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# VML

COLLEGE ALGEBRA

INTERMEDIATE ALGEBRA

BEGINNING ALGEBRA

GRE MATH

THEA/ACCUPLACER

## Tutorial 1: How to Succeed in a Math Class

Tutorial 2: Symbols and Sets of Numbers
Tutorial 3: Fractions
Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions and Equations
Tutorial 6: Subtracting Real Numbers
Tutorial 7: Multiplying and Dividing Real Numbers
Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers
Tutorial 10: Practice Test on Tutorials 2 - 9

## Tutorial 11: Simplifying Algebraic Expressions

Tutorial 12: The Addition Property of Equality
Tutorial 13: The Multiplication Property of Equality
Tutorial 14: Solving Linear Equations (Putting it all together)
Tutorial 15: Introduction to Problem Solving
Tutorial 16: Percent and Problem Solving
Tutorial 17: Further Problem Solving
Tutorial 18: Solving Linear Inequalities
Tutorial 19: Practice Test on Tutorials 11 - 18

## Tutorial 20: The Rectangular Coordinate System

Tutorial 21: Graphing Linear Equations
Tutorial 22: Intercepts
Tutorial 23: Slope
Tutorial 24: Graphing Linear Inequalities
Tutorial 25: Practice Test on Tutorials 20 - 24

## Tutorial 26: Exponents

Tutorial 27: Adding and Subtracting Polynomials
Tutorial 28: Multiplying Polynomials
Tutorial 29: Negative Exponents and Scientific Notation
Tutorial 30: Division of Polynomials

## Tips on How to Succeed in a Math Class

Yes, You Can Learn Math!!!

## Get a can do attitude:

If you can do it in sports, music, dance, etc., you can do it in math! Try not to
let fear or negative experiences turn you off to math.

## Practice a little math every day:

It helps you build up your confidence and move your brain away from the
panic button at test time.

If you are a college or high school student, realize that most colleges and
universities require at least college algebra for any bachelor's degree. Some
classes, like chemistry, nursing, statistics, etc. will require some algebra skills
to succeed in them. If you are getting a bachelor's degree, then chances are
you are going for a professional job. Most professional jobs require at least
some math. Granted, some more than others, but nonetheless math (problem
solving, numbers, etc...) is everywhere. So make sure that you embrace
your math experience and make the most of it.

appointment.

## Use the WTAMU Virtual Math Lab

(http://www.wtamu.edu/mathlab) as a reference as you go through
your class. Anytime you need to see some more examples, want to go
through some practice problems or want to take a practice test on an
algebra topic, it is just a click away.
4

## See if your school has any tutors in math.

WTAMU provides the following FREE tutoring services for WT
students:
1. Educational Services Tutoring
o EST offers free one-on-one tutoring to all WT students
in a variety of subjects including math
o Located on campus: Student Success Center, 1st floor
of Classroom Center

2. SMARTHINKING
o SMARTHINKING is an online tutoring service that
WT has contracted with to provide free live one-on-one
and offline web-based tutoring in a variety of subjects
including basic math, algebra, trigonometry, geometry,
calculus I&II and stats for WT students.
o Located online: WT students can access this service by
logging into
and clicking on the
homepage.

## o Online whiteboards equipped with math symbols and

graphs are used to communicate between the math estructors and students. When posting a math question
to SMARTHINKING, make sure that you type in the
directions, the problem, how far you have gotten on the
o For general information about SMARTHINKING go to
their website at http://www.smarthinking.com/

See if your school has a learning lab for math. Here at WTAMU,
we have a Math Lab located in Classroom Center 411. It is a place
where WT students can work on math homework and, as problems
arise, get help. The workers will be unable to sit with you one on one
for long periods of time like a tutor, however they can help you work
on specific questions. Remember that they are not there to do your
homework, but to answer specific questions that you have. There are
also computer programs, internet connections, and videos in there to
5

## Attend class full time:

Math is a sequential subject. That means that what you are learning today
builds on what you learned yesterday. Even problems based on a new math
concept will need some old skills to work them. (Think: Can you work
problems with fractions if you dont know the multiplication tables?)

## Keep up with the homework:

It sounds simple but your time is limited, you have a job to go to, etc.. Think
of it this way: No homework, no learning. Homework helps you practice the
applications of math concepts. Its like learning how to drive: the longer you
practice, the better your driving skills become and the more confidence you
will have on the road. If you only read the drivers manual, youll never learn
to drive with confidence and skill. We suggest you try some of the
unassigned problems, too, for extra practice.

## Try to understand the math problems:

When you work homework problems, ask yourself what you are looking for
and how you are going to get there. Dont just follow the example. Work the
problem step-by-step until you know why you are doing what you are and
have arrived at the solution. If you follow the what, how, and whys, youll
know what to do when you see a similar problem later.

## Use index cards to study tests:

Heres how you do that: When studying for a test, make sure you can
understand the problems on each math concept as well as work them. Then
make the index cards with problems on them. Mix the index cards (yes,
shuffle the cards to mix them up) and set the timer. Start working the
problems in each card as it is dealt to you. Oh, yeah, hide your textbook!
This will simulate a math test taking experience.

Dont be ashamed to ask questions. The instructor WILL NOT make fun of
you. In fact, at least one other person may have the same question.

## Ask questions outside of class:

6

OK, so like most people, you dont want to ask questions in class, OR you
think of a question too late. Then go to the instructors office and ask away.

## Check homework assignments:

Make sure that when you get your graded homework back you look over what
you got right as well as what you missed.

## Pay attention in class:

Math snowballs. If you dont stay alert to the instructors presentation, you
may miss important steps to learning concepts. Remember, todays
information sets the foundation for tomorrows work.

## Dont talk in class:

If you have questions, please ask the instructor. The information you get from
classmates may be mathematically wrong! And if it isnt related to math info
for this class, save it for outside the classroom.

## Read the math textbook and study guide:

Yes, theres a reason why we ask you to spend all that money on them. If you
look carefully, you will see that your book contains pages with great
examples, explanations and definitions of terms. Take advantage of them.

Practice Problems
In all of the other tutorials at this Beginning Algebra website, we will have practice problems
with links to the answers for you to go through. Since this tutorial did not have any math
concepts there will be no practice problems for this tutorial only.
We do suggest that you go back to the top and reread the tips on how to succeed in a math class

Beginning Algebra
Tutorial 2: Symbols and Sets of Numbers
Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Know what a set and an element are.
2. Write a mathematical statement with an equal sign or an inequality.
3. Identify what numbers belong to the set of natural numbers, whole numbers, integers,
rational numbers, irrational numbers, and real numbers.
4. Use the Order Property for Real Numbers.
5. Find the absolute value of a number.

Introduction

Have you ever sat in a math class, and you swear the teacher is speaking some foreign language?
Well, algebra does have it's own lingo. This tutorial will go over some key definitions and
phrases used when specifically working with sets of numbers as well as absolute values. Even
though it may not be the exciting part of math, it is very important that you understand the
language spoken in algebra class. It will definitely help you do the math that comes later. Of
course, numbers are very important in math. This tutorial helps you to build an understanding of
what the different sets of numbers are. You will also learn what set(s) of numbers specific
8

## numbers, like -3, 0, 100, and even

(pi) belong to. Some of them belong to more than one set.
I think you are ready to go forward. Let's make you a numeric set whiz kid (or adult).

Tutorial
Sets and Elements
A set is a collection of objects.
Those objects are generally called members or elements of the set.

Roster Form
Roster form just lists out the elements of a set between two set brackets. For example,
{January, June, July}

Equal
=
To notate that two expressions are equal to each, use the symbol = between them.

Inequalities
Not Equal
a < b : a is less than b
a < b : a is less than or equal to b
a > b : a is greater than b
a > b : a is greater than or equal to b

Mathematical Statement
9

A mathematical statement uses the equality and inequality symbols shown above. It can be
judged either true or false.

## Natural (or Counting) Numbers

N = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...}

Makes sense, we start counting with the number 1 and continue with 2, 3, 4, 5, and so on.

Whole Numbers
{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...}

The only difference between this set and the one above is that this set not only contains all the
natural numbers, but it also contains 0, where as 0 is not an element of the set of natural
numbers.

Integers
Z = {..., -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...}

This set adds on the negative counterparts to the already existing whole numbers (which,
remember, includes the number 0).
The natural numbers and the whole numbers are both subsets of integers.

Rational Numbers
Q = { | a and b are integers and

In other words, a rational number is a number that can be written as one integer over
another.
Be very careful. Remember that a whole number can be written as one integer over another
integer. The integer in the denominator is 1 in that case. For example, 5 can be written as 5/1.
The natural numbers, whole numbers, and integers are all subsets of rational numbers.
10

Irrational Numbers
I = {x | x is a real number that is not rational}
In other words, an irrational number is a number that can not be written as one integer over
another. It is a non-repeating, non-terminating decimal.
One big example of irrational numbers is roots of numbers that are not perfect roots - for
example
or
. 17 is not a perfect square - the answer is a non-terminating, nonrepeating decimal, which CANNOT be written as one integer over another. Similarly, 5 is
not a perfect cube. It's answer is also a non-terminating, non-repeating decimal.
Another famous irrational number is
(pi). Even though it is more commonly known as
3.14, that is a rounded value for pi. Actually it is 3.1415927... It would keep going and going and
going without any real repetition or pattern. In other words, it would be a non terminating, non
repeating decimal, which again, can not be written as a rational number, 1 integer over another
integer.

Real Numbers
R = {x | x corresponds to point on the number line}
Any number that belongs to either the rational numbers or irrational numbers would be
considered a real number. That would include natural numbers, whole numbers and
integers.

## Real Number Line

Above is an illustration of a number line. Zero, on the number line, is called the origin. It
separates the negative numbers (located to the left of 0) from the positive numbers (located to
the right of 0).
I feel sorry for 0, it does not belong to either group. It is neither a positive or a negative number.

## Order Property for

Real Numbers
Given any two real numbers a and b,
11

## if a is to the left of b on the number line, then a < b.

If a is to the right of b on the number line, then a > b.

Absolute Value
Most people know that when you take the absolute value of ANY number (other than 0) the
answer is positive. But, do you know WHY?
Well, let me tell you why!
The absolute value of x, notated |x|, measures the DISTANCE that x is away from the origin
(0) on the real number line.
Aha! Distance is always going to be positive (unless it is 0) whether the number you are taking
the absolute value of is positive or negative.
The following are illustrations of what absolute value means using the numbers 3 and -3:

3? 5

12

7.41 ? 7.41

## Example 3: Replace ? with <, >, or = .

2.5 ? 1.5

Since 2.5 is to the right of 1.5 on the number line, then 2.5 > 1.5.

2>7

## Since 2 is to the left of 7 on the number line, then 2 < 7.

Therefore, the given statement is false.

## Example 5: Is the following mathematical statement true or false?

Since 5 is the same number as 5 and the statement includes where the two
numbers are equal to each other, then this statement is true.

## Example 6: Write the sentence as a mathematical statement.

2 is less than 5.
Reading it left to right we get:
13

5>5

2 is less than 5
2 < 5

## Example 7: Write the sentence as a mathematical statement.

10 is less than or equal to 20.
Reading it left to right we get:
10 is less than or equal to 20
10 < 20

## Example 8: Write the sentence as a mathematical statement.

-2 is greater than -3.
Reading it left to right we get:
-2 is greater than -3
-2 > -3

## Example 9: Write the sentence as a mathematical statement.

0 is greater than or equal to -1.
Reading it left to right we get:
0 is greater than or equal to -1
0 > -1

## Example 10: Write the sentence as a mathematical statement.

5 is not equal to 2.
Reading it left to right we get:
5 is not equal to 2

14

Example 11: List the elements of the following sets that are also elements of the
given set
{-4, 0, 2.5,

, 11/2, 7}

Natural numbers, whole numbers, integers, rational numbers, irrational numbers, and real
numbers.

Natural numbers?
The numbers in the given set that are also natural numbers are
{

, 7}.

Note that

## simplifies to be 5, which is a natural number.

Whole numbers?
The numbers in the given set that are also whole numbers are
{0,

, 7}.

Integers?
The numbers in the given set that are also integers are
{-4, 0,

, 7}.

Rational numbers?
The numbers in the given set that are also rational numbers are
{-4, 0, 2.5,

, 11/2, 7}.

Irrational numbers?
The numbers in the given set that are also irrational numbers are
{ ,

}.
15

These two numbers CANNOT be written as one integer over another. They are nonrepeating, non-terminating decimals.

Real numbers?
The numbers in the given set that are also real numbers are
{-4, 0, 2.5,

, 11/2, 7}.

## Example 12: Replace ? with <, >, or = .

|-2.5| ? |2.5|

Since |-2.5| = 2.5 and |2.5| = 2.5, then the two expressions are equal to each other:
|-2.5| = |2.5|

-3 ? |3|

4 ? |-1|

## Since 4 is to the right of 1 on the number line, then 4 > 1.

16

Practice Problems
These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see
if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if
you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians
had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.
To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a. 5 ? 0

1b.

1c. -2 ? 2

false?

2a. -3 < -3

2b.

2>4

17

3b.

## 3c. 5 is greater than or equal to -5.

Practice Problems 4a - 4f: List the elements of the following set that are also
elements of the given set: {-1.5, 0, 2,
,
}

4c. Integers

## 4f. Real numbers

Tutorial 2: Symbols and Sets of Numbers
5? 0

18

First of all,

Next we have

-2 ? 2

## Since -2 is to the left of 2 on the number line, then -2 < 2.

-3 < -3
Since -3 is the same number as -3 and the statement includes where the two numbers are
equal to each other, then this statement is true.

19

2 > 4

## Since 2 is to the left of 4 on the number line, then 2 < 4.

So, the above statement is false.

-4 is less than 0.
Reading it left to right we get:
-4 is less than 0
-4 < 0

3 is not equal to -3.
Reading it left to right we get:
3 is not equal to -3

5 is greater than or equal to -5.
20

## Reading it left to right we get:

5 is greater than or equal to -5.
5 > -5

Natural numbers
The numbers in the given set that are also natural numbers are
{2,

}.

Note that

## simplifies to be 3 which is a natural number.

Whole numbers
The numbers in the given set that are also whole numbers are
{0, 2,

}.

Integers
The numbers in the given set that are also integers are
{0, 2,

}.

Rational numbers
The numbers in the given set that are also rational numbers are
{-1.5, 0, 2,

}.
21

Irrational numbers
The number in the given set that is also an irrational number is
{

}.

Real numbers
The numbers in the given set that are also real numbers are
{-1.5, 0, 2,

}.

Tutorial 3: Fractions

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Know what the numerator and denominator of a fraction are.
2. Find the prime factorization of a number.
3. Simplify a fraction.
4. Find the least common denominator of given fractions.
5. Multiply, divide, add and subtract fractions.

Introduction
22

Do you ever feel like running and hiding when you see a fraction? If so, you are not alone.
But don't fear help is here. Hey that rhymes. Anyway, in this tutorial we will be going over how
to simplify, multiply, divide, add, and subtract fractions. Sounds like we have our work cut out
for us. I think you are ready to tackle these fractions.

Tutorial

Fractions

, where

a = numerator
b = denominator

A numeric fraction is a quotient of two numbers. The top number is called the numerator
and the bottom number is referred to as the denominator. The denominator cannot equal
0.

Prime Factorization
A prime number is a whole number that has two distinct factors, 1 and itself.
Examples of prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, and 13. The list can go on and on.
Be careful, 1 is not a prime number because it only has one distinct factor which is 1.
When you rewrite a number using prime factorization, you write that number as a product
of prime numbers.
For example, the prime factorization of 12 would be
23

12 = (2)(6) = (2)(2)(3).
That last product is 12 and is made up of all prime numbers.

## When is a Fraction Simplified?

Good question. A fraction is simplified if the numerator and denominator do not have any
common factors other than 1. You can divide out common factors by using the Fundamental
Principle of Fractions, shown next.

## Fundamental Principle of Fractions

In other words, if you divide out the same factor in both the numerator and the denominator, then
you will end up with an equivalent expression. An equivalent expression is one that looks
different, but has the same value.

## Writing the Fraction in Lowest Terms

(or Simplifying the Fraction)
Step 1: Write the numerator and denominator as a product of prime numbers.
Step 2: Use the Fundamental Principle of Fractions to cancel out the common
factors.

24

## *Rewrite 35 as a product of primes

Step 2: Use the Fundamental Principle of Fractions to cancel out the common
factors.

## *Div. the common factor of 7 out of both num. and den.

Note that even though the 7's divide out in the last step, there is still a 1 in the
numerator. 7 is thought of as 7 times 1 (not 0).

## Example 2: Write the fraction in lowest terms.

Step 1: Write the numerator and denominator as a product of prime numbers.
*Rewrite 90 as a product of primes
*Rewrite 50 as a product of primes

Step 2: Use the Fundamental Principle of Fractions to cancel out the common
factors.
*Div. the common factors of 2 and 5 out of both num. and
den.

## Example 3: Write the fraction in lowest terms.

Step 1: Write the numerator and denominator as a product of prime numbers.
25

3 and 5 are both prime numbers so the fraction is already written as a quotient of prime
numbers

Step 2: Use the Fundamental Principle of Fractions to cancel out the common
factors.

There was no common factors to divide out. The original fraction 3/5 was already
written in lowest terms.

Multiplying Fractions

In other words, when multiplying fractions, multiply the numerators together to get the
products numerator and multiply the denominators together to get the products
denominator.
Make sure that you do reduce your answers, as shown above. You may do this before you
multiply or after.

## *Write as prod. of num. over prod. of den.

*Div. the common factor of 5 out of both num. and den.

26

Reciprocal

## Two numbers are reciprocals of each other if their product is 1.

In other words, you flip the number upside down. The numerator becomes the denominator and
vice versa.
For example, 5 (which can be written as 5/1) and 1/5 are reciprocals. 3/4 and 4/3 are also
reciprocals of each other.

Dividing Fractions

In other words, when dividing fractions, use the definition of division by rewriting it as
multiplication of the reciprocal and then proceed with the multiplication as explained above.

## *Rewrite as the mult. of the reciprocal

*Write as prod. of num. over prod. of den.
*Div. the common factor of 2 out of both num. and den.

27

with Common Denominators

or

## Step 1: Combine the numerators together.

Step 2: Put the sum or difference found in step 1 over the common denominator.
Step 3: Reduce to lowest terms if necessary.

## Why do we have to have a common denominator when we add or subtract

fractions?????
Another good question. The denominator indicates what type of fraction that you have and
the numerator is counting up how many of that type you have. You can only directly
combine fractions that are of the same type (have the same denominator). For example if 2 was
my denominator, I would be counting up how many halves I had, if 3 was my denominator, I
would be counting up how many thirds I had. But, I would not be able to add a fraction with a
denominator of 2 directly with a fraction that had a denominator of 3 because they are not the
same type of fraction. I would have to find a common denominator first before I could combine,
which we will cover after this example.

## Step 1: Combine the numerators together.

AND
Step 2: Put the sum or difference found in step 1 over the common denominator.

28

## Step 3: Reduce to lowest terms if necessary.

Since 5 and 7 are prime numbers that have no factors in common, 5/7 is already in
lowest terms.

## Least Common Denominator (LCD)

The LCD is the smallest number divisible by all the denominators.

Equivalent Fractions
Equivalent fractions are fractions that look different but have the same value.
You can achieve this by multiplying the top and bottom by the same number. This is like taking it
times 1. You can write 1 as any non zero number over itself. For example 5/5 or 7/7. 1 is the
identity number for multiplication. In other words, when you multiply a number by 1, it keeps its
identity or stays the same value.

Example 7: Write the fraction as an equivalent fraction with the given denominator.
with the denominator of 20.

## *What number times 5 will result in 20?

*Multiply num. and den. by 4.

29

In this case, we do not want to reduce it to lowest terms because the problem asks us to
write it with a denominator of 20, which is what we have.

## Rewriting Mixed Numbers as

Improper Fractions

In some problems you may start off with a mixed number and need to rewrite it as an improper
fraction. You can do this by multiplying the denominator times the whole number and then
add it to the numerator. Then, place this number over the existing denominator.
An improper fraction is a fraction in which the numerator is larger than the denominator.

## Example 8: Rewrite the mixed fraction as an improper fraction.

*Mixed number
*Mult. den. 4 times whole number 7 and add it to num. 3.

*Improper fraction

Without Common Denominators
As mentioned above, you need to have common denominators before you can add or subtract
fractions together.

Step 1: Find the Least Common Denominator (LCD) for all denominators.
30

Step 2: Rewrite fractions into equivalent fractions with the common denominator.

Step 3: Add and subtract the fractions with common denominators as described
above.

Rewriting the numbers as fractions we get:

## *Rewrite whole number 7 as 7/1

*Rewrite mixed number 2 3/4 as 11/4

Step 1: Find the Least Common Denominator (LCD) for all denominators.
The first fraction has a denominator of 1 and the second fraction has a denominator of
4. What is the smallest number that is divisible by both 1 and 4. If you said 4, you are
correct?
Therefore, the LCD is 4.

Step 2: Rewrite fractions into equivalent fractions with the common denominator.
*What number times 1 will result in 4?
*Multiply num. and den. by 4.

The fraction 11/4 already has a denominator of 4, so we do not have to rewrite it.

Step 3: Add and subtract the fractions with common denominators as described
above.
31

## *Write the sum over the common den.

Note that this fraction is in simplest form. There are no common factors that we can
divide out of the numerator and denominator

Example 10: Add and subtract. Write the final answer in lowest terms.
Step 1: Find the Least Common Denominator (LCD) for all denominators.
The first fraction has a denominator of 3, the second has a denominator of 5, and the
third has a denominator of 15. What is the smallest number that is divisible by 3, 5,
and 15? If you said 15, you are correct?
Therefore, the LCD is 15.

Step 2: Rewrite fractions into equivalent fractions with the common denominator.
Writing an equivalent fraction of 2/3 with the LCD of 15 we get:
*What number times 3 will result in 15?
*Multiply num. and den. by 5.

32

## *What number times 5 will result in 15?

*Multiply num. and den. by 3.

The fraction 1/15 already has a denominator of 15, so we do not have to rewrite it.

Step 3: Add and subtract the fractions with common denominators as described
above.

## *Div. the common factor of 3 out of both num. and den.

Practice Problems
These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see
if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if
you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians
had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.
To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

33

1a. 100

2a.

2b.

## Practice Problems 3a - 3e: Perform the following operations. Write answers in

the lowest terms.

3a.

3b.

3c.

3d.

3e.

Tutorial 3: Fractions
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 3: Fractions
34

100

## Step 1: Write the numerator and denominator as a product of prime numbers.

*Rewrite 75 as a product of primes
*Rewrite 30 as a product of primes

Step 2: Use the Fundamental Principle of Fractions to cancel out the common
factors.

*Div. the common factors of 3 and 5 out of both num. and den.

35

## *Rewrite 9 as a product of primes

Step 2: Use the Fundamental Principle of Fractions to cancel out the common
factors.

## *Write as prod. of num. over prod. of den.

*Div. the common factors of 2 and 5 out of both num. and den.

36

## *Rewrite as the mult. of the reciprocal

*Write as prod. of num. over prod. of den.
*Div. the common factor of 7 out of both num. and den.

## Step 1: Combine the numerators together.

AND
Step 2: Put the sum or difference found in step 1 over the common denominator.

37

## *Rewrite whole number 5 as 5/1

*Rewrite mixed number 2 1/4 as 9/4

Step 1: Find the Least Common Denominator (LCD) for all denominators.
The first fraction has a denominator of 1 and the second fraction has a denominator of 4. What is
the smallest number that is divisible by both 1 and 4. If you said 4, you are correct?
Therefore, the LCD is 4.

Step 2: Rewrite fractions into equivalent fractions with the common denominator.
*What number times 1 will result in 4?
*Multiply num. and den. by 4.

38

The fraction 9/4 already has a denominator of 4, so we do not have to rewrite it.

Step 3: Add and subtract the fractions with common denominators as described
above.

## *Write the difference over the common den.

Note that this fraction is in simplest form. There are no common factors that we can divide out of
the numerator and denominator

Step 1: Find the Least Common Denominator (LCD) for all denominators.
The first fraction has a denominator of 4, the second has a denominator of 5, and the third has a
denominator of 10. What is the smallest number that is divisible by 4, 5, and 10? If you said 20,
you are correct?
Therefore, the LCD is 20.

Step 2: Rewrite fractions into equivalent fractions with the common denominator.
Writing an equivalent fraction of 3/4 with the LCD of 20 we get:

39

## *What number times 4 will result in 20?

*Multiply num. and den. by 5.

## Writing an equivalent fraction of 2/5 with the LCD of 20 we get:

*What number times 5 will result in 20?
*Multiply num. and den. by 4.

## Writing an equivalent fraction of 7/10 with the LCD of 20 we get:

*What number times 10 will result in 20?
*Multiply num. and den. by 2.

Step 3: Add and subtract the fractions with common denominators as described
above.

and Equations

## WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

40

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Evaluate an exponential expression.
2. Simplify an expression using the order of operations.
3. Evaluate an expression.
4. Know when a number is solution to an equation or not.
5. Translate an english expression into a math expression.
6. Translate an english statement in to a math equation.

Introduction

This tutorial will go over some key definitions and phrases used when specifically working with
algebraic expressions as well as evaluating them. We will also touch on the order of operations.
It is very IMPORTANT that you understand some of the math lingo that is used in an algebra
class, otherwise it may all seem Greek to you. Knowing the terms and concepts on this page will
definitely help you build an understanding of what a variable is and get you more comfortable
working with them. Variables are a HUGE part of algebra, so it is very important for you to feel
at ease around them in order to be successful in algebra. So let's get going and help you get on
the road to being variable savvy.

Tutorial

41

Exponential Notation
An exponent tells you how many times that you write a base in a PRODUCT.
In other words, exponents are another way to write MULTIPLICATION.
Lets illustrate this concept by rewriting the product (4)(4)(4) using exponential notation:

In this example, 4 represents the base and 3 is the exponent. Since 4 was written three times in a
product, then our exponent is 3. We always write our exponent as a smaller script found at the
top right corner of the base.
You can apply this idea in the other direction. Lets say you have it written in exponential
notation and you need to evaluate it. The exponent will tell you how many times you write the
base out in a product. For example if you had 7 as your base and 2 as your exponent and you
wanted to evaluate out you could write it out like this:

Example 1: Evaluate
In this problem, what is the base?
If you said 5, you are correct!
What is the exponent?
If you said 4, you are right!
Lets rewrite it as multiplication and see what we get for an answer:

## *Rewrite the base 5, four times in a product

*Multiply

42

Example 2: Evaluate
In this problem, what is the base?
If you said 7, you are correct!
What is the exponent?
If you said 1, you are right!
Lets rewrite it as multiplication and see what we get for an answer:

## *Rewrite the base 7, one time in a product

Example 3: Evaluate
In this problem, what is the base?
If you said 1/3, you are correct!
What is the exponent?
If you said 2, you are right!
Lets rewrite it as multiplication and see what we get for an answer:

## *Rewrite the base 1/3, two times in a product

*Multiply

43

Note that when you have a 2 as an exponent, which is also known as squaring the
base. In this problem we could say that we are looking for 1/3 squared.

Order of Operations
My Dear Multiplication/Division left to right
Aunt Sally Addition/Subtraction left to right

When you do have more than one mathematical operation, you need to use the order of operations
as listed above. You may have already heard of the saying "Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally".
It is just a way to help you remember the order you need to go in when applying the order of
operations.

Example 4: Simplify

*Multiply
*Subtract

Example 5: Simplify

*Inside ( )
*Exponent
*Multiply

44

Example 6: Simplify

Note that the absolute value symbol | | is a fancy grouping symbol. In terms of the
order of operations, it would be including on the first line with parenthesis.
So in this problem, the first thing we need to do is work the inside of the absolute
value. And then go from there.

*Inside |

*Exponent
*Add in num. and subtract in den.

Variable
A variable is a letter that represents a number.
Don't let the fact that it is a letter throw you. Since it represents a number, you treat it just like
you do a number when you do various mathematical operations involving variables.

x is a very common variable that is used in algebra, but you can use any letter (a, b, c, d, ....) to
be a variable.

Algebraic Expressions
An algebraic expression is a number, variable or combination of the two connected by some
mathematical operation like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponents, and/or
roots.
45

## 2x + y, a/5, and 10 - r are all examples of algebraic expressions.

Evaluating an Expression
You evaluate an expression by replacing the variable with the given number and performing the
indicated operation.

Value of an Expression
When you are asked to find the value of an expression, that means you are looking for the result
that you get when you evaluate the expression.
So keep in mind that vary means to change - a variable allows an expression to take on
different values, depending on the situation.
For example, the area of a rectangle is length times width. Well, not every rectangle is going to
have the same length and width, so we can use an algebraic expression with variables to represent
the area and then plug in the appropriate numbers to evaluate it. So if we let the length be the
variable l and width be w, we can use the expression lw. If a given rectangle has a length of 4
and width of 3, we would evaluate the expression by replacing l with 4 and w with 3 and
multiplying to get a value of 4 times 3 or 12.
Lets step through some examples that help illustrate these ideas.

## Example 7: Evaluate the expression

when x = 4, y = 6, z = 8.

Plugging in the corresponding value for each variable and then evaluating the
expression we get:

46

*Exponent
*Multiply
*Subtract

## Example 8: Evaluate the expression

when x = 3, y = 5, and z = 7.

Plugging in the corresponding value for each variable and then evaluating the
expression we get:

## *Plug in 3 for x, 5 for y, and 7 for z

*Exponent

*Multiply

Equation
Two expressions set equal to each other.

Solution
A value, such that, when you replace the variable with it,
it makes the equation true.
(the left side comes out equal to the right side)

47

Solution Set
Set of all solutions.

Example 9: Is 2 a solution of

## Replacing x with 2 we get:

*Plug in 2 for x
*Evaluate both sides

Is 2 a solution?
Since we got a TRUE statement (7 does in fact equal 7), then 2 is a solution to this
equation.

## Replacing x with 5 we get:

*Plug in 5 for x
*Evaluate both sides

Is 5 a solution?
48

Since we got a FALSE statement (16 does not equal 14), then 5 is not a solution.

Translating an
English Phrase Into an
Algebraic Expression

Sometimes, you find yourself having to write out your own algebraic expression based on the
wording of a problem.
In that situation, you want to
2. pick out key words and phrases and determine their equivalent mathematical meaning,
3. replace any unknowns with a variable, and
4. put it all together in an algebraic expression.
The following are some key words and phrases and their translations:

Subtraction: difference of, minus, subtracted from, less than, decreased by, less

## Example 11: Write the phrase as an algebraic expression.

The sum of a number and 10.
49

In this example, we are not evaluating an expression, so we will not be coming up with
a value. However, we are wanting to rewrite it as an algebraic expression.
It looks like the only reference to a mathematical operation is the word sum. So,
what operation will we have in this expression?
If you said addition, you are correct!!!
The phrase 'a number' indicates that it is an unknown number. There was no specific
value given to it. So we will replace the phrase 'a number' with the variable x. We
want to let our variable represent any number that is unknown
Putting everything together, we can translate the given english phrase with the
following algebraic expression:

## The sum of a number and 10

*'sum' = +
*'a number' = variable x

## Example 12: Write the phrase as an algebraic expression.

The product of 5 and a number.

Again, we are wanting to rewrite this as an algebraic expression, not evaluate it.
This time, the phrase that correlates with our operation is 'product' - so what
operation will we be doing this time? If you said multiplication, you are right on.
Again, we have the phrase 'a number', which again is going to be replaced with a
variable, since we do not know what the number is.
Lets see what we get for this answer:

## The product of 5 and a

number

*'product' = multiplication
*'a number' = variable x
50

## Translating a Sentence into an Equation

Since an equation is two expressions set equal to each other, we will be using the same
mathematical translations we did above. The difference is we will have an equal sign between the
two expressions.
The following are some key words and phrases that translate into an equal sign (=):

Equal Sign (=) : equals, gives, is, yields, amounts to, is the same as

Example 13: Write the sentence as an equation. Let x represent the unknown
number.
The quotient of 3 and a number is .

Do you remember what quotient translates into? If you said division, you are doing
great.
'Is' will be replaced by the symbol =.
Lets put together everything going left to right:

## The quotient of 3 and a number is

Example 14: Write the sentence as an equation. Let x represent the unknown
51

number.
7 less than 3 times a number is the same as 0.

Do you remember what less than translates into? If you said subtraction, you are
doing great.
Do you remember what times translates into? If you said multiplication, you are
correct.
'Is the same as' will be replaced by the symbol =.
Lets put together everything going left to right:

## 7 less than 3 times a number is the same as 0.

Practice Problems
These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see
if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if
you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians
had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.
To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

52

1a.

1b.

2a.

2b.

## Practice Problem 3a: Evaluate the expression if x = 1, y = 2, and z = 3.

3a.

Practice Problems 4a - 4b: Decide whether the given number is a solution of the
given equation.

4a. Is 0 a solution to

? 4b. Is 8 a solution to

53

## Practice Problems 5a - 5b: Write each phrase as an algebraic expression. Let x

represent the unknown number.

5a. 9 less than 5 times a number. 5b. The product of 12 and a number.

## Practice Problems 6a - 6b: Write each sentence as an equation. Let x represent

the unknown number.

## 6b. The quotient of a number and 9 is 1/3.

Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions
and Equations
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions
and Equations

54

## In this problem, what is the base?

If you said 2, you are correct!
What is the exponent?
If you said 5, you are right!
Let's rewrite it as multiplication and see what we get for an answer:

*Multiply

## In this problem, what is the base?

If you said 1/6, you are correct!
What is the exponent?
If you said 3, you are right!
Let's rewrite it as multiplication and see what we get for an answer:

55

*Multiply

*Inside ( )
*Multiply

56

## *Inside absolute value

*Exponent
*Simplify fraction

Plugging in the corresponding value for each variable and then evaluating the expression
we get:

## *Plug in 1 for x, 2 for y, and 3 for z

*Inside parenthesis
*Exponent in [ ]
*Multiply

57

## Replacing x with 0 we get:

*Plug in 0 for x
*Evaluate both sides

Is 0 a solution?
Since we got a FALSE statement (7 does not equal 9), then 0 is not a solution.

## Replacing x with 8 we get:

*Plug in 8 for x
*Evaluate both sides

Is 8 a solution?
Since we got a TRUE statement (6 does equal 6), then 8 is a solution.

58

9 less than 5 times a number.

## What operation will we replace less than with?

If you said subtraction you are correct!!!
What operation will we replace times with?
If you said multiplication you are correct!!!
The phrase 'a number' indicates that it is an unknown number. There was no specific value given
to it. So we will replace the phrase 'a number' with the variable x. We want to let our variable
represent any number that is unknown
Putting everything together we can translate the given english phrase with the following
algebraic expression:
9 less than 5 times a number

The product of 12 and a number.

## What operation will we replace product with?

If you said multiplication you are correct!!!
The phrase 'a number' indicates that it is an unknown number. There was no specific value given
to it. So we will replace the phrase 'a number' with the variable x. We want to let our variable
represent any number that is unknown
Putting everything together we can translate the given english phrase with the following
59

algebraic expression:
The product of 12 and a number

The sum of 10 and 4 times a number is the same as 18.

## Do you remember what sum translates into?

If you said addition, you are doing great.
Do you remember what times translates into?
If you said multiplication, you are doing great.
'Is the same as' will be replaced by the symbol =.
Let's put together everything going left to right:
The sum of 10 and 4 times a number is the same as 18

The quotient of a number and 9 is 1/3.

60

## If you said division, you are correct.

'Is' will be replaced by the symbol =.
Let's put together everything going left to right:
The quotient of a number and 9 is 1/3.

## Tutorial 5: Adding Real Numbers

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Add real numbers that have the same sign.
2. Add real numbers that have different signs.
3. Find the additive inverse or the opposite of a number.

Introduction

This tutorial reviews adding real numbers as well as finding the additive inverse or opposite of a
number . I have the utmost confidence that you are familiar with addition, but sometimes
the rules for negative numbers (yuck!) get a little mixed up from time to time. So, it is good
to go over them to make sure you have them down.

61

Tutorial

with the Same Sign
Step 1: Add the absolute values.
If you need a review of absolute values, go to Tutorial 2: Symbols and Sets
of Numbers.

## Step 2: Attach their common sign to sum.

In other words:
If both numbers that you are adding are positive, then you will have a positive
If both numbers that you are adding are negative then you will have a

## Example 1: Add -6 + (-8).

-6 + (-8) = -14
The sum of the absolute values would be 14 and their common sign is -. That is how
62

## we get the answer of -14.

You can also think of this as money. I know we can all relate to that. Think of the
negative as a loss. In this example, you can think of it as having lost 6 dollars and then
having lost another 8 dollars for a total loss of 14 dollars.

## Example 2: Add -5.5 + (-8.7).

-5.5 + (-8.7) = -14.2
The sum of the absolute values would be 14.2 and their common sign is -. That is how
we get the answer of -14.2.
You can also think of this as money - I know we can all relate to that. Think of the
negative as a loss. In this example, you can think of it as having lost 5.5 dollars and
then having lost another 8.7 dollars for a total loss of 14.2 dollars.

with Opposite Signs
Step 1: Take the difference of the absolute values.
If you need a review of absolute values, go to Tutorial 2: Symbols and Sets
of Numbers.

Step 2: Attach the sign of the number that has the higher absolute value.
Which did you have more of, negative or positive?
If the number with the larger absolute value is negative, then your sum is
negative. In other words you have more negative than positive.
63

If the number with the larger absolute value was positive, then your sum is
positive. In other words you have more positive than negative.

Example 3: Add -8 + 6.
-8 + 6 = -2.
The difference between 8 and 6 is 2 and the sign of 8 (the larger absolute value) is -.
That is how we get the answer of -2.
Thinking in terms of money: we lost 8 dollars and got back 6 dollars, so we are still
in the hole 2 dollars.

## *Mult. top and bottom of first fraction by 2 to get the LCD

of 6
*Take the difference of the numerators and write over
common denominator 6
*Reduce fraction

The difference between 4/6 and 1/6 is 3/6 = 1/2 and the sign of 4/6 (the larger absolute
value) is +. That is how we get the answer of 1/2.
Thinking in terms of money: we had 2/3 of a dollar and lost 1/6 of a dollar, so we
would come out ahead 1/2 of a dollar.
Note that if you need help on fractions, go back to Tutorial 3: Fractions.

64

## Example 5: Add -10 + 7 + (-2) + 5.

In this example, we are needing to combine more than two numbers together, but we
will still follow the same thought process we do if there are only two numbers. Im
going to go ahead and step us through it going left to right.

* -10 + 7 = -3
*-3 + (-2) = -5

In this addition problem, we have some absolute values thrown into the mix.
Remember that we need to do what is inside the absolute values (grouping symbol)
first and then add those numbers together. If you need a review on order of
operations go to Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions and Equations.

## *Add inside the absolute values

*Evaluate the absolute values

Opposites
Opposites are two numbers that are on opposite sides of the origin (0) on the number line,
but have the same absolute value. In other words, opposites are the same distance away from
the origin, but in opposite directions.
The opposite of x is the number -x.
Keep in mind that the opposite of 0 is 0.
65

## Double Negative Property

For every real number a,
-(-a) = a.

When you see a negative sign in front of an expression, you can think of it as taking the opposite
of it. For example, if you had -(-2), you can think of it as the opposite of -2. Since a number can
only have one of two signs, either a '+' or a '-', then the opposite of a negative would have to be
positive. So, -(-2) = 2.

## Example 7: Write the additive inverse or opposite of 1.5.

The opposite of 1.5 is -1.5, since both of these numbers have the same absolute value
but are on opposite sides of the origin on the number line.

## Example 8: Write the opposite of -3.

The opposite of -3 is 3, since both of these numbers have the same absolute value but
are on opposite sides of the origin on the number line.
66

## Example 9: Simplify -(-10).

When you have a negative in front of a parenthesis like this, it is another way to write
that you need to find the additive inverse or opposite.
Since the opposite of a negative is a positive, our answer is 10.

-|-5.2| =
-(5.2) =
-5.2

## *Evaluate the absolute value

*Find the opposite

Practice Problems
These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see
if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if
you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians
had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.
To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

67

1a. -15 + 7

1b.

## 1c. 3.2 + (-1.3) + (- 4.1)

1d. |- 4 + (-3) + 2|

2a.

2b. -20

## Practice Problems 3a - 3b: Simplify.

3a. -(- 4)

3b.

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 5: Adding Real Numbers

68

-15 + 7

-15 + 7 = -8
The difference between 15 and 7 is 8 and the sign of 15 (the larger absolute value) is -, that is
how we get the answer of -8.

## *Mult. top and bottom of first fraction by 2 to get the LCD of 10

*Add the numerators and write over common denominator 10

The sum of the absolute values would be 13/10 and their common sign is -, that is how we get the

3.2 + (-1.3) + (- 4.1)
69

## *3.2 + (-1.3) = 1.9

*1.9 + (-4.1) = -2.2

|- 4 + (-3) + 2|

*- 4 + (-3) = -7
* - 7 + 2 = -5
*Evaluate the absolute value

1/2

The opposite of 1/2 is -1/2, because both of these numbers have the same absolute value, but are
on opposite sides of the origin on the number line.

-20
70

The opposite of -20 is 20, because both of these numbers have the same absolute value, but are
on opposite sides of the origin on the number line.

-(- 4)

## Tutorial 6: Subtracting Real Numbers

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

71

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Subtract real numbers that have the same sign.
2. Subtract real numbers that have different signs.
3. Simplify an expression that has subtraction in it using the order of operations.

Introduction

This tutorial reviews subtracting real numbers and intertwines that with some order of operation
and evaluation problems.
I have the utmost confidence that you are familiar with subtraction, but sometimes the rules for
negative numbers (yuck!) get a little mixed up from time to time. So, it is good to go over them
to make sure you have them down.
Even in this day and age of calculators, it is very important to know these basic rules of
operations on real numbers. Even if you are using a calculator, you are the one that is putting the
information into it, so you need to know things like when you are subtracting versus adding and
the order that you need to put it in. Also, if you are using a calculator you should have a rough
idea as to what the answer should be. You never know, you may hit a wrong key and get a wrong
answer (it happens to the best of us). Also, your batteries in your calculator may run out and you
may have to do a problem by hand (scary!!!). You want to be prepared for those Murphy's Law
moments.

Tutorial

72

a - b = a + (-b)
or
a - (-b) = a + b

## In other words, to subtract b, you add the opposite of b.

Now, you do not have to write it out like this if you are already comfortable with it. This just
gives you the thought behind it.

Example 1: Subtract -3 - 5.
-3 - 5 = -3 + (-5) = -8.
Subtracting 5 is the same as adding a -5.
Tutorial 5: Adding Real Numbers, to complete for an answer of -8.

## Example 2: Subtract -3 - (-5).

-3 - (-5) = -3 + 5 = 2.
Subtracting -5 is the same as adding 5.
Tutorial 5: Adding Real Numbers, to complete for an answer of 2.

Example 3: Subtract

.
73

*Mult. top and bottom of 1st fraction by 2 and 2nd by
3 to get the
LCD of 6
*Take the difference of the numerators and write
over common denominator 6

The difference between 14/6 and 3/6 is 11/6 and the sign of 14/6 (the larger absolute
value) is -. That is how we get the answer -11/6

Example 4: Simplify

Since we have several operations going on in this problem, we will have to use the
order of operations to make sure that we get the correct answer.
If you need to review the order of operations go to Tutorial 4: Operations of Real
Numbers.

*Exponent
*Multiply
*25 - 8 = 17

Example 5: Simplify
Since we have several operations going on in this problem, we will have to use the
74

## order of operations to make sure that we get the correct answer.

If you need to review the order of operations go to Tutorial 4: Operations of Real
Numbers.

*Exponent
*Multiplication
*7 + 6 = 13
*13 - 15 = -2

## Example 6: Evaluate the expression

if x = -2 and y = 5.

## To review evaluating an expression go to Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable

Expressions and Equations.
Plugging -2 for x and 5 for y and simplifying we get:

## *Plug in -2 for x and 5 for y

*Rewrite num. as addition of opposite
*Simplify fraction

75

Example 7: Is -1 a solution of -x + 4 = 6 + x?
If you need a review on what a solution to an equation is go to Tutorial 4:
Introduction to Variable Expressions and Equations.
Replacing x with -1 we get:

*Plug in -1 for x
*Take the opposite of -1

Is -1 a solution?
Since we got a TRUE statement (5 does in fact equal 5), then -1 is a solution to this
equation.

Practice Problems
These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see
if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if
you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians
had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.
To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

76

2a.

2b.

3a.

## Practice Problem 4a: Is -2 a solution to the given equation?

4a.

Tutorial 6: Subtracting Real Numbers
77

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 6: Subtracting Real Numbers

-10 - (-2)

## -10 - (-2) = -10 + 2 = -8.

Subtracting -2 is the same as adding 2. Once it is written as addition, we just following the rules

- 4.1 - 5.3

## - 4.1 - 5.3 = - 4.1 + (-5.3) = -9.4.

Subtracting 5.3 is the same as adding -5.3. Once it is written as addition, We just following the

78

Since we have several operations going on in this problem, we will have to use the order of
operations to make sure that we get the correct answer.
If you need to review the order of operations go to Tutorial 4: Operations of Real Numbers.

*Exponent
*Multiplication
*27 + (-2) = 25

Since we have several operations going on in this problem, we will have to use the order of
operations to make sure that we get the correct answer.
If you need to review the order of operations go to Tutorial 4: Operations of Real Numbers.

*Exponent
*Multiplication
*16 - 4 = 12

79

## To review evaluating an expression go to Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions

and Equations.
Plugging 2 for x and -2 for y and simplifying we get:

## If you need a review on what a solution to an equation is go to Tutorial 4: Introduction to

Variable Expressions and Equations.
Replacing x with -2 we get:

*Plug in -2 for x

Is -2 a solution?
80

Since we got a TRUE statement (7 does in fact equal 7), then -2 is a solution to this equation.

## Tutorial 7: Multiplying and Dividing Real

Numbers
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Find the reciprocal of a number.
2. Multiply positive and negative numbers.
3. Divide positive and negative numbers.
4. Multiply by zero.
5. Know that dividing by zero is undefined.

Introduction

This tutorial reviews multiplying and dividing real numbers and intertwines that with some order
of operation and evaluation problems. It also reminds you that dividing by 0 results in an
undefined answer. In other words, it is a big no, no.
I have the utmost confidence that you are familiar with multiplication and division, but
sometimes the rules for negative numbers (yuck!) get a little mixed up from time to time. So, it is
good to go over them to make sure you have them down.

81

Tutorial

Multiplicative Inverse
(or reciprocal)
For each real number a, except 0,
there is a unique real number

such that

In other words, when you multiply a number by its multiplicative inverse the result is 1.
A more common term used to indicate a multiplicative inverse is the reciprocal.
A multiplicative inverse or reciprocal of a real number a (except 0) is found by flipping a
upside down. The numerator of a becomes the denominator of the reciprocal of a and the
denominator of a becomes the numerator of the reciprocal of a.

## Example 1: Write the reciprocal (or multiplicative inverse) of -3.

The reciprocal of -3 is -1/3, since -3(-1/3) = 1.
When you take the reciprocal, the sign of the original number stays intact.
Remember that you need a number that when you multiply times the given number
you get 1. If you change the sign when you take the reciprocal, you would get a -1,
instead of 1, and that is a no no.

82

## Example 2: Write the reciprocal (or multiplicative inverse) of 1/5.

The reciprocal of 1/5 is 5, since 5(1/5) = 1.

## Quotient of Real Numbers

If a and b are real numbers and
b is not 0, then

## Multiplying or Dividing Real Numbers

Since dividing is the same as multiplying by the reciprocal, dividing and multiplying have the
same sign rules.

## Step 1: Multiply or divide their absolute values.

Step 2: Put the correct sign.
If the two numbers have the same sign, the product or quotient is positive.
If they have opposite signs, the product or quotient is negative.

## Example 3: Find the product (-4)(3).

(-4)(3) = -12.
83

The product of the absolute values 4 x 3 is 12 and they have opposite signs, so our

## *Mult. num. together

*Mult. den. together
*(-)(-) = (+)
*Reduce fraction

The product of the absolute values 2/3 x 9/10 is 18/30 = 3/5 and they have the same
sign, so that is how we get the answer 3/5.
Note that if you need help on fractions go to Tutorial 3: Fractions

## Example 5: Find the product

Working this problem left to right we get:

*(3)(-2) = -6
*(-6)(-10) = 60

## Example 6: Divide (-10)/(-2).

84

(-10)/(-2) = 5
The quotient of the absolute values 10/2 is 5 and they have the same signs, so our

Example 7: Divide

## *Div. is the same as mult. by reciprocal

*Mult. num. together
*Mult. den. together
*(+)(-) = *Reduce fraction

The quotient of the absolute values 4/5 and 8 is 4/40 = 1/10 and they have opposite
signs, so our answer is -1/10.
Note that if you need help on fractions go to Tutorial 3: Fractions

Multiplying by and
Dividing into Zero
a(0) = 0
and
0/a = 0 (when a does not equal 0)

In other words, zero (0) times any real number is zero (0) and zero (0) divided by any real
number other than zero (0) is zero (0).

85

## Example 8: Multiply 0().

0() = 0.
Multiplying any expression by 0 results in an answer of 0.

## Example 9: Divide 0/5.

0/5 = 0.
Dividing 0 by any expression other than 0 results in an answer of 0.

Dividing by Zero
a/0 is undefined

Zero (0) does not go into any number, so whenever you are dividing by zero (0) your answer is
undefined.

## Example 10: Divide 5/0.

5/0 = undefined.
Dividing by 0 results in an undefined answer.

86

## Example 11: Simplify

Since we have several operations going on in this problem, we will have to use the
order of operations to make sure that we get the correct answer.
If you need to review the order of operations go to Tutorial 4: Operations of Real
Numbers.

*Subtract
*(-)/(-) = +

## Example 12: Evaluate the expression

if x = -2 and y = - 4.

## To review evaluating an expression go to Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable

Expressions and Equations.
Plugging -2 for x and - 4 for y and simplifying we get:

## *Plug in -2 for x and -4 for y

*Exponent
*Multiply

Practice Problems
87

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see
if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if
you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians
had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.
To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a. (-2)(-25)

1b.

(0)(-100)

1c. (-2)(3)(5)

2a.

2b.

2c.

88

3a.

## Practice Problem 4a: Evaluate the expression when x = 5 and y = -5.

4a.

Tutorial 7: Multiplying and Dividing Real
Numbers
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 7: Multiplying and Dividing Real
Numbers

(-2)(-25)

(-2)(-25) = 50.
89

The product of the absolute values 2 and 25 is 50 and they have the same sign, so that is how we

(0)(-100)

(0)(-100) = 0.

(-2)(3)(5)

## Working it left to right we get:

(-2)(3)(5) =
(-6)(5) =
-30

90

(-25)/(5) = -5.
The quotient of the absolute values (25)/(5) = 5 and they have opposite signs, so that is how we

7/0 = undefined.

91

## *Div. is the same as mult. by reciprocal

*Mult. num. together
*Mult. den. together
*(-)(-) = *Reduce fraction

Since we have several operations going on in this problem, we will have to use the order of
operations to make sure that we get the correct answer.
If you need to review the order of operations go to Tutorial 4: Operations of Real Numbers.

*Multiply
*Reduce fraction

92

## To review evaluating an expression go to Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions

and Equations.
Plugging 5 for x and -5 for y and simplifying we get:

*Exponent
*Multiply
*Subtract

## Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Identify and use the addition and multiplication commutative properties.
2. Identify and use the addition and multiplication associative properties.
3. Identify and use the distributive property.
4. Identify and use the addition and multiplication identity properties.
5. Identify and use the addition and multiplication inverse properties.

93

Introduction

It is important to be familiar with the properties in this tutorial. They lay the foundation that you
need to work with equations, functions, and formulas all of which are covered in later tutorials, as
well as, your algebra class. In some cases, it isn't very helpful to rewrite an expression, but in
other cases it helps to write an equivalent expression to be able to continue with a problem and
solve it. An equivalent expression is one that is written differently, but has the same value. The
properties on this page will get you up to speed as to how you can write expressions in equivalent
forms.

Tutorial

## The Commutative Properties of

a+b=b+a

and

ab = ba

The Commutative Property, in general, states that changing the ORDER of two numbers
either being added or multiplied, does NOT change the value of it.
The two sides are called equivalent expressions because they look different but have the same
value.

94

## Example 1: Use the commutative property to write an equivalent expression to 2.5x

+ 3y.
Using the commutative property of addition (where changing the order of a sum does
not change the value of it) we get
2.5x + 3y = 3y + 2.5x.

## Example 2: Use the commutative property to write an equivalent expression

to

.
Using the commutative property of multiplication (where changing the order of a
product does not change the value of it), we get

## The Associative Properties of

a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c

and

a(bc) = (ab)c

The Associative property, in general, states that changing the GROUPING of numbers that
are either being added or multiplied does NOT change the value of it. Again, the two sides
are equivalent to each other.
At this point it is good to remind you that both the commutative and associative properties
do NOT work for subtraction or division.

95

## Example 3: Use the associative property to write an equivalent expression to (a +

5b) + 2c.

Using the associative property of addition (where changing the grouping of a sum does
not change the value of it) we get
(a + 5b) + 2c = a + (5b + 2c).

## Example 4: Use the associative property to write an equivalent expression to

(1.5x)y.
Using the associative property of multiplication (where changing the grouping of a
product does not change the value of it) we get
(1.5x)y = 1.5(xy)

Distributive Properties
a(b + c) = ab + ac
or
(b + c)a = ba + ca

In other words, when you have a term being multiplied times two or more terms that are
being added (or subtracted) in a ( ), multiply the outside term times EVERY term on the
inside.
Remember terms are separated by + and -.
This idea can be extended to more than two terms in the ( ).

96

## *A - outside a ( ) is the same as times (-1)

*Distribute the (-1) to EVERY term inside ( )
*Multiply

Basically, when you have a negative sign in front of a ( ), like this example, you can
think of it as taking a -1 times the ( ). What you end up doing in the end is taking the
opposite of every term in the ( ).

## Example 7: Use the distributive property to find the product

3(2a + 3b + 4c).
As mentioned above, you can extend the distributive property to as many terms as are
inside the ( ). The basic idea is that you multiply the outside term times EVERY term
on the inside.

## *Distribute the 3 to EVERY term

*Multiply
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Identity Properties

a+0=0+a=a

In other words, when you add 0 to any number, you end up with that number as a result.

Multiplication
Multiplication identity is 1
a(1) = 1(a) = a

And when you multiply any number by 1, you wind up with that number as your answer.

## The Inverse Properties

For each real number a, there is a unique real
number,
denoted -a, such that
a + (-a) = 0.

In other words, when you add a number to its additive inverse, the result is 0. Other terms that are
synonymous with additive inverse are negative and opposite.

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Multiplicative Inverse
(or reciprocal)
For each real number a, except 0, there is a unique
real number

such that

In other words, when you multiply a number by its multiplicative inverse the result is 1. A more
common term used to indicate a multiplicative inverse is the reciprocal. A multiplicative inverse
or reciprocal of a real number a (except 0) is found by "flipping" a upside down. The numerator
of a becomes the denominator of the reciprocal of a and the denominator of a becomes the
numerator of the reciprocal of a.
These two inverses will come in big time handy when you go to solve equations later on.
Keep them in your memory bank until that time.

Example 8: Write the opposite (or additive inverse) and reciprocal (or
multiplicative inverse) of -3.

## The opposite of -3 is 3, since -3 + 3 = 0.

The reciprocal of -3 is -1/3, since -3(-1/3) = 1.
When you take the reciprocal, the sign of the original number stays intact. Remember
that you need a number that when you multiply times the given number you get 1. If
you change the sign when you take the reciprocal, you would get a -1, instead of 1, and
that is a no no.

Example 9: Write the opposite (or additive inverse) and reciprocal (or
multiplicative inverse) of 1/5.
The opposite of 1/5 is -1/5, since 1/5 + (-1/5) = 0.
99

## The reciprocal of 1/5 is 5, since 5(1/5) = 1.

Practice Problems
These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see
if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if
you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians
had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.
To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

expression.

1a. xy

1b. .1 + 3x

## Practice Problems 2a - 2b: Use an associative property to write an equivalent

expression.

2a. (a + b) + 1.5

2b. 5(xy)

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Practice Problems 3a - 3b: Use the distributive property to find the product.

3a. -2(x - 5)

## 3b. 7(5a + 4b + 3c)

Practice Problems 4a - 4b: Write the opposite (additive inverse) and the
reciprocal (multiplicative inverse) of each number.

4a. -7

4b. 3/5

Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers

xy
Using the commutative property of multiplication (where changing the order of a product does
not change the value of it), we get

xy = yx

101

.1 + 3x
Using the commutative property of addition (where changing the order of a sum does not change
the value of it), we get
.1 + 3x = 3x + .1

(a + b) + 1.5
Using the associative property of addition (where changing the grouping of a sum does not
change the value of it), we get
(a + b) + 1.5 = a + (b + 1.5)

5(xy)
Using the associative property of multiplication (where changing the grouping of a product does
not change the value of it), we get
5(xy) = (5x)y

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-2(x - 5)

*Multiply

7(5a + 4b + 3c)

## *Distribute 7 to EVERY term

*Multiply

-7
The opposite of -7 is 7, since -7 + 7 = 0.

103

## The reciprocal of -7 is -1/7, since -7(-1/7) = 1.

3/5
The opposite of 3/5 is -3/5, since 3/5 + (-3/5) = 0.
The reciprocal of 3/5 is 5/3, since (3/5)(5/3) = 1.

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
3. Read a double line graph.
4. Draw and read a Venn diagram.

Introduction
In this tutorial we will be reading graphs. Graphs can be used to visually represent the
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relationship of data. It can help organize and show people statistics, which can be good for some
and not so good for others, depending on what the statistics show. Organizing data graphically
can come in handy in fields like business, sports, teaching, politics, advertising, etc.. Let's start
looking at some graphs.

Tutorial

Bar Graph
A bar graph can be used to give a visual representation of the relationship of data that has been
collected.
It is made up of a vertical and a horizontal axis and bars that can run vertically or horizontally.

## Vertical Bar Graph

If the bars are vertical, match the top of the bar with the vertical axis found at the side of the
overall graph to find the information the bar associates with on the vertical axis. You will find
what the bar associates with on the horizontal axis at the base of the bar.
The bar graph below has vertical bars:

The horizontal axis represents years and the vertical axis represents profit in
thousands of dollars.
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The first bar on the left associates with the year 1999 AND the profit of
\$20,000. The red line shows how the top of the bar lines up with 20 on the
vertical axis.
The second bar from the left associates with the year 2000 and the profit of
\$30,000. The blue line shows how the top of the bar lines up with 30 on the
vertical axis.

## Horizontal Bar Graph

If the bars are horizontal, match the right end of the bar with the horizontal axis found at the
bottom of the overall graph to find the information the bar associates with on the horizontal axis.
You will find what the the bar associates with on the vertical axis at the left end of the bar.
The bar graph below has horizontal bars:
(Note that this graph shows the same information the above graph does, just with horizontal bars

The vertical axis represents years and the horizontal axis represents profit in
thousands of dollars.
The first bar on the bottom associates with the year 1999 AND the profit of
\$20,000. The red line shows how the right end of the bar lines up with 20 on
the horizontal axis.
The second bar from the bottom associates with the year 2000 and the profit
of \$30,000. The blue line shows how the right end of the bar lines up with 30
on the horizontal axis.

106

Example 1: The bar graph below shows the number of students in a math class that
1a. Find the number of students who received an A.
1b. Find the number of students who received an F.
1c. Find the number of students who passed the course (D or higher).

## 1a. Find the number of students who received an A.

The bar that associates with the grade A is the first bar on the left. The top of that bar
matches with 6 on the vertical axis.

## 1b. Find the number of students who received an F.

The bar that associates with the grade F is the fifth bar from the left. The top of that
bar matches with 2 on the vertical axis.

1c. Find the number of students who passed the course (D or higher).

107

We will have to do a little calculating here. We will need to find the number of
students that received an A, B C, and D and then ad them together.
The bar that associates with the grade A is the first bar on the left. The top of that bar
matches with 6 on the vertical axis.
The bar that associates with the grade B is the second bar from the left. The top of that
bar matches with 16 on the vertical axis.
The bar that associates with the grade C is the third bar from the left. The top of that
bar matches with 12 on the vertical axis.
The bar that associates with the grade D is the fourth bar from the left. The top of that
bar matches with 4 on the vertical axis.
6 + 16 + 12 + 4 = 38 students passed the course.

It looks like more students received a B than any other single grade.

Example 2: The bar graph below shows the number of civilians holding various
federal government jobs. Use the graph to answer questions 2a - 2d.
2a. About how many civilians work for Congress?
2b. About how many civilians work for the State Department?
2c. About how many civilians work for the armed forces (Navy, Air Force, and Army)?
2d. Which federal government job listed has the most civilian workers?

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## 2a. About how many civilians work for Congress?

The bar that associates with Congress is the fourth bar up. The right of that bar lines
up a little to the left of 50 on the horizontal axis. Note how the question asks ABOUT
how many. In some cases, if it does not directly line up with a number that is marked
you may need to approximate. This is very close to and less than 50. A good
approximation is 25.
About 25,000 civilians work for Congress.

2b. About how many civilians work for the State Department?

The bar that associates with the State Department is the sixth bar up. The right of that
bar lines up with 50 on the horizontal axis.
About 50,000 civilians work for the State Department.

2c. About how many civilians work for the armed forces (Navy, Air Force, and Army)?

We will have to do a little calculating on this one. We will need to find the number of
civilians that work for each branch of the armed services and then add them up.
The bar that associates with the Navy is the third bar up. The right of that bar ends
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between 300 and 350 on the horizontal axis. 310 is a good approximation for this
number.
The bar that associates with the Air Force is the second bar up. The right of that bar
ends between 200 and 250 on the horizontal axis. 210 is a good approximation for
this number.
The bar that associates with the Army is the first bar from the bottom. The right of
that bar ends just under 350 on the horizontal axis. 340 is a good approximation for
this number.
About 310,000 + 210,000 + 340,000 = 860,000 civilians work for the State
Department.

2d. Which federal government job listed has the most civilian workers?

## It looks like the Army has the most civilian workers.

Line Graph
A line graph is another way to give a visual representation of the relationship of data that has
been collected.
It is made up of a vertical and horizontal axis and a series of points that are connected by a line.
Each point on the line matches up with a corresponding vertical axis and horizontal axis value on
the graph.
In some cases, you are giving a value from the horizontal axis and you need to find its
corresponding value from the vertical axis. You find the point on the line that matches the given
value from the horizontal axis and then match it up with its corresponding vertical axis value to
find the value you are looking for. You would do the same type of process if you were given a
vertical axis value and needed to find a horizontal axis value.
The graph below is a line graph:
(Note that this graph shows the same information the above graphs under vertical and horizontal
graphs do, just with a line instead of bars.)

110

The horizontal axis represents years and the vertical axis represents profit in
thousands of dollars.
The first point on the left associates with the year 1999 AND the profit of
\$20,000. The red line shows how it lines up with 20 on the vertical axis and
1999 on the horizontal axis.
The second point from the left associates with the year 2000 and the profit of
\$30,000. The blue line shows how it lines up with 30 on the vertical axis and
2000 on the horizontal axis.

Example 3: The line graph below shows the distance traveled of a vacationer going
70 mph down I-40 from 0 to 4 hours. Use the graph to answer questions 3a - 3b.
3a. How far has the vacationer traveled at 3 hours?
3b. How long does it take the vacationer to travel 140 miles?

111

## 3a. How far has the vacationer traveled at 3 hours?

The point that matches with 3 on the horizontal axis also matches with 210 on the
vertical axis.
The vacationer has traveled 210 miles.

3b. How long does it take the vacationer to travel 140 miles?

The point that matches with 140 on the vertical axis also matches with 2 on the
horizontal axis.
It takes the vacationer 2 hours to travel 140 miles.

Example 4: The line graph below shows the profit a local candy company made
over the months of September through December of last year. Use the graph to answer questions
4a - 4c.
4a. About how much was the profit in the month of October?
4b. Which month had the lowest profit?
4c. What is the difference between the profits of November and December?

4a. About how much was the profit in the month of October?

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The point that matches with October on the horizontal axis also matches between 20
and 25 on the vertical axis. It looks to be about 23.
The profit for the month of October is about \$23,000.

## It looks like September had the lowest profit.

4c. What is the difference between the profits of November and December?

The point that matches with November on the horizontal axis also matches with 15 on
the vertical axis.
The point that matches with December on the horizontal axis also matches with 20 on
the vertical axis.
The difference between the profits of November and December would be 20,000 15,000 = \$5,000.

## Double Line Graph

A double line graph is another way to give a visual representation of the relationship of data that
has been collected.
It is similar to the line graph mentioned above. The difference is there are two lines of data
It is made up of a vertical and horizontal axis and two series of points each one connected by a
line.
The legend will show which line represents what set of points. Most times a solid line and a
dashed line are used. But varying colors can also distinguish the two lines apart.
Each point on each line matches up with a corresponding vertical axis and horizontal axis value
on the graph.
In some cases, you are giving a value from the horizontal axis and you need to find its
corresponding value from the vertical axis. You find the point on the line that matches the given
113

value from the horizontal axis and then match it up with its corresponding vertical axis value to
find the value you are looking for. You would do the same type of process if you were given a
vertical axis value and needed to find a horizontal axis value.
The graph below is a double line graph:

The horizontal axis represents the year and the vertical axis represents profit
in thousands of dollars.
The legend towards the top of the graph indicates which line represents which
product. The solid line corresponds with Product A and the dashed line goes
with Product B.
The first point on the solid line on the left associates with the year 1995 AND
the profit of \$30,000.
The second point on the solid line from the left associates with the year 1996
AND the profit of \$40,000.
The third point on the solid line from the left associates with the year 1997
AND the profit of \$40,000.
The fourth point on the solid line from the left associates with the year 1998
AND the profit of \$30,000.
The fifth point on the solid line from the left associates with the year 1999
AND the profit of \$60,000.
The first point on the dashed line on the left associates with the year 1995
AND the profit of \$20,000.
The second point on the dashed line from the left associates with the year
1996 AND the profit of \$20,000.
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The third point on the dashed line from the left associates with the year 1997
AND the profit of \$15,000.
The fourth point on the dashed line from the left associates with the year 1998
AND the profit of \$40,000.
The fifth point on the dashed line from the left associates with the year 1999
AND the profit of \$50,000.

Example 5: The double line graph below shows the total enrollment of students in a
local college from 1990 - 1995, broken down into part-time and full-time students. Use the graph
to answer questions 5a - 5c.
5a. What was the full-time enrollment in 1992?
5b. For what year shown on the graph did the number of part-time students exceed the previous
years number of part-time students by the greatest number?
5c. What was the total enrollment from 1993 to 1995?

## 5a. What was the full-time enrollment in 1992?

Since we are looking for full-time students, are we going to look at the solid or dashed
line?

115

## According to the legend, we need to look at the dashed line.

The point that is on the dashed line and matches with 1992 on the horizontal line also
matches with 200 on the vertical line.
There were 200 full-time students enrolled in 1992.

5b. For what year shown on the graph did the number of part-time students exceed the
previous years number of part-time students by the greatest number?

Since we are looking for part-time students, are we going to look at the solid or dashed
line?
According to the legend, we need to look at the solid line.
When looking at the graph, we are only interested in a rise in the number of part-time
students. From 1990 to 1991, the number of part-time students went up 100 to 150.
From 1991 to 1992, it went down from 150 to 50. From 1992 to 1993, there was
increase from 50 to 250. From 1993 to 1994, there was another increase, this time
from 250 to 300. The last years, 1994 - 1995, it held steady at 300.
So, what year exceeded the previous number of part-time students by the greatest
number?
Looks like 1993. There were 200 more part-time students in 1993 than there were
in 1992.

## Lets break this down into part-time and full-time students.

Looking at the dashed line to see the number of full-time students we get 250 + 400 +
500 = 1150.
Looking at the solid line to see the number of part-time students we get 250 + 300 +
300 = 850.
Putting those together, we have 1150 + 850 = 2000 students who were enrolled
from 1993 to 1995.

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Venn Diagrams
Venn diagrams are a visual way of organizing information. It can be very helpful when you have
a problem to solve that categorizes or shows relationships between things.
A common use for Venn diagrams is analyzing the results of a survey. For example, you may
have a survey of students asking them which classes they like and perhaps you listed math and
english. The student could check 0, 1, or 2 of these choices. You would strategically place the
results in a Venn diagram. If they only choose math, then they would go in a particular region of
the diagram that shows that, if they picked both, they would go into the area of the diagram that
depicts that, etc. Of course there are other uses for the Venn diagram, that is one of the more
common ones.
The graph below is a Venn diagram:

This diagram represents the results of a survey of people who were asked if they liked Coke or
Pepsi. They could choose only Coke, only Pepsi, both, or neither.
Note that a lot of times you do not see the letter U or the roman numerals on a Venn
Diagram (just the box and the circles), I use them as references so you know what area of
the diagram I'm talking about in the lesson.
The rectangle box represents the universal set U. The universal set is the set of all elements
considered in a problem. In this example, the universal set are all the people who took the
survey.
The circles represent the categories or subsets involving the universal set. In this example,
the two categories or choices on the survey were Coke and Pepsi.
When you draw a Venn diagram, you want to overlap the circles in case there are some that pick
both categories. We need to make sure we accurately place those people and do not count them
more than one time.
The roman numerals are called region numbers.
Region I represents everyone who selected ONLY Coke which was 575 people.
Region II is where the two circles intersect or overlap. It represents everyone who selected
BOTH Coke and Pepsi which was 100 people.
Region III represents everyone who selected ONLY Pepsi which was 225 people.

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Region IV is inside the rectangle, but outside the circles. It represents everyone who selected
NEITHER Coke nor Pepsi which was 15 people.

## Example 6: A teacher took a survey on pets in her class of 40 students. 12 students

said they had a cat. 9 students said they had a dog. 2 said they had both a cat and a dog. How
many students picked neither? How many students had only a cat? How many students had only
a dog?
The first thing we need to do is draw a Venn diagram with two adjoining circles - one
for cats and one for dogs.

Now we need to fill in numbers into the correct regions based on the information that
was given.
We need to start with something that only goes with one region and then work
our way out from that.
The only statement that deals with one region is 2 said they had both a cat and a
dog. That would correlate with region II. So in region II, we would put a 2 as shown
below:

Next let's look at the statement 12 students said they had a cat. Be careful here. It is
very tempting to put a 12 in region I - but region I is reserved for those students who
ONLY have a cat, which is different. When it says they had a cat, it means they
checked it off on the survey and may or may not have checked off dog also. The cat
circle includes regions I and II. Since we already have region II filled in with a 2, we
can use that with the fact that I and II have to add up to be 12 to figure out what goes
118

in region I - what do you think??? If we take 12 - 2 we get 10 left that have no other
place to go but region I.
This puts everybody in the correct spot AND does not count students more than 1
time.
We can use the same type of argument when working with the statement "9 students
said they had a dog." Again, it did not say ONLY dog - so 9 will have to fit into
regions II and III and since we already have II filled in with 2 students that will
leave 9 - 2 = 7 to go into region III.

That leaves us with having to fill in region IV. We can use the fact that 40 students
answered the survey and that we have three of the four regions filled in. So we can
take the total of 40 and subtract everyone that is already accounted for and that will
leave us who is in region IV: 40 - 10 - 2 - 7 = 21.

Overall, you need to start with the information that goes with only one region first. If
you start with something that goes with more than one part, then you will not know
how to split it up appropriately so everyone is in the right spot AND is not
counted more than one time. For example, if we would have started with the fact
that there were 40 students, we would have had trouble because all four regions would
make up all the students surveyed. We wouldn't know how to appropriately split that
40 up. Or if we looked at the fact that 12 choose a cat to start with, we would not
know how to split it between the two regions that make up the cat circle.
Looking at the Venn diagram, the students that chose neither would be in region IV,
which comes out to be 21. The students who chose only a cat would be in region I,
which is 10. The students who chose only a dog would be in region III, which is 7.

119

Practice Problems
These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see
if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if
you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians
had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.
To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

Practice Problems 1a - 1c: The bar graph below shows the profit a cd store made
over the months of September through December of last year. Use the graph to answer
questions 1a - 1c.

## 1b. Which month had the highest profit?

1c. What is the difference between the profits of October and November?

120

Practice Problems 2a - 2c: The line graph below shows last week's high
temperatures in Fahrenheit. Use the graph to answer questions 2a - 2c.

## 2c. What temperature occurred the most?

Practice Problems 3a - 3c: The double line graph below shows the total
enrollment of people who work out at a local gym from 1998 - 2002, broken down into
males and females. Use the graph to answer questions 3a - 3c.

121

3a. What was the ratio between male gym members and female gym members in
2000?

3b. For what year shown on the graph did male gym membership not change from the
year before?

3c. What was the total enrollment of the gym from 1998 to 2000?

Practice Problems 4a - 4c: A group of students were asked if they liked rock or
country music. The results were as follows: 27 said they liked rock, 20 said they liked
country, 5 liked both, and 3 liked neither.

## 4c. How many students were surveyed?

122

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 9: Reading Graphs

## 1a. About how much was the profit in September?

The bar that associates with September is the first bar on the left. The top of
that bar is in between 5 and 10 on the vertical axis. A good approximation is
8.
The profit in September is about \$8000.

## 1b. Which month had the highest profit?

It looks like December had the highest profit.

1c. What is the difference between the profits of October and November?
The bar that associates with October is the second bar from the left. The top
of that bar matches with 5 on the vertical axis.
The bar that associates with November is the third bar from the left. The top
123

## of that bar matches with 10 on the vertical axis.

The difference between the profits of October and November would be
10,000 - 5,000 = \$5,000.

## 2a. How much was Thursday's high temperature?

The point that matches with Thursday on the horizontal axis also matches 80
on the vertical axis.
Thursday's high temperature was 80 degrees Fahrenheit.

## 2b. Which day had the lowest high temperature?

It looks like Saturday had the lowest high temperature.

## 2c. What temperature occurred the most?

It looks like 85 degrees Fahrenheit occurred three times which is the
most.
124

3a. What was the ratio between male gym members and female gym members in 2000?
When setting up a ratio you need to write the number that corresponds to the
first part first and then compare it to the number that corresponds to the
second part of the ratio.
What do you think the first part of the ratio is, males or females? Since
males are listed first, that is what our first number of our ratio has to
correspond to.
What is the number attached to males gym members in 2000? Looking at
the solid line, I believe it is 50.
That leaves the number associated with females to be our second part of the
ratio. Looking at the dashed line we get 15.
So the ratio of male gym members to female gym members in 2000 would be
50 to 15.
You can think of ratios as fractions, and simplify them in the same manner.
Since 50 and 15 have a greatest common factor of 5, we can reduce this to be
10 to 3.
The reduced ratio of male gym members to female gym members is 10 to
125

3.
Note that if you had started with 15 to 50, this would be incorrect. 15 to 50
would be the ratio of females to males. You write a ratio, just like you read it,
left to right.

3b. For what year shown on the graph did male gym membership not change from the year
before?
Are we going to look at the solid or dashed line for this question? Since
we are only interested in the male membership, we will need to look at the
solid line.
Going from left to right on the solid lines it appears that male membership
goes up from 1998 to 1999 to 2000. Then it goes down from 2000 to 2001.
But look how the line is horizontal from 2001 to 2002. Male gym goers
numbered 30 in both 2001 and 2002.
So the answer would be in 2002 male gym membership did not change
from the previous year.

3c. What was the total enrollment of the gym from 1998 to 2000?
Lets break this down into female and male gym members.
Looking at the dashed line to see the number of females we get 20 + 20 + 15
= 55.
Looking at the solid line to see the number of males we get 40 + 45 + 50 =
135.
Putting those together we have 55 + 135 = 190 gym members from 1998
to 2000.

126

A group of students were asked if they liked rock or country music. The results were as follows:
27 said they liked rock, 20 said they liked country, 5 liked both, and 3 liked neither.
The first thing we need to do is draw a Venn diagram with two adjoining circles - one for rock
and one for country.

Now we need to fill in numbers into the correct regions based on the information that was given.
We need to start with something that only goes with one region and then work our way out
from that.
Two statements deal with only one region. If more than one does, it doesn't matter the order you
fill them in as long as they go with only one area.
It says that 5 liked both. The only region that both circles meet in is region II, so we will have to
put a 5 there.
Another statement that pertains to only one region is 3 like neither. That means we will be
putting the number 3 in region IV.
Let's put those into our Venn diagram and see what is left:

## Looks like we still need to fill in regions I and III.

It says that 27 said they liked rock - the rock circle is composed of regions I and II. Since II
already had 5, then region I is going to have to be 27 - 5 = 22.
It also says that 20 said they liked country - the country circle is composed of regions II and III.
127

## Since II already has 5, then region III is going to have to be 20 - 5 = 15.

4a. How many students chose only rock?
This would be region I.
The number of students that chose only rock is 22.

## 4b. How many students chose only country?

This would be region III.
The number of students that chose only country is 15.

## 4c. How many students were surveyed?

This would be regions, I, II, III, and IV.
To find the total we simply add up all the regions: 22 + 5 + 15 + 3 = 45
The number of students that were interviewed about rock and country is 45.

## Tutorial 10: Practice Test on Tutorials 1 - 9

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

128

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Take a test on topics covered in tutorials 1 - 9 in this website.

## Special Notes about Tutorial 10:

I can not guarantee you will pass your test after going though any of the tutorials in this
website or this practice test. However, it will definitely help you to better understand the
topics covered better.

Disclaimer: WTAMU and Kim Seward are not responsible for how a student does on any
test or any class for any reason including not being able to access the website due to any
technology problems.

Introduction
It is important to note that, chances are, I'm not your math instructor. You need to check with
your math teacher as to things like when your next math test is and what it covers. It may
cover more material on the test than what is in this practice test. Just note that there are other
practice tests at this website. So, after finding out what is on your test (if you have one) do the
practice test(s) problems that go with the test you are preparing for. If you are not in a class or
are not having a test soon, this practice test is still good practice to go through and check to make
sure you are understanding this material before moving on - kind of like a spot check. The
material on this practice test goes with Tutorial 2: Symbols and Sets of Numbers, Tutorial 3:
Fractions, Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions and Equations, Tutorial 5:
Adding Real Numbers, Tutorial 6: Subtracting Real Numbers, Tutorial 7: Multiplying and
Dividing Real Numbers, Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers, Tutorial 9: Reading
Graphs.
Also note that your teacher may word the problems on their test a little differently, may
have some different kinds of problems, or may have a different number of problems than
what is in this practice test. Again, since I'm probably not your math instructor, I don't know
build an understanding of the concepts presented and the terms used in math problems. If you
have an understanding of the problems instead of just memorizing them, then you should
129

## Steps to Studying for a Math Test

1. Work through problems. If you are in a class, you should have done this on completion
of any homework you have done. For anyone, you can accomplish this by doing the
practice problems found in each tutorial.
2. Check work on problems. The practice problems in each tutorial have links to the
answers to them so you can instantly check how you are doing. Also, in most math books,
the odd answers are found in the back of the book.
3. Review concepts. Whether you got the problems right or wrong, make sure you review
over them. If you did get a problem wrong, make sure you either review that concept in
before a test, you are going to kick yourself when it comes up on the test.
4. Work through problems as if you were taking the test - no notes, book, webpages,
etc. This practice test is a perfect way to do that. After taking this practice test, check
practice test (before the 'need extra help on these topics' section)

## During the Test

It is to your benefit to show as much of the work as possible on the problems that have several
steps involved.
Make sure that you read the directions carefully, you wouldn't believe how many points get
taken off math tests for people not following directions.
Pace yourself. You do not have to be the first one done to do well on the test. Do not panic if
there is still time left to take the test and others are turing it in. Sometimes that means they do not
know the material and left some of the answers blank. Do not worry about anyone else but
yourself.
Don't rush through a problem. Another thing that math teachers take points off for are careless
mistakes made by people that rush through a problem. When those students get their tests back,
they bonk themselves on the head at some of the things that got counted wrong, things that they
knew how to do.
Remember to breathe!!!! I know some of you are scared to death at the thought of having to
take a math test of any kind. For you guys, try to relax and don't forget to breathe. (Even if you
aren't scared to take a math test, it is probably a good idea to remember to breathe, I wouldn't
130

want you to pass out during the test). If it feels like your brain has left the building during
your test, just close your eyes and breathe in and out and in and out and your brain will
return.
Good luck on your test. If you are taking a math test soon, don't panic, you are going to do
great!!!

Practice Test

1a. -5 ? 5
1b. 10 ? 5
1c. |-5| ? |5|

2a. - 4 > 4
2b. - 4 < - 4

## Problems 3a - 3c: Write each sentence as a mathematical statement.

3a. 5 is not equal to -5.
3b. -2 is less than or equal to 0.
131

## 3c. 7 is greater than 0.

Problems 4a - 4f : List the elements of the following set that are also elements of the given
set.
{-, 0, 5,

4c. Integers

5a. 90

## Problems 6a: Write the fraction in lowest terms.

6a.

Problems 7a - 7d: Perform the following operations. Write answers in the lowest terms.

7a.

7b.

7c.

7d.

## Problems 8a - 8b: Evaluate.

132

8a.

8b.

Problems 9a - 9b: Write each phrase as an algebraic expression. Let x represent the
unknown number.
9a. The quotient of 7 and a number.
9b. 10 less than 2 times a number.

Problems 10a - 10b: Write each sentence as an equation. Let x represent the unknown
number.
10a. The sum of 2 and 10 times a number is the same as 30.
10b. The product of 5 and a number is 2/3.

11a. -9 + (-10)

11b.

12a. -(-17)

12b.

13a. -15 - (-3)

133

14a. (-5)(-12)

14b. (3)(-5)(2)

14c. (-15)(0)

15a.

15b.

15c.

16a.

16b.

17a.

17b.

## when x = 3 and y = -3.

when x = 2 and y = -2

Problems 18a - 18b: Decide whether the given number is a solution of the given equation.
18a. Is 1 a solution to 3x - 1 = 4?
18b. Is -3 a solution to 7 - x = 2x + 16?
134

19a. 3a + 2b

## Problem 20a: Use an associative property to write an equivalent expression.

20a. 8(xy)

Problems 21a - 21b: Use the distributive property to find the product.
21a. -5(a - 7)

## 21b. 8(2x + 3y +4z)

Problems 22a - 22b: Write the opposite (additive inverse) and the reciprocal (multiplicative
inverse) of each number.

22a. -10

22b.

Problem 23a - 23c: The bar graph below shows the profit a cd store made over the months
of September through December of last year. Use the graph to answer questions 23a - 23c.

135

## 23b. Which month had the lowest profit?

23c. What is the sum of the profits of October and November?

Problems 24a - 24b: The line graph below shows last week's high temperatures in
Fahrenheit. Use the graph to answer questions 24a - 24b.

## 24a. How much was Monday's high temperature?

24b. Which day had the highest high temperature?

Tutorial 10: Practice Test on Tutorials 1 - 9
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 10: Practice Test on Tutorials 1 - 9

## Problems 1a - 1c: Replace ? with < , > , or = .

1a. -5 ? 5
Since -5 is to the left of 5 on the number line, then -5 < 5.
136

1b. 10 ? 5
Since 10 is to the right of 5 on the number line, then 10 > 5.

## 1c. |-5| ? |5|

First of all, |-5| = 5.
Next we have |5| = 5.
Since both absolute values equal the same number 5, then |-5| = |5| .

## Problems 2a - 2b: Are the following statements true or false?

2a. - 4 > 4
Since - 4 is to the left of 4 on the number line, then - 4 < 4.
So, the above statement is false.

2b. - 4 < - 4
Since - 4 is the same number as - 4 and the statement includes where the two numbers
are equal to each other, then this statement is true.

137

## 3a. 5 is not equal to -5.

Reading it left to right we get:
5 is not equal to -5

## 3b. -2 is less than or equal to 0.

Reading it left to right we get:
-2 is less than or equal to 0
-2 < 0

## 3c. 7 is greater than 0.

Reading it left to right we get:
7 is greater than 0
7 > 0

Problems 4a - 4f : List the elements of the following set that are also elements of the given
set. {-, 0, 5,

## 4a. Natural numbers

The numbers in the given set that are also natural numbers are
{5,

## 4b. Whole numbers

138

The numbers in the given set that are also whole numbers are
{0, 5,

4c. Integers
The numbers in the given set that are also integers are
{0, 5,

## 4d. Rational numbers

The numbers in the given set that are also rational numbers are
{-1/2, 0, 5,

## 4e. Irrational numbers

The number in the given set that is also an irrational number is
{

## 4f. Real numbers

The numbers in the given set that are also real numbers are
{-, 0, 5,

139

5a. 90

## Problems 6a: Write the fraction in lowest terms.

6a.

Problems 7a - 7d: Perform the following operations. Write answers in the lowest terms.

7a.

140

7b.

7c.

141

7d.

## Problems 8a - 8b: Evaluate.

8a.

8b.

142

Problems 9a - 9b: Write each phrase as an algebraic expression. Let x represent the
unknown number.
9a. The quotient of 7 and a number.
The quotient of 7 and a number

## 9b. 10 less than 2 times a number.

10 less than 2 times a number

Problems 10a - 10b: Write each sentence as an equation. Let x represent the unknown
number.
10a. The sum of 2 and 10 times a number is the same as 30.
The sum of 2 and 10 times a number is the same as 30

## 10b. The product of 5 and a number is 2/3.

The product of 5 and a number is 2/3

143

11a. -9 + (-10)
-9 + (-10) = -19

11b.

## 11c. 6.5 + (-1.2) + (-3.1)

6.5 + (-1.2) + (-3.1) =
5.3 + (-3.1) =
2.2

12a. -(-17)
-(-17) = 17
144

12b.

13a. -15 - (-3)
-15 - (-3) =
-15 + 3 =
-12

-1.5 - 2.5 =
-1.5 + (-2.5) =
-4

14a. (-5)(-12)

145

(-5)(-12) = 60

14b. (3)(-5)(2)
(3)(-5)(2) =
(-15)(2) =
-30

14c. (-15)(0)
(-15)(0) = 0

15a.

15b.

146

is undefined.

15c.

16a.

16b.
147

17a.

## when x = 3 and y = -3.

when x = 2 and y = -2

17b.

Problems 18a - 18b: Decide whether the given number is a solution of the given equation.
18a. Is 1 a solution to 3x - 1 = 4?
148

Is 1 a solution?
Since we got a FALSE statement (2 does not equal 4), then 1 is not a solution.

## 18b. Is -3 a solution to 7 - x = 2x + 16?

Is -3 a solution?
Since we got a TRUE statement (10 does equal 10), then -3 is a solution.

## Problem 19a: Use a commutative property to write an equivalent expression.

19a. 3a + 2b
Using the commutative property of addition (where changing the order of a sum does
not change the value of it), we get
3a + 2b = 2b + 3a

## Problem 20a: Use an associative property to write an equivalent expression.

149

20a. 8(xy)
Using the associative property of multiplication (where changing the grouping of a
product does not change the value of it), we get
8(xy) = (8x)y

Problems 21a - 21b: Use the distributive property to find the product.
21a. -5(a - 7)

## 21b. 8(2x + 3y +4z)

Problems 22a - 22b: Write the opposite (additive inverse) and the reciprocal (multiplicative
inverse) of each number.
22a. -10

150

## The opposite of -10 is 10, since -10 + 10 = 0.

The reciprocal of -10 is -1/10, since -10(-1/10) = 1.

22b.
The opposite of 4/7 is - 4/7, since 4/7 + (- 4/7) = 0.
The reciprocal of 4/7 is 7/4, since (4/7)(7/4) = 1.

Problem 23a - 23c: The bar graph below shows the profit a cd store made over the months
of September through December of last year. Use the graph to answer questions 23a - 23c.

## 23a. About how much was the profit in December?

The bar that associates with December is the fourth bar from the left. The top of that
bar is in between 20 and 25 on the vertical axis. A good approximation is 22.
The profit in December is about \$22000.

## 23b. Which month had the lowest profit?

151

It looks like October had the lowest profit.

## 23c. What is the sum of the profits of October and November?

The bar that associates with October is the second bar from the left. The top of that
bar matches with 5 on the vertical axis.
The bar that associates with November is the third bar from the left. The top of that
bar matches with 10 on the vertical axis.
The sum of the profits of October and November would be 5,000 + 10,000 =
\$15,000.

Problems 24a - 24b: The line graph below shows last week's high temperatures in
Fahrenheit. Use the graph to answer questions 24a - 24b.

## 24a. How much was Monday's high temperature?

The point that matches with Monday on the horizontal axis also matches 85 on the
vertical axis.
Monday's high temperature was 85 degrees Fahrenheit.
152

## 24b. Which day had the highest high temperature?

It looks like Wednesday had the highest high temperature.

## Tutorial 11: Simplifying Algebraic Expressions

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Identify a term, coefficient, constant term, and like terms.
2. Combine like terms.
3. Simplify an expression using distributive property and combining like terms.

Introduction
In this tutorial we will be looking at various components of terms. Then we will move on to
adding like terms together. Some of these concepts are based on ideas that were covered in
earlier tutorials. A lot of times in math you are using previous knowledge to learn new concepts.
The trick is to not reinvent the wheel each time, but recognize what you have done before and

153

Tutorial

Term
A term is a number, variable or the product of a number and variable(s).
Examples of terms are

,z

Coefficient
A coefficient is the numeric factor of your term.
Here are the coefficients of the terms listed above:

Term

Coefficient
3
5
2

Constant Term
A constant term is a term that contains only a number. In other words, there is no variable in a
constant term.
Examples of constant terms are 4, 100, and -5.

Like Terms
154

Like terms are terms that have the exact same variables raised to the exact same exponents.
One example of like terms is

. Another example is

## Combining Like Terms

You can only combine terms that are like terms. You think of it as the reverse of the
distributive property.
It is like counting apples and oranges. You just count up how many variables you have the
same and write the number in front of the common variable part.

Example 1: Simplify

## Are there any like terms that we can combine?

It looks like it. Both terms have the same variable part, a.

## *Use distributive prop. to combine like terms

Example 2: Simplify

## Are there any like terms that we can combine?

It looks like it. Two terms have the same variable part, b. The other pair of terms are
constant terms that can be combined together.

155

## *Use distributive prop. to combine like terms

From here on out I will not be showing the distributive property step when combining like
terms. I will go right into adding or subtracting the coefficients of the like terms. I showed
you the distributive property in the above examples to give you the thought behind
combining like terms.

## Example 3: Simplify the expression

It looks like we have two terms that have an x squared that we can combine and we
have two terms that have an x that we can combine. The poor 5 does not have
anything it can combine with so it will have to stay 5.
Grouping like terms together and combining them we get:

## *Combine the x squared terms together

and then the x terms together

## *A - outside a ( ) is the same as times (-1)

*Distribute the (-1) to EVERY term inside ( )
*Multiply

Basically, when you have a negative sign in front of a ( ), like this example, you can
think of it as taking a -1 times the ( ). What you end up doing in the end is taking the
opposite of every term in the ( ).

156

## Example 5: Simplify the expression

Let's first apply the distributive property (found in Tutorial 8: Properties of Real
Numbers) and see what we get:

## *Dist. 2 to EVERY term of 1st ( )

*Dist. -3 to EVERY term of 2nd ( )
*Multiply

## *x is distributed to the 1st 2 terms

*Reverse Dist. Prop with x
*Subtract

## Example 6: Write the following as an algebraic expression and simplify if

possible.
Add 3a + 9 to 7a - 2.

## Basically we will be adding these two expressions together.

Writing this as an algebraic expression we get:

157

## Example 7: Write the following as an algebraic expression and simplify if

possible.
The sum of 5 times a number and 2, subtracted from 12 times a number.

x is representing the unknown number. The sum of 5 times a number and 2 can be
written as 5x + 2. From there we need to subtract that from 12x.
Writing this as an algebraic expression we get:

## Using the distributive property (found in Tutorial 8: Properties of Real

Numbers) and then combining like terms we get:

Practice Problems
These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see
if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if
you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians
had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.
To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

158

1a.

2a.

2b.

## Practice Problem 3a: Write the following as an algebraic expression and

simplify if possible.

3a. The sum of 9 times a number and 5, subtracted from 4 times a number.

Tutorial 11: Simplifying Algebraic Expressions
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 11: Simplifying Algebraic Expressions

159

## Are there any like terms that we can combine?

It looks like it. All three terms have the same variable part, c.

## *Combine the coefficients of the like terms

Let's first apply the distributive property (found in Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers),
then regroup and combine like terms:

160

## *Combine like terms

The sum of 9 times a number and 5, subtracted from 4 times a number.

x is representing the unknown number. The sum of 9 times a number and 5 can be written as 9x
+ 5. From there we need to subtract that from 4x.
Writing this as an algebraic expression we get:

Using the distributive property (found in Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers) and then
combining like terms we get:

## *Dist. the - to EVERY term of the ( )

*Combine like terms

## Tutorial 12: Addition Property of Equality

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

161

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Know what a linear equation is.
2. Know if a value is a solution or not.
3. Use the addition and subtraction properties of equalities to solve linear equations.

Introduction
This is where we start getting into the heart of what algebra is about, solving equations. In this
tutorial we will be looking specifically at linear equations and their solutions. In this and the next
tutorial, we will start off slow and solve equations that use only one property to make sure you
have the individual concepts down. Then, in later tutorials, we will pick up the pace and mix 'em
up where you need to use several properties and steps to get the job done. Equations can be used
to help us solve a variety of problems. The tutorial is ready when you are.

Tutorial

Equation
Two expressions set equal to each other.

Linear Equation
in One Variable

162

## An equation that can be written in the form

ax + b = c
where a, b, and c are constants.

Note that the exponent (definition found in Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions
and Equations) on the variable of a linear equation is always 1.
The following is an example of a linear equation:

3x - 4 = 5

Solution
A value, such that, when you replace the variable with it,
it makes the equation true.
(the left side comes out equal to the right side)

## If you need to review what a solution to an equation is, go to Tutorial 4: Introduction to

Variable Expressions and Equations.

Solution Set
Set of all solutions

## Solving a Linear Equation

in General
Get the variable you are solving for alone on one side
and everything else on the other side using INVERSE
operations.

## Addition and Subtraction Properties of Equality

163

If a = b, then a + c = b + c
If a = b, then a - c = b - c

In other words, if two expressions are equal to each other and you add or subtract the exact
same thing to both sides, the two sides will remain equal.
Note that addition and subtraction are inverse operations of each other. For example, if you
have a number that is being added that you need to move to the other side of the equation,
then you would subtract it from both sides of that equation.

## *Inverse of sub. 5 is add. 5

Note that if you put 7 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 7 is the
solution to our problem.

## *Inverse of add 3/4 is sub. 3/4

*LCD = 4
*1/2 = 2/4

If you put -1/4 back in for y in the original problem you will see that -1/4 is the
solution to our problem.
164

## Example 3: Solve the equation

In this problem, our variable a is on both sides of the equation. As mentioned above,
when solving a linear equation you need to get the variable you are solving for
alone on one side and everything else on the other side using INVERSE
operations.
At this point we are limited. We only have talked about using the addition and
subtraction properties of equality. In Tutorial 13, we will address the multiplication
and division properties of equality. But since this was made before that, we have to
We can solve this with what we know so far. We move a term that has a variable
exactly the same way we were moving constants in examples 1 and 2. In this problem
we need to get a on one side and everything else on the other. We have a -.7a on the
right side. To move it to the other side, so a is only on one side, we will do the inverse
of minus, which is add .7a to both sides.
After that it looks like examples 1 and 2 above, and we continue doing inverse
operations until we have a on one side and everything on the other side of the
equation.
Let's see what we get:

## *Inverse of sub. .7a is add .7a

*Inverse of add 1.2 is sub. 1.2

If you put -3.6 back in for a in the original problem you will see that -3.6 is the
solution to our problem.

## Example 4: Solve the equation

In this problem, we need to simplify the left side first before we can start adding or
165

subtracting things around. We can accomplish this by using the distributive property
(found in Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers).
Using the distributive property and then combining like terms to simplify the left
side of the equation we get:

## *Use distributive prop.

*Combine like terms

## *Inverse of add x is sub. x

*Inverse of sub. 14 is add. 14

If you put 15 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 15 is the solution
to our problem.

Example 5: Two numbers have a sum of 100. If one number is x, express the other
number in terms of x.
Lets put this one in terms that everyone can relate to, MONEY. Let's say that you
owe two people a total of \$100. You owe the first person \$75. How much do you owe
the second person? The answer would be \$100 - \$75 = \$25. To figure it out you
would take the total and then subtract out the known amount to get the other amount.
We can use that concept to figure out our problem. Anytime you know the total of two
numbers, you subtract the given from the total to either find the other number or
express the other number in terms of a variable.
Since our total is 100 and we are letting x represent one number, the other number
would be expressed as the total minus x or 100 - x.
So, 100 - x is our answer.
166

Practice Problems
These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see
if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if
you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians
had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.
To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a.

1b.

1c.

1d.

## Practice Problem 2a: Write an algebraic expression.

2a. Two numbers have a sum of 200. If one number is x, express the other number in
terms of x.

167

Tutorial 12: Addition Property of Equality
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 12: Addition Property of Equality

## *Inverse of sub. 1/5 is add. 1/5

If you put 4/5 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 4/5 is the solution to our
problem.

## *Inverse of add 7 is sub. 7

If you put -9 back in for b in the original problem you will see that -9 is the solution to our
problem.

168

## *Inverse of sub. .5x is add .5x

*Inverse of sub. 7.1 is add 7.1

If you put 5.9 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 5.9 is the solution to our
problem.

Using the distributive property and then combining like terms to simplify the left side of the
equation we get:

## *Use distributive prop.

*Combine like terms

169

## *Inverse of add x is sub. x

*Inverse of add 13 is sub. 13

If you put -15 back in for x in the original problem you will see that -15 is the solution to our
problem.

Two numbers have a sum of 200. If one number is x, express the other number in terms of x.

Since our total is 200 and we are letting x represent one number, the other number would be
expressed as the total minus x or 200 - x.
So, 200 - x is our answer.

## Tutorial 13: Multiplication Property of Equality

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Use the multiplication and division properties of equalities to solve linear equations.
2. Solve an equation using more than one property.
3. Know how to express consecutive integers in terms of x, if the first integer is x.
170

4. Know how to express even consecutive integers in terms of x, if the first even integer is x.
5. Know how to express odd consecutive integers in terms of x, if the first odd integer is x.

Introduction
As mentioned in Tutorial 12: Addition Property of Equality, solving equations is getting into
the heart of what algebra is about. As we did in Tutorial 12, we will be looking specifically at
linear equations and their solutions. We will start off slow and solve equations that use only the
multiplication or division property of equality to make sure you have the individual concepts
down. Then we will pick up the pace and mix 'em up where you need to use several properties
and steps to get the job done.
Equations can be used to help us solve a variety of problems. In later tutorials, we will put them
to use to solve word problems.

Tutorial

The following definitions for equation, linear equation, solution and solution set can also be
found in Tutorial 12: The Addition Property of Equality.

Equation
Two expressions set equal to each other.

Linear Equation
in One Variable
171

## An equation that can be written in the form

ax + b = c
where a, b, and c are constants.

Note that the exponent (definition found in Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions
and Equations) on the variable of a linear equation is always 1.
The following is an example of a linear equation:

3x - 4 = 5

Solution
A value, such that, when you replace the variable with it,
it makes the equation true.
(the left side comes out equal to the right side)

## If you need to review what a solution to an equation is, go to Tutorial 4: Introduction to

Variable Expressions and Equations.

Solution Set
Set of all solutions

## Solving a Linear Equation

in General
Get the variable you are solving for alone on one side
and everything else on the other side using INVERSE
operations.

172

In Tutorial 12: The Addition Property of Equality, we showed you how to solve equations
using the addition and subtraction properties of equality. In this tutorial we will be looking at
the multiplication and division properties.

## Multiplication and Division Properties of Equality

If a = b, then a(c) = b(c)
If a = b, then a/c = b/c where c is not equal to 0.

In other words, if two expressions are equal to each other and you multiply or divide (except
for 0) the exact same constant to both sides, the two sides will remain equal.
Note that multiplication and division are inverse operations of each other. For example, if you
have a number that is being multiplied that you need to move to the other side of the equation,
then you would divide it from both sides of that equation.

## *Inverse of div. by 2 is mult. by 2

If you put 10 back in for x in the original problem, you will see that 10 is the solution
we are looking for.

173

## *Inverse of mult. by 5 is div. by 5

If you put 7/5 back in for x in the original problem, you will see that 7/5 is the
solution we are looking for.

## *Inverse of mult. by -3/2 is div. by -3/2

(or mult. by reciprocal -2/3)

If you put -6 back in for a in the original problem you will see that -6 is the solution
we are looking for.
Note that it doesnt matter what side the variable is on. -6 = a means the same thing as
a = -6.

The examples above and the ones from Tutorial 12: The Addition Property of Equality
were using only one property at a time to help you understand the different properties that
we use to solve equations.
However, most times, we have to use several properties to get the job done. The following is
a strategy that you can use to help you solve linear equations that are a little bit more
involved.

## Strategy for Solving a Linear Equation

Note that your teacher or the book you are using may have worded these steps a little differently
than I do, but it all boils down to the same concept - get your variable on one side and
everything else on the other using inverse operations.
174

## Step 1: Simplify each side, if needed.

Step 2: Use Add./Sub. Properties to move the variable term to one side and all
other terms to the other side.
Step 3: Use Mult./Div. Properties to remove any values that are in front of the
variable.
What it boils down to is that you want to get the variable you are solving for alone on one side
and everything else on the other side using INVERSE operations.

## *Inverse of mult. by -3 is div. by -3

Be careful going from line 4 to line 5. Yes, there is a negative sign. But, the
operation between the -3 and x is multiplication not subtraction. So if you were to
add 3 to both sides you would have ended up with -3x + 3 instead of the desired x.
If you put 1 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 1 is the solution we
are looking for.

175

## *Simplify by combining like terms

*Inverse of sub. 5 is add 5
*Inverse of mult. by -1 is div. by -1

If you put -2 back in for x in the original problem you will see that -2 is the solution
we are looking for.

## *Simplify by combining like terms

*Inverse of add 2x is sub. 2x
*Inverse of sub. 2 is add 2
*Inverse of mult. by 7 is div. by 7

If you put 2 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 2 is the solution we
are looking for.

Consecutive Integers
Consecutive integers are integers that follow one another in order.
For example, 5, 6, and 7 are three consecutive integers.
If we let x represent the first integer, how would we represent the second
consecutive integer in terms of x? Well if we look at 5, 6, and 7 - note that 6
176

## is one more than 5, the first integer.

In general, we could represent the second consecutive integer by x + 1.
And what about the third consecutive integer.
Well, note how 7 is 2 more than 5. In general, we could represent the third
consecutive integer as x + 2.

Consecutive EVEN integers are even integers that follow one another in order.

## For example, 4, 6, and 8 are three consecutive even integers.

If we let x represent the first EVEN integer, how would we represent the
second consecutive even integer in terms of x? Note that 6 is two more than
4, the first even integer.
In general, we could represent the second consecutive EVEN integer by x
+ 2.
And what about the third consecutive even integer? Well, note how 8 is 4
more than 4. In general, we could represent the third consecutive EVEN
integer as x + 4.

Consecutive ODD integers are odd integers that follow one another in order.

## For example, 5, 7, and 9 are three consecutive odd integers.

If we let x represent the first ODD integer, how would we represent the
second consecutive odd integer in terms of x? Note that 7 is two more than
5, the first odd integer.
In general, we could represent the second consecutive ODD integer by x +
2.
And what about the third consecutive odd integer? Well, note how 9 is 4
more than 5. In general, we could represent the third consecutive ODD
integer as x + 4.
Note that a common misconception is that because we want an odd number
that we should not be adding a 2 which is an even number. Keep in mind that
177

x is representing an ODD number and that the next odd number is 2 away, just
like 7 is 2 away form 5, so we need to add 2 to the first odd number to get to
the second consecutive odd number.

## Example 7: Write an algebraic expression and simplify if possible.

If x represents the first of four consecutive integers, express the sum of the four integers in terms
of x.

## First of all, we need to have all four consecutive integers in terms of x.

We can represent them the following way:

= 1st integer

## x + 1 = 2nd consecutive integer

x + 2 = 3rd consecutive integer
x + 3 = 4th consecutive integer
Second we need to write it as a sum of the four integers and then simplify it:

## *The sum of four cons. integers

*Combine like terms

## Example 8: Write an algebraic expression and simplify if possible.

If x represents the first of three odd consecutive integers, express the sum of the first and third
integers in terms of x.

First of all, we need to have all three consecutive ODD integers in terms of x.
178

## x + 2 = 2nd consecutive odd integer

x + 4 = 3rd consecutive odd integer
Second we need to write it as a sum of the first and third odd integers in terms of x
and then simplify it:

## *The sum of 1st and 3rd odd integers

*Combine like terms

Practice Problems
These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to check and see
if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math works just like anything else, if
you want to get good at it, then you need to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians
had help along the way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.
To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a.

1b.

179

1d.

1c.

## Practice Problem 2a: Write an algebraic expression and simplify if possible.

2a. If x represents the first of three consecutive integers, express the sum of the three
integers in terms of x.

Tutorial 13: Multiplication Property of Equality
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 13: Multiplication Property of Equality

## *Inverse of mult. by -8 is div. by -8

If you put -3 back in for a in the original problem you will see that -3 is the solution we are
looking for.

180

## *Inverse of mult. by 2/3 is did. by 2/3

(or mult. by reciprocal 3/2)

If you put 12 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 12 is the solution we are
looking for.

## *Inverse of add 5 is sub. 5

*Inverse of mult. by 6 is div. by 6

If you put 0 back in for y in the original problem you will see that 0 is the solution we are
looking for.

181

## *Inverse of add 3x is sub. 3x

*Inverse of sub. 3 is add 3
*Inverse of mult. by 2 is div. by 2

If you put 5 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 5 is the solution we are
looking for.

If x represents the first of three consecutive integers, express the sum of the three integers in
terms of x.

## First of all, we need to have all three consecutive integers in terms of x.

We can represent them the following way:

= 1st integer

## x + 1 = 2nd consecutive integer

x + 2 = 3rd consecutive integer
Second we need to write it as a sum of the three integers and then simplify it:

182

## *The sum of the three cons. integers

*Combine like terms

## Tutorial 14: Solving Linear Equations

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

## 1. Solve linear equations by using a combination of simplifying and using various

properties of equality.

Introduction

In Tutorial 12: The Addition Property of Equality we looked at using the addition property of
equality to help us solve linear equations. In Tutorial 13: The Multiplication Property of
Equality we looked at using the multiplication property of equality and also put these two ideas
together. In this tutorial we will be solving linear equations by using a combination of
simplifying and various properties of equality.
Knowing how to solve linear equations will open the door to being able to work a lot of other
types of problems that you will encounter in your various algebra classes. It is very important
to have this concept down before moving ahead. Make sure that you do not savor the mystery
of finding your variable, but work through some of these types of problems until you have this
concept down.

183

Tutorial

## Strategy for Solving a Linear Equation

Note that your teacher or the book you are using may have worded these
steps a little differently than I do, but it all boils down to the same concept
- get your variable on one side and everything else on the other using
inverse operations.

## Step 1: Simplify each side, if needed.

This would involve things like removing ( ), removing fractions,
removing decimals, and adding like terms.

## To remove ( ): Just use the distributive property found in Tutorial 8:

Properties of Real Numbers.
To remove fractions: Since fractions are another way to write division, and
the inverse of divide is to multiply, you remove fractions by multiplying both
sides by the LCD of all of your fractions. If you need a review on the LCD,
go to Tutorial 3: Fractions.

Step 2: Use Add./Sub. Properties to move the variable term to one side and all
other terms to the other side.
Step 3: Use Mult./Div. Properties to remove any values that are in front of the
variable.
I find this is the quickest and easiest way to approach linear equations.

184

## Be careful going from line 4 to line 5. Yes, there is a negative

sign. But, the operation between the -3 and x is multiplication not
subtraction. So if you were to add 3 to both sides you would have ended
up with -3x + 3 instead of the desired

x.

If you put 1 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 1 is the solution we
are looking for.

## *Get all x terms on one side

*Inverse of add. 3 is sub. 3

## *Inverse of mult. by -1 is div. by -1

185

If you put 9 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 9 is the
solution we are looking for.

..

## *To get rid of the fractions,

mult. both sides by the LCD of 4

## *Inverse of mult. by -3 is div. by -3

If you put 4/3 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 4/3 is
the solution we are looking for.

186

## *To get rid of the decimals,

mult. both sides by 100

## *Get all the y terms on one side

*Inverse of sub. 20 is add 20

## *Inverse of mult. by 20 is div. by 20

If you put 3/2 back in for y in the original problem you will see that 3/2 is
the solution we are looking for.

A contradiction is an equation with one variable that
has no solution.

## *Get all the x terms on one side

Where did our variable, x, go??? It disappeared on us. Also note how
we ended up with a FALSE statement, -1 is not equal to 12. This does not
mean that

x = 12 or x = -1.
187

Whenever your variable drops out AND you end up with a false statement, then
after all of your hard work, there is NO SOLUTION.
So, the answer is no solution.

Identity
An identity is an equation with one variable
that has all numbers as a solution.

NUMBERS.

## So, the answer is all real numbers.

Practice Problems

188

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

## Practice Problems 1a - 1d: Solve the given equation.

1a.

1b.

1c.

1d.

Problems
Tutorial 14: Solving Linear Equations
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 14: Solving Linear
Equations

189

## *Inverse of mult. by -7 is div. by -7

If you put 4 back in for x in the original problem you will see that 4 is the solution
we are looking for.

## *To get rid of the fractions,

mult. both sides by the LCD of 8

## *Get all the x terms on one side

*Inverse of sub. 1 is add. 1

190

If you put - 4 back in for x in the original problem you will see that - 4 is the
solution we are looking for.

## *To get rid of the decimals,

mult. both sides by 100

## *Get all the a terms on one side

*Inverse of sub. 5 is add. 5
*Inverse of mult. by 5 is div. by 5

## If you put 4 back in for

we are looking for.

191

## *Get all the x terms on one side

This time when our variable dropped out, we ended up with a FALSE

## Tutorial 15: Introduction to Problem

Solving
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Use Polya's four step process to solve word problems involving numbers,
rectangles, supplementary angles, and complementary angles.

Introduction

Whether you like it or not, whether you are going to be a mother, father, teacher, computer
192

## programmer, scientist, researcher, business owner, coach, mathematician, manager, doctor,

lawyer, banker (the list can go on and on). Some people think that you either can do it or you
can't. Contrary to that belief, it can be a learned trade. Even the best athletes and musicians had
some coaching along the way and lots of practice. That's what it also takes to be good at problem
solving.
George Polya, known as the father of modern problem solving, did extensive studies and wrote
numerous mathematical papers and three books about problem solving. I'm going to show you
his method of problem solving to help step you through these problems.

Tutorial

As mentioned above, I use Polyas four steps to problem solving to show students
how to solve word problems. Just note that your math teacher or math book
may word it a little differently, but you will see it all basically means the
same thing.

If you follow these steps, it will help you become more successful in the world of problem
solving.
Polya created his famous four-step process for problem solving, which is used all over to aid
people in problem solving:

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Sometimes the problem lies in understanding the problem. If
you are unclear as to what needs to be solved, then you are
probably going to get the wrong results. In order to show an
understanding of the problem, you, of course, need to read the
problem carefully. Sounds simple enough, but some people jump
the gun and try to start solving the problem before they have read
the whole problem. Once the problem is read, you need to list all
the components and data that are involved. This is where you will

193

## Step 2: Devise a plan (translate).

When you devise a plan (translate), you come up with a way to
solve the problem. Setting up an equation, drawing a diagram, and
making a chart are all ways that you can go about solving your
problem. In this tutorial, we will be setting up equations for each
problem. You will translate them just like we did in Tutorial 4:
Introduction to Variable Expressions and Equations.

## Step 3: Carry out the plan (solve).

The next step, carry out the plan (solve), is big. This is where
you solve the equation you came up with in your 'devise a plan'
step. The equations in this tutorial will all be linear equations. If
you need help solving them, by all means, go back to Tutorial 12:
The Addition Property of Equality, Tutorial 13: The
Multiplication Property of Equality, or Tutorial 14: Solving
Linear Equations (Putting it all together) and review that
concept.

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

You may be familiar with the expression 'don't look back'. In
problem solving it is good to look back (check and interpret)..
Basically, check to see if you used all your information and that the

Numeric
Word Problems

## A lot of numeric types of word problems revolve around translating English

statements into mathematical ones. If you need a review on these translations, you
can go back to Tutorial 4: Introduction to Variable Expressions and
Equations.
194

## Example 1: Twice the difference of a number and 1 is 4 more than that

number. Find the number.

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

x = a number

## *Get all the x terms on one side

*Inv. of sub. 2 is add 2

195

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

If you take twice the difference of 6 and 1, that is the same as 4 more than
6, so this does check.

The number is 6.

## Example 2: One number is 3 less than another number. If the sum of

the two numbers is 177, find each number.

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are looking for two numbers, and since we can write the one number in terms of
another number, we will let

x = another number

## one number is 3 less than another number:

x - 3 = one number

196

## *Inv. of sub 3 is add 3

*Inv. of mult. 2 is div. 2

## If we add 90 and 87 (a number 3 less than 90) we do get 177.

One number is 90.

## Another number is 87.

Rectangle Problem

197

## Example 3: In a blueprint of a rectangular room, the length is 1 inch

more than 3 times the width. Find the dimensions if the perimeter is to be 26
inches.

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are looking for the length and width of the rectangle. Since length can be written
in terms of width, we will let

w = width

1 + 3w = length

198

## *Remove ( ) by using dist. prop.

*Combine like terms

## *Inv. of add. 2 is sub. 2

*Inv. of mult. by 8 is div. by 8

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

If width is 3, then length, which is 1 inch more than 3 times the width
would have to be 10. The perimeter of a rectangle with width of 3 inches
and length of 10 inches does come out to be 26.

Width is 3 inches.

Length is 10 inches.

Supplementary and
Complementary Angles

## Complimentary angles sum up to be 90 degrees.

199

Example 4: Find the measure of each angle in the figure below. Note
that since the angles make up a straight line, they are supplementary to each other.

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

x = 1 angle
5x = other angle

200

## If x is 30, then 5x = 5(30) = 150. 150 and 30 do add up to be 180, so they

are supplementary angles.

The two angles are 30 degrees and 150 degrees.

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

## Practice Problems 1a - 1c: Solve the word problem.

1a. The sum of a number and 2 is 6 less than twice that number.

201

1b. A rectangular garden has a width that is 8 feet less than twice the
length. Find the dimensions if the perimeter is 20 feet.

## 1c. Complimentary angles sum up to be 90 degrees. Find the measure of

each angle in the figure below. Note that since the angles make up a right
angle, they are complementary to each other.

Problems
Tutorial 15: Introduction to Problem
Solving
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 15: Introduction to
Problem Solving

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.
Since we are looking for a number, we will let

202

x = a number

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

If you take the sum of 8 and 2 it is 6 less than twice 8, so this does check.

The number is 8.

203

A rectangular garden has a width that is 8 feet less than twice the length. Find the dimensions if
the perimeter is 20 feet.

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.
We are looking for the length and width of the rectangle. Since width can be written in terms of
length, we will let
L = length
Width is 8 feet less than twice the length:

2L - 8 = width

## Step 3: Carry out the plan (solve).

*Mult. ( ) by 2
*Combine like terms

## *Inv. of sub. 16 is add 16

*Inv. of mult. by 6 is div. by 6

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

If length is 6, then width, which is 8 feet less than twice the length, would have to be 4. The
204

## perimeter of a rectangle with width of 4 feet and length of 6 feet is 20 feet.

Width is 4 feet.
Length is 6 feet.

Complimentary angles, sum up to be 90 degrees. Find the measure of each angle in the figure
below. Note that since the angles make up a right angle, they are complementary to each other.

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.
We are already given in the figure that

x = 1 angle
x + 30 = other angle

205

## *Inv. of add 30 is sub. 30

*Inv. of mult. by 2 is div. by 2

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

If x is 30, then x + 30 = 60. 60 and 30 do add up to be 90, so they are complementary angles.
The two angles are 30 degrees and 60 degrees.

## Tutorial 16: Percent and Problem

Solving
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

206

## 1. Convert percents into decimal numbers.

2. To convert decimal numbers into percents.
3. Use Polya's four step process to solve word problems involving percents.
4. Work problems involving pie charts and percents.

## 5. Work problems involving tables and percents.

Introduction

In this tutorial we will be solving problems involving percentages. Since we are still problem
solving, I will use Polyas four steps to Problem Solving as introduced in Tutorial 15:
Introduction to Problem Solving to step us through the percent problems in this tutorial. It is a
good idea to be comfortable working with percents, you never know when you will be confronted
with them. Let's see how we can help you out with percents.

Tutorial

Percents

207

## Some examples of percentages are:

15% = 15/100 = .15
25% = 25/100 = .25
100% = 100/100 = 1.00

Writing a Percent as
a Decimal Number

When you are going from percent to decimal, drop the percent sign and
then move your decimal two places to the left.

## Example 1: Write 57% as a decimal.

Dropping the percent sign and then moving the decimal two places to the
left we get:

57% = . 57

## Example 2: Write 145% as a decimal.

Dropping the percent sign and then moving the decimal two places to the
left we get:
208

145% = 1.45

## Example 3: Write .34% as a decimal.

Dropping the percent sign and then moving the decimal two places to the
left we get:

.34% = .0034

## Writing a Decimal Number

as a Percent

When you are going from decimal to percent, move your decimal place two
to the right and then put a % sign at the end of the number.

## Example 4: Write .78 as a percent.

Moving the decimal place two to the right and then putting a % sign at the
end of the number we get:

.78 = 78%

209

## Example 5: Write 8 as a percent.

Moving the decimal place two to the right and then putting a % sign at the
end of the number we get:

8 = 800%

## Example 6: Write .0325 as a percent.

Moving the decimal place two to the right and then putting a % sign at the
end of the number we get:

.0325 = 3.25%

## Polyas Four-step Process

for Problem Solving
(revisited)

As mentioned above, since we are still problem solving, we will use the exact same
four step process we used in Tutorial 15: Introduction to Problem Solving. To
refresh your memory, here they are again:

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Step 2: Devise a plan (translate).
Step 3: Carry out the plan (solve).
210

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

Percent Problems

Whenever you are working with a percent problem you need to make sure
you write your percent in an equivalent decimal form as shown above.

When you are looking for a percent, make sure that you convert your decimal into a
percent, as shown above, for the final answer.

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

211

*Multiply

## 56.25 is 45% of 125.

The number is 56.25.

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are looking for the percent we would have to take of 35 to get 5.25.

212

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

213

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are looking for the number that you when you take 40% of it you would get 32.

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

32 is 40% of 80.

The number is 80.

## Example 10: A math class has 30 students. Approximately 70%

passed their last math test. How many students passed the last math test?
214

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are looking for how many students passed the last math test, we will let

x = number of students

*Multiply

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

21 is 70% of 30.

21 students passed the last math test.

215

## Pie Charts and Percents

A pie chart or circle graph is another way to give a visual representation of the
relationship of data that has been collected.

It is made up of a circle cut up in sectors. Each sector represents the percentage that a category of
data is of the whole pie.
Keep in mind that a circle is 360 degrees.

## The graph below is a pie chart:

Each sector of the circle represents the percentage of profits that the given ice cream flavor made.
The top sector shows that chocolate made 41% of the profits in 2002.
The bottom right sector shows that vanilla made 29% of the profits in 2002.
The bottom left sector shows that strawberry made 30% of the profits in 2002.

With all of this talk about pies and ice cream, is anyone else hungary????

216

Example 11: The pie chart or circle graph below shows the total
enrollment of students at State College during the Fall 2002 semester, broken down
into seniors, juniors, sophomores, and freshmen. Use the graph to answer questions
11a - 11c.

11a. In the Fall 2002 semester, what was the ratio of freshmen to seniors at the college?
11b. If the number of sophomores in the Fall 2002 semester was 20% higher than the number of
sophomores in the Fall 2001 semester, how many sophomores were enrolled in Fall 2001?
11c. If the areas of sectors in the circle graphs are drawn in proportion to the percentages shown,
what is the measure, in degrees, of the central angle sector representing the percentage of juniors?

11a. In the Fall 2002 semester, what was the ratio of freshmen to seniors
at the college?

When setting up a ratio you need to write the number that corresponds to
the first part first and then compare it to the number that corresponds to
the second part of the ratio.

What do you think the first part of the ratio, freshmen or seniors? Since freshmen
are listed first, that is what our first number of our ratio has to correspond to.
What is the percentage attached to freshmen? Looking on the pie chart, I believe it
is 40%.
That leaves the number associated with seniors to be our second part of the ratio.
217

## Looks like that will be 12%.

So the ratio of freshman to seniors would be 40 to 12. You can think of ratios as
fractions, and simplify them in the same manner. Since 40 and 12 have a greatest
common factor of 4, we can reduce this to be 10 to 3.
Note that if you had started with 12 to 40, this would be incorrect. 12 to 40 would be
the ratio of seniors to freshman. You write a ratio, just like you read it, left to right.

## The simplified ratio of freshmen to seniors would be 10 to 3.

11b. If the number of sophomores in the Fall 2002 semester was 20%
higher than the number of sophomores in the Fall 2001 semester, how
many sophomores were enrolled in Fall 2001?

Wow, where do we start? Since we know the total number and percent of
sophomores from Fall 2002, we can start by finding the number of
sophomores there were in the Fall 2002 semester.

What percentage were sophomores in the Fall 2002 semester? If you said 30% you
are correct!!!
So what would be the number of sophomores for the Fall 2002 semester? When
we take a percentage of a number, we write the percentage in decimal form and then
multiply it times the number we are taking the percentage of.
Taking 30% of the total of 6542 we get:
(.3)(6542) = 1962.6 which rounds up to 1963.

## 1963 is the number of sophomores in the Fall 2002 semester.

Using this found information we need to find out how many sophomores were enrolled
in the Fall 2001 semester.
The problem says that the Fall 2002 semester has 20% more sophomores than the Fall
2001 semester.
We are going to let x be the number of sophomores in Fall 2001.
We are needing an equation that represents the English phrase "the Fall 2002 semester
218

has 20% more sophomores than the Fall 2001 semester". Going left to right, the Fall
2002 semester would be 1963, has would be our = sign, 20% more than the Fall 2001
semester, would be starting with the Fall 2001 semester, which is x and adding on 20%
of that, which is .2x. From all of this we get the following equation:

## The number of sophomores in the Fall 2001 semester would round

up to be 1636.

11c. If the areas of sectors in the circle graphs are drawn in proportion to
the percentages shown, what is the measure, in degrees, of the central
angle sector representing the percentage of juniors?

On this problem, the key is to know that a circle measures 360 degrees. So
if we know the percentage of the circle that a sector represents, then we
can take that percentage of 360 degrees and find the measure of just that
sector.

What percentage of the students were juniors in the Fall 2002 semester? If you
said 18% you are correct!!!
So what would be the measure of the central angle for juniors for the Fall 2002
semester?
Since a full circle is 360 degrees, we are basically wanting to know what 18% of 360
degrees is.
As shown above, when we take a percentage of a number, we write the percent in
219

decimal form and then multiply it times the number we are taking the percentage of.
Taking 18% of the total of 360 degrees we get:
(.18)(360degrees) = 64.8 degrees

The central angle sector for the juniors measures 64.8 degrees.

## Tables and Percents

A table is another way to give a visual representation of the relationship of data that
has been collected.

## The graph below is a table:

Yummy Ice Cream Profits

Flavor

2001
(%)

2002
(%)

Vanilla

35.3

29

Chocolate

40

41

Strawberry

24.7

30

100.0%

100.0%

\$98 million

\$105 million

Total Profits:

The first column identifies the flavors of ice cream that made a profit.
The second column represents the percentage of profits that each flavor made in 2001 as well as
220

## the total profits in dollars.

The third column represents the percentage of profits that each flavor made in 2002 as well as the
total profits in dollars.
Vanilla made 35.3% of the profits in 2001 and 29% of the profits in 2002.
Chocolate made 40% of the profits in 2001 and 41% of the profits in 2002.
Strawberry made 24.7% of the profits in 2001 and 30% of the profits in 2002.

## Example 12: The table below shows the results of a survey on

beverage preference taken with customers of the Good Eats Caf in 2001 and 2002.
Each customer voted for only one beverage. Use the table to answer questions 12a
- 12c.
12a. Approximately how many customers preferred Sprite in 2002?
12b. By approximately what percent did the preference of root beer decrease from 2001 to 2002?
12c. What was the difference between the number of votes for Coca Cola in 2001 versus 2002?
Survey of Customers Beverage Preference at the Good Eats Caf.
Each customer voted for only one beverage.
Beverage

2001
(%)

2002
(%)

Coca Cola

35

30

Diet Coke

22.3

23

Sprite

15.9

14.4

tea

12

15

raspberry tea

11.5

12

root beer

2.7

1.1

Diet Sprite

.6

4.5

100.0%

100.0%

8950

9432

221

## Remember that the numbers in the table are percentages.

What percent of customers in 2002 voted for Sprite? Looking at the third column
(2002), it looks like it is 14.4%.
How many votes were taken in 2002? Looking at the bottom of the third column
(2002), it says that the total number of votes in 2002 is 9432.
When we take a percentage of a number, we write the percentage in decimal form
and then multiply it times the number we are taking the percentage of.

## Taking 14.4% of the total of 9432 we get:

(.144)(9432) = 1358.208 which rounds down to 1358.

## 12b. By approximately what percent did the preference of root beer

decrease from 2001 to 2002?

Basically we are looking for the difference in percent. That means we will
not have to take a percentage of any numbers. We just need to find the
difference between those two percents.

What was the percent of customers that voted for root beer in 2001? If you said
2.7, you are correct. You find that by going to the second column (2001) and going
down to root beer.
What was the percent of customers that voted for root beer in 2002? If you said
1.1, you are correct. You find that by going to the third column (2002) and going
222

## down to root beer.

So what is their difference? 2.7 - 1.1 = 1.6
There was a 1.6% decrease of votes for root beer from 2001 to 2002.

12c. What was the difference between the number of votes for Coca Cola
in 2001 versus 2002?

Now we are looking for a difference in the number of votes, so we will have
to do a little bit more work here then in 12b above. We will have to take
the appropriate percentage of the corresponding totals for each year and
find the number of votes for each year. Then we will have the numbers
that we need to take the difference of.

What percent of customers in 2001 voted for Coca Cola? Looking at the second
column (2001), it looks like it is 35%.
How many votes were taken in 2001? Looking at the bottom of the second column
(2001), it says that the total number of votes in 2001 is 8950.
When we take a percentage of a number, we write the percentage in decimal form
and then multiply it times the number we are taking the percentage of.
Taking 35% of the total of 8950 we get:
(.35)(8950) = 3132.5 which rounds up to 3133.
Approximately 3133 customers voted for Coca Cola in 2001.

What percent of customers in 2002 voted for Coca Cola? Looking at the third
column (2002), it looks like it is 30%.
How many votes were taken in 2002? Looking at the bottom of the third column
(2002), it says that the total number of votes in 2002 is 9432.
When we take a percentage of a number, we write the percentage in decimal form and
then multiply it times the number we are taking the percentage of.
Taking 30% of the total of 9432 we get:
(.3)(9432) = 2829.6 which rounds up to 2830.
223

## Approximately 2830 customers voted for Coca Cola in 2002.

Finding the difference between the two values that we found we get:
3133 - 2830 = 303
There was a 303 difference between the number of customers that voted for Coca
Cola in 2001 versus 2002.

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a. 82%

1b. 325%

224

2a. .64

2b. .0003

number?

## 3b. 50.4 is what percent of 120?

3c. A local furniture store is having a terrific sale. They are marking down
every price 45%. If the couch you have our eye on was \$800 before the
markdown, find the decrease and the sale price.

Practice Problems 4a - 4c: The pie chart or circle graph below shows the profit
breakdown of the paper products sold by ABC Paper Company in 2001.
Use the graph to answer questions 4a - 4c.

4a. In 2001, what was the ratio of profit of toilet paper to profit of paper cups?
225

4b. If the profit for napkins in 2001 was 35% lower than its profit in 2000, how much
profit was made from napkins in 2000?

4c. If the areas of sectors in the circle graphs are drawn in proportion to the
percentages shown, what is the measure, in degrees, of the central angle sector
representing the percentage of profit of tissues?

Problems
Tutorial 16: Percent and Problem
Solving
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 16: Percent and Problem
Solving

82%

Dropping the percent sign and then moving the decimal two places to the left we get:
82% = . 82

226

325%

Dropping the percent sign and then moving the decimal two places to the left we get:
325% = 3.25

.64

Moving the decimal place two to the right and then putting a % sign at the end of the number we
get:
.64 = 64%

.0003

Moving the decimal place two to the right and then putting a % sign at the end of the number we
get:
.0003 = .03%

227

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.
Since we are looking for a number, we will let

x = the number

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

54 is 60% of 90.

228

The number is 90.

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.
Since we are looking for a percent, we will let

x = the percent

229

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

50.4 is 42% of 120.

A local furniture store is having a terrific sale. They are marking down every price 45%. If the
couch you have our eye on was \$800 before the markdown, find the decrease and the sale price.

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.
Since we are looking for the decrease in price, we will let

230

*Multiply

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

360 is 45% of 800.

The decrease is \$360.
The sale price is \$800 - \$360 = \$440.

In 2001, what was the ratio of profit of toilet paper to profit of paper cups?

When setting up a ratio you need to write the number that corresponds to the first
part first and then compare it to the number that corresponds to the second part of
the ratio.

What do you think the first part of the ratio, toilet paper or paper cups? Since toilet paper is
231

listed first, that is what our first number of our ratio has to correspond to.
What is the percentage of profit attached to toilet paper? Looking on the pie chart, I believe
it is 10%.
That leaves the percentage associated with paper cups to be our second part of the ratio. Looks
like that will be 15%.
So the ratio of profit of toilet paper to profit of paper cups would be 10 to 15. You can think
of ratios as fractions, and simplify them in the same manner. Since 10 and 15 have a greatest
common factor of 5, we can reduce this to be 2 to 3.
Note that if you had started with 15 to 10, this would be incorrect. 15 to 10 would be the ratio of
profit of paper cups to profit of toilet paper. You write a ratio, just like you read it, left to right.
The simplified ratio of profit of toilet paper to profit of paper cups would be 2 to 3.

If the profit for napkins in 2001 was 35% lower than its profit in 2000, how much profit was

232

Wow, where do we start? Since we know the total profit and percent of profit of
napkins from 2001, we can start by finding the profit of napkins there was in 2001.

What percentage or profit was napkins in 2001? If you said 52% you are correct!!!
So what would be the profit of napkins in 2001? When we take a percentage of a number, we
write the percentage in decimal form and then multiply it times the number we are taking the
percentage of.
Taking 52% of the total profit of 275 million we get:
(.52)(275 million) = 143 million
143 million is the profit made on napkins in 2001.

Using this found information we need to find out the profit of napkins in 2000.
The question says that the profit for napkins in 2001 was 35% lower than its profit in 2000.
We are going to let x be the profit for napkins in 2000
We are needing an equation that represents the English phrase "the profit for napkins in 2001 was
35% lower than its profit in 2000". Going left to right, the profit for napkins in 2001 would be
143 million, was would be our = sign, 35% lower than the its profit in 2000, would be starting
with the profit in 2000, which is x and subtracting 35% of that, which is .35x. From all of this
we get the following equation:

## The profit that napkins made in 2000 would be \$220 million.

233

If the areas of sectors in the circle graphs are drawn in proportion to the percentages shown, what
is the measure, in degrees, of the central angle sector representing the percentage of profit of
tissues?

What percentage of the profit in 2001 did tissues make? If you said 12% you
are correct!!!

So what would be the measure of the central angle for tissues in 2001? Keep in mind that a
full circle is 360 degrees. We are basically wanting to know what 12% of 360 degrees is.
When we take a percentage of a number, we write the percentage in decimal form and then
multiply it times the number we are taking the percentage of.
Taking 12% of the total of 360 degrees we get:
(.12)(360degrees) = 43.2 degrees

234

## WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Use Polya's four step process to solve word problems involving geometry
concepts, distance, mixtures and interest.

Introduction

In this tutorial we will be solving problems involving geometry concepts, distance, mixtures and
interest. Since we are still problem solving, I will use Polyas four steps to Problem Solving as
introduced in Tutorial 15: Introduction to Problem Solving to step us through the problems in
this tutorial. After finishing this tutorial, you will be able to answer those tricky word problems.
Let's see how you do on these problems.

Tutorial

## Polyas Four-step Process

for Problem Solving
235

(revisited)

As mentioned above, since we are still problem solving, we will use the exact same
four step process we used in Tutorial 15: Introduction to Problem Solving. To
refresh your memory, here they are again:

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Step 2: Devise a plan (translate).
Step 3: Carry out the plan (solve).
Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

Rectangle Problem

## Example 1: In a blueprint of a rectangular room, the length is 1 inch

more than 3 times the width. Find the dimensions if the perimeter is to be 26
inches.

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

236

We are looking for the length and width of the rectangle. Since length can be written
in terms of width, we will let

w = width

1 + 3w = length

## *Remove ( ) by using dist. prop.

*Combine like terms

## *Inv. of add. 2 is sub. 2

*Inv. of mult. by 8 is div. by 8

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

If width is 3, then length, which is 1 inch more than 3 times the width
would have to be 10. The perimeter of a rectangle with width of 3 inches
and length of 10 inches does come out to be 26.
237

Width is 3 inches.

Length is 10 inches.

Distance Problem

## Distance = Rate * Time

Example 2: It takes you 4.5 hours to drive from your home to your
favorite weekend get away, which is 315 miles away. What is your average speed?

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are looking for speed, we can use the distance/rate formula:

d = rt
The variables in this formula represent the following:

d = distance
r = rate
t = time

238

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

If you go at a rate of 70 miles per hour for 4.5 hours, you would travel 315
miles.

The average speed is 70 mph.

Mixture Problem

239

Example 3: How much 20% alcohol solution and 50% alcohol solution
must be mixed to get 12 gallons of 30%?

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are looking for the amount of 20% solution and 50% solution needed to get 12
gallons of 30%.

## x = number of gallons of the 20%.

Since the two mixtures together need to be 12 gallons, then we can take the total (12)
and subtract from it the given number of gallons (x):
12 - x = number of gallons of the 50%.

240

## *Combine like terms

*Inv. of add. 60 is sub. 60

## If there are 8 gallons of the 20%, then there would have to be 12 - 8 = 4

gallons of the 50% solution.

If you have 8 gallons of 20% solution and 4 gallons of 50% solution you do get 12
gallons of 30% alcohol solution.
8 gallons of the 20% solution.
4 gallons of the 50% solution.

## Example 4: An investor with \$70,000 decides to place part of her

money in corporate bonds paying 12% per year and the rest in a certificate of
deposit paying 8% per year. If she wishes to obtain an overall return of \$6300 per
year, how much should she place in each investment?

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

241

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

## x = amount invested in 12%

Since the two accounts together need to be \$70000, then we can take the total (70000)
and subtract from it the given number in the 12% account (x):
70,000 - x = amount invested in 8%
Note that you could have reverse those, the problem would still work out the same.

## 12% return plus 8% return results in 6300

.12x + .08(70000 - x) = 6300

## *Combine like terms

*Inv. of add. 5600 is sub. 5600

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

242

If she invested \$17500 in corporate bonds, then she would have to invest
\$70000 - \$17500 = \$52000 in the certificate of deposit.

If you take 12% of \$17500 and add it to 8% of \$52500 you do get \$6300.
She invested \$17500 at 12% and \$52500 at 8%.

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

## Practice Problems 1a - 1d: Solve the word problem.

1a. A rectangular garden has a width that is 8 feet less than twice the length. Find
the dimensions if the perimeter is 20 feet.

1b. In Nebraska on I-80, the speed limit is 75 mph. How long would it take you to
travel 525 miles in Nebraska on I-80 if you went the speed limit the whole time?
243

1c. How much 25% antifreeze and 50% antifreeze should be combined to give 40
liters of 30% antifreeze?

1d. You recently came into \$20,000 (lucky you!) and you want to place part of your
money in a savings account paying 7% per year and part in a certificate of deposit
paying 9% per year. If you wish to obtain an overall return of \$1700 per year, how
much would you place in each investment?

Problems
Tutorial 17: Further Problem Solving
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 17: Further Problem
Solving

A rectangular garden has a width that is 8 feet less than twice the length. Find the dimensions if
the perimeter is 20 feet.

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.
We are looking for the length and width of the rectangle. Since width can be written in terms of
length, we will let
L = length
Width is 8 feet less than twice the length:

2L - 8 = width
244

## Step 3: Carry out the plan (solve).

*Mult. ( ) by 2
*Combine like terms

## *Inv. of sub. 16 is add 16

*Inv. of mult. by 6 is div. by 6

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

If length is 6, then width, which is 8 feet less than twice the length, would have to be 4. The
perimeter of a rectangle with width of 4 feet and length of 6 feet is 20 feet.
Width is 4 feet.
Length is 6 feet.

245

In Nebraska on I-80, the speed limit is 75 mph. How long would it take you to travel
525 miles in Nebraska on I-80 if you went the speed limit the whole time?

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are looking for how long it would take you to travel, we can use the distance/rate
formula:

d = rt
The variables in this formula represent the following:

d = distance
r = rate
t = time

246

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

If you go at a rate of 75 miles per hour for 7 hours, you would travel 525 miles.

It would take 7 hours.

How much 25% antifreeze and 50% antifreeze should be combined to give 40 liters
of 30% antifreeze?

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

We are looking for the amount of 25% antifreeze and 50% antifreeze needed to get 40 liters of
30% antifreeze.

## x = number of liters of the 25%.

Since the two mixtures together need to be 40 liters, then we can take the total (40) and subtract
from it the "given" number of liters (x):
40 - x = number of liters of the 50%.

247

## *Combine like terms

*Inv. of add. 2000 is sub. 2000

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

If there are 32 liters of the 25%, then there would have to be 40 - 32 = 8 liters of the
50% solution.

If you have 32 liters of 20% solution and 8 liters of 50% solution you do get 40 liters of 30%
alcohol solution.
32 liters of the 25% antifreeze.
8 liters of the 50% antifreeze.

248

You recently came into \$20,000 (lucky you!) and you want to place part of your
money in a savings account paying 7% per year and part in a certificate of deposit
paying 9% per year. If you wish to obtain an overall return of \$1700 per year, how
much would you place in each investment?

## Step 1: Understand the problem.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

## We are looking for how much she invested in EACH account.

x = amount invested in 7%
Since the two accounts together need to be \$20000, then we can take the total (20000) and
subtract from it the "given" number in the 7% account (x):
20,000 - x = amount invested in 9%
Note that you could have reverse those, the problem would still work out the same.

249

## *Combine like terms

*Inv. of add. 1800 is sub. 1800

## Step 4: Look back (check and interpret).

If you invested \$5000 at 7%, then you would have to invest \$20000 - \$5000 =
\$15000 at 9%.

## If you take 7% of \$5000 and add it to 9% of \$15000 you do get \$1700.

You invested \$5000 at 7% and \$15000 at 9%.

## Tutorial 18: Solving Linear Inequalities

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Use the addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division properties of
inequalities to solve linear inequalities.

## 2. Draw a graph to give a visual answer to an inequality problem.

250

Introduction

When solving linear inequalities, we use a lot of the same concepts that we use
when solving linear equations. Basically, we still want to get the variable on one
side and everything else on the other side by using inverse operations. The
difference is, when a variable is set equal to one number, that number is the only
solution. But, when a variable is less than or greater than a number, there are an
infinite number of values that would be a part of the answer.

Tutorial

Inequality Signs

## a < b a is less than b

a < b a is less than or equal to b
a > b a is greater than b
a > b a is greater than or equal to b

Graphing Inequalities
251

x<c
When x is less than a constant, you darken in the part of the
number line that is to the left of the constant.

Also, because there is no equal line, we are not including where x is equal to
the constant. That means we are not including the endpoint. One way to
notate that is to use an open hole at that point.

x>c
When x is greater than a constant, you darken in the part of the
number line that is to the right of the constant.

Also, because there is no equal line, we are not including where x is equal to
the constant. That means we are not including the endpoint. One way to
notate that is to use an open hole at that point.

x<c
When x is less than or equal to a constant, you darken in the part
of the number line that is to the left of the constant.

Also, because there is an equal line, we are including where x is equal to the
constant. That means we are including the endpoint. One way to notate that
is to use an closed hole at that point.

252

x>c
When x is greater than or equal to a constant, you darken in the
part of the number line that is to the right of the constant.

Also, because there is an equal line, we are including where x is equal to the
constant. That means we are including the endpoint. One way to notate that
is to use a closed hole at that point.

## Example 1: Graph x > 5.

Since we needed to indicate all values greater than 5, the part of the number line that
is to the right of 5 was darkened.
Since there is no equal line under the > symbol, this means we do not include the
endpoint 5 itself. We can notate that by using an open hole (or you can use a curved
end).

## Example 2: Graph x < 2.

253

Since we needed to indicate all values less than or equal to 2, the part of the number
line that is to the left of 2 was darkened.
Since there is an equal line under the < symbol, this means we do include the endpoint
2. We can notate that by using a closed hole (or you can use a boxed end).

If a < b, then a + c < b + c
If a < b, then a - c < b - c

## In other words, adding or subtracting the same expression to both sides of

an inequality does not change the inequality.

## *Inv. of sub. 7 is add. 7

Graph:
*Visual showing all numbers less than 4 on the
number line

Note that the inequality stayed the same throughout the problem. Adding
or subtracting the same value to both sides does not change the inequality.
254

The answer 'x is less than 4' means that if we put any number less than 4 back in the
original problem, it would be a solution (the left side would be less than the right
side). As mentioned above, this means that we have more than just one number for our
solution, there are an infinite number of values that would satisfy this inequality.
Graph:
Since we needed to indicate all values less than 4, the part of the number line that was
to the left of 4 was darkened.
Since we are not including where it is equal to, an open hole was used.

Graph:

## *Visual showing all numbers greater than or =

to -5 on the number line.

Note that the inequality stayed the same throughout the problem. Adding
or subtracting the same value to both sides does not change the inequality.

The answer 'x is greater than or equal to -5' means that if we put any number greater
than or equal to -5 back in the original problem, it would be a solution (the left side
would be greater than or equal to the right side). As mentioned above, this means that
we have more than just one number for our solution, there are an infinite number of
values that would satisfy this inequality.
Graph:
Since we needed to indicate all values greater than or equal to -5, the part of the
number line that was to the right of -5 was darkened.
255

Since we are including where it is equal to, a closed hole was used.

## Multiplication/Division Properties for

Inequalities
when multiplying/dividing by a positive value

## If a < b AND c is positive, then ac < bc

If a < b AND c is positive, then a/c < b/c

## In other words, multiplying or dividing the same POSITIVE number to both

sides of an inequality does not change the inequality.

Graph:

## *Visual showing all numbers less than -2 on the

number line

Note that the inequality sign stayed the same direction. Even though the
right side was a -10, the number we were dividing both sides by, was a
positive 5. Multiplying or dividing both sides by the same positive
value does not change the inequality.

Graph:
256

Since we needed to indicate all values less than -2, the part of the number line that was
to the left of -2 was darkened.
Since we are not including where it is equal to, an open hole was used.

Graph:

the number line

## Multiplying or dividing both sides by the same positive value does

not change the inequality.

Graph:
Since we needed to indicate all values greater than 3, the part of the number line that
was to the right of 3 was darkened.
Since we are not including where it is equal to, an open hole was used.

## Multiplication/Division Properties for

Inequalities
when multiplying/dividing by a negative value
257

## If a < b AND c is negative, then ac > bc

If a < b AND c is negative, then a/c > b/c

## In other words, multiplying or dividing the same NEGATIVE number to both

sides of an inequality reverses the sign of the inequality.

The reason for this is, when you multiply or divide an expression by a negative number, it
changes the sign of that expression. On the number line, the positive values go in a reverse or
opposite direction than the negative numbers go, so when we take the opposite of an expression,
we need to reverse our inequality to indicate this.

## *Inv. of div. by -2 is mult. by -2, so

reverse inequality sign

Graph:

number line

## I multiplied by a -2 to take care of both the negative and the division by 2

in one step.

In line 2, note that when I did show the step of multiplying both sides by a -2, I
reversed my inequality sign.
Graph:
Since we needed to indicate all values less than -14, the part of the number line that
was to the left of -14 was darkened.

258

Since we are not including where it is equal to, an open hole was used.

## *Inv. of mult. by -3 is div. by -3, so

reverse inequality sign

Graph:

## *Visual showing all numbers greater than or =

-3 on the number line

In line 2, note that when I did show the step of dividing both sides
by a -3, that I reversed my inequality sign.

Graph:
Since we needed to indicate all values greater than or equal to -3, the part of the
number line that was to the right of -3 was darkened.
Since we are including where it is equal to, a closed hole was used.

## Step 1: Simplify each side, if needed.

This would involve things like removing ( ), removing fractions,
259

Step 2: Use Add./Sub. Properties to move the variable term on one side and all
other terms to the other side.
Step 3: Use Mult./Div. Properties to remove any values that are in front of the
variable.
Note that it is the same basic concept we used when solving linear equations as shown in
Tutorial 14: Solving Linear Equations.

## *Inv. of mult. by -3 is div. both sides by -3, so

reverse inequality sign

Graph:
*Visual showing all numbers greater than -3 on
the number line

Graph:
Since we needed to indicate all values greater than -3, the part of the
number line that was to the right of -3 was darkened.

Since we are not including where it is equal to, an open hole was used.

260

Example 10: Solve the inequality and graph the solution set.

*Distributive property
*Get x terms on one side, constants on
the other side

## *Inv. of mult. by 2 is div. by 2

Graph:
*Visual showing all numbers less than -1/2 on
the number line.

Even though we had a -2 on the right side in line 5, we were dividing both
sides by a positive 2, so we did not change the inequality sign.

Graph:
Since we needed to indicate all values less than -1/2, the part of the number line that
was to the left of -1/2 was darkened.
Since we are not including where it is equal to, an open hole was used.

Example 11: Solve the inequality and graph the solution set.

261

## *Get x terms on one side, constants on the other

side
*Inv. of mult. by -1 is div. by -1, so reverse
inequality sign

Graph:
*Visual showing all numbers less than or equal
to 4 on the number line.

## Once again we find ourselves dividing both sides by a negative

value, as shown in line 6. Once we do that, we need to remember
to change the inequality. Note that we still keep the equal part of
it.

Graph:
Since we needed to indicate all values less than or equal to 4, the part of the number
line that was to the left of 4 was darkened.
Since we are including where it is equal to, a closed hole was used.

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
262

## instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

Practice Problems 1a - 1c: Solve the inequality and graph the solution set.

1a.

1b.

1c.

Problems
Tutorial 18: Solving Linear Inequalities
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 18: Solving Linear
Inequalities

263

inequality sign

Graph:

## *Visual showing all numbers less than -2 on the number

line

Notice how our variable was on the right side of the inequality. It doesn't matter
what side you have the variable on, as long as it by itself on one side and everything
else is on the other side. What you do have to be careful about is graphing it
properly. It is almost like reading it backwards this way. So, if you feel more
comfortable writing it with your variable on the left side, by all means, go ahead and
do that.

Graph:
Since we needed to indicate all values less than -2, the part of the number line that was to the left
of -2 was darkened.
Since we are not including where it is equal to, an open hole was used.

264

*Distributive property

## *Get x terms on one side, constants on the other side

*Inv. of mult. by 2 is div. both sides by 2

Graph:
*Visual showing all numbers less than or equal to 4 on the
number line

Graph:
Since we needed to indicate all values less than or equal to 4, the part of the
number line that was to the left of 4 was darkened.

Since we are including where it is equal to, a closed hole was used.

## *Get x terms on one side, constants on the other

265

Graph:
*Visual showing all numbers greater than or equal to 3 on
the number line

Graph:
Since we needed to indicate all values greater than or equal to 3, the part of the
number line that was to the right of 3 was darkened.

Since we are including where it is equal to, a closed hole was used.

## Tutorial 19: Practice Test on Tutorials

11 - 18
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

## Special Notes about Tutorial 19:

I can not guarantee you will pass your test after going though any of the
tutorials in this website or this practice test. However, it will definitely help
you to better understand the topics covered better.

Disclaimer: WTAMU and Kim Seward are not responsible for how a student
does on any test or any class for any reason including not being able to
access the website due to any technology problems.

266

Introduction
It is important to note that, chances are, I'm not your math instructor. You need to
check with your math teacher as to things like when your next math test is
and what it covers. It may cover more material on the test than what is in
this practice test. Just note that there are other practice tests at this website. So,
after finding out what is on your test (if you have one) do the practice test(s)
problems that go with the test you are preparing for. If you are not in a class or are
not having a test soon, this practice test is still good practice to go through and
check to make sure you are understanding this material before moving on - kind of
like a spot check. The material on this practice test goes with Tutorial 11:
Simplifying Algebraic Expressions, Tutorial 12: The Addition Property of
Equality, Tutorial 13: The Multiplication Property of Equality, Tutorial 14:
Solving Linear Equations (Putting it all together), Tutorial 15: Introduction
to Problem Solving, Tutorial 16: Percent and Problem Solving, Tutorial 17:
Further Problem Solving, and Tutorial 18: Solving Linear Inequalities.

Also note that your teacher may word the problems on their test a little differently, may
have some different kinds of problems, or may have a different number of problems than
what is in this practice test. Again, since I'm probably not your math instructor, I don't know
build an understanding of the concepts presented and the terms used in math problems. If you
have an understanding of the problems instead of just memorizing them, then you should
do fine on these concepts, no matter how the test is set up.

## Steps to Studying for a Math Test

1. Work through problems. If you are in a class, you should have done this on
completion of any homework you have done. For anyone, you can
accomplish this by doing the practice problems found in each tutorial.
2. Check work on problems. The practice problems in each tutorial have links
to the answers to them so you can instantly check how you are doing. Also, in
most math books, the odd answers are found in the back of the book.
3. Review concepts. Whether you got the problems right or wrong, make sure
you review over them. If you did get a problem wrong, make sure you either
it. If you don't ask about a problem before a test, you are going to kick
yourself when it comes up on the test.
267

## 4. Work through problems as if you were taking the test - no notes,

book, webpages, etc. This practice test is a perfect way to do that. After
to the answer key found at the bottom of the practice test (before
the 'need extra help on these topics' section)

## During the Test

It is to your benefit to show as much of the work as possible on the problems that have several
steps involved.
Make sure that you read the directions carefully, you wouldn't believe how many points get
taken off math tests for people not following directions.
Pace yourself. You do not have to be the first one done to do well on the test. Do not panic if
there is still time left to take the test and others are turing it in. Sometimes that means they do not
know the material and left some of the answers blank. Do not worry about anyone else but
yourself.
Don't rush through a problem. Another thing that math teachers take points off for are careless
mistakes made by people that rush through a problem. When those students get their tests back,
they bonk themselves on the head at some of the things that got counted wrong, things that they
knew how to do.
Remember to breathe!!!! I know some of you are scared to death at the thought of having to
take a math test of any kind. For you guys, try to relax and don't forget to breathe. (Even if you
aren't scared to take a math test, it is probably a good idea to remember to breathe, I wouldn't
want you to pass out during the test). If it feels like your brain has left the building during
your test, just close your eyes and breathe in and out and in and out and your brain will
return.
Good luck on your test. If you are taking a math test soon, don't panic, you are going to do
great!!!

Practice Test
268

1a.

1b.

possible.

number.

3a.

3b.

3c.

## 4b. Complimentary angles sum up to be 90 degrees. Find the measure of

each angle in the figure below. Note that since the angles make up a right
269

## 4c. 14.4 is what percent of 60?

4d. You are wanting to buy a stereo system that costs \$325 plus tax. If
you are going to be taxed 8.25%, how much will be the final cost of the
stereo system? (round to the nearest cent)

4e. You are traveling down I-40 at a constant speed of 70 mph. How many
hours will it take you to travel 385 miles?

## 4f. A total of \$1000 is deposited into two simple interest accounts. On

one account the annual simple interest rate is 5% and on the second
account the annual simple interest rate is 7%. The amount of interest
earned for 1 year was \$64. How much is invested in each account?

Problems 5a - 5c: Solve the inequality and graph the solution set.

5a.

5b.

5c.
270

Problems
Tutorial 19: Practice Test on Tutorials
11 - 18
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 19: Practice Test on
Tutorials 11 - 18

1a.

1b.

271

possible.

number.

3a.

3b.

272

3c.

## 4a The product of 5 and a number is 8 less than 7 times that number.

Let x = the number

273

The number is 4.

## 4b. Complimentary angles sum up to be 90 degrees. Find the measure of

each angle in the figure below. Note that since the angles make up a right
angle, they are complementary to each other.

## 4c. 14.4 is what percent of 60?

Let x = the percent

274

x is 24%.

4d. You are wanting to buy a stereo system that costs \$325 plus tax. If
you are going to be taxed 8.25%, how much will be the final cost of the
stereo system? (round to the nearest cent)

Let x = final cost

## The final cost would be \$351.81.

4e. You are traveling down I-40 at a constant speed of 70 mph. How many
hours will it take you to travel 385 miles?

Let t = the number of hours

## 4f. A total of \$1000 is deposited into two simple interest accounts. On

one account the annual simple interest rate is 5% and on the second
account the annual simple interest rate is 7%. The amount of interest
earned for 1 year was \$64. How much is invested in each account?
275

x = amount in 5%
1000 - x = amount in 7%

## Deposited \$300 at 5% and \$700 at 7%.

Problems 5a - 5c: Solve the inequality and graph the solution set.

5a.

5b.
276

5c.

277

## Tutorial 20: The Rectangular

Coordinate System
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Plot points on a rectangular coordinate system.
2. Identify what quadrant or axis a point lies on.
3. Tell if an ordered pair is a solution of an equation in two variables or not.

## 4. Complete an ordered pair that has one missing value.

Introduction

This section covers the basic ideas of graphing: rectangular coordinate system,
ordered pairs and solutions to equations in two variables. Graphs are
important in giving a visual representation of the correlation between two variables.
Even though in this section we are going to look at it generically, using a general

and y variable, you can use two-dimensional graphs for any application where you
have two variables. For example, you may have a cost function that is dependent
on the quantity of items made. If you needed to show your boss visually the
correlation of the quantity with the cost, you could do that on a two-dimensional
graph. I believe that it is important for you learn how to do something in general,
then when you need to apply it to something specific you have the knowledge to do
so. Going from general to specific is a lot easier than specific to general. And that is
what we are doing here looking at graphing in general so later you can apply it to
something specific, if needed.
278

Tutorial

## It is made up of two number lines:

1. The horizontal number line is the
2. The vertical number line is the

x- axis.

y- axis.

The origin is where the two intersect. This is where both number lines are
0.

It is split into four quadrants which are marked on this graph with Roman numerals.

279

Each point on the graph is associated with an ordered pair. When dealing with an x,
y graph, the x coordinate is always first and the y coordinate is always second in the
ordered pair (x, y). It is a solution to an equation in two variables. Even though there
are two values in the ordered pair, be careful that it associates to ONLY ONE point on
the graph, the point lines up with both the x value of the ordered pair (x-axis) and
the y value of the ordered pair (y-axis).

Example 1:

## which the point lies.

A(2, 3), B(-1, 2), C(-3, -4), D(2, 0), and E(0, 5).

Remember that each ordered pair associates with only one point
on the graph. Just line up the

## B(-1, 2) lies in quadrant II.

C(-3, -4) lies in quadrant III.
D(2, 0) lies on the x-axis.
280

Example 2:

Find the

## x- and y- coordinates of the following labeled

points

Remember that each ordered pair associates with only one point on the
graph. Just line up the
pair.

## x value and then the y value to get your ordered

Since point A corresponds to 2 on the x-axis and -3 on the y-axis, then As ordered
pair is (2, -3).
Since point B corresponds to 3 on the x-axis and 2 on the y-axis, then Bs ordered
pair is (3, 2).
Since point C corresponds to -2 on the x-axis and 3 on the y-axis, then Cs ordered
pair is (-2, 3).
Since point D corresponds to -3 on the x-axis and - 4 on the y-axis, then Ds ordered
pair is (-3, - 4).
Since point E corresponds to -3 on the x-axis and 0 on the y-axis, then Es ordered
pair is (-3, 0).
Since point F corresponds to 0 on the x-axis and 2 on the y-axis, then Fs ordered
pair is (0, 2).
281

Solutions of Equations
in Two Variables

The solutions to equations in two variables consist of two values that when
substituted into their corresponding variables in the equation, make a true
statement.

In other words, if your equation has two variables x and y, and you plug in a value for x and its
corresponding value for y and the mathematical statement comes out to be true, then the x and y
value that you plugged in would together be a solution to the equation.
Equations in two variables can have more than one solution.
We usually write the solutions to equations in two variables in ordered pairs.

## Example 3: Determine whether each ordered pair is a solution of the given

equation.
y = 5x - 7; (2, 3), (1, 5), (-1, -12)

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value? If you said x = 2 and y =
3, you are correct!
Lets plug (2, 3) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in 2 for

x and 3 for y

282

= 5x - 7.

## Now lets take a look at (1, 5).

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value?
5, you are right!

## If you said x = 1 and y =

Lets plug (1, 5) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in 1 for

x and 5 for y

## Whoops, it looks like we have ourselves a FALSE statement. This means

that (1, 5) is NOT a solution to the equation 5x - 7.

## Now lets look at (-1, -12).

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value?
-12, you are right!

## If you said x = -1 and y =

Lets plug (-1, -12) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in -1 for

## We have another TRUE statement. This means (-1, -12) is another

solution to the equation

y = 5x - 7.
283

Note that you were only given three ordered pairs to check, however, there are an
infinite number of solutions to this equation. It would very cumbersome to find them
all.

given equation.

## x = 3; (3, 5), (2, 3), (3, 4)

This equation looks a little different than the one on example 3. In this

## x value to plug in. So as long as the x value is

3, then we have a solution to the equation. It doesnt matter what ys
equation, we only have an
value is.

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value? If you said x = 3 and y =
5, you are correct!
Lets plug (3, 5) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in 3 for

= 3.

## Now lets take a look at (2, 3).

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value?
284

## 3, you are right!

Lets plug (2, 3) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in 2 for

## Whoops, it looks like we have ourselves a FALSE statement. This means

that (2, 3) is NOT a solution to the equation

x = 3.

## Now lets look at (3, 4).

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value?
4, you are right!

## If you said x = 3 and y =

Lets plug (3, 4) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in 3 for

## We have another TRUE statement. This means (3, 4) is another

solution to the equation

x = 3.

Note that you were only given three ordered pairs to check, however, there are an
infinite number of solutions to this equation. It would very cumbersome to find them
all.

Pair
285

## Given One Variables Value

Again, the solutions to equations in two variables consist of two values that when
substituted into their corresponding variables in the equation, make a true
statement.

Sometimes you are given a value of one of the variables and you need to find the
corresponding value of the other variable. The steps involved in doing that are:

## Step 1: Plug given value for variable into equation.

Step 2: Solve the equation for the remaining variable.

equation

(1,

) and (

, -1).

## In the ordered pair (1, ), is 1 that is given the

x or the y value?

## If you said x, you are correct.

Plugging in 1 for x into the given equation and solving for y we get:

*Plug in 1 for

*Solve for y

## So, the ordered pair (1, 1) would be a solution to the given

286

equation.

In the ordered pair ( , -1), is the -1 that is given the x or the y value?
If you said y, you are correct.
Plugging in -1 for y into the given equation and solving for x we get:

*Plug in -1 for

*Solve for x

So, the ordered pair (4, -1) would be another solution to the given
equation.

## Example 6: Complete the table of values for the equation

y
0
-1
1

The only difference between this one and example 5 above is that we are
using a table to match up our values of our variables instead of writing it in
287

an ordered pair. The concept is still the same, we need to find the
corresponding values of our variables that are solutions to the
given equation.

Plugging in 0 for y into the given equation and solving for x we get:

## So, the ordered pair (-1/2, 0) would be a solution to the given

equation.

Plugging in -1 for y into the given equation and solving for x we get:

So, the ordered pair (-1/2, -1) would be another solution to the
given equation.

Plugging in 1 for y into the given equation and solving for x we get:

given equation.

## Filling in the table we get:

-1/2

0
288

-1/2

-1

-1/2

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

Practice Problem 1a: Plot each point and name the quadrant or axis in which
the point lies.

## 1a. A(3, 1), B(-2, -1/2), C(2, -2), and D(0,1)

Practice Problem 2a: Find the x- and y- coordinates of the following labeled
points.
289

2a.

given equation.

3a.

y = 4x - 10 ;

3b.

y = -5 ;

equation

## 4a. (0, ) and ( , 1).

290

Practice Problem 5a: Complete the table of values for the equation

5a.

0
-1
1

Problems
Tutorial 20: The Rectangular
Coordinate System
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 20: The Rectangular
Coordinate System

291

## A(3, 1) lies in quadrant I.

B(-2, -1/2) lies in quadrant III.
C(2, -2) lies in quadrant IV.
D(0, 1) lies on the y axis.

Since point A corresponds to 4 on the x-axis and 2 on the y-axis, then A's ordered pair is (4, 2).
Since point B corresponds to 0 on the x-axis and 4 on the y-axis, then B's ordered pair is (0, 4).
Since point C corresponds to -2 on the x-axis and 2 on the y-axis, then C's ordered pair is (-2,
292

2).
Since point D corresponds to - 4 on the x-axis and 0 on the y-axis, then D's ordered pair is (- 4,
0).
Since point E corresponds to -2 on the x-axis and -3 on the y-axis, then E's ordered pair is (-2,
-3).
Since point F corresponds to 3 on the x-axis and -3 on the y-axis, then F's ordered pair is (3, -3).

y = 4x - 10

## (0, -10), (1, -14), (-1, -14)

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value? If you said x = 0 and y = -10, you are
correct!
Let's plug (0, -10) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in 0 for

10.

y = 4x -

## Now, let's take a look at (1, -14).

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value?
293

## If you said x = 1 and y = -14, you

are right!
Let's plug (1, -14) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in 1 for

y=

4x - 10.

## Now, let's take a look at (-1, -14).

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value?
are right!

## If you said x = -1 and y = -14, you

Let's plug (-1, -14) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in -1 for

10.

294

y = 4x -

## y = -5 ; (2, -5), (-5, 1), (0, -5)

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value? If you said x = 2 and y = -5, you are
correct!
Let's plug (2, -5) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in -5 for

y = -5.

## Now, let's take a look at (-5, 1).

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value?
right!

## If you said x = -5 and y = 1, you are

Let's plug (-5, 1) into the equation and see what we get:

*Plug in -5 for

-5.

y=

## Now, let's take a look at (0, -5).

Which number is the x value and which one is the y value?
right!
Let's plug (0, -5) into the equation and see what we get:

295

*Plug in -5 for

## This is a TRUE statement, so (0, -5) is a solution to the equation

y = -5.

; (0, ) and ( , 1)

## In the ordered pair (0, ), is 0 that is given the

x or the y value?

## If you said x, you are correct.

Plugging in 0 for x into the given equation and solving for y we get:

*Plug in 0 for

*Solve for y

So, the ordered pair (0, - 4) would be a solution to the given equation.

In the ordered pair ( , 1), is the 1 that is given the x or the y value?

296

## If you said y, you are correct.

Plugging in 1 for y into the given equation and solving for x we get:

*Plug in 1 for

*Solve for x

So, the ordered pair (5, 1) would be another solution to the given
equation.

Plugging in 0 for

## x into the given equation and solving for y we get:

So, the ordered pair (0, 3/2) would be a solution to the given equation.

Plugging in -1 for x into the given equation and solving for y we get:

297

So, the ordered pair (-1, 3/2) would be another solution to the given
equation.

Plugging in 1 for x into the given equation and solving for y we get:

So, the ordered pair (1, 3/2) would be another solution to the given
equation.

3/2

-1

3/2

3/2

## Tutorial 21: Graphing Linear Equations

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Recognize when an equation in two variables is a linear equation.
298

## 2. Graph a linear equation.

Introduction

In Tutorial 20: The Rectangular Coordinate System, we went over the basics of
the rectangular coordinate system. In this tutorial we will be adding on to this by
looking at graphing linear equations by plotting points that are solutions. Basically,
when you graph, you plot solutions and connect the dots to get your
graph. Specifically, when you graph linear equations, you will end up with a straight
line. Let's see what you can do with these linear equations.

Tutorial

Linear Equation in
Two Variables
Standard Form:
Ax + By = C

A linear equation in two variables is an equation that can be written in the form
Ax + By = C, where A and B are not both 0.

299

## Example 1: Determine whether the equation y = 5x - 3 is linear or

not.

If we subtract 5x from both sides, then we can write the given equation as
-5x +

y = -3.

## Since we can write it in the standard form, Ax + By = C, then we have a linear

equation.
If we were to graph this equation, we would end up with a graph of a straight line.

## Example 2: Determine whether the equation is linear

or

not.

If we subtract the

as opposed to

x squared

## x to the one power.

It looks like we cannot write it in the form Ax + By = C because the x has to be to the
one power, not squared. So this is not a linear equation.

## Graphing a Linear Equation

by Plotting Points

300

## If the equation is linear:

Step 1: Find three ordered pair solutions.

## You do this by plugging in ANY three values for

corresponding y values.

## x and find their

Yes, it can be ANY three values you want, 1, -3, or even 10,000.
Remember there are an infinite number of solutions. As long as you find
the corresponding y value that goes with each x, you have a solution.
To review ordered pair solutions go to Tutorial 20: The Rectangular
Coordinate System.

## Step 2: Plot the points found in step 1.

Remember that each ordered pair corresponds to only one
point on the graph.

The point lines up with both the x value of the ordered pair (x-axis) and
the y value of the ordered pair (y-axis).
To review how to plot points on the graph go to Tutorial 20: The
Rectangular Coordinate System.

## Step 3: Draw the graph.

A linear equation will graph as a straight line.

If you know it is a linear equation and your points dont line up, then you
either need to check your math in step 1 and/or that you plotted all the
points found correctly.

y = 5x - 3.

301

## Im going to use a chart to organize my information. A chart keeps track

x values that you are using and the corresponding y value found
when you used a particular x value.
of the

If you do this step the same each time, then it will make it easier for you to remember
how to do it.
I usually pick out three points when I know Im dealing with a line. The three x values
Im going to use are -1, 0, and 1. (Note that you can pick ANY three x values that
you want. You do not have to use the values that I picked.) You want to keep it as
simple as possible. The following is the chart I ended up with after plugging in the
values I mentioned for x.

y = 5x - 3

(x,

y)

-1

y = 5(-1) - 3 = -8

(-1, -8)

y = 5(0) - 3 = -3

(0, -3)

y = 5(1) - 3 = 2

(1, 2)

302

## Im going to use a chart to organize my information. A chart keeps track

x values that you are using and the corresponding y value found
when you used a particular x value.
of the

If you do this step the same each time, then it will make it easier for you to remember
how to do it.
I usually pick out three points when I know Im dealing with a line. The three x values
Im going to use are -1, 0, and 1. (Note that you can pick ANY three x values that
you want. You do not have to use the values that I picked.) You want to keep it as
simple as possible. The following is the chart I ended up with after plugging in the
values I mentioned for x.

y = 1/2x

(x,

y)

-1

y = (1/2)(-1) = -1/2

(-1, -1/2)

y = (1/2)(0) = 0

(0, 0)
303

y = (1/2)(1) = 1/2

(1, 1/2)

## Step 3: Draw the graph.

304

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

1a.

y = 2x - 1

1b.

## Practice Problems 2a - 2b: Graph the linear equation.

2a. y = 2x - 1

2b.

305

Problems
Tutorial 21: Graphing Linear Equations
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 21: Graphing Linear
Equations

y = 2x - 1

If we subtract 2x from both sides, then we can write the given equation as -2 x +
= -1.

Since we can write it in the standard form, Ax + By = C, then we have a linear equation.

## x squared to both sides we would end up with

. Is this a linear
equation? Note how we have an x squared as opposed to x to the one power.

It looks like we cannot write it in the form Ax + By = C, because the x has to be to the one power,
not squared. So this is not a linear equation.

306

y = 2x - 1

## Step 1: Find three ordered pair solutions.

The three x values I'm going to use are -1, 0, and 1. (Note that you can pick ANY three x
values that you want. You do not have to use the values that I picked.) You want to keep it as
simple as possible. The following is the chart I ended up with after plugging in the values I
mentioned for x.

y = 2x - 1

(x,

y)

-1

y = 2(-1) - 1 = -3

(-1, -3)

y = 2(0) - 1 = -1

(0, -1)

y = 2(1) - 1 = 1

(1, 1)

307

## Step 1: Find three ordered pair solutions.

The three x values I'm going to use are -1, 0, and 1. (Note that you can pick ANY three x
values that you want. You do not have to use the values that I picked.) You want to keep it as
simple as possible. The following is the chart I ended up with after plugging in the values I
mentioned for x.

y = -1/2x

(x,

y)

-1

y = -1/2(-1) = 1/2

(-1, 1/2)

y = -1/2(0) = 0

(0, 0)
308

y = -1/2(1) = -1/2

(1, -1/2)

## Tutorial 22: Intercepts

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

309

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Find the

## 2. Graph a linear function using the

x- and y-intercepts.

Introduction

## In Tutorial 21: Graphing Linear Equations, we went over graphing linear

equations by plotting points. In this tutorial the concept of using intercepts to help
graph will be introduced, as well as vertical and horizontal lines. Actually, the
process of graphing by plotting points and graphing by using intercepts are
essentially the same. Intercepts are just special types of solutions, but solutions
none the less. So once we find them, we plot them just the same as any other
ordered pair that is a solution. Once we plot them, we draw our graph in the same
fashion as when we had non-intercept points. So, basically, when you graph, you
plot solutions (whether they are intercept points or not) and connect the dots to get
your graph. Just keep in mind that intercepts work with the number 0, which is a
nice easy number to work with when plugging in and solving. (It is one of those
types of problems that I warn students to not make harder than it is).

Tutorial

310

x-intercept

The

## x-intercept is where the graph crosses the x axis.

The word 'intercept' looks like the word 'intersect'. Think of it as where the graph intersects
the x-axis.
With that in mind, what value is y always going to be on the x-intercept? No matter where
you are on the x-axis, ys value is 0, that is a constant. We will use that bit of information to
help us find the x-intercept when given an equation.

y-intercept

x-intercept is where the graph crosses the x-axis where do you think the
graph crosses for the y-intercept? If you said the y-axis, you are absolutely
If the

right.

This time it is xs value that is 0. Any where you would cross the y-axis, xs value is always 0.
We will use this tidbit to help us find the y-intercept when given an equation.

Below is an illustration of a graph of a linear function which highlights the x and y intercepts:

In the above illustration, the x-intercept is the point (2, 0) and the y-intercept is the point (0,
3).

311

Keep in mind that the x- and y- intercepts are two separate points. There is only one point
that can be both an x- and y- intercept at the same time, do you know what point that is?
If you said the origin (0, 0), give yourself a pat on the back.

Sketching a Graph
Using Intercepts

## x and finding it's corresponding

y value.
This is just like we showed you in Tutorial 21: Graphing Linear Equations.

## Step 3: Plot the intercepts and point(s) found in steps 1 and

2.

Remember that intercepts are points on the graph, too. They are plotted
just like any other point.

## If you need a review on plotting points go to Tutorial 20: The Rectangular

Coordinate System.
312

x-intercept.

## What value are we going to use for

You are correct if you said

y?

y = 0.

## *Find x-int. by replacing y with 0

*Inverse of add 5 is sub. 5

The

## Next, we will find the y- intercept.

What value are we going to plug in for x?
313

*Find

The

## y-int. by replacing x with 0

y-intercept is (0, 5)

corresponding

*Replace

x with 1

## So the ordered pair (1, 2) is another solution to our function.

Note that we could have plugged in any value for x: 5, 10, -25, ..., but it is best to keep
it as simple as possible.

(x, y)
314

5/3

(5/3, 0)

(0, 5)

(1, 2)

2.

## Step 4: Draw the graph.

315

Example 2: Graph each linear function by finding the x- and yintercepts. -3x = y

x-intercept.

## What value are we going to use for

You are correct if you said

y?

y = 0.

## *Find x-int. by replacing y with 0

*Inverse of mult. by -3 is div. by -3

The

## Next, we will find the y- intercept.

What value are we going to plug in for x?
If you said x = 0, you are right.

*Find

The

## y-int. by replacing x with 0

y-intercept is (0, 0)

Hey, look at that, we ended up with the exact same point for both our x- and yintercepts. As mentioned above, there is only one point that can be both an x- and y316

## Step 2: Find at least one more point.

Since we really have found only one point this time, we better find
two additional solutions so we have a total of three points.

We can plug in any x value we want as long as we get the right corresponding y value
and the function exists there.
Lets put in an easy number x = 1:

*Replace

x with 1

*Replace

x with -1

## So the ordered pair (-1, 3) is another solution to our function.

Note that we could have plugged in any value for x: 5, 10, -25, ..., but it is best to keep
it as simple as possible.

317

(x, y)

(0, 0)

-3

(1, -3)

-1

(-1, 3)

2.

318

Vertical Lines
x=c

## x = c, where c is a constant, and you are wanting to graph

it on a two dimensional graph, this would be a vertical line with x-intercept of (c, 0).
If you have an equation

Even though you do not see a y in the equation, you can still graph it on a two dimensional
graph. Remember that the graph is the set of all solutions for a given equation. If all the points
are solutions then any ordered pair that has an x value of c would be a solution. As long as x
never changes value, it is always c, then you have a solution. In that case, you will end up with a
vertical line.

Horizontal Lines
y=c

319

## it on a two dimensional graph, this would be a horizontal line with

y- intercept of (0,

c).
Even though you do not see an x in the equation, you can still graph it on a two dimensional
graph. Remember that the graph is the set of all solutions for a given equation. If all the points
are solutions then any ordered pair that has an y value of c would be a solution. As long as y
never changes value, it is always c, then you have a solution. In that case, you will end up with a
horizontal line.
Below is an illustration of a horizontal line y = c:

## It looks like it fits the form y = c.

With that in mind, what kind of line are we going to end up with?
Horizontal.
Note how the directions did not specify that we had to use intercepts to do our
graph. Any time you take a math test or do homework, make sure that you
follow directions carefully. If it specifies a certain way to do a problem, then you
need to follow that plan (like in the above examples 1 and 2). If it does not
specify, like in this example, then you can use what ever legitimate way works
to get the job done.

320

## Step 1: Find the x- and y- intercepts.

AND
Step 2: Find at least one more point.

Since this is a special type of line, I thought I would talk about steps 1 and
2 together.

It doesnt matter what x is, y is always 4. So for our solutions we just need three
ordered pairs such that y = 4.
Note that the y-intercept (where x = 0) is at (0, 4).
Do we have a x-intercept? The answer is no. Since y has to be 4, then it can never
equal 0, which is the criteria of an x-intercept. Also, think about it, if we have a
horizontal line that crosses the y-axis at 4, it will never ever cross the x-axis.
So, some points that we can use are (0, 4), (1, 4) and (2, 4). These are all ordered
pairs that fit the criteria of y having to be 4.
Of course, we could have used other solutions, there are an infinite number of them.

(x, y)

(0, 4)

(1, 4)

(2, 4)

2.

321

## Note how if we subtract 3 from both sides, we can write this as

which means it can be written in the form x = c.
So, what type of line are we going to end up with?
Vertical.
322

x = -3,

## Step 1: Find the x- and y- intercepts.

AND
Step 2: Find at least one more point.

Since this is a special type of line, I thought I would talk about steps 1 and
2 together.

## It does not matter what y is, as long as x is -3.

Note that the x-intercept is at (-3, 0).
Do we have a y-intercept? The answer is no. Since x can never equal 0, then there
will be no y-intercept for this equation.
Some points that would be solutions are (-3, 0), (-3, 1), and (-3, 2).
Again, I could have picked an infinite number of solutions.

(x, y)

-3

(-3, 0)

-3

(-3, 1)

-3

(-3, 2 )

2.

323

## Step 4: Draw the graph.

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
324

## instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

Practice Problems 1a - 1b: Graph each linear function by finding x- and yintercepts.

1a. 2x - 3y = -6

1b.

x = 3y

## Practice Problems 2a - 2b: Graph each linear equation.

2a. x = 4

2b. y + 5 = 0

Problems
Tutorial 22: Intercepts
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 22: Intercepts

325

2x - 3y = -6

## Step 1: Find the x- and y- intercepts.

Let's first find the x-intercept.
What value are we going to use for y?
You are correct if you said y = 0.

*Find

The

## Next we will find the y- intercept.

What value are we going to plug in for x?
If you said x = 0, you are right.

*Find

## *Inverse of mult. by -3 is div. by -3

326

The

y-intercept is (0, 2)

## Step 2: Find at least one more point.

We can plug in any x value we want as long as we get the right corresponding y value and the
function exists there.
Let's put in an easy number x = 1:

*Replace

x with 1

## So the ordered pair (1, 8/3) is another solution to our function.

Note that we could have plugged in any value for x: 5, 10, -25, ..., but it is best to keep it as
simple as possible.

(x, y)

-3

(-3, 0)

(0, 2)

8/3

(1, 8/3)

327

2.

x = 3y

328

## Let's first find the x-intercept.

What value are we going to use for y?
You are correct if you said y = 0.

*Find

The

## Next we will find the y- intercept.

What value are we going to plug in for x?
If you said, x = 0 you are right.

*Find

The

## y-int. by replacing x with 0

y-intercept is (0, 0)

## Step 2: Find at least one more point.

Since we really have found only one point this time, we better find two additional solutions
so we have a total of three points.
We can plug in any x value we want as long as we get the right corresponding y value and the
function exists there.
Let's put in an easy number x = 1:

329

*Replace

x with 1

## Let's put in another easy number x = -1:

*Replace x with -1
*Inverse of mult. by 3 is div. by 3

(x, y)

(-3, 0)

1/3

(1, 1/3)

-1

-1/3

(-1, -1/3)

2.

330

x=4

## This is in the form x = c.

So, what type of line are we going to end up with?
Vertical.
331

## Step 1: Find the x- and y- intercepts.

AND
Step 2: Find at least one more point.
Since this is a special type of line, I thought I would talk about steps 1 and 2 together.
It does not matter what y is, as long as x is 4.
Note that the x-intercept is at (4, 0).
Do we have a y-intercept? The answer is no. Since x can never equal 0, then there will be no
y-intercept for this equation.
Some points that would be solutions are (4, 0), (4, 1), and (4, 2).
Again, I could have picked an infinite number of solutions.

(x, y)

(4, 0)

(4, 1)

(4, 2 )

2.

332

y+5=0

## y = -5. It looks like it fits the form y

= c.
With that in mind, what kind of line are we going to end up with?
Horizontal.

## Step 1: Find the x- and y- intercepts.

AND
Step 2: Find at least one more point.
Since this is a special type of line, I thought I would talk about steps 1 and 2 together.
It doesn't matter what x is, y is always -5. So for our solutions we just need three ordered pairs
such that y = -5.
Note that the y-intercept (where x = 0) is at (0, -5).
333

Do we have a x-intercept? The answer is no. Since y has to be -5, then it can never equal 0,
which is the criteria of an x-intercept.
So some points that we can use are (0, -5), (1, -5) and (2, -5). These are all ordered pairs
that fit the criteria of y having to be -5.
Of course, we could have used other solutions, there are an infinite number of them.

(x, y)

-5

(0, -5)

-5

(1, -5)

-1

-5

(1, -5)

2.

## Step 4: Draw the graph.

334

Tutorial 23:Slope
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Find the slope given a graph or two points.
2. Know the relationship between slopes of parallel lines.

## 3. Know the relationship between slopes of perpendicular lines.

Introduction

This tutorial takes us a little deeper into linear equations. We will be looking at the
slope of a line. We will also look at the relationship between the slopes of parallel
335

lines as well as perpendicular lines. Let's see what you can do with slopes.

Tutorial

Slope

## The slope of a line measures the steepness of the line.

Most of you are probably familiar with associating slope with "rise over run".

Rise means how many units you move up or down from point to point. On
the graph that would be a change in the

y values.

Run means how far left or right you move from point to point. On the graph, that
would mean a change of x values.

Positive slope:

336

Note that when a line has a positive slope it goes up left to right.

Negative slope:

Note that when a line has a negative slope it goes down left to right.

Zero slope:

337

slope = 0
Note that when a line is horizontal the slope is 0.

Undefined slope:

slope = undefined
Note that when the line is vertical the slope is undefined.

## Slope Formula Given Two Points

Given two points

and

338

The subscripts just indicate that these are two different points. It doesn't matter
which one you call point 1 and which one you call point 2 as long as you are
consistent throughout that problem.

## Note that we use the letter m to represent slope.

Example 1: Find the slope of the straight line that passes through (-5, 2) and (4, -7).

*Plug in

## x and y values into slope formula

*Simplify

Make sure that you are careful when one of your values is
negative and you have to subtract it as we did in line 2. 4 - (-5) is
not the same as 4 - 5.

## The slope of the line is -1.

Example 2: Find the slope of the straight line that passes through (1,
339

*Plug in

*Simplify

## The slope of the line is 0.

Example 3: Find the slope of the straight line that passes through (3, 4)
and (3, 6).

*Plug in

## x and y values into slope formula

*Simplify

Since we did not have a change in the x values, the denominator of our
slope became 0. This means that we have an undefined slope. If you
were to graph the line, it would be a vertical line, as shown above.

340

## In other words, the slopes of parallel lines are equal.

Note that two lines are parallel if there slopes are equal and they have different y-intercepts.

## In other words, perpendicular slopes are negative reciprocals of each other.

341

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

## Practice Problems 1a - 1d: Find the slope of each line if it exists.

1a.

342

1b.

1c.

1d.

343

Practice Problems 2a - 2b: Find the slope of the straight line that passes through
the given points.

## 2b. (4, 2) and (4, -2)

Problems
Tutorial 23: Slope
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 23: Slope

344

345

slope = 0

slope = undefined

346

*Plug in

*Simplify

*Simplify

347

## Tutorial 24: Graphing Linear

Inequalities
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

## 1. Graph linear inequalities in two variables.

Introduction

In this tutorial we will be looking at linear inequalities in two variables. It will start
out exactly the same as graphing linear equations and then we get to color in the
region of the coordinate system that correlates with the inequality. Some of these
problems may get a little long. Don't let that discourage you, you can do it. Hang in
there, a lot of the steps are concepts from the past, things you should already have
seen and done before. I will put in links to the material that you need to remember
from the past, in case you need a review. A lot of times math works that way, use
what you know to learn the new concept. Let's see what you can do with these
inequalities.

Tutorial
348

## Linear Inequalities in Two Variables

A linear inequality in two variables is any expression
that can be put in the form

## where a, b, and c are constants

Note that the above definition can be applied to any of the following four
inequalities: <, >, <, or >.

The solution set and graph for a linear inequality is a region of the rectangular coordinate
system. Recall that the graph of a linear equation is a straight line. The inequality sign extends
this to being on one side of the line or the other on the graph.

## Step 1: Graph the boundary line.

Essentially you graph the boundary line the same as if the problem was a
linear equation. Pretend that there is an equal sign and use an appropriate
method to graph the line. Unless the directions to a problem indicate
otherwise, you can use any method to graph it. The ways covered in our
past tutorials are plotting any three points as shown in Tutorial 21:
Graphing Linear Equations or using the x and y intercepts as
shown in Tutorial 22: Intercepts.

When you draw the boundary line, you need to have a way to indicate if the line is
included or not in the final answer.
349

## Solid boundary line: < or >

If the problem includes where it is equal, then you will have a solid boundary line. In
other words, if you have < or > , you will have a solid line for your boundary line.
This shows the boundary line for x + y < 6:
(note that this does not show the inequality part)

## Dashed boundary line: < or >

If the problem does not include where it is equal, then you will use a dashed boundary
line. In other words, if you have < or >, you will have a dashed line for your boundary
line.

## This shows the boundary line for x + y < 6:

(note that this does not show the inequality part)

350

In either case, you still graph the line the same. You just have to decide if you are
needing a solid line or a dashed line.
The boundary line separates the rectangular coordinate system into two parts. One of
those parts will make the inequality true and be its solution.

## Step 2: Plug in a test point that is not on the boundary line.

Pick a test point on either side of the boundary line and plug it into the
original problem. This will help determine which side of the boundary line
is the solution.

If you get a true statement when you plug in the test point in step 2,
then you have found a solution. Shade the region that the test point
is in.

If you get a false statement when you plug in the test point in step 2, then you dont
have a solution. Shade in the region that is on the other side of the test point.
It doesnt matter what you use for the test point as long as it is not on the
boundary line. You want to keep it as simple as possible.

## Step 1: Graph the boundary line.

351

Im going to use the intercepts to help me graph the boundary line. Again,
you can use any method that you want, unless the directions say
otherwise.

When Im working with only the boundary line, I will put an equal sign between
the two sides to emphasize that we are working on the boundary line. That
doesnt mean that I changed the problem. When we put it all together in the end, I will
put the inequality back in.
What value is y on the x-intercept?
If you said 0, you are correct.
If you need a review on x-intercepts, go to Tutorial 22: Intercepts.

*Replace y with 0
*x-intercept

x-intercept is (2, 0)
What is the value of x on the y-intercept?
If you said 0, you are correct.
If you need a review on y-intercepts, go to Tutorial 22: Intercepts.

*Replace x with 0
*y-intercept

## y-intercept is (0, 2).

Plug in 1 for x to get a third solution:

352

*Replace x with 1
*Inverse of add 1 is sub. 1

## (1, 1) is another solution on the boundary line.

Solutions:

(x, y)

(2, 0)

(0, 2)

(1, 1)

Since the original problem has a >, this means it DOES NOT include the boundary
line.
So are we going to draw a solid or a dashed line for this problem?
It looks like it will have to be a dashed line.
Putting it all together, we get the following boundary line for this problem:

353

## Note how the boundary line separates it into two parts.

An easy test point would be (0, 0). Note that it is a point that is not on the boundary
line. In fact, it is located below the boundary line.
Lets put (0, 0) into the original problem and see what happens:

*Replacing x and
*False statement

y with 0

Since our test point (0, 0) made our inequality FALSE, this means it is
not a solution.

Since it has to be on one side or the other of the boundary line, and it is not below it,
then our solution would lie above the boundary line. This means we will shade in
the part that is above it.

354

## Step 1: Graph the boundary line.

Im going to use the intercepts to help me graph the boundary line. Again,
you can use any method that you want, unless the directions say
otherwise.

When Im working with only the boundary line, I will put an equal sign between
the two sides to emphasize that we are working on the boundary line. That
doesnt mean that I changed the problem. When we put it all together in the end, I will
put the inequality back in.
What value is y on the x-intercept?
If you said 0, you are correct.
If you need a review on x-intercepts, go to Tutorial 22: Intercepts.

*Replace

y with 0

## *Inverse of mult. by 2 is div. by 2

*x-intercept

x-intercept is (3, 0)
What is the value of x on the y-intercept?
If you said 0, you are correct.
If you need a review on y-intercepts, go to Tutorial 22: Intercepts.

355

*Replace

x with 0

*y-intercept

## y-intercept is (0, -2).

Plug in 1 for x to get a third solution:

*Replace

x with 1

## *Inverse of add 2 is sub. 2

*Inverse of mult. by -3 is div. by -3

## (1, -4/3) is another solution on the boundary line.

Solutions:

(x, y)

(3, 0)

-2

(0, -2)

-4/3

(1, -4/3)

Since the original problem has a <, this means it DOES include the boundary line.
So are we going to draw a solid or a dashed line for this problem?
It looks like it will have to be a solid line.

356

Putting it all together, we get the following boundary line for this problem:

## Note how the boundary line separates it into two parts.

An easy test point would be (0, 0). Note that it is a point that is not on the boundary
line. In fact, it is located above the boundary line.
Lets put (0, 0) into the original problem and see what happens:

## *Replace x and y with 0

*True statement

Since our test point (0, 0) made our inequality TRUE, this means it is
a solution.

Our solution would lie above the boundary line. This means we will shade in the
part that is above it.
357

## c, which is one of our special lines.

Do you remember what type of line x = c graphs as?
It comes out to be a vertical line.
If you need a review on vertical lines, go to Tutorial 22: Intercepts
Every xs value on the boundary line would have to be 4.
Solutions:

(x, y)

(4, 0)

(4, 1)

(4, 2)

358

Since the original problem has a <, this means it DOES NOT include the
boundary line.

## So are we going to draw a solid or a dashed line for this problem?

It looks like it will have to be a dashed line.
Putting it all together, we get the following boundary line for this problem:

## Note how the boundary line separates it into two parts.

An easy test point would be (0, 0). Note that it is a point that is not on the boundary
line. In fact, it is located to the left of the boundary line.
Lets put (0, 0) into the original problem and see what happens:

*Replace x with 0
*True Statement

359

Since our test point (0, 0) made our inequality TRUE, this means it is
a solution.

Our solution would lie to the left of the boundary line. This means we will shade in
the part that is to the left of it

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

## Practice Problems 1a - 1b: Graph each inequality.

360

1a.

1b.

Problems
Tutorial 24: Graphing Linear
Inequalities
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 24: Graphing Linear
Inequalities

## Step 1: Graph the boundary line.

I'm going to use the intercepts to help me graph the boundary line. Again, you can
use any method that you want, unless the directions say otherwise.

When I'm working with only the boundary line, I will put an equal sign between the two
sides to emphasize that we are working on the boundary line. That doesn't mean that I
changed the problem. When we put it all together in the end, I will put the inequality back in.
What value is y on the x-intercept?
If you said 0, you are correct.
If you need a review on x-intercepts, go to Tutorial 22: Intercepts.

361

*Replace y with 0
*Inverse of mult. by -3 is div. by -3

*x-intercept

x-intercept is (0, 0)
Since the x-intercept came out to be (0, 0), then it stands to reason that when we put in 0 for x to
find the y-intercept, we will get (0, 0).

*Replace

x with 1

*Replace

x with -1

## (-1, 3) is another solution on the boundary line.

Solutions:

(x, y)

(0, 0)
362

-3

(1, -3)

-1

(-1, 3)

Since the original problem has a >, this means it DOES include the boundary line.
So are we going to draw a solid or a dashed line for this problem?
It looks like it will have to be a solid line.
Putting it all together, we get the following boundary line for this problem:

## Note how the boundary line separates it into two parts.

An easy test point would be (1, 1). Note that it is a point that is not on the boundary line. In
fact, it is located above the boundary line.
Let's put (1, 1) into the original problem and see what happens:

*Replacing x and
*True statement

y with 1

363

Since our test point (1, 1) made our inequality TRUE, this means it is a
solution.

Our solution would lie above the boundary line. This means we will shade in the part that is
above it.

## If we wrote this as an equation, it would be y = 3. This is in the form

one of our "special" lines.

## Do you remember what type of line y = c graphs as?

It comes out to be a horizontal line.
If you need a review on horizontal lines, go to Tutorial 22: Intercepts
Every y's value on the boundary line would have to be 3.
364

y = c, which is

Solutions:

(x, y)

(0, 3)

(1, 3)

(2, 3)

Since the original problem has a <, this means it DOES NOT include the boundary
line.

## So are we going to draw a solid or a dashed line for this problem?

It looks like it will have to be a dashed line.
Putting it all together, we get the following boundary line for this problem:

## Note how the boundary line separates it into two parts.

An easy test point would be (0, 0). Note that it is a point that is not on the boundary line. In
fact, it is located below the boundary line.
Let's put (0, 0) into the original problem and see what happens:

365

*Replace y with 0
*True statement

Since our test point (0, 0) made our inequality TRUE, this means it is a
solution.

Our solution would lie below the boundary line. This means we will shade in the part that is
below it

## Tutorial 25: Practice Test on Tutorials

20 - 24
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

366

## Special Notes about Tutorial 25:

I can not guarantee you will pass your test after going though any of the
tutorials in this website or this practice test. However, it will definitely help
you to better understand the topics covered better.

Disclaimer: WTAMU and Kim Seward are not responsible for how a student
does on any test or any class for any reason including not being able to
access the website due to any technology problems.

Introduction
It is important to note that, chances are, I'm not your math instructor. You need to
check with your math teacher as to things like when your next math test is
and what it covers. It may cover more material on the test than what is in
this practice test. Just note that there are other practice tests at this website. So,
after finding out what is on your test (if you have one) do the practice test(s)
problems that go with the test you are preparing for. If you are not in a class or are
not having a test soon, this practice test is still good practice to go through and
check to make sure you are understanding this material before moving on - kind of
like a spot check. The material on this practice test goes with Tutorial 20: The
Rectangular Coordinate System, Tutorial 21: Graphing Linear Equations,
Tutorial 22: Intercepts, Tutorial 23: Slope, and Tutorial 24: Graphing Linear
Inequalities.

Also note that your teacher may word the problems on their test a little differently, may
have some different kinds of problems, or may have a different number of problems than
what is in this practice test. Again, since I'm probably not your math instructor, I don't know
build an understanding of the concepts presented and the terms used in math problems. If you
have an understanding of the problems instead of just memorizing them, then you should
do fine on these concepts, no matter how the test is set up.

367

## Steps to Studying for a Math Test

1. Work through problems. If you are in a class, you should have done this on
completion of any homework you have done. For anyone, you can
accomplish this by doing the practice problems found in each tutorial.
2. Check work on problems. The practice problems in each tutorial have links
to the answers to them so you can instantly check how you are doing. Also, in
most math books, the odd answers are found in the back of the book.
3. Review concepts. Whether you got the problems right or wrong, make sure
you review over them. If you did get a problem wrong, make sure you either
it. If you don't ask about a problem before a test, you are going to kick
yourself when it comes up on the test.

## 4. Work through problems as if you were taking the test - no notes,

book, webpages, etc. This practice test is a perfect way to do that. After
to the answer key found at the bottom of the practice test (before
the 'need extra help on these topics' section)

## During the Test

It is to your benefit to show as much of the work as possible on the problems that have several
steps involved.
Make sure that you read the directions carefully, you wouldn't believe how many points get
taken off math tests for people not following directions.
Pace yourself. You do not have to be the first one done to do well on the test. Do not panic if
there is still time left to take the test and others are turing it in. Sometimes that means they do not
know the material and left some of the answers blank. Do not worry about anyone else but
yourself.
Don't rush through a problem. Another thing that math teachers take points off for are careless
mistakes made by people that rush through a problem. When those students get their tests back,
they bonk themselves on the head at some of the things that got counted wrong, things that they
knew how to do.
Remember to breathe!!!! I know some of you are scared to death at the thought of having to
take a math test of any kind. For you guys, try to relax and don't forget to breathe. (Even if you
368

aren't scared to take a math test, it is probably a good idea to remember to breathe, I wouldn't
want you to pass out during the test). If it feels like your brain has left the building during
your test, just close your eyes and breathe in and out and in and out and your brain will
return.
Good luck on your test. If you are taking a math test soon, don't panic, you are going to do
great!!!

Practice Test

Problems 1a - 1b: Name the quadrant or axis in which the point lies.

1a. (2, - 4)

1b. (0, 4)

equation.

2a.

## ; (0, 5), (4, - 4), (- 4, -6)

Problem 3a: Determine whether the equation is linear or not. Then graph
the equation by plotting points.

3a.
369

intercepts.

4a.

4b.

5a.

## Problem 6a - 6b: Find the slope of each line if it exists.

6a.

6b.
370

x- and y-

Problems 7a - 7b: Find the slope of the straight line that passes through
the given points.

## Problem 8a: Graph the inequality.

8a.

Problems
Tutorial 25: Practice Test on Tutorials
20 - 24
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 25: Practice Test on
Tutorials 20 - 24

Problems 1a - 1b: Name the quadrant or axis in which the point lies.
371

1a. (2, - 4)

(2, -4) lies in Quadrant IV.

1b. (0, 4)

(0, 4) lies on the y-axis.

equation.

2a.

## ; (0, 5), (4, - 4), (- 4, -6)

Let's plug (0, 5) into the equation and see what we get:

372

## This is a FALSE statement, so (0, 5) is a NOT a solution.

Let's plug (4, -4) into the equation and see what we get:

## This is a TRUE statement, so (4, -4) is a solution.

Let's plug (-4, -6) into the equation and see what we get:

## This is a TRUE statement, so (-4, -6) is a solution.

Problem 3a: Determine whether the equation is linear or not. Then graph
the equation by plotting points.

3a.

If we subtract 3x from both sides, then we can write the given equation as
-3x +

y = - 4.

## Since we can write it in the standard form Ax + By = C, then we have a linear

373

equation.
This means that we will have a line when we go to graph this.

Solutions:

(x,

y)

## -1 y = 3(-1) - 4 = -7 (-1, -7)

0 y = 3(0) - 4 = - 4 (0, - 4)
1

y = 3(1) - 4 = -1

(1, -1)

374

intercepts.

x- and y-

4a.

## Step 1: Find the x- and y- intercepts.

Let's first find the x-intercept.

*Find

The

375

*Find

The

## Step 2: Find at least one more point.

We can plug in any x value we want as long as we get the right corresponding y value
and the function exists there.
Let's put in an easy number x = 1:

*Replace

x with 1

## So the ordered pair (1, 1) is another solution to our function.

Note that we could have plugged in any value for x: 5, 10, -25, ..., but it is best to keep
it as simple as possible.

376

Solutions:

(x, y)

1/2

(1/2, 0)

-1

(0, -1)

(1, 1)

1 and 2.

377

4b.

## Step 1: Find the x- and y- intercepts.

Let's first find the x-intercept.

*Find

The

## x-intercept is (0, 0).

Since the x-intercept came out to be (0, 0), then it stands to reason that when we put in
0 for x to find the y-intercept we will get (0, 0).

## Step 2: Find at least one more point.

Since we really have found only one point, this time we better find two additional
solutions so we have a total of three points.
We can plug in any x value we want as long as we get the right corresponding y value
and the function exists there.
Let's put in an easy number x = 1:

378

*Replace

x with 1

*Replace

x with -1

## So the ordered pair (-1, -4) is another solution to our function.

Note that we could have plugged in any value for x: 5, 10, -25, ..., but it is best to keep
it as simple as possible.

Solutions:

(x, y)

(0, 0)

(1, 4)

-1

-4

(1, -4)

1 and 2.

379

5a.

form

y = c.
380

## y = - 4, which would fit the

With that in mind, what kind of line are we going to end up with?
Horizontal.

## Step 1: Find the x- and y- intercepts

AND
Step 2: Find at least one more point
Since this is a special type of line, I thought I would talk about steps 1 and 2 together.
It doesn't matter what x is, y is always - 4. So for our solutions we just need three
ordered pairs such that y = - 4.
Note that the y-intercept (where x = 0) is at (0, - 4).
Do we have an x-intercept? The answer is no. Since y has to be - 4, then it can
never equal 0, which is the criteria of an x-intercept. Also, think about it, if we have a
horizontal line that crosses the y-axis at - 4, it will never ever cross the x-axis.
So some points that we can use are (0, - 4), (1, - 4) and (-1, - 4). These are all
ordered pairs that fit the criteria of y having to be 4.
Of course, we could have used other solutions, there are an infinite number of them.

Solutions:

(x, y)

-4

(0, - 4)

-4

(1, - 4)

-1

-4

(-1, - 4)

1 and 2.

381

## Problem 6a - 6b: Find the slope of each line if it exists.

6a.

382

6b.

Problems 7a - 7b: Find the slope of the straight line that passes through
the given points.

383

*Plug in

*Simplify

*Plug in

*Simplify

384

8a.

## Step 1: Graph the boundary line.

I'm going to use the intercepts to help me graph the boundary line. Again,
you can use any method that you want, unless the directions say
otherwise.

When I'm working with only the boundary line, I will put an equal sign between
the two sides to emphasize that we are working on the boundary line. That doesn't
mean that I changed the problem. When we put it all together in the end, I will put the
inequality back in.

x-intercept:

*Replace

y with 0

## *Inverse of mult. by 2 is div. by 2

*x-intercept

x-intercept is (3, 0)
y-intercept

385

*Replace

x with 0

*y-intercept

## y-intercept is (0, -3).

Plug in 1 for x to get a third solution:

*Replace x with 1

## (1, -2) is another solution on the boundary line.

Solutions:

(x, y)

(3, 0)

-3

(0, -3)

-2

(1, -2)

Since the original problem has a <, this means it DOES NOT include the boundary
line.
So are we going to draw a solid or a dashed line for this problem?
It looks like it will have to be a dashed line.

386

Putting it all together, we get the following boundary line for this problem:

## Note how the boundary line separates it into two parts.

An easy test point would be (0, 0). Note that it is a point that is not on the boundary
line. In fact, it is located above the boundary line.
Let's put (0, 0) into the original problem and see what happens:

*Replacing x and
*True statement

y with 0

Since our test point (0, 0) made our inequality TRUE, this means it is
a solution.

Our solution would lie above the boundary line. This means we will shade in the
part that is above it.

387

## Tutorial 26: Exponents

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Use the definition of exponents.

## 2. Simplify exponential expressions involving multiplying like bases, zero as an

exponent, dividing like bases, raising a base to two exponents, raising a
product to an exponent and raising a quotient to an exponent.

Introduction
388

This tutorial covers the basic definition and some of the rules of exponents. The
rules it covers are the product rule, quotient rule, power rule, power of a product
rule and power of a quotient rule as well as the definitions for zero and negative
exponents. Exponents are everywhere in algebra and beyond. Let's see what we
can do with exponents.

Tutorial

Definition of Exponents

x = base,

n = exponent

## Exponents are another way to write multiplication.

The exponent tells you how many times a base appears in a PRODUCT.

Example 1: Evaluate

389

*Multiply

Example 2:

Evaluate

## *Write the base -6 in a product 2 times

*Multiply

Note how I included the - when I expanded this problem out. If the - is
inside the ( ) of an exponent, then it is included as part of the base.

Example 3:

Evaluate

*Negate 6 squared
*Put a - in front of 6 written in a product 2 times
*Multiply

## Hey, this looks a lot like example 2!!!!

It may look alike, but they ARE NOT exactly the same. Can you see the difference
between the two?? Hopefully, you noticed that in example 2, there was a ( ) around
the - and the 6. In this problem, there is no -. This means the - is NOT part of the
390

## base, so it will not get expanded like it did in example 2.

It is interpreted as finding the negative or opposite of 6 squared.

## Multiplying Like Bases With Exponents

(The Product Rule for Exponents)
Specific Illustration

## Lets first start by using the definition of exponents to help you to

understand how we get to the law for multiplying like bases with
exponents:

Note that 2 + 3 = 5, which is the exponent we ended up with. We had 2 xs written in a product
plus another 3 xs written in the product for a total of 5 xs in the product. To indicate that we put
the 5 in the exponent.

## Multiplying Like Bases With Exponents

(The Product Rule for Exponents)
in general,

In other words, when you multiply like bases you add your exponents.

The reason is, exponents count how many of your base you have in a product, so if you are
continuing that product, you are adding on to the exponents.

391

Example 5:
expression

## Use the product rule to simplify the

.

Zero as an exponent

Except for 0, any base raised to the 0 power simplifies to be the number 1.

Note that the exponent doesnt become 1, but the whole expression simplifies to be the number 1.

392

Example 6: Evaluate

## *Any expression raised to the 0 power simplifies

to be 1

Example 7: Evaluate

## Be careful on this example. The order of operations shown in Tutorial 4:

Introduction to Variable Expressions and Equations says to evaluate
exponents before doing any multiplication. This means we need to find
raised to the 0 power first and then multiply it by 3.

*Multiply

## Dividing Like Bases With Exponents

(Quotient Rule for Exponents)
Specific Illustration

## Lets first start by using the definition of exponents to help you to

understand how we get to the law for dividing like bases with exponents:

393

Note how 5 - 2 = 3, the final answers exponent. When you multiply you are adding on to your
exponent, so it should stand to reason that when you divide like bases you are taking away from
Let's put this idea together into a general rule:

## Dividing Like Bases With Exponents

(Quotient Rule for Exponents)
in general,

In other words, when you divide like bases you subtract their exponents.

Keep in mind that you always take the numerators exponent minus your denominators
exponent, NOT the other way around.

exponents

394

exponents

## Base Raised to Two Exponents

(Power Rule for Exponents)
Specific Illustration

Lets first start by using the definition of exponents as well as the law for multiplying like
bases to help you to understand how we get to the law for raising a base to two exponents:

Note how 2 times 3 is 6, which is the exponent of the final answer. We can think of this as 3
groups of 2, which of course would come out to be 6.

## Base Raised to two Exponents

(Power Rule for Exponents)
in general,

In other words, when you raise a base to two exponents, you multiply those
exponents together.

## Again, you can think of it as n groups of m if it helps you to remember.

395

Example 10: Use the power rule for exponents to simplify the expression

exponents

## A Product Raised to an Exponent

(Power of a Product Rule)
Specific Illustration

Lets first start by using the definition of exponents to help you to understand
how we get to the law for raising a product to an exponent:

Note how both bases of your product ended up being raised by the exponent of 3.

## A Product Raised to an Exponent

(Power of a Product Rule)
in general,

In other words, when you have a PRODUCT (not a sum or difference) raised
to an exponent, you can simplify by raising each base in the product to
that exponent.

396

Example 11: Use the power of a product rule to simplify the expression

## *When raising a product to an exponent, raise

each base of the product to that exponent

## A Quotient Raised to an Exponent

(Power of a Quotient Rule)
Specific Illustration

Lets first start by using the definition of exponents to help you to understand
how we get to the law for raising a quotient to an exponent:

Since, division is really multiplication of the reciprocal, it has the same basic idea as when we
raised a product to an exponent.

## A Quotient Raised to an Exponent

(Power of a Quotient Rule)
in general,

In other words, when you have a QUOTIENT (not a sum or difference) raised
to an exponent, you can simplify by raising each base in the numerator
397

## and denominator of the quotient to that exponent.

Example 12: Use the power of a quotient rule to simplify the expression

## *When raising a quotient to an exponent, raise each base of

the quotient to that exponent
*Use def. of exponents to evaluate

## When simplifying an exponential expression, write it so that each base is

written one time with one exponent.

## In other words, write it in the most condense form you can.

A lot of times you are having to use more than one rule to get the job done. As long as you are
using the rule appropriately, you should be fine.

398

## *When raising a product to an exponent, raise

each base of the product to that exponent

## *When div. like bases you subtract your exponents

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
399

## instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

## Practice Problems 1a - 1e: Simplify.

1a.

1b.

1c.

1d.

1e.

Problems
Tutorial 26: Exponents
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 26: Exponents

400

## *a raised to the zero power is 1

*note that 5 is NOT raised to the zero power

401

402

## Tutorial 27: Adding and Subtracting

Polynomials
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Identify a term, coefficient, constant term, and polynomial.
2. Tell the difference between a monomial, binomial, and trinomial.
3. Find the degree of a term and polynomial.
4. Combine like terms.

Introduction
403

## In this tutorial we will be looking at the different components of polynomials. Then

we will move on to evaluating polynomial functions as well as adding and
subtracting them. Some of these concepts are based on ideas that were covered in
earlier tutorials. A lot of times in math you are using previous knowledge to learn
new concepts. The trick is to not reinvent the wheel each time, but recognize what
you have done before and draw on that knowledge to help you work through the
problems.

Tutorial

Lets start with defining some words before we get to our polynomial.

Term

,z

Coefficient

## Here are the coefficients of the terms listed above:

404

Term

Coefficient
3
5
2

Constant Term

A constant term is a term that contains only a number. In other words, there
is no variable in a constant term.

is a constant.

## In other words, a polynomial is a finite sum of terms where the exponents on

the variables are non-negative integers. Note that the terms are separated by
+s and -s.

405

Degree of a Term

## The degree of a term is the sum of the exponents on the variables

contained in the term.

## Degree of the Polynomial

The degree of the polynomial is the largest degree of all its terms.

Descending Order

Note that the standard form of a polynomial that is shown above is written in
descending order. This means that the term that has the highest degree is
written first, the term with the next highest degree is written next, and so
forth.

Also note that a polynomial can be missing terms. For example, the polynomial written above
starts with a degree of 5, but notice there is not a term that has an exponent of 4. That means the
coefficient on it is 0, so we do not write it.

406

Type

Definition

Example

Monomial

5x

Binomial

5x - 10

Trinomial

## What do you think?

Since the degree is the sum of the variable exponents and 5 is the only exponent, the
degree would have to be 5.

## What do you think?

This one is a little bit tricky. Where is the variable? When you have a constant term,
its degree is always 0, because there is no variable there.
Since this is a constant term, its degree is 0.

407

## What do you think?

Since the degree is the sum of the variable exponents and it looks like we have a 1 and
a 3 as our exponents, the degree would have to be 1 + 3 = 4.

## Example 4: Find the degree of the polynomial and indicate whether

the polynomial is a monomial, binomial, trinomial, or none of these.

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it
looks like the degree is 2.

## Example 5: Find the degree of the polynomial and indicate whether

the polynomial is a monomial, binomial, trinomial, or none of these.

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it
looks like the degree is 6.

Make sure that you dont fall into the trap of thinking it is always the degree of
the first term. This polynomial is not written in standard form (descending
order). So we had to actually go to the second term to get the highest degree.

408

## Example 6: Find the degree of the polynomial and indicate whether

the polynomial is a monomial, binomial, trinomial, or none of these. -20

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it
looks like the degree is 0.

## Combining Like Terms

Recall that like terms are terms that have the exact same variables raised to
the exact same exponents. One example of like terms is
example is

. Another

You can only combine terms that are like terms. You think of it as the reverse of the
distributive property.
It is like counting apples and oranges. You just count up how many variables you have the
same and write the number in front of the common variable part.

## First we need to identify the like terms.

Lets rewrite this so that we have the like terms next to each other.

409

## x squared that we can

combine and we have two terms that have an x that we can combine. The
It looks like we have two terms that have an

poor 5 does not have anything it can combine with so it will have to stay
5.

## *Combine the x squared terms

together
and then the x terms together

Step 1:

Remove the ( ) .

## If there is only a + sign in front of ( ), then the terms inside of ( ) remain

the same when you remove the ( ).

## Example 8: Perform the indicated operation and

simplify:

410

*Remove the ( )

Subtracting Polynomials

Step 1:

Remove the ( ) .

## If there is a - in front of the ( ) then distribute it by multiplying every term

in the ( ) by a -1 .

simplify:

## *Dist. the - through second ( )

*Combine like terms

411

Subtract

from

## *Dist. the - through second ( )

*Combine like terms

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

## Practice Problems 1a - 1b: Find the degree of the term.

1a. -3

1b.

412

Practice Problems 2a - 2c: Find the degree of the polynomial and indicate
whether the polynomial is a monomial, binomial, trinomial, or none of these.

2a.

2b.

2c.

## Practice Problems 3a - 3b: Perform the indicated operation and simplify.

3a.

3b.

Problems
Polynomials
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 27: Adding and
Subtracting

413

-3
Since this is a constant term, then the degree is 0.

Since the degree is the sum of the variable exponents and it looks like we have a 7 and a 1 as our
exponents, the degree would have to be 7 + 1 = 8.

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it looks like the degree
is 3.
Since there are two terms, this is a binomial.

414

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it looks like the degree
is 1.
Since there is one term, this is a monomial.

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it looks like the degree
is 2.
Since there are three terms, this is a trinomial.

415

*Remove the ( )

## *Dist. the - through second ( )

*Combine like terms

## Tutorial 28: Multiplying Polynomials

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Multiply any polynomial times any other polynomial.

## 2. Use the FOIL method to multiply a binomial times a binomial.

416

Introduction

multiplying polynomials together. We will look at using the distributive property,
initially shown in Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers, to help us out.
Again, we are using a concept that you have already seen to apply to the new
concept. After going through this tutorial you should have multiplying polynomials
down pat.

Tutorial

Multiplying Polynomials

## In general, when multiplying two polynomials together, use the distributive

property, initially shown in Tutorial 8: Properties of Real Numbers, until
every term of one polynomial is multiplied times every term of the other
polynomial. Make sure that you simplify your answer by combining any like terms.

On this page we will look at some of the more common types of polynomials to illustrate this
idea.

(Monomial)(Monomial)

In this case, there is only one term in each polynomial. You simply multiply
417

## *Mult. like bases add exp.

(Monomial)(Polynomial)

In this case, there is only one term in one polynomial and more than one
term in the other. You need to distribute the monomial to EVERY term of
the other polynomial.

## Example 2: Find the following product

*Dist. -2a

418

(Binomial)(Binomial)

In this case, both polynomials have two terms. You need to distribute both terms of
one polynomial times both terms of the other polynomial.

## One way to keep track of your distributive property is to

Use the FOIL method. Note that this method only works on (Binomial)(Binomial).

First terms

Outside terms

Inside terms

Last terms

This is a fancy way of saying take every term of the first binomial times every term of the second
binomial. In other words, do the distributive property for every term in the first binomial.

## *Use the FOIL method

*Combine like terms

419

## Example 4: Find the following product

*Rewrite as base
(3y - 2) times itself

## *Use the FOIL method

*Combine like terms

(Polynomial)(Polynomial)

As mentioned above, use the distributive property until every term of one
polynomial is multiplied times every term of the other polynomial. Make

twice

## *Combine like terms

420

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

## Practice Problems 1a - 1d: Find the following products.

1a.

1b.

1c.

1d.

Problems
Tutorial 28: Multiplying Polynomials
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 28: Multiplying
Polynomials

421

*Dist. -5x

## *Use the FOIL method

*Combine like terms

422

*Rewrite as base
(4x + 3) times itself

## *Use the FOIL method

*Combine like terms

## Tutorial 29: Negative Exponents and

Scientific Notation
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
423

## 1. Simplify exponential expressions involving negative exponents.

2. Write a number in scientific notation.

## 3. Write a number in standard notation, without exponents.

Introduction

This tutorial picks up where Tutorial 26: Exponents left off. It finishes the rules of
exponents with negative exponents. Also we will go over scientific notation. Like it
or not, the best way to master these exponents is to work through exponent
problems. So I guess we better get to it.

Tutorial

Negative Exponents
or

Be careful with negative exponents. The temptation is to negate the base, which

## Since exponents are another way to

write multiplication and the negative is in the exponent, to
write it as a positive exponent we do the multiplicative
inverse which is to take the reciprocal of the base.
would not be a correct thing to do.

424

Example 1: Simplify

base

## *Use def. of exponents to evaluate

Example 2: Simplify

base

## When simplifying an exponential expression, write it so that each base is

written one time with one POSITIVE exponent.

In other words, write it in the most condense form you can making sure that all your exponents
are positive.
A lot of times you are having to use more than one rule to get the job done. As long as you are
using the rule appropriately, you should be fine.

425

## Review of Exponent Rules

Except for the negative exponent rule, examples of the following rules can
be found in Tutorial 26: Exponents.

Product Rule:
Power Rule for Exponents:
Power of a Product:

Power of a Quotient:

## Quotient Rule for Exponents:

Zero Exponent:
Negative Exponent:

Example 3:

426

Example 4:

Example 5:

427

Example 6:

## *Rewrite with a pos. exp. by taking recip. of base

Be careful going into the last line. Note that you do not see an exponent
written with the number 5. This means that the exponent on 5 is
understood to be 1. Since it doesn't have a negative exponent, we DO NOT
take the reciprocal of 5. The only base that has a negative exponent is
so

## a is the only base we take the reciprocal of.

Scientific Notation
428

a,

## A positive number is written in scientific notation if it is

written in the form:

## Step 1: Move the decimal point so that you have a number

that is between 1 and 10.

In other words, you will put your decimal after the first non zero number.

Step 2:
1.

## Count the number of decimal places moved in Step

If the decimal point was moved to the left, the count is positive.

## Step 3: Write as a product of the number (found in Step 1)

and 10 raised to the power of the count (found in Step 2).

Example 7:

429

## Step 1: Move the decimal point so that you have a number

that is between 1 and 10.

Step 2:
1.

## How many decimal places did we end up moving?

We started at the end of the number 483000000 and moved it between the
4 and 8. That looks like a move of 8 places.

## What direction did it move?

Looks like we moved it to the left.
So, our count is +8.

## Step 3: Write as a product of the number (found in Step 1)

and 10 raised to the power of the count (found in Step 2).

Note how the number we started with is a bigger number than the one we
are multiplying by in the scientific notation. When that is the case, we will
end up with a positive exponent

430

Example 8:

## Step 1: Move the decimal point so that you have a number

that is between 1 and 10.

Step 2:
1.

## How many decimal places did we end up moving?

We started at the beginning of the number .00054 moved it between the 5
and 4. That looks like a move of 4 places.

## What direction did it move?

Looks like we moved it to the right.
So, our count is - 4.

## Step 3: Write as a product of the number (found in Step 1)

and 10 raised to the power of the count (found in Step 2).

Note how the number we started with is a smaller number than the one we
are multiplying by in the scientific notation. When that is the case we will
end up with a negative exponent.
431

## Write a Scientific Number in Standard Form

Basically, you just multiply the first number times the power of 10.

Whenever you multiply by a power of 10, in essence what you are doing is moving your
decimal place.
If the power on 10 is positive, you move the decimal place that many units to the right.
If the power on 10 is negative, you move the decimal place that many units to the left.
Make sure you add in any zeros that are needed

exponents.

exponents.

## *Move the decimal 5 to the left

432

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

Practice Problems 1a - 1b: Simplify, use positive exponents to write each answer.

1a.

1b.

2a.

.00000146

433

## Practice Problem 3a: Write the number in standard notation, without

exponents.

3a.

Problems
Tutorial 29: Negative Exponents and
Scientific Notation
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 29: Negative Exponents
and Scientific Notation

434

435

.00000146

## Step 1: Move the decimal point so that you have a number

that is between 1 and 10.

Step 2:
1.

## How many decimal places did we end up moving?

We started at the beginning of the number .00000146 and moved it between the 1
and 4. That looks like a move of 6 places.

## What direction did it move?

Looks like we moved it to the right.
So, our count is -6.

## Step 3: Write as a product of the number (found in Step 1)

and 10 raised to the power of the count (found in Step 2).

436

=
71000000000

## Tutorial 30: Division of Polynomials

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Divide a polynomial by a monomial.

## 2. Divide a polynomial by a polynomial using long division.

Introduction
437

In this tutorial we revisit something that you may not have seen since grade school:
long division. In this tutorial we are dividing polynomials, but it follows the same
steps and thought process as when you apply it numbers. Let's forge ahead.

Tutorial

Divide
Polynomial

Monomial

## Step 1: Use distributive property to write every term of the

numerator over the monomial in the denominator.
If you need a review on the distributive property, go to Tutorial 8:
Properties of Real Numbers.

## Step 2: Simplify the fractions.

If you need a review on simplifying fractions, go to Tutorial 3:
Fractions.

Example 1: Divide

.
438

## Step 1: Use distributive property to write every term of the

numerator over the monomial in the denominator
AND
Step 2: Simplify the fractions.

Divide
Polynomial

Polynomial

## Step 1: Set up the long division.

The divisor (what you are dividing by) goes on the outside of the
box. The dividend (what you are dividing into) goes on the inside of
the box.

When you write out the dividend, make sure that you insert 0's for any
missing terms. For example, if you had the polynomial
, the first
term has degree 4, then the next highest degree is 1. It is missing degrees 3
and 2. So if we were to put it inside a division box, we would write it like
this:

439

This will allow you to line up like terms when you go through the problem.

## Step 2: Divide 1st term of dividend by first term of divisor to

get first term of the quotient.

## The quotient (answer) is written above the division box.

Make sure that you line up the first term of the quotient with the term of the dividend
that has the same degree.

## Step 3: Take the term found in step 1 and multiply it times

the divisor.

Make sure that you line up all terms of this step with the term of the
dividend that has the same degree.

## Step 4: Subtract this from the line above.

Make sure that you subtract EVERY term found in step 3, not just the first
one.

## Step 6: Write out the answer.

Your answer is the quotient that you ended up with on the top of the
440

division box.

If you have a remainder, write it over the divisor in your final answer.

Example 2: Divide

## Step 2: Divide 1st term of dividend by first term of divisor to

get first term of the quotient.

Note that the "scratch work" that you see at the right of the long
division shows you how that step is filled in. It shows you the
"behind the scenes" of how each part comes about.

Scratch work:

the divisor.

441

Scratch work:

Scratch work:

## Step 5: Repeat until done.

We keep going until we can not divide anymore. It looks like we can go
one more time on this problem.

We just follow the the same steps 2 - 4 as shown above. Our "new divisor" is the last
line 8x + 1.

## Step 2 (repeated): Divide 1st term of dividend by first

term of divisor to get first term of the quotient.

Scratch work:

442

Scratch work:

Scratch work:

## Step 6: Write out the answer.

Example 3: Divide

443

## Step 2: Divide 1st term of dividend by first term of divisor to

get first term of the quotient.

Scratch work:

the divisor.

Scratch work:

Scratch work:

444

## We keep going until we can not divide anymore.

We just follow the the same steps 2 - 4 as shown above. Our "new divisor" is always
going to be the last line that was found in step 4.

## Step 2 (repeated): Divide 1st term of dividend by first

term of divisor to get first term of the quotient.
AND
Step 3 (repeated): Take the term found in step 1 and multiply it times
the divisor.
AND
Step 4 (repeated): Subtract this from the line above.

The following is the scratch work (or behind the scenes if you will)
for the rest of the problem. You can see everything put together
following the scratch work under "putting it all together". This is just to
show you how the different pieces came about in the final answer. When
you work a problem like this, you don't necessarily have to write it out like
this. You can have it look like the final product shown after this scratch
work.

## Scratch work for steps 2, 3, and 4

for the last three terms of the quotient

2nd term:

445

3rd term:

4th term:

## Step 6: Write out the answer

446

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

## Practice Problems 1a - 1c: Divide.

1a.

1b.

1c.

Problems
Tutorial 30: Division of Polynomials
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 30: Division of
Polynomials
447

## Step 1: Use distributive property to write every term of the

numerator over the monomial in the denominator
AND
Step 2: Simplify the fractions.

448

## Step 2: Divide 1st term of dividend by first term of divisor to

get first term of the quotient.

Note that the "scratch work" that you see at the right of the long division
shows you how that step is filled in. It shows you the "behind the scenes"
of how each part comes about.

Scratch work:

the divisor.

Scratch work:

449

Scratch work:

## Step 5: Repeat until done.

We keep going until we can not divide anymore. It looks like we can go one more
time on this problem.

We just follow the the same steps 2 - 4 as shown above. Our "new divisor" is the last line, 6x - 9.

## Step 2 (repeated): Divide 1st term of dividend by first

term of divisor to get first term of the quotient.

Scratch work:

## Step 3 (repeated): Take the term found in step 1 and

multiply it times the divisor.

Scratch work:

450

Scratch work:

451

## get first term of the quotient.

Note that the "scratch work" that you see at the right of the long division
show you how that step is filled in. It shows you the "behind the scenes"
of how each part comes about.

Scratch work:

the divisor.

Scratch work:

Scratch work:

## Step 5: Repeat until done.

452

We keep going until we can not divide anymore. It looks like we can go one more
time on this problem.

We just follow the the same steps 2 - 4 as shown above. Our "new divisor" is the last line, -2x 1.

## Step 2 (repeated): Divide 1st term of dividend by first

term of divisor to get first term of the quotient.

Scratch work:

## Step 3 (repeated): Take the term found in step 1 and

multiply it times the divisor.

Scratch work:

Scratch work:

453

## Tutorial 31: Practice Test on Tutorials

26 - 30
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

## Special Notes about Tutorial 31:

I can not guarantee you will pass your test after going though any of the
tutorials in this website or this practice test. However, it will definitely help
you to better understand the topics covered better.

Disclaimer: WTAMU and Kim Seward are not responsible for how a student
does on any test or any class for any reason including not being able to
access the website due to any technology problems.

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Introduction
It is important to note that, chances are, I'm not your math instructor. You need to
check with your math teacher as to things like when your next math test is
and what it covers. It may cover more material on the test than what is in
this practice test. Just note that there are other practice tests at this website. So,
after finding out what is on your test (if you have one) do the practice test(s)
problems that go with the test you are preparing for. If you are not in a class or are
not having a test soon, this practice test is still good practice to go through and
check to make sure you are understanding this material before moving on - kind of
like a spot check. The material on this practice test goes with Tutorial 26:
Exponents, Tutorial 27: Adding and Subtracting Polynomials, Tutorial 28:
Multiplying Polynomials, Tutorial 29: Negative Exponents and Scientific
Notation, and Tutorial 30: Division of Polynomials.

Also note that your teacher may word the problems on their test a little differently, may
have some different kinds of problems, or may have a different number of problems than
what is in this practice test. Again, since I'm probably not your math instructor, I don't know
build an understanding of the concepts presented and the terms used in math problems. If you
have an understanding of the problems instead of just memorizing them, then you should
do fine on these concepts, no matter how the test is set up.

## Steps to Studying for a Math Test

1. Work through problems. If you are in a class, you should have done this on
completion of any homework you have done. For anyone, you can
accomplish this by doing the practice problems found in each tutorial.
2. Check work on problems. The practice problems in each tutorial have links
to the answers to them so you can instantly check how you are doing. Also, in
most math books, the odd answers are found in the back of the book.
3. Review concepts. Whether you got the problems right or wrong, make sure
you review over them. If you did get a problem wrong, make sure you either
it. If you don't ask about a problem before a test, you are going to kick
yourself when it comes up on the test.

## 4. Work through problems as if you were taking the test - no notes,

book, webpages, etc. This practice test is a perfect way to do that. After
to the answer key found at the bottom of the practice test (before
the 'need extra help on these topics' section)
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## During the Test

It is to your benefit to show as much of the work as possible on the problems that have several
steps involved.
Make sure that you read the directions carefully, you wouldn't believe how many points get
taken off math tests for people not following directions.
Pace yourself. You do not have to be the first one done to do well on the test. Do not panic if
there is still time left to take the test and others are turing it in. Sometimes that means they do not
know the material and left some of the answers blank. Do not worry about anyone else but
yourself.
Don't rush through a problem. Another thing that math teachers take points off for are careless
mistakes made by people that rush through a problem. When those students get their tests back,
they bonk themselves on the head at some of the things that got counted wrong, things that they
knew how to do.
Remember to breathe!!!! I know some of you are scared to death at the thought of having to
take a math test of any kind. For you guys, try to relax and don't forget to breathe. (Even if you
aren't scared to take a math test, it is probably a good idea to remember to breathe, I wouldn't
want you to pass out during the test). If it feels like your brain has left the building during
your test, just close your eyes and breathe in and out and in and out and your brain will
return.
Good luck on your test. If you are taking a math test soon, don't panic, you are going to do
great!!!

Practice Test

456

1a.

1c.

1e.

1b.

1d.

1f.

2a. 73,200,000

3a.

## Problems 4a - 4b: Find the degree of the term.

4a.

4b. -8

457

Problems 5a - 5c: Find the degree of the polynomial and indicate whether
the polynomial is a monomial, binomial, trinomial, or none of these.

5a.

5b.

5c.

6a.

6b.

7a.

7b.

7c.

7d.

## Problems 8a - 8b: Divide.

458

8b.

8a.

Problems
Tutorial 31: Practice Test on Tutorials
26 - 30
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 31: Practice Test on
Tutorials 26 - 30

Problem 1a:

Problem 1b:

459

Problem 1c:

Problem 1d:

460

Problem 1e:

Problem 1f:

461

Problem 2a:

73,200,000

Problem 3a:

462

Problem 4a:

Since the degree is the sum of the variable exponents and it looks like we have a 2 and
a 3 as our exponents, the degree would have to be 2 + 3 = 5.

Problem 4b:

-8

Since this is a constant term, it's degree is 0.

Problem 5a:

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it looks like
the degree is 5.
Since there are two terms, this is a binomial.
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Problem 5b:

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it looks like
the degree is 3.
Since there is one term, this is a monomial.

Problem 5c:

Since the degree of the polynomial is the highest degree of all the terms, it looks like
the degree is 2.
Since there are two terms, this is a trinomial.

Problem 6a:

464

Problem 6b:

Problem 7a:

Problem 7b:

465

Problem 7c:

Problem 7d:

466

Problem 8a:

Problem 8b:

## Step 1: Set up the long division

AND

Step 2: Divide 1st term of divisor by first term of dividend to get first
term of the quotient
AND

Step 3: Take the term found in step 1 and multiply it times the divisor
AND

467

AND

AND

## Tutorial 32: Formulas

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
1. Solve a formula for a given variable.

## 2. Solve problems involving formulas.

Introduction
468

In this tutorial we will be solving problems using formulas to help us. We will be
looking at such formulas as area of a rectangle, volume of a sphere, Pythagorean
theorem and so on. After going through this tutorial, you will be an old pro at solving
problems involving formulas.

Tutorial

Formulas

A formula is an equation that involves two or more variables that have a specific
relationship with each other.

## Formulas for Some

2-Dimensional Figures

Area of a Parallelogram

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In other words, to get the area of a parallelogram, you multiply the base and
height.

Keep in mind that a rectangle and square are two special types of parallelograms, and would
So what would be the area of the following parallelogram be?

*multiply

## The area is 135 square inches.

Area of a Triangle

In other words, to get the area of a triangle, you take one half of the base times the
height

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*multiply

## Area and Circumference of

a Circle

Area:

Circumference:

In other words, to get the area of a circle, you take pi times the radius squared. And
to get the circumference of a circle, you take 2 times pi times the radius.

## So what would be the area and circumference of the following circle?

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*Area
*8 squared is 64

*Circumference
*multiply

The area is 64

pi square centimeters.

The circumference is 16

pi centimeters.

## Formulas for Some

3-Dimensional Figures

## Surface Area and Volume of a

Rectangular Solid

Surface Area:

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Volume:

In other words, to get the surface area of a rectangular solid, you take two times the
length times the width plus two times the length times the height plus tow times the
width times the height. And to get the volume of a rectangular solid, you take the
length times the width times the height.

So what would be the surface area and volume of the following rectangular solid?

*Surface Area
*length = 5, width = 2 and height = 3
*multiply

*Volume
*length = 5, width = 2 and height = 3
*multiply

## Surface Area and Volume of a Sphere

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Surface Area:

Volume:

In other words, to get the surface area of a sphere, you take four times pi times the
radius squared. And to get the volume of a sphere, you take the 4/3 of pi times the

So what would be the surface area and volume of the following sphere?

*Surface Area
*multiply

*Volume
*multiply

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pi square units.

## Surface Area and Volume of a Right

Circular Cylinder

Surface Area:

Volume:

In other words, to get the surface area of a right circular cylinder, you take two times
pi times the radius times the height and add that to two times pi times the radius
squared. And to get the volume of a right circular cylinder, you take pi times the

So what would be the surface area and volume of the following right circular cylinder?

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*Surface Area
*radius = 5 and height = 10
*multiply

*Volume
*radius = 5 and height = 10
*multiply

## The surface area is 150

pi square millimeters.

## The volume is 250 pi cubic millimeters.

Solving a Formula
for a Specified Variable

Basically, you want to get the variable you are solving for alone on one
side and everything else on the other side (including variables you are not
solving for) using INVERSE operations.

Even though there is more than one variable in a formula, you solve for a specific variable using
the exact same steps that you do with an equation in one variable, as shown in Tutorial 14:
Solving Linear Equations (Putting it all together).

It is really easy to get overwhelmed when there is more than one variable involved. Sometimes
your head feels like it is spinning when you see all of those variables. Isnt math suppose to be
about numbers? Well, just remember that a variable represents a number, so if you need to
move it to the other side of the equation you use inverse operations, just like you would do
with a number.

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for

L.

## Do you recognize this formula?

This happens to be the formula for the perimeter of a rectangle, where
perimeter,

P=

## L = length, and W = width.

In this problem, we need to solve for L. This means we need to get L on one side
and EVERYTHING ELSE on the other side using inverse operations.
Lets solve this formula for L:

for r.

## Do you recognize this formula?

This happens to be the formula for the circumference of a circle, where

C = circumference,

= pi, and

In this problem, we need to solve for r. This means we need to get r on one side
and EVERYTHING ELSE on the other side using inverse operations.
Lets solve this formula for r:
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## *Inverse of mult. by 2pi is div. by 2pi

*Formula solved for r

for

y.

## This is an equation for a line.

In this problem, we need to solve for y. This means we need to get y on one side
and EVERYTHING ELSE on the other side using inverse operations.
Lets solve this formula for y:

## *Inverse of mult. by 4 is div. by 4

*Formula solved for y

478

for

h.

## Do you recognize this formula?

This happens to be the formula for the volume of a rectangular solid,
where

## V = volume, l = length, w = width, and h = height.

In this problem, we need to solve for h. This means we need to get h on one side
and EVERYTHING ELSE on the other side using inverse operations.
Lets solve this formula for h:

*Inverse of mult. by

lw is div. by lw

Solving Problems
Involving
Formulas

## Step 1: Identify the type(s) of figure(s) in the problem.

For example, are you working with a circle, cylinder, square, etc? Are you
working with more than one figure? These are the questions you need to

## Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

For example, are you looking for the perimeter, area , volume, etc. of the
figure(s) you identify in step 1?
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## Step 3: Put the problem together.

Sometimes the problem is cut and dry and you just simply plug in to a
formula and go.

Sometimes you need to do a little figuring. You may need to add, subtract, or take a
fraction of the formula(s) you came up with in step 2.

Area of a Rectangle

Example 5: One bag of fertilizer will cover 500 square feet of lawn.
Your rectangular lawn is 70 feet by 50 feet. How many bags of fertilizer will you
need to cover it?

## Step 1: Identify the type(s) of figure(s) in the problem.

AND
Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are needing to find the area of a rectangle, we can use this formula:

## The variables in this formula represent the following:

A = Area of a rectangle
L = length
W = width

480

In this problem,

L = 70
W = 50

## First, find the area of the lawn:

*Multiply

For every 500 square feet, you need 1 bag of fertilizer. So, we need to
see how many times 500 sq. feet goes into 3500 sq. feet to find
the number of bags of fertilizer needed.

*Divide

7 bags of fertilizer.

Volume of a Sphere

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## Example 6: The diameter of a beach ball was found to be 18 inches.

What is the volume of this beach ball?

## Step 1: Identify the type(s) of figure(s) in the problem.

AND
Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are looking for the volume of a sphere, we can use this formula:

## The variables in this formula represent the following:

V = volume of a sphere

In this problem,

## V = ? = this is the variable we are looking for

r = 9 (radius is half the diameter, so r = 18/2 = 9)

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*Cube 9

*Multiply

## The volume of the beach ball is

cubic inches.

Pythagorean Theorem

## Example 7: A ramp 13 feet long is leaning against a raised platform

which is 5 feet above the ground. What is the distance from the ramps contact
point with the ground and the base of the platform?

## Step 1: Identify the type(s) of figure(s) in the problem.

AND
Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.
483

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are looking for the side of a right triangle, we can use the Pythagorean
formula:

## a and b = legs of the right triangle

c = hypotenuse of the right triangle

In this problem,

b=5
c = 13

484

*Square 5 and 13

## *Subtract 25 from both sides

*What squared gives you 144?

The distance from the ramps contact point with the ground and the base of the
platform is 12 feet.

Putting Figures Together

## Example 8: A cylindrical pedestal for a statue is to have a height of 5

feet and a diameter of 2 feet. The pedestals base is to be a rectangular solid that is
9 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 2 feet thick. What volume of cement is needed to
construct the pedestal and its base?

## Step 1: Identify the type(s) of figure(s) in the problem.

AND
Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since part of the problem is looking for the volume of a cylinder, we can use the
formula :

485

## The variables in this formula represent the following:

= volume of the cylinder
h = height

Since part of the problem is looking for the volume of a rectangular solid, we can use
also use the formula:

## The variables in this formula represent the following:

= Volume of the rectangular solid
l = length
w = width
h = height

In this problem,

## V = ? = this is the variable we are looking for

r = 1 (radius is half the diameter, so r = 2/2 = 1)
h (of cylinder) = 5
l=9
w=4
h (of rectangular solid)= 2
If we take the volume of the cylinder and add it to the volume of the rectangular
solid, then we will have the volume that we are looking for:

486

*Multiply

cubic inches.

## Subtract if You are

Taking Out Parts of a Figure

Example 9: Using the figure shown, find the area in square feet of the
middle region in the square?

## Step 1: Identify the type(s) of figure(s) in the problem.

AND
Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since part of the problem involves the area of a square, we can use the formula :

487

## The variables in this formula represent the following:

= area of square
s = side

Since part of the problem involves the area of a circle, we can use also use the
formula:

## The variables in this formula represent the following:

= area of the four quarter circle corners (four quarters = 1 whole circle)

In this problem,

## A = ? = this is the variable we are looking for

s = 20

r = 10
If we take the area of the square and subtract out the area of the four quarter
circles (whole circle) we will have the area of the middle region of the given figure
above:

## Plugging the values into the formula we get:

488

*Square 20 and 10

square feet.

## Take a Fraction of a Formula if You

Only Have a Portion of a Figure

## Example 10: A dome is hemispherical in shape with a radius of 16

meters and is built using 8 equal sections. What formula would describe the surface
area of each section?

## Step 1: Identify the type(s) of figure(s) in the problem.

AND
Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are looking for the surface area of 1/8 of a hemisphere (half of a sphere),
we can use the formula :

## The variables in this formula represent the following:

SA = surface area
489

In this problem,

r = 16

*Multiply

## The surface area of one section is

square meters.

Practice Problems

490

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

Practice Problems 1a - 1b: Solve each equation for the specified variable.

1a.

; for

1b.

; for

## Practice Problems 2a - 2c: Solve the following word problems.

2a. Sally is training for the Olympics. She likes to run around a circular
track that has a diameter of 60 yards, 20 times during a workout. How
many yards does she run during her workout?

2b. A ramp 5 feet long is leaning against a raised platform which is 4 feet
above the ground. What is the distance from the ramps contact point with
the ground and the base of the platform?

2c. In the figure, ABCD is a square, with each side of length 8 inches. The
width of the border (shaded portion) between the outer square EFGH and
491

## ABCD is 2 inches. Find the area of the border.

Problems
Tutorial 32: Formulas
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 32: Formulas

; for

## Do you recognize this formula?

This happens to be the formula for simple interest, where
principal,

I = simple interest, P =

## R = annual percentage rate, and T = time in years.

In this problem we need to solve for T. This means we need to get T on one side and
EVERYTHING ELSE on the other side using inverse operations.
Lets solve this formula for T:

492

*Inverse of mult. by

PR is div. by PR

; for

## In this problem we need to solve for y. This means we need to get y on

one side and EVERYTHING ELSE on the other side using inverse operations.

## *Inverse of mult. by -7 is div. by -7

*Formula solved for y

*Divide num. by -7
*Another way to write it

493

Sally is training for the Olympics. She likes to run around a circular track that has a
diameter of 60 yards, 20 times during a workout. How many yards does she run
during her workout?

## Step 1: Identify the type(s) of figure(s) in the problem.

AND
Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are needing to find the circumference of a circle, we can use this formula:

## The variables in this formula represent the following:

C = circumference of a circle

In this problem,

## C = ? = this is the variable we are looking for

r = 30 (radius is half of the diameter, so r = 60/2 = 30)

494

*Multiply

## *Replace pi with 3.14 for an approximate value

For every workout, she runs around the track 20 times. So, we need to multiply
the circumference by 20 to find the number of yards that she runs during
her workout.

*Multiply

## The number of yards that she runs in a workout is 1200

or approximately 3768.

A ramp 5 feet long is leaning against a raised platform which is 4 feet above the
ground. What is the distance from the ramps contact point with the ground and the
495

## Step 1: Identify the type(s) of figure(s) in the problem.

AND
Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since we are looking for the side of a right triangle, we can use the Pythagorean formula:

## a and b = legs of the right triangle

c = hypotenuse of the right triangle

In this problem,

496

b=4
c=5

*Square 4 and 5

## *Subtract 16 from both sides

*What squared gives you 9?

The distance from the ramps contact point with the ground and the base of the platform is
3.

In the figure, ABCD is a square, with each side of length 8 inches. The width of the
border (shaded portion) between the outer square EFGH and ABCD is 2 inches. Find
the area of the border.

497

## Step 1: Identify the type(s) of figure(s) in the problem.

AND
Step 2: Identify what formula(s) you need.

Make sure that you read the question carefully several times.

Since part of the problem involves the area of the big square, we can use the formula :

## The variables in this formula represent the following:

= area of the big square
s1= side of the big square

Since part of the problem involves the area of the inner square, we can use also use the formula:

## The variables in this formula represent the following:

= area of the inner square
s2= side of the inner square

In this problem,
498

## A = ? = this is the variable we are looking for

s1 = 8 + 2 + 2 = 12
s2 = 8
If we take the area of the bigger square and subtract out the area of the smaller square we
will have the area of the border:

## Plugging the values into the formula we get:

*Square 20 and 10

## Tutorial 33: Basic Geometry

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

## After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Know what a line is.
2. Identify the different types of angles.
499

## 3. Find a complimentary angle to a given angle.

4. Find a supplementary angle to a given angle.
5. Know what a polygon is.
6. Identify types of triangles.
7. Know what a quadrilateral is.
8. Find the value of a corresponding angle or side given congruent figures.
9. Find the value of a corresponding angle or side given similar figures.
10.Know the relationship of the angles formed when a transversal cuts through
two parallel lines.
11.Know the parts of a circle.

12.

## Tell the difference between inscribed and circumscribed.

Introduction

In this tutorial we will be looking at basic concepts of geometry. This lesson is designed to get
you familiar with the terminology used in some basic geometry problems. We will be looking at
lines, angles, polygons, triangles, quadrilaterals, congruent figures, similar figures, parallel lines,
and circles. I guess you better get to it.

Tutorial

500

Lines

A line extends infinitely and is named by labeling two points on the line
with capital letters or by putting a lower case letter near it. Both are
illustrated below:

The symbol

, which includes the arrow heads at both ends indicates the whole

line where
, which does not have the arrow heads, indicates a line segment,
which is finite in length (only the part of the line from A to B).

Angles

When two lines intersect at one point, they form four angles as shown
below:

The opposite angles of the figure above are called vertical angles.

501

measurement.
and
measurements.

and

## are vertical angles and would have the same

are another set of vertical angles on this illustration and would have equal

Types of Angles

degrees:

502

## A straight angle is one that measures exactly 180 degrees:

Complementary Angles

## Basically we need an angle that when adding it to 68 we get 90.

Lets set it up and solve it algebraically, letting x be the missing angle and see
what we get:

## The complimentary angle to 68 degrees is 22 degrees.

Supplementary Angles

503

Supplementary angles are two angles whose sum measures 180 degrees.

## Basically we need an angle that when adding it to 125 we get 180.

Lets set it up and solve it algebraically, letting x be the missing angle and see
what we get:

Parallel Lines

## Parallel lines have the same slope:

Perpendicular Lines

504

Polygons

## A polygon is a closed figure composed of three or more line segments that

intersect at their endpoints.

## Each line segment is called the side.

The intersection at the endpoints is called the vertex.
Keep in mind that the number of sides and number of interior angles of a polygon are the same.
Polygons are named by the number of sides they have.
Two common polygons are

Triangle (3 sides)

## The sum of the measures of the interior angles of an

is

.
505

n-sided polygon

For example, if you have a triangle, which has 3 sides, the sum of the measures of the interior
angles would be

The perimeter of any polygon is simply the sum of all the sides of that
polygon.

## The area of a polygon is the measure of the enclosed interior.

A regular polygon is one in which all of the interior angles have the same
measure and all of the sides have the same length.

## Example 3: What would be the sum of the measures of the interior

angles of a pentagon? What would be the measure of each interior angle of a
regular pentagon?

First of all, we need to know how many sides we are dealing with. How
many sides are there on a pentagon? If you said 5, you are right on!!

Putting 5 into the sum of the measures of the interior angles of an n-sided polygon
formula we get:

So for any pentagon, whether it is regular or not, the sum of the measures
of the interior angles is 540 degrees.

Next we need to figure out what would be the measure of each interior angle of a
regular pentagon.
Since we are talking specifically about a regular pentagon, that means all interior
angles have the same measure. And since the total of those measures is 540, what do
506

you think the measure of each interior angle is? If you said 108 degrees give yourself
a high five.
Just divide the total, 540, by the number of angles, in this case 5 and
viola
.

Types of Triangles

## The following three types

of triangles are
categorized by their
angles:

## A right triangle is a triangle that has a right angle:

507

The hypotenuse is the side opposite the right angle and the legs are the sides that
meet at the right angle.

## The following three types

of triangles are
categorized by their sides:

508

Rectangle

## A rectangle is a quadrilateral in which the opposite sides are equal in

length and parallel to each other and the four interior angles are each 90
degrees:

Note that a square is a special type of rectangle, one in which all four sides are equal to each
other

Parallelogram

## A parallelogram is a quadrilateral in which opposite sides are parallel and

have equal length and opposite interior angles have the same measure:

Trapezoid

509

## A trapezoid is a quadrilateral in which one pair of opposite sides are

parallel:

Congruent Figures

## Corresponding sides of congruent figures are equal in length.

Note: Corresponding angles and sides are found by matching up the letters of each figures name
in the order that they are listed.

## Below is an example of two figures that are congruent to each other:

Note how A corresponds with F, B corresponds with E, C corresponds with H and D corresponds
with G.
In other words, side AB is the same as side FE, side BC is the same as side EH, side CD is the
same as side HG and side DA is the same as side GF.
Matching up the corresponding points, the proper way of to say this is figure ABCD is
congruent to figure FEHG.

510

## Example 4: Figure ABCDE is congruent to figure FGHIJ.

If

C = 50 degrees and

J?

## If AB = 20, BC = 30, and CD = 40, then what is the length of GF?

Note: Corresponding angles and sides are found by matching up the letters
of each figures name in the order that they are listed. A corresponds with
F, B corresponds with G and so forth.

degrees.

## E and the figures are congruent, then

J=

E = 75

Since side GF (or FG) corresponds to side AB and the figures are congruent, then side
GF (or FG) = side AB = 20.

Similar Figures

## Corresponding sides of similar figures are in proportion to each other.

Note: Corresponding angles and sides are found by matching up the letters of each figures name
in the order that they are listed.

511

## Note how A corresponds with D, B corresponds with E, C corresponds with F.

All of the sides are in proportion to each other. In this example, side AB is twice as large as side
DE, side BC is twice as large as side EF, and side CA is twice as large as side FD.

Matching up the corresponding points, the proper way of to say this is figure ABC is similar
to figure DEF.

If

C = 25,

E = 40, and

L?

Since
= 40.

L corresponds to

## E and the figures are similar, then

L=

Since side IJ corresponds to side BC and the figures are similar to each other, then IJ
and BC are in proportion to each other. Similarly, AG and HN are in proportion to
each other.
When setting up the proportion, make sure that you set it up the same on both sides.

512

## *Corresponding sides of similar figures are

in proportion to each other

*Cross multiply

Side IJ = 160.

Parallel Lines
Cut by a
Transversal

## If two parallel lines in a plane are intersected by a transversal, then

alternate interior angles are equal, alternate exterior angles are equal and
corresponding angles are equal.

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transversal.

4 and

3 and

the transversal.

1 and

2 and

## corresponding angles are equal.

Corresponding angles are one interior and one exterior angle that
are on the same side of the transversal.

1 and

2 and

3 and

4 and

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## Example 6: Given the following parallel lines cut by a transversal

Find

8 if

1 = 120 degrees.

Find

4 if

5 = 120 degrees.

Find

7 if

3 = 60 degrees.

Find

3 if

5 = 120 degrees.

Find

8 if

1 = 120 degrees.

Since 8 and 1 are alternate exterior angles and the two lines are parallel, then
8 = 1 = 120 degrees.

Find

4 if

5 = 120 degrees.

Since 4 and 5 are alternate interior angles and the two lines are parallel, then
= 5 = 120 degrees.

Find

7 if

3 = 60 degrees.

Since 7 and 3 are corresponding angles and the two lines are parallel, then
= 3 = 60 degrees.

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Find

3 if

5 = 120 degrees.

Since 3 and 5 are not alternate exterior, alternate interior or corresponding angles,
they are not guaranteed to be equal.
However, since 3 and 4 make a straight angle (180 degrees) and 4 and 5 are
alternate interior angles (which means they are equal), we can find the measure of 3.

## *Alternate interior angles are =

*Straight angle = 180

3 = 60 degrees.

Circles

A circle is a set of points that are equidistant from a fixed point called the
center.

The radius (r on the diagram below) is the distance from the center of the circle to any point on
the circle and can be shown as a line segment connecting the center to a point on the circle.
The diameter is a line segment that connects two points on the circle and goes through the center
of the circle. It is always twice as long as the radius.
A chord (line segment PQ on the diagram below) is any line segment whose endpoints are any
two points on the circle.
The circumference of a circle is the distance around the circle.

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An arc of a circle is the set of all points between and including two given points.
One way to measure it is in degrees. Keep in mind that the whole circle is 360
degrees.

When naming an arc, it is best to use three points - the two endpoints and a point in between versus just the two endpoints. The reason is you can go clockwise or counterclockwise, which
can make a difference when looking at the length of an arc.

Arc ADC would start at point A and go clockwise through D and end at C. Arc ADC is
a 95 degree arc.

Arc ABC would start at point A and go counterclockwise through B and end at C. Since a circle
is 360 degrees, then Arc ABC is a 360 - 95 = 265 degree arc.

Tangent to a Circle

## A line is tangent to a circle if it intersects the circle at exactly one point.

The tangent line and the radius of the circle that has an endpoint at the point of tangency are
perpendicular to each other.

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Circumscribed and
Inscribed

## A polygon is inscribed in a circle if each vertex of the polygon is a point on

the circle.

In this situation we can also say that the circle is circumscribed about the polygon.

## A polygon is circumscribed about a circle if each side of the polygon is

tangent to the circle.

In this same situation we can say that the circle is inscribed in the polygon.

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Concentric Circles

Concentric circles are two or more circles that share the same center.

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

519

If

B = 55,

C = 45, and

G?

If

A = 30,

C = 40, and

## If AE = 10, FJ = 20, and BC = 40, what is the length of GH?

520

F?

Practice Problems 5a - 5d: Use the following figure to answer the questions

5a. Find
degrees.

2 if

7 = 50

5c. Find
degrees.

1 if

5 = 130

5b. Find

3 if

6 = 50 degrees.

5d. Find

4 if

6 = 50 degrees.

Problems
Tutorial 33: Basic Geometry
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 33: Basic Geometry

What is the complementary angle to 33 ?

## Basically we need an angle that when we add it to 33 we get 90.

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Let's set it up and solve it algebraically, letting x be the missing angle and see what we get:

## The complementary angle to 33 degrees is 57 degrees.

What is the supplementary angle to 33 ?

## Basically we need an angle that when we add it to 33 we get 180.

Let's set it up and solve it algebraically, letting x be the missing angle and see what we get:

## The supplementary angle to 33 degrees is 147 degrees.

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Figure ABCD is congruent to figure EFGH

If

B = 55,

Since

C = 45, and

## D = 30, what is the measure of

G corresponds with

G?

G=

C = 45 degrees.

## If AD = 10, EF = 15, and BC = 12, what is the length of EH?

Since side EH corresponds to side AD and the figures are congruent,
then side EH = side AD = 10.

Figure ABCDE is similar to figure FGHIJ.

If

A = 30,

Since

C = 40, and

F corresponds to

F=

F?

A = 30.

## If AE = 10, FJ = 20, and BC = 40, what is the length of GH?

Since side GH corresponds to side BC and the figures are similar to each other, then GH and BC
are in proportion to each other. Similarly, FJ and AE are in proportion to each other. When
setting up the proportion, make sure that you set it up the same on both sides.

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## *Corresponding sides of similar figures are in

proportion to each other

*Cross multiply

Side GH = 80.

Find

2 if

Since 2 and
50 degrees.

7 = 50 degrees.

7 are alternate exterior angles and the two lines are parallel, then

Find

3 if

6 = 50 degrees.
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2 =

7=

Since 3 and
50 degrees.

6 are alternate interior angles and the two lines are parallel, then

3=

6=

Find

1 if

Since 1 and
degrees.

5 = 130 degrees.

5 are corresponding angles and the two lines are parallel, then

1=

5 = 130

Find

4 if

6 = 50 degrees.

Since 4 and 6 are not alternate exterior, alternate interior or corresponding angles, they are
not guaranteed to be equal.
However, since 2 and 4 make a straight angle (180 degrees) and 2 and 6 are
corresponding angles (which means they are equal), we can find the measure of 4.

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## *Corresponding angles are =

*Straight angle = 180

4 = 130 degrees.

## Tutorial 34: Central Tendencies

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

## After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Find the mean of a list of values.
2. Find the median of a list of values.
3. Find the mode of a list of values.
4. Find the range of a list of values.
5. Find the standard deviation of a list of values.

## 6. Use a frequency distribution to find the mean.

Introduction

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In this tutorial we will be looking at basic concepts of central tendencies. We will go over how to
find the mean, median and mode of a list of values as well as the range and standard deviation. I
think you are ready to get started on these central tendencies.

Tutorial

Mean

## The mean of a list of values is the average of those values.

You can find the mean by adding up all the values and then dividing that sum by the number of
values that you have.
There is only one mean to a list of values.
The mean may or may not be a number that is in the original list of values.

Median

The median of a list of values is the middle value compared to the other
values.

This does not necessarily mean it is the middle number in the original list. You need to make sure
that your values are in numeric order from smallest to largest before you find the median.
There is only one median to a list of values.

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The median may or may not be a number that is in the original list of values.

Mode

The mode of a list of values is the value that occurs the most often.

You can have more than one mode, if more than one value occurs the same amount of times and
that is the highest occurrence.

## Example 1: A student received the following grades on quizzes in a

history course: 80, 88, 75, 93, 79, 95, 75, and 96.
Find the mean, median and mode of the quizzes.

## The mean is the average of the scores.

So we need to sum up all of the quizzes and then divide by 8, since there are 8 quizzes:

*Divide by 8

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## We need to list the numbers in numeric order:

75, 75, 79, 80, 88, 93, 95, 96
If we pick 80 for our median we have 3 values below it and 4 above it. If we pick 88
for our median then we have 4 values below it and 3 above it. So neither of those
values are the median. This does not mean we dont have a median.
Note how there is an even number of values listed. If that is the case, we need to draw
a line down the middle of the list and take the mean of the two numbers next to that
line:
75, 75, 79, 80 | 88, 93, 95, 96
The mean of 80 and 88 is

## *Find number exactly in the

middle of 80 and 88

84 is the median. It is the value that is right smack dab in the middle of
this list of values.

## It helps to list the numbers in order to find the mode.

75, 75, 79, 80, 88, 93, 95, 96
Note how 75 occurs two times, which is the value that occurs the most.
75 is the mode.

Example 2: The number of points a kicker made during the first five
games of the season are given in the table:
529

Game

Points

## The mean is the average of the points.

So we need to sum up all of the points and then divide by 5, since there are 5 games:

*Divide by 5

## We need to list the numbers in numeric order:

3, 3, 6, 6, 9
This time we have an odd number of values. Our median is going to be 6 (the first 6
listed). That number has two values above it and two below it, so it is the middle
value.
6 is the median. It is the value that is right smack dab in the middle of this list of
values.

## It helps to list the numbers in order to find the mode.

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3, 3, 6, 6, 9
Note how both 3 and 6 occur two times, which is the most.
Both 3 and 6 are the mode.

Example 3: If your scores of the first four exams are 98, 100, 90 and
97, what do you need to make on the next exam for your overall mean to be at least
90?

This time we are given the mean and we need to find one of our values.

Keep in mind that this is still a mean problem. We will still use the idea that we need
to sum up the exams and then divide it by 5 to get the mean. We can let our unknown
exam be x.

## *Solve for x (missing test)

*Inverse of div. by 5 is mult. by 5

90.

## Example 4: A student has received scores of 88, 82, and 84 on 3

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quizzes. If the tests count twice as much as the quizzes, what is the lowest score
the student can get on the next test to achieve an average score of at least 80?

This is similar to example 3, except that the test score counts twice instead
of one time. So when we set this up we need to make sure that we notate
that properly.

mean
*Need 2
twice

*Solve for

x (missing test)

## The student would have to score a 73 on the next test to have a

mean of 80.

Measures of Dispersion

Range

One way to measure dispersion (variability) among numerical values is to find the
range of those numbers. The range of a set of numerical data points is the
difference between the largest value and the smallest value. In other words
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## you take the greatest measurement minus the least measurement.

Standard Deviation

Another way to measure dispersion of a data set is to find the standard deviation of
its values. The standard deviation is a relative measure of the dispersion of
a set of data.

Note that the range only involves two values in its calculation - the highest and the lowest.
However, the standard deviation involves every value of its data set.

## Step 1: Find the mean of the values of the data set.

Step 2: Find the difference between the mean and each separate value of the data
set.
Step 3: Square each difference found in step 2.
Step 4: Add up all of the squared values found in step 3.
Step 5: Divide the sum found in step 4 by the number of data values in the set.
Step 6: Find the nonnegative square root of the quotient found in step 5.

Example 5: Find the range and the standard deviation of the following
sample: 3, 10, 8, 20, 4, 4, 3, 8, 8, 8, 12.

I don't know about you, but I find it easier to work with a group of numbers
like this when they are in chronological order. Let's put them in order from
lowest to highest: 3, 3, 4, 4, 8, 8, 8, 8, 10, 12, 20.
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## Let's find the range. What do you think it is?

Looking at the difference between the largest value, which is 20 and the smallest
value, which is 3, it looks like the range is 17.
Now lets tackle the standard deviation.

## Step 1: Find the mean of the values of the data set.

So we need to sum up all of the values and then divide by 11, since there
are 11 numbers:

*Divide by 11

## Step 2: Find the difference between the mean and each

separate value of the data set,
AND
Step 3: Square each difference found in step 2,
AND
Step 4: Add up all of the squared values found in step 3.

x-8

-5

25

-5

25

-4

16

-4

16
534

10

12

16

20

12

144

SUM:

246

## Step 5: Divide the sum found in step 4 by the number of

data values in the set
AND
Step 6: Find the nonnegative square root of the quotient
found in step 5.

## *Square root of [(sum of diff.

squared)/(# of values)]

## The standard deviation is approximately 4.729.

Frequency
Distributions

Sometimes there are a lot of values in a data set and some of them are repeated. In
that case, it may be easier to group those values using a frequency distribution.
This is a chart that lists each unique value and then next to the number
indicates the frequency, or number of times, that value occurs in the data
set.

For example, if you had the list of test scores for a class:
75, 80, 90, 80, 75, 75, 50, 65, 65, 50, 100, 90, 100, 90, 75, 40, 60, 60
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Writing these values (x) in a frequency (f) distribution chart you would have:

40

50

60

65

75

80

90

100

Total

18

Example 6: Find the mean of the test scores 75, 80, 90, 80, 75, 75, 50,
65, 65, 50, 100, 90, 100, 90, 75, 40, 60, 60, using a frequency distribution.

This combines two ideas covered in this tutorial, finding the mean and
setting up a frequency distribution.

40

50

60

2
536

65

75

80

90

100

Total

18

## As requested, Im going to use the frequency distribution to set up my

mean formula. Instead repeating numbers in my sum, Im going to
indicate a repetition by taking that value times the number of times it
occurs in the list. For example, 75 occurs 4 times. Instead of writing it out
4 times in my sum, I will find 75(4) which is the equivalent.

*(sum of scores)/
(# of scores)

*calculate
numerator
*divide

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
537

to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

## Practice Problem 1a: Find the mean, median, and mode.

1a. The number of cds sold by Daves Discs for the last 6 days are given in the table.
Day

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Day 6

CD's

15

10

10

10

18

15

## Practice Problem 2a: Find the test score.

2a. A student received scores of 92, 83, and 71 on three quizzes. If tests count twice
as much as quizzes, what is the lowest score that the student can get on the next test to
achieve a mean of at least 80?

Practice Problem 3a: Find the range and standard deviation of the list of scores
that were made by a football team during a season.

538

## Practice Problem 4a: Find the mean of the frequency distribution.

4a.

10

15

20

10

Total

22

Problems
Tutorial 34: Central Tendencies
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 34: Central Tendencies

The number of cd's sold by Dave's Discs for the last 6 days are given in the table:
Day

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Day 6

CD's

15

10

10

10

18

15

## The mean is the average of the number of discs sold.

539

So we need to sum up all of the CD's sold and then divide by 6, since there are 6 days:

## We need to list the numbers in numeric order:

10, 10, 10, 15, 15, 18
If we pick 10 (the third one) for our median we have two values below it and three above it. If
we pick 15 (the first one) for our median then we have three values below it and two above it. So
neither of those values are the median. This does not mean we don't have a median.
Note how there is an even number of values listed. If that is the case, we need to draw a line
down the middle of the list and take the mean of the two numbers next to that line.

## 10, 10, 10 | 15, 15, 18

The mean of 10 and 15 is

## *Find number exactly in the middle of 10 and 15

12.5 is the median. It is the value that is right smack dab in the middle of this list
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of values.

## It helps to list the numbers in order to find the mode.

10, 10, 10, 15, 15, 18
Note how 10 occurs three times, which is the value that occurs the most.
10 is the mode.

A student received scores of 92, 83, and 71 on three quizzes. If tests count twice as
much as quizzes, what is the lowest score that the student can get on the next test
to achieve a mean of at least 80?

Keep in mind that the test score counts twice instead of of time. So when we set this up we need
to make sure that we notate that properly.

*Need 2

## *Solve for x (missing test)

*Inverse of div. by 5 is mult. by 5

## *Inverse of add 246 is sub. 246

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The student would have to score a 77 on the next test to have a mean of
80.

Find the range and standard deviation of the list of scores that were made by a
football team during a season:
7, 21, 21, 17, 17, 14, 7, 0

I don't know about you, but I find it easier to work with a group of numbers like this
when they are in chronological order. Let's put them in order from lowest to
highest: 0, 7, 7, 14, 17, 17, 21, 21.

## Let's find the range. What do you think it is?

Looking at the difference between the largest value, which is 21 and the smallest value, which is
0, it looks like the range is 21.
Now lets tackle the standard deviation.

## Step 1: Find the mean of the values of the data set.

So we need to sum up all of the values and then divide by 8, since there are 8
numbers:

542

## *(sum of values)/(# of values)

*Divide by 8

Step 2: Find the difference between the mean and each separate value of the data
set,
AND
Step 3: Square each difference found in step 2,
AND
Step 4: Add up all of the squared values found in step 3.

x - 13

-13

169

-6

36

-6

36

14

17

16

17

16

21

64

21

64

SUM:

402

## Step 5: Divide the sum found in step 4 by the number of

data values in the set
AND
Step 6: Find the nonnegative square root of the quotient
found in step 5.

543

values)]

10

15

20

10

Total

22

## As requested, I'm going to use the frequency distribution to set up my mean

formula. Instead repeating numbers in my sum, I'm going to indicate a repetition by
taking that value times the number of times it occurs in the list. For example, 20
occurs 10 times. Instead of writing it out 10 times in my sum, I will find 20(10)
which is the equivalent.

## *(sum of scores)/(# of scores)

*calculate numerator
*divide

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## Tutorial 35: Reasoning Skills

WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives

## After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

1. Use inductive reasoning to solve problems.
2. Find the next terms in a sequence.

## 3. Use deductive reasoning to solve problems.

Introduction

In this tutorial we will be looking at basic concepts of reasoning skills. We will be looking at
both deductive and inductive reasoning. One thing that this can be helpful with is looking for
patterns. Looking for patterns to find a solution can be found in a variety of fields. Teachers can
use patterns to determine a course of direction for a student. For example, if a student is
exhibiting the same kind of learning pattern that a teacher has seen in a student with dyslexia
before, they can act upon that accordingly. Psychologists and law enforcement study behavioral
patterns to solve some of their problems. Scientific researchers study patterns to determine end
results in their experiments. Doctors and Veterinarians use patterns to help diagnose a patient's
illness. Weather forecasters use patterns in weather to predict temperature, tornadoes, hurricanes,
etc. In fact some aspects of weather forecasting uses Chaos Theory - the science of seeing order
and pattern where formerly only the random, the erratic, and the unpredictable had been
observed. Patterns of all kinds are lurking everywhere around us. I think you are ready to forge
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## ahead into the wonderful world of reasoning skills.

Tutorial

Inductive Reasoning

## Inductive reasoning is used when you need to draw a general conclusion

from specific instances.

For example, when a detective puts together specific clues to solve a mystery.

## Looking for a Pattern

(Sequences)

In math, an example of inductive reasoning would be when you are given a pattern
and you need to come up with the rule for the pattern.

A lot of what we will be working with in this lesson are sequences. In general, a sequence is an
ordered arrangement of numbers, figures, or objects.
Specifically, sequences of math are a string of numbers that are tied together with some sort of
consistent rule, or set of rules, that determines the next number in the sequence.

## The following are some specific types of sequences of math:

Arithmetic sequence: a sequence such that each successive term is obtained from the previous
term by addition or subtraction of a fixed number called a difference. The sequence 4, 7, 10, 13,
16, ... is an example of an arithmetic sequence. The pattern is that we are always adding a fixed
number of three to the previous term to get to the next term. Be careful that you don't think that
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every sequence that has a pattern in addition is arithmetic. It is arithmetic if you are always
adding the SAME number each time.
Geometric sequence: a sequence such that each successive term is obtained from the previous
term by multiplying by a fixed number called a ratio. The sequence 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, .... is an
example of a geometric sequence. The pattern is that we are always multiplying by a fixed
number of 2 to the previous term to get to the next term. Be careful that you don't think that
every sequence that has a pattern in multiplication is geometric. It is geometric if you are
always multiplying by the SAME number each time.
Fibonacci sequence: a basic Fibonacci sequence is when two numbers are added together to get
the next number in the sequence. 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, .... is an example of a Fibonacci sequence
where the starting numbers (or seeds) are 1 and 1, and we add the two previous numbers to get
the next number in the sequence.

Note that not all sequences fit into the specific patterns that are described above. Those are
just the more common ones. So as you look at patterns, look for those as a possibility, but if it
doesn't fit one listed above, don't assume it doesn't have a pattern.
In general, when looking for a pattern start simple and then go from there. For example, see if
there is some pattern in adding, subtracting, multiplying, or dividing. Maybe you are always
adding the same number to the previous term to get the new term. Or maybe you are subtracting
the next multiple of three from the previous number. Or you are multiplying by a sequence of
even numbers. Perhaps, you are always adding or subtracting the two previous terms to get to the
next one. Exponential growth is another good pattern to look for. Maybe you are always
squaring or cubing the term number to get your result. Also, don't forget that sometimes the
pattern of a sequence is a combination of operations. Maybe you have to multiply by 2 and then
add 5 to get to the next number in a sequence or the output of a function. If a problem seems like
it is taking forever to work, try a different approach - a different kind of sequence.
Once you find your pattern, you can use it to find the next terms in the sequence.

17, 25, ...

## My first inclination is to see if there is some pattern in addition. Well, we

are not adding the same number each time to get to the next number.
But, it looks like we have 5 +2, 7 +4, 11 +6, 17 +8, 25, .... I see a pattern
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in addition - do you see it? We are always adding the next even number.

The pattern is to add the next even number. The next three terms would have to be
35, 47, and 61, since 25+10 = 35, 35 +12 = 47, 47 +14 = 61.

Example 2: Write the next three numbers in the sequence 7, -7, 14,
-42, 168, ...

Since we are bouncing back and forth between positive and negative
numbers, a pattern in addition doesn't look promising. Let's check out
multiplication. At first glance, I would say that a negative number is
probably what we are looking for here, since it does alternate signs. It
doesn't appear to be the same number each time, because 7 times -1 is -7,
but -7 times -2 equals 14. It looks like we have 7 (-1), -7 (-2), 14 (-3),
-42 (-4), 168, ... Aha, we have a pattern in multiplication - we are
multiplying by the next negative integer.

The pattern is multiplying by the next negative integer. The next three terms are
-840, 5040, and -35280, since 168(-5) = -840, -840(-6) = 5040, 5040(-7) = -35280.

Example 3: Write the next three numbers in the sequence 100, 97,
88, 61, ...

Since the numbers are decreasing that should tell you that you are not
adding a positive number or multiplying. So we want to check out
subtraction or division. At first glance it looks like it is some pattern in
subtraction. We are not subtracting by the same number each time. We
have 100 -3, 97 -9, 88 -27, 61, .... Note how we are always subtracting
the next power of 3. We have our pattern.

The pattern is we are subtracting by the next power of three.
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The next three terms would be -20, -263, and -992, since 61 - 81 = -20, -20 - 243 =
-263, -263 - 729 = -992.

## Looking for a Pattern

Involving Figures

Here are some things to look for when trying to figure out a pattern
involving figures:
Look for counter clockwise and clockwise changes.

## Count sides of figures.

Count lines in figures.
Note changes in direction and figures.
As with the numeric patterns, this is not all the possible types of patterns involving figures.
However, it does give you a way to approach the problem.

## Example 4: Write the next three figures in the pattern

...

It looks like several things change throughout the pattern. One thing is
that it alternates between a square with a line in it and a circle. Also the
line in the square alternates from horizontal to vertical.

With all of that in mind, I believe the next three figures would be a square with a
vertical line, then a circle, then a square with a horizontal line:

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## Example 5: Write the next two figures in the pattern

...

It looks like one row of asterisks is added at the bottom of each figure. The
row that is added contains the next counting number of asterisks. There
are 2 in the row added in the second term, there are 3 in the row added in
the 3rd term and 4 in the row added to the fourth term.

With all of that in mind, I believe the next two figures would be

Deductive Reasoning

Deductive reasoning is used when you have a general rule and you want to
draw on that to get a specific solution.

For example, if you were needing to find the area of a specific rectangle. You would use the
general formula for the area of the rectangle and apply it to the specific rectangle.
Here are some ideas that might help you approach a problem requiring deductive reasoning:

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## Use process of elimination.

Draw a picture or a diagram if it helps.

follows:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## All people wearing hats have blonde hair.

Some of the people have red hair.
All people who have blonde hair like hamburgers.
People who have red hair like pizza.
Keith has blonde hair.

## Which of the following statements MUST be true?

a. Keith likes hamburgers.
b. Keith has red hair.
c. Keith likes pizza.
d. Keith is wearing a hat.

## Well what do you think?

On deductive reasoning, you need to be a 100% sure. There cant be any doubt.
Since statement 3 says that ALL people who have blonde hair like hamburgers and
Keith has blonde hair, then statement a, Keith likes hamburgers, is a 100%
guarantee.

Example 7: Jerry, Kevin, Todd and Mark all live on the first floor of an
apartment complex. One is a manager, one is a computer programmer, one is a
singer, and the other is a teacher. Use the statements below to answer the question
that follows.

## A. Jerry and Todd eat lunch with the singer.

B. Kevin and Mark carpool with the manager.
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## C. Todd watches CSI with the manger and the singer.

Question: Which is the manager?

## You can use a process of elimination on this problem.

Statement A, Jerry and Todd eat lunch with the singer, doesnt let us definitively
eliminate anyone from being the manager.
However, statement B, Kevin and Mark carpool with the manager, eliminates Kevin
and Mark from being the manager. And statement C, Todd watches CSI with the
manger and the singer, eliminates Todd.
The only one that could be (100%, without a doubt) the manager is Jerry.

Practice Problems

These are practice problems to help bring you to the next level. It will allow you to
check and see if you have an understanding of these types of problems. Math
works just like anything else, if you want to get good at it, then you need
to practice it. Even the best athletes and musicians had help along the
way and lots of practice, practice, practice, to get good at their sport or
instrument. In fact there is no such thing as too much practice.

To get the most out of these, you should work the problem out on your own and then check
you will find the answer as well as any steps that went into finding that answer.

Practice Problems 1a - 1c: Write the next three numbers in the sequence.

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1c.

## 5, 5, 10, 15, 25, ...

Practice Problem 2a: Write the next five figures in the pattern.

2a.

Practice Problem 3a: Four friends - Suzy, John, Sally, and Tom - each has his or
her own hobby. One collect coins, one sews, one cooks, and one plays in a band, not
necessarily in that order.
Use the statements below to answer the question that follows.

3a.
A. Suzy and John always eat lunch with the friend that plays in the band.
B. Sally and Tom carpool with the one who likes to sew.
C. John and the friend that likes to cook visited the one who likes to sew.
Question: Who is the friend that likes to sew?

Problems
Tutorial 35: Reasoning Skills
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 35: Reasoning Skills
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## 1, 1, 3, 15, 105, ...

When you see a big jump in numbers all of the sudden - we start small with 1, 1, 3, 15, and then
all of the sudden we are at 105 - a good place to start is multiplication or exponents. It is not a
100% rule, but it gives you a starting place. It looks like we have 1 (1), 1 (3), 3 (5), 15 (7),
105,...There is a pattern in multiplication, we are always multiplying the next odd integer.
The pattern is to multiply the next odd number. The next three terms would have to be 945,
10395, 135135, since 105(9) = 945, 945(11) = 10395, and 10395(13) = 135135.

## 1000, 200, 40, 8, 1.6, ...

Since the numbers are going down from term to term, chances are we are either subtracting or
dividing. In this case we are dividing. We have 1000 divided by (5), 200 divided by (5), 40
divided by (5), 8 divided by (5), 1.6, .... Looks like we are always dividing by 5 to get to the
next term.
The pattern is dividing by 5. The next three terms are .32, .064, and .0128 since 1.6/(5) = .32, .
32/(5) = .064, .064/(5) = .0128.

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## 5, 5, 10, 15, 25, ...

The numbers are going up again, so it is probably a sequence in addition, multiplication and/or
exponents. Since it doesn't go up high quickly, I'm thinking it is addition. Looking at it closer, I
see that we are always adding the two previous terms to get to the next term. This is a Fibonnaci
sequence - discussed in the lesson - with starting values of 5 and 5.
The pattern is adding the two previous terms to get to the next term.
The next three terms would be 40, 65, and 105 since 15 + 25 = 40, 25 + 40 = 65, 40 + 65 = 105.

It looks like several things change throughout this sequence. It starts with one line and then one
circle then it has two lines and two circles and then three lines. So, it is alternating between lines
and circles and each time it alternates it adds one more of that figure.
So the next five figures would be:

Note that we stopped at the fifth one, if we would have continued, there would be a total of four
lines that follow the three circles.

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A. Suzy and John always eat lunch with the friend that plays in the band.
B. Sally and Tom carpool with the one who likes to sew.
C. John and the friend that likes to cook visited the one who likes to sew.
Question: Who is the friend that likes to sew?

You can use a process of elimination on this problem. Statement A, Suzy and John always eat
lunch with the friend that plays in the band, doesn't let us definitively eliminate anyone from
being the one who likes to sew.
However, statement B, Sally and Tom carpool with the one who likes to sew, eliminates Sally
and Tom from being the one who likes to sew.
Statement C, John and the friend that likes to cook visited the one who likes to sew, eliminates
John.
The only one that could be (100%, without a doubt) the one who likes to sew is Suzy.

## Tutorial 36: Practice Test on Tutorials

32 - 35
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra

Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:

## Special Notes about Tutorial 36:

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I can not guarantee you will pass your test after going though any of the
tutorials in this website or this practice test. However, it will definitely help
you to better understand the topics covered better.

Disclaimer: WTAMU and Kim Seward are not responsible for how a student
does on any test or any class for any reason including not being able to
access the website due to any technology problems.

Introduction
It is important to note that, chances are, I'm not your math instructor. You need to
check with your math teacher as to things like when your next math test is
and what it covers. It may cover more material on the test than what is in
this practice test. Just note that there are other practice tests at this website. So,
after finding out what is on your test (if you have one) do the practice test(s)
problems that go with the test you are preparing for. If you are not in a class or are
not having a test soon, this practice test is still good practice to go through and
check to make sure you are understanding this material before moving on - kind of
like a spot check. The material on this practice test goes with Tutorial 32:
Formulas, Tutorial 33: Basic Geometry, Tutorial 34: Central Tendencies, and
Tutorial 35: Reasoning Skills.

Also note that your teacher may word the problems on their test a little differently, may
have some different kinds of problems, or may have a different number of problems than
what is in this practice test. Again, since I'm probably not your math instructor, I don't know
build an understanding of the concepts presented and the terms used in math problems. If you
have an understanding of the problems instead of just memorizing them, then you should
do fine on these concepts, no matter how the test is set up.

## Steps to Studying for a Math Test

1. Work through problems. If you are in a class, you should have done this on
completion of any homework you have done. For anyone, you can
accomplish this by doing the practice problems found in each tutorial.
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2. Check work on problems. The practice problems in each tutorial have links
to the answers to them so you can instantly check how you are doing. Also, in
most math books, the odd answers are found in the back of the book.
3. Review concepts. Whether you got the problems right or wrong, make sure
you review over them. If you did get a problem wrong, make sure you either
it. If you don't ask about a problem before a test, you are going to kick
yourself when it comes up on the test.

## 4. Work through problems as if you were taking the test - no notes,

book, webpages, etc. This practice test is a perfect way to do that. After
to the answer key found at the bottom of the practice test (before
the 'need extra help on these topics' section)

## During the Test

It is to your benefit to show as much of the work as possible on the problems that have several
steps involved.
Make sure that you read the directions carefully, you wouldn't believe how many points get
taken off math tests for people not following directions.
Pace yourself. You do not have to be the first one done to do well on the test. Do not panic if
there is still time left to take the test and others are turing it in. Sometimes that means they do not
know the material and left some of the answers blank. Do not worry about anyone else but
yourself.
Don't rush through a problem. Another thing that math teachers take points off for are careless
mistakes made by people that rush through a problem. When those students get their tests back,
they bonk themselves on the head at some of the things that got counted wrong, things that they
knew how to do.
Remember to breathe!!!! I know some of you are scared to death at the thought of having to
take a math test of any kind. For you guys, try to relax and don't forget to breathe. (Even if you
aren't scared to take a math test, it is probably a good idea to remember to breathe, I wouldn't
want you to pass out during the test). If it feels like your brain has left the building during
your test, just close your eyes and breathe in and out and in and out and your brain will
return.
Good luck on your test. If you are taking a math test soon, don't panic, you are going to do
great!!!
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Practice Test

1a.

for

1b.

I = PRT; for P

## Problems 2a - 2b: Solve the following word problems.

2a. A ramp 5 feet long is leaning against a raised platform which is 4 feet
above the ground. What is the distance from the ramp's contact point with
the ground and the base of the platform?

2b. A farmer has three cylindrical shaped containers to hold feed in. Each
container has the same radius of 3 feet and height of 4 feet. What is the
total volume of the three containers?

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If

B = 70,

C = 55, and

H?

If

B = 60,

C = 50, and

G?

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7a. Find

2 if

7 = 75 degrees.

7b. Find

3 if

6 = 75 degrees.

7c. Find

1 if

5 = 105 degrees.

7d. Find

4 if

6 = 75 degrees.

## Problem 8a: Find the mean, median, and mode.

8a. The number of points a receiver has made during the last 5 games is
given in the following table:

Game

game 1

game 2

game 3

game 4

game 5

Points

12

12

12

18

Find the mean, median, and mode of the points he scored in a game.

## Problem 9a: Find the test score.

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9a. A student received scores of 62, 75, and 77 on three quizzes. If tests
count twice as much as quizzes, what is the lowest score that the student
can get on the next test to achieve a mean of at least 70?

Problems 10a - 10b: Write the next three numbers in the sequence.

## 10b. 1, 5, 25, 125, ...

Problem 11a: Sara, Trudy, Jill and Karen all work for the same company.
One is a secretary, one is a manager, one is a computer programmer and
one is a engineer.

11a.

## A. Sara and Jill eat lunch with the manager.

B. Trudy and Karen carpool with the secretary.
C. Sara likes to work out with the engineer and the secretary.
Who is the secretary?

Problems
Tutorial 36: Practice Test on Tutorials
32 - 35
WTAMU > Virtual Math Lab > Beginning Algebra > Tutorial 36: Practice Test on
Tutorials 32 - 35

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1a.

for

1b.

I = PRT; for P

## Do you recognize this formula?

This happens to be the formula for simple interest, where I = simple interest, P =
principal, R = annual percentage rate, and T = time in years.
In this problem we need to solve for P. This means we need to get P on one side
and EVERYTHING ELSE on the other side using inverse operations.
Let's solve this formula for P:

563

## Problems 2a - 2b: Solve the following word problems.

2a. A ramp 5 feet long is leaning against a raised platform which is 4 feet
above the ground. What is the distance from the ramp's contact point with
the ground and the base of the platform?

Since we are looking for the side of a right triangle, we can use the Pythagorean
formula:

## a and b = legs of the right triangle

c = hypotenuse of the right triangle
In this problem,
a = ? = this is the variable we are looking for
b=4
c=5

## Plugging the values into the formula we get:

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The distance from the ramp's contact point with the ground and the base of the
platform is 3.

2b. A farmer has three cylindrical shaped containers to hold feed in. Each
container has the same radius of 3 feet and height of 4 feet. What is the
total volume of the three containers?

Since we are needing to find the volume of a cylinder, we can use this formula:

## The variables in this formula represent the following:

V = volume of a cylinder
h = height
In this problem,
V = ? = this is the variable we are looking for
r=3
h=4

## First, find the volume of a cylinder:

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Each cylinder has a volume of 36 cubic feet or approximately 113.04 cubic feet. If
there are three of them, then we need to multiply this volume by 3.

cubic feet.

## 3a. What is the complementary angle to 47 degrees?

Basically we need an angle that when we add it to 47 we get 90.
Let's set it up and solve it algebraically, letting x be the missing angle and see
what we get:

566

## 4a. What is the supplementary angle to 47 degrees?

Basically we need an angle that when we add it to 47 we get 180.
Let's set it up and solve it algebraically, letting x be the missing angle and see
what we get:

If

B = 70,

C = 55, and

H?

## If AD = 25, EF = 35, and BC = 12, what is the length of EH?

Since H corresponds with
degrees.

## D and the figures are congruent, then

H=

D = 25

Since side EH corresponds to side AD and the figures are congruent, then side EH =

567

If

B = 60,

C = 50, and

G?

Since

G corresponds to

## C and the figures are similar, then

G=

C = 50.

Since side FG corresponds to side BC and the figures are similar to each other, then
FG and BC are in proportion to each other. Similarly, EH and AD are in proportion to
each other.
When setting up the proportion, make sure that you set it up the same on both sides.

FG = 20

## Problems 7a - 7d: Use the following figure to answer the questions.

568

7a. Find

2 if

7 = 75 degrees.

Since 2 and 7 are alternate exterior angles and the two lines are parallel, then
2 = 7 = 75 degrees.

7b. Find

3 if

6 = 75 degrees.

Since 3 and 6 are alternate interior angles and the two lines are parallel, then
= 6 = 75 degrees.

7c. Find

1 if

5 = 105 degrees.

Since 1 and 5 are corresponding angles and the two lines are parallel, then
= 5 = 105 degrees.

7d. Find

4 if

6 = 75 degrees.

Since 4 and 6 are not alternate exterior, alternate interior or corresponding angles,
they are not guaranteed to be equal.
However, since 3 and 4 make a straight angle (180 degrees) and 3 and 6 are
alternate interior angles (which means they are equal), we can find the measure of 4.

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4 = 105 degrees.

## Problem 8a: Find the mean, median, and mode.

8a. The number of points a receiver has made during the last 5 games is
given in the following table:
Game

game 1

game 2

game 3

game 4

game 5

Points

12

12

12

18

Find the mean, median, and mode of the points he scored in a game.

The mean is the average of the scores.
So we need to sum up all of the points and then divide by 5, since there are 5 games:

## The median is the middle value.

We need to list the numbers in numeric order:
6, 12, 12, 12, 18
Our median is going to be 12 (the second 6 listed). That number has two values above
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## it and two below it, so it is the middle value.

12 is the median.

## The mode is the value that occurs the most often.

It helps to list the numbers in order to find the mode.
6, 12, 12, 12, 18
12 occurs three times, which is the most.
12 is the mode.

## Problem 9a: Find the test score.

9a. A student received scores of 62, 75, and 77 on three quizzes. If tests
count twice as much as quizzes, what is the lowest score that the student
can get on the next test to achieve a mean of at least 70?

The student would have to score a 68 on the next test to have a mean of 70.

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Problems 10a - 10b: Write the next three numbers in the sequence.

## 10a. 1, 3, 7, 13, 21, ...

My first inclination is to see if there is some pattern in addition. Well, we are not
adding the same number each time to get to the next number. But, it looks like we
have 1 +2, 3 +4, 7 +6, 13 +8, 21, .... I see a pattern in addition - do you see it? We are
always adding the next even number.
The pattern is to add the next even number. The next three terms would have to be
31, 43, and 57, since 21+10 = 31, 31 +12 = 43, 43 +14 = 57.

## 10b. 1, 5, 25, 125, ...

When you see a big jump in numbers all of the sudden - we start small with 1, 5, and
25 then all of the sudden we are at 125 - a good place to start is multiplication or
exponents. It is not a 100% rule, but it gives you a starting place. It looks like we
have 1 (5), 5 (5), 25 (5), 125,...There is a pattern in multiplication, we are always
multiplying by 5.

The pattern is to multiply the previous number by 5. The next three terms would
have to be 625, 3125, 15625, since 125(5) = 625, 625(5) = 3125, and 3125(5) =
15625.

Problem 11a: Sara, Trudy, Jill and Karen all work for the same company.
One is a secretary, one is a manager, one is a computer programmer and
one is a engineer.

11a.
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## A. Sara and Jill eat lunch with the manager.

B. Trudy and Karen carpool with the secretary.
C. Sara likes to work out with the engineer and the secretary.
Who is the secretary?