At first glance it looks like it is some pattern in

subtraction. We are not subtracting by the same number each time. We

have 100 -3, 97 -9, 88 -27, 61, .... Note how we are always subtracting

the next power of 3. We have our pattern.

Final Answer:

The pattern is we are subtracting by the next power of three.

548

The next three terms would be -20, -263, and -992, since 61 - 81 = -20, -20 - 243 =

-263, -263 - 729 = -992.

Involving Figures

Here are some things to look for when trying to figure out a pattern

involving figures:

Look for counter clockwise and clockwise changes.

Count lines in figures.

Note changes in direction and figures.

As with the numeric patterns, this is not all the possible types of patterns involving figures.

However, it does give you a way to approach the problem.

...

It looks like several things change throughout the pattern. One thing is

that it alternates between a square with a line in it and a circle. Also the

line in the square alternates from horizontal to vertical.

With all of that in mind, I believe the next three figures would be a square with a

vertical line, then a circle, then a square with a horizontal line:

549

...

It looks like one row of asterisks is added at the bottom of each figure. The

row that is added contains the next counting number of asterisks. There

are 2 in the row added in the second term, there are 3 in the row added in

the 3rd term and 4 in the row added to the fourth term.

With all of that in mind, I believe the next two figures would be

Deductive Reasoning

Deductive reasoning is used when you have a general rule and you want to

draw on that to get a specific solution.

For example, if you were needing to find the area of a specific rectangle. You would use the

general formula for the area of the rectangle and apply it to the specific rectangle.

Here are some ideas that might help you approach a problem requiring deductive reasoning:

550

Draw a picture or a diagram if it helps.

follows:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Some of the people have red hair.

All people who have blonde hair like hamburgers.

People who have red hair like pizza.

Keith has blonde hair.

a. Keith likes hamburgers.

b. Keith has red hair.

c. Keith likes pizza.

d. Keith is wearing a hat.

On deductive reasoning, you need to be a 100% sure. There cant be any doubt.

Since statement 3 says that ALL people who have blonde hair like hamburgers and

Keith has blonde hair, then statement a, Keith likes hamburgers, is a 100%

guarantee.

Example 7: Jerry, Kevin, Todd and Mark all live on the first floor of an

apartment complex. One is a manager, one is a computer programmer, one is a

singer, and the other is a teacher. Use the statements below to answer the question

that follows.

B. Kevin and Mark carpool with the manager.

551

Question: Which is the manager?

Statement A, Jerry and Todd eat lunch with the singer, doesnt let us definitively

eliminate anyone from being the manager.

However, statement B, Kevin and Mark carpool with the manager, eliminates Kevin

and Mark from being the manager. And statement C, Todd watches CSI with the

manger and the singer, eliminates Todd.

The only one that could be (100%, without a doubt) the manager is Jerry.

Practice Problems

check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math

works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the

way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or

instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

your answer by clicking on the link for the answer/discussion for that problem. At the link

you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

Practice Problems 1a - 1c: Write the next three numbers in the sequence.

(answer/discussion to 1a)

(answer/discussion to 1b)

552

1c.

(answer/discussion to 1c)

Practice Problem 2a: Write the next five figures in the pattern.

2a.

(answer/discussion to 2a)

Practice Problem 3a: Four friends - Suzy, John, Sally, and Tom - each has his or

her own hobby. One collect coins, one sews, one cooks, and one plays in a band, not

necessarily in that order.

Use the statements below to answer the question that follows.

3a.

A. Suzy and John always eat lunch with the friend that plays in the band.

B. Sally and Tom carpool with the one who likes to sew.

C. John and the friend that likes to cook visited the one who likes to sew.

Question: Who is the friend that likes to sew?

(answer/discussion to 3a)

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 35: Reasoning Skills

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 35: Reasoning Skills

553

Answer/Discussion to 1a

When you see a big jump in numbers all of the sudden - we start small with 1, 1, 3, 15, and then

all of the sudden we are at 105 - a good place to start is multiplication or exponents. It is not a

100% rule, but it gives you a starting place. It looks like we have 1 (1), 1 (3), 3 (5), 15 (7),

105,...There is a pattern in multiplication, we are always multiplying the next odd integer.

Final Answer:

The pattern is to multiply the next odd number. The next three terms would have to be 945,

10395, 135135, since 105(9) = 945, 945(11) = 10395, and 10395(13) = 135135.

Answer/Discussion to 1b

Since the numbers are going down from term to term, chances are we are either subtracting or

dividing. In this case we are dividing. We have 1000 divided by (5), 200 divided by (5), 40

divided by (5), 8 divided by (5), 1.6, .... Looks like we are always dividing by 5 to get to the

next term.

Final Answer:

The pattern is dividing by 5. The next three terms are .32, .064, and .0128 since 1.6/(5) = .32, .

32/(5) = .064, .064/(5) = .0128.

554

Answer/Discussion to 1c

The numbers are going up again, so it is probably a sequence in addition, multiplication and/or

exponents. Since it doesn't go up high quickly, I'm thinking it is addition. Looking at it closer, I

see that we are always adding the two previous terms to get to the next term. This is a Fibonnaci

sequence - discussed in the lesson - with starting values of 5 and 5.

Final Answer:

The pattern is adding the two previous terms to get to the next term.

The next three terms would be 40, 65, and 105 since 15 + 25 = 40, 25 + 40 = 65, 40 + 65 = 105.

Answer/Discussion to 2a

It looks like several things change throughout this sequence. It starts with one line and then one

circle then it has two lines and two circles and then three lines. So, it is alternating between lines

and circles and each time it alternates it adds one more of that figure.

So the next five figures would be:

Note that we stopped at the fifth one, if we would have continued, there would be a total of four

lines that follow the three circles.

555

Answer/Discussion to 3a

A. Suzy and John always eat lunch with the friend that plays in the band.

B. Sally and Tom carpool with the one who likes to sew.

C. John and the friend that likes to cook visited the one who likes to sew.

Question: Who is the friend that likes to sew?

You can use a process of elimination on this problem. Statement A, Suzy and John always eat

lunch with the friend that plays in the band, doesn't let us definitively eliminate anyone from

being the one who likes to sew.

However, statement B, Sally and Tom carpool with the one who likes to sew, eliminates Sally

and Tom from being the one who likes to sew.

Statement C, John and the friend that likes to cook visited the one who likes to sew, eliminates

John.

The only one that could be (100%, without a doubt) the one who likes to sew is Suzy.

32 - 35

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

556

tutorials in this website or this practice test. However, it will definitely help

you to better understand the topics covered better.

does on any test or any class for any reason including not being able to

access the website due to any technology problems.

Introduction

It is important to note that, chances are, I'm not your math instructor. You need to

check with your math teacher as to things like when your next math test is

and what it covers. It may cover more material on the test than what is in

this practice test. Just note that there are other practice tests at this website. So,

after finding out what is on your test (if you have one) do the practice test(s)

problems that go with the test you are preparing for. If you are not in a class or are

not having a test soon, this practice test is still good practice to go through and

check to make sure you are understanding this material before moving on - kind of

like a spot check. The material on this practice test goes with Tutorial 32:

Formulas, Tutorial 33: Basic Geometry, Tutorial 34: Central Tendencies, and

Tutorial 35: Reasoning Skills.

have some different kinds of problems, or may have a different number of problems than

what is in this practice test. Again, since I'm probably not your math instructor, I don't know

exactly how your teacher will set up your math test. Just note that these problems will help you

build an understanding of the concepts presented and the terms used in math problems. If you

have an understanding of the problems instead of just memorizing them, then you should

do fine on these concepts, no matter how the test is set up.

1. Work through problems. If you are in a class, you should have done this on

completion of any homework you have done. For anyone, you can

accomplish this by doing the practice problems found in each tutorial.

557

2. Check work on problems. The practice problems in each tutorial have links

to the answers to them so you can instantly check how you are doing. Also, in

most math books, the odd answers are found in the back of the book.

3. Review concepts. Whether you got the problems right or wrong, make sure

you review over them. If you did get a problem wrong, make sure you either

review that concept in it's respective tutorial or ask your math teacher about

it. If you don't ask about a problem before a test, you are going to kick

yourself when it comes up on the test.

book, webpages, etc. This practice test is a perfect way to do that. After

taking this practice test, check your answers by clicking on the link

to the answer key found at the bottom of the practice test (before

the 'need extra help on these topics' section)

It is to your benefit to show as much of the work as possible on the problems that have several

steps involved.

Make sure that you read the directions carefully, you wouldn't believe how many points get

taken off math tests for people not following directions.

Pace yourself. You do not have to be the first one done to do well on the test. Do not panic if

there is still time left to take the test and others are turing it in. Sometimes that means they do not

know the material and left some of the answers blank. Do not worry about anyone else but

yourself.

Don't rush through a problem. Another thing that math teachers take points off for are careless

mistakes made by people that rush through a problem. When those students get their tests back,

they bonk themselves on the head at some of the things that got counted wrong, things that they

knew how to do.

Check your answers. If you have time, go back and check your answers.

Remember to breathe!!!! I know some of you are scared to death at the thought of having to

take a math test of any kind. For you guys, try to relax and don't forget to breathe. (Even if you

aren't scared to take a math test, it is probably a good idea to remember to breathe, I wouldn't

want you to pass out during the test). If it feels like your brain has left the building during

your test, just close your eyes and breathe in and out and in and out and your brain will

return.

Good luck on your test. If you are taking a math test soon, don't panic, you are going to do

great!!!

558

Practice Test

1a.

for

1b.

I = PRT; for P

2a. A ramp 5 feet long is leaning against a raised platform which is 4 feet

above the ground. What is the distance from the ramp's contact point with

the ground and the base of the platform?

2b. A farmer has three cylindrical shaped containers to hold feed in. Each

container has the same radius of 3 feet and height of 4 feet. What is the

total volume of the three containers?

559

If

B = 70,

C = 55, and

H?

If

B = 60,

C = 50, and

G?

560

7a. Find

2 if

7 = 75 degrees.

7b. Find

3 if

6 = 75 degrees.

7c. Find

1 if

5 = 105 degrees.

7d. Find

4 if

6 = 75 degrees.

8a. The number of points a receiver has made during the last 5 games is

given in the following table:

Game

game 1

game 2

game 3

game 4

game 5

Points

12

12

12

18

Find the mean, median, and mode of the points he scored in a game.

561

9a. A student received scores of 62, 75, and 77 on three quizzes. If tests

count twice as much as quizzes, what is the lowest score that the student

can get on the next test to achieve a mean of at least 70?

Problems 10a - 10b: Write the next three numbers in the sequence.

Problem 11a: Sara, Trudy, Jill and Karen all work for the same company.

One is a secretary, one is a manager, one is a computer programmer and

one is a engineer.

11a.

B. Trudy and Karen carpool with the secretary.

C. Sara likes to work out with the engineer and the secretary.

Who is the secretary?

Answer/Discussion to Practice

Problems

Tutorial 36: Practice Test on Tutorials

32 - 35

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 36: Practice Test on

Tutorials 32 - 35

562

1a.

for

Answer:

1b.

I = PRT; for P

Answer:

This happens to be the formula for simple interest, where I = simple interest, P =

principal, R = annual percentage rate, and T = time in years.

In this problem we need to solve for P. This means we need to get P on one side

and EVERYTHING ELSE on the other side using inverse operations.

Let's solve this formula for P:

563

2a. A ramp 5 feet long is leaning against a raised platform which is 4 feet

above the ground. What is the distance from the ramp's contact point with

the ground and the base of the platform?

Answer:

Since we are looking for the side of a right triangle, we can use the Pythagorean

formula:

c = hypotenuse of the right triangle

In this problem,

a = ? = this is the variable we are looking for

b=4

c=5

564

FINAL ANSWER:

The distance from the ramp's contact point with the ground and the base of the

platform is 3.

2b. A farmer has three cylindrical shaped containers to hold feed in. Each

container has the same radius of 3 feet and height of 4 feet. What is the

total volume of the three containers?

Answer:

Since we are needing to find the volume of a cylinder, we can use this formula:

V = volume of a cylinder

r = radius

h = height

In this problem,

V = ? = this is the variable we are looking for

r=3

h=4

565

Each cylinder has a volume of 36 cubic feet or approximately 113.04 cubic feet. If

there are three of them, then we need to multiply this volume by 3.

cubic feet.

Answer:

Basically we need an angle that when we add it to 47 we get 90.

Let's set it up and solve it algebraically, letting x be the missing angle and see

what we get:

566

Answer:

Basically we need an angle that when we add it to 47 we get 180.

Let's set it up and solve it algebraically, letting x be the missing angle and see

what we get:

If

B = 70,

C = 55, and

H?

Answer:

Since H corresponds with

degrees.

H=

D = 25

Since side EH corresponds to side AD and the figures are congruent, then side EH =

side AD = 25.

567

If

B = 60,

C = 50, and

G?

Answer:

Since

G corresponds to

G=

C = 50.

Since side FG corresponds to side BC and the figures are similar to each other, then

FG and BC are in proportion to each other. Similarly, EH and AD are in proportion to

each other.

When setting up the proportion, make sure that you set it up the same on both sides.

FG = 20

568

7a. Find

2 if

7 = 75 degrees.

Answer:

Since 2 and 7 are alternate exterior angles and the two lines are parallel, then

2 = 7 = 75 degrees.

7b. Find

3 if

6 = 75 degrees.

Answer:

Since 3 and 6 are alternate interior angles and the two lines are parallel, then

= 6 = 75 degrees.

7c. Find

1 if

5 = 105 degrees.

Answer:

Since 1 and 5 are corresponding angles and the two lines are parallel, then

= 5 = 105 degrees.

7d. Find

4 if

6 = 75 degrees.

Answer:

Since 4 and 6 are not alternate exterior, alternate interior or corresponding angles,

they are not guaranteed to be equal.

However, since 3 and 4 make a straight angle (180 degrees) and 3 and 6 are

alternate interior angles (which means they are equal), we can find the measure of 4.

569

4 = 105 degrees.

8a. The number of points a receiver has made during the last 5 games is

given in the following table:

Game

game 1

game 2

game 3

game 4

game 5

Points

12

12

12

18

Find the mean, median, and mode of the points he scored in a game.

Answer:

The mean is the average of the scores.

So we need to sum up all of the points and then divide by 5, since there are 5 games:

We need to list the numbers in numeric order:

6, 12, 12, 12, 18

Our median is going to be 12 (the second 6 listed). That number has two values above

570

12 is the median.

It helps to list the numbers in order to find the mode.

6, 12, 12, 12, 18

12 occurs three times, which is the most.

12 is the mode.

9a. A student received scores of 62, 75, and 77 on three quizzes. If tests

count twice as much as quizzes, what is the lowest score that the student

can get on the next test to achieve a mean of at least 70?

Answer:

The student would have to score a 68 on the next test to have a mean of 70.

571

Problems 10a - 10b: Write the next three numbers in the sequence.

Answer:

My first inclination is to see if there is some pattern in addition. Well, we are not

adding the same number each time to get to the next number. But, it looks like we

have 1 +2, 3 +4, 7 +6, 13 +8, 21, .... I see a pattern in addition - do you see it? We are

always adding the next even number.

The pattern is to add the next even number. The next three terms would have to be

31, 43, and 57, since 21+10 = 31, 31 +12 = 43, 43 +14 = 57.

Answer:

When you see a big jump in numbers all of the sudden - we start small with 1, 5, and

25 then all of the sudden we are at 125 - a good place to start is multiplication or

exponents. It is not a 100% rule, but it gives you a starting place. It looks like we

have 1 (5), 5 (5), 25 (5), 125,...There is a pattern in multiplication, we are always

multiplying by 5.

The pattern is to multiply the previous number by 5. The next three terms would

have to be 625, 3125, 15625, since 125(5) = 625, 625(5) = 3125, and 3125(5) =

15625.

Problem 11a: Sara, Trudy, Jill and Karen all work for the same company.

One is a secretary, one is a manager, one is a computer programmer and

one is a engineer.

11a.

572

B. Trudy and Karen carpool with the secretary.

C. Sara likes to work out with the engineer and the secretary.

Who is the secretary?

Answer:

You can use a process of elimination on this problem. Statement A, Sara and Jill eat

lunch with the manager, doesn't let us definitively eliminate anyone from being the

secretary.

However, statement B, Trudy and Karen carpool with the secretary, eliminates Trudy

and Karen from being the secretary.

Statement C, Sara likes to work out with the engineer and the secretary, eliminates

Sara.

The only one that could be (100%, without a doubt) the secretary is Jill.

573

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