You are on page 1of 7

Antilockbrakingsystem

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Antilockbrakingsystem(ABS)isanautomobilesafetysystemthatallows
thewheelsonamotorvehicletomaintaintractivecontactwiththeroadsurface
accordingtodriverinputswhilebraking,preventingthewheelsfromlockingup
(ceasingrotation)andavoidinguncontrolledskidding.Itisanautomated
systemthatusestheprinciplesofthresholdbrakingandcadencebrakingwhich
werepracticedbyskillfuldriverswithpreviousgenerationbrakingsystems.It
doesthisatamuchfasterrateandwithbettercontrolthanadrivercould
manage.

SymbolforABS.

ABSgenerallyoffersimprovedvehiclecontrolanddecreases
stoppingdistancesondryandslipperysurfaceshowever,onloose
gravelorsnowcoveredsurfaces,ABScansignificantly
increasebrakingdistance,althoughstillimprovingvehicle
control.[1][2][3]
Sinceinitialwidespreaduseinproductioncars,antilockbraking
systemshavebeenimprovedconsiderably.Recentversionsnot

ABSbrakesonaBMW
motorcycle.

onlypreventwheellockunderbraking,butalsoelectronically
controlthefronttorearbrakebias.Thisfunction,dependingonitsspecificcapabilitiesand
implementation,isknownaselectronicbrakeforcedistribution(EBD),tractioncontrolsystem,
emergencybrakeassist,orelectronicstabilitycontrol(ESC).
Contents[hide]
1History
1.1Earlysystems
1.2Modernsystems
2Operation
3Components
4Use
5Braketypes
6Effectiveness
7Regulations
8Seealso
9References
10Externallinks

History

[edit]

Earlysystems

[edit]

ABSwasfirstdevelopedforaircraftusein1929bytheFrenchautomobileandaircraftpioneerGabriel
Voisin,[citationneeded]asthresholdbrakingonairplanesisnearlyimpossible.Thesesystemsuse

aflywheelandvalveattachedtoahydrauliclinethatfeedsthebrakecylinders.Theflywheelisattached
toadrumthatrunsatthesamespeedasthewheel.Innormalbraking,thedrumandflywheelshould
spinatthesamespeed.However,ifawheelweretoslowdown,thenthedrumwoulddothesame,
leavingtheflywheelspinningatafasterrate.Thiscausesthevalvetoopen,allowingasmallamountof
brakefluidtobypassthemastercylinderintoalocalreservoir,loweringthepressureonthecylinder
andreleasingthebrakes.Theuseofthedrumandflywheelmeantthevalveonlyopenedwhenthe
wheelwasturning.Intesting,a30%improvementinbrakingperformancewasnoted,becausethe
pilotsimmediatelyappliedfullbrakesinsteadofslowlyincreasingpressureinordertofindtheskidpoint.
Anadditionalbenefitwastheeliminationofburnedorbursttires.[4]
Bytheearly1950s,theDunlopMaxaretantiskidsystemwasinwidespreadaviationuseintheUK,with
aircraftsuchastheAvroVulcanandHandleyPageVictor,VickersViscount,VickersValiant,English
ElectricLightning,deHavillandComet2c,deHavillandSeaVixen,andlateraircraft,suchastheVickers
VC10,HawkerSiddeleyTrident,HawkerSiddeley125,HawkerSiddeleyHS748andderivedBritish
AerospaceATP,andBACOneElevenbeingfittedwithMaxaretasstandard.[5]Maxaret,whilereducing
brakingdistancesbyupto30%inicyorwetconditions,alsoincreasedtyrelife,andhadtheadditional
advantageofallowingtakeoffsandlandingsinconditionsthatwouldprecludeflyingatallinnon
Maxaretequippedaircraft.
In1958,aRoyalEnfieldSuperMeteormotorcyclewasusedbytheRoadResearchLaboratorytotest
theMaxaretantilockbrake.[6]Theexperimentsdemonstratedthatantilockbrakescanbeofgreat
valuetomotorcycles,forwhichskiddingisinvolvedinahighproportionofaccidents.Stoppingdistances
werereducedinmostofthetestscomparedwithlockedwheelbraking,particularlyonslipperysurfaces,
inwhichtheimprovementcouldbeasmuchas30percent.Enfield'stechnicaldirectoratthetime,Tony
WilsonJones,sawlittlefutureinthesystem,however,anditwasnotputintoproductionbythe
company.[6]
Afullymechanicalsystemsawlimitedautomobileuseinthe1960sintheFergusonP99racingcar,
theJensenFF,andtheexperimentalallwheeldriveFordZodiac,butsawnofurtherusethesystem
provedexpensiveandunreliable.
Thefirstfullyelectronicantilocksystemwasdevelopedinthelate60sfortheConcordeaircraft.

Modernsystems

[edit]

Chrysler,togetherwiththeBendixCorporation,introducedacomputerized,threechannel,foursensor
allwheel[7]ABScalled"SureBrake"forits1971Imperial.[8]Itwasavailableforseveralyearsthereafter,
functionedasintended,andprovedreliable.In1970,Fordaddedanantilockbrakingsystemcalled
"Suretrack"totherearwheelsofLincolnContinentalsasanoption[9]itbecamestandardin1971.[10]In
1971,GeneralMotorsintroducedthe"Trackmaster"rearwheelonly[11]ABSasanoptionontheirrear
wheeldriveCadillacmodels[12][13]andtheOldsmobileToronado.[14]Inthesameyear,Nissanofferedan
EAL(ElectroAntilockSystem)asanoptionontheNissanPresident,whichbecameJapan'sfirst
electronicABS.[15]
1971:ElectronicallycontrolledantiskidbrakesonToyotaCrown[16]In1972,fourwheeldriveTriumph
2500EstateswerefittedwithMullardelectronicsystemsasstandard.Suchcarswereveryrare
howeverandveryfewsurvivetoday.
In1985theFordScorpiowasintroducedtoEuropeanmarketwithaTeveselectronicsystem

throughouttherangeasstandard.ForthisthemodelwasawardedthecovetedEuropeanCarofthe
YearAwardin1986,withveryfavourablepraisefrommotoringjournalists.AfterthissuccessFord
beganresearchintoAntiLocksystemsfortherestoftheirrange,whichencouragedother
manufacturerstofollowsuit.
In1988,BMWintroducedthefirstmotorcyclewithanelectronichydraulicABS:theBMW
K100.Hondafollowedsuitin1992withthelaunchofitsfirstmotorcycleABSontheST1100Pan
European.In2007,SuzukilauncheditsGSF1200SA(Bandit)withanABS.In2005,HarleyDavidson
beganofferingABSasanoptionforpolicebikes.

Operation

[edit]

TheantilockbrakecontrollerisalsoknownastheCAB(ControllerAntilockBrake).[17]
TypicallyABSincludesacentralelectroniccontrolunit(ECU),fourwheelspeedsensors,andatleast
twohydraulicvalveswithinthebrakehydraulics.TheECUconstantlymonitorstherotationalspeedof
eachwheelifitdetectsawheelrotatingsignificantlyslowerthantheothers,aconditionindicativeof
impendingwheellock,itactuatesthevalvestoreducehydraulicpressuretothebrakeattheaffected
wheel,thusreducingthebrakingforceonthatwheelthewheelthenturnsfaster.Conversely,ifthe
ECUdetectsawheelturningsignificantlyfasterthantheothers,brakehydraulicpressuretothewheelis
increasedsothebrakingforceisreapplied,slowingdownthewheel.Thisprocessisrepeated
continuouslyandcanbedetectedbythedriverviabrakepedalpulsation.Someantilocksystemscan
applyorreleasebrakingpressure15timespersecond.[18]Becauseofthis,thewheelsofcarsequipped
withABSarepracticallyimpossibletolockevenduringpanicbrakinginextremeconditions.
TheECUisprogrammedtodisregarddifferencesinwheelrotativespeedbelowacriticalthreshold,
becausewhenthecaristurning,thetwowheelstowardsthecenterofthecurveturnslowerthanthe
outertwo.Forthissamereason,adifferentialisusedinvirtuallyallroadgoingvehicles.
IfafaultdevelopsinanypartoftheABS,awarninglightwillusuallybeilluminatedonthevehicle
instrumentpanel,andtheABSwillbedisableduntilthefaultisrectified.
ModernABSappliesindividualbrakepressuretoallfourwheelsthroughacontrolsystemofhub
mountedsensorsandadedicatedmicrocontroller.ABSisofferedorcomesstandardonmostroad
vehiclesproducedtodayandisthefoundationforelectronicstabilitycontrolsystems,whicharerapidly
increasinginpopularityduetothevastreductioninpriceofvehicleelectronicsovertheyears.[19]
ModernelectronicstabilitycontrolsystemsareanevolutionoftheABSconcept.Here,aminimumof
twoadditionalsensorsareaddedtohelpthesystemwork:theseareasteeringwheelanglesensor,
andagyroscopicsensor.Thetheoryofoperationissimple:whenthegyroscopicsensordetectsthat
thedirectiontakenbythecardoesnotcoincidewithwhatthesteeringwheelsensorreports,theESC
softwarewillbrakethenecessaryindividualwheel(s)(uptothreewiththemostsophisticatedsystems),
sothatthevehiclegoesthewaythedriverintends.Thesteeringwheelsensoralsohelpsinthe
operationofCorneringBrakeControl(CBC),sincethiswilltelltheABSthatwheelsontheinsideofthe
curveshouldbrakemorethanwheelsontheoutside,andbyhowmuch.
ABSequipmentmayalsobeusedtoimplementatractioncontrolsystem(TCS)onaccelerationofthe
vehicle.If,whenaccelerating,thetirelosestraction,theABScontrollercandetectthesituationandtake
suitableactionsothattractionisregained.Moresophisticatedversionsofthiscanalsocontrolthrottle

levelsandbrakessimultaneously.
ThespeedsensorsofABSaresometimesusedinindirecttirepressuremonitoringsystem(TPMS),
whichcandetectunderinflationoftire(s)bydifferenceinrotationalspeedofwheels.

Components

[edit]

TherearefourmaincomponentsofABS:speedsensors,valves,apump,andacontroller.
Speedsensors
Aspeedsensorisusedtodeterminetheaccelerationordecelerationofthewheel.Thesesensors
useamagnetandacoilofwiretogenerateasignal.Therotationofthewheelordifferentialinduces
amagneticfieldaroundthesensor.Thefluctuationsofthismagneticfieldgenerateavoltageinthe
sensor.Sincethevoltageinducedinthesensorisaresultoftherotatingwheel,thissensorcan
becomeinaccurateatslowspeeds.Theslowerrotationofthewheelcancauseinaccurate
fluctuationsinthemagneticfieldandthuscauseinaccuratereadingstothecontroller.
Valves
ThereisavalveinthebrakelineofeachbrakecontrolledbytheABS.Onsomesystems,thevalve
hasthreepositions:
Inpositionone,thevalveisopenpressurefromthemastercylinderispassedrightthroughtothe
brake.
Inpositiontwo,thevalveblockstheline,isolatingthatbrakefromthemastercylinder.Thisprevents
thepressurefromrisingfurthershouldthedriverpushthebrakepedalharder.
Inpositionthree,thevalvereleasessomeofthepressurefromthebrake.
Themajorityofproblemswiththevalvesystemoccurduetocloggedvalves.Whenavalveiscloggedit
isunabletoopen,close,orchangeposition.Aninoperablevalvewillpreventthesystemfrom
modulatingthevalvesandcontrollingpressuresuppliedtothebrakes.
Pump
ThepumpintheABSisusedtorestorethepressuretothehydraulicbrakesafterthevalveshave
releasedit.Asignalfromthecontrollerwillreleasethevalveatthedetectionofwheelslip.Aftera
valvereleasethepressuresuppliedfromtheuser,thepumpisusedtorestoreadesiredamountof
pressuretothebrakingsystem.Thecontrollerwillmodulatethepumpsstatusinordertoprovide
thedesiredamountofpressureandreduceslipping.
Controller
ThecontrollerisanECUtypeunitinthecarwhichreceivesinformationfromeachindividualwheel
speedsensor,inturnifawheellosestractionthesignalissenttothecontroller,thecontrollerwill
thenlimitthebrakeforce(EBD)andactivatetheABSmodulatorwhichactuatesthebrakingvalves
onandoff.

Use

[edit]

TherearemanydifferentvariationsandcontrolalgorithmsforuseinABS.Oneofthesimplersystems
worksasfollows:[18]
1. Thecontrollermonitorsthespeedsensorsatalltimes.Itislookingfordecelerationsinthewheel
thatareoutoftheordinary.Rightbeforeawheellocksup,itwillexperiencearapiddeceleration.

Ifleftunchecked,thewheelwouldstopmuchmorequicklythananycarcould.Itmighttakeacar
fivesecondstostopfrom60mph(96.6km/h)underidealconditions,butawheelthatlocksup
couldstopspinninginlessthanasecond.
2. TheABScontrollerknowsthatsucharapiddecelerationisimpossible,soitreducesthe
pressuretothatbrakeuntilitseesanacceleration,thenitincreasesthepressureuntilitseesthe
decelerationagain.Itcandothisveryquickly,beforethetirecanactuallysignificantlychange
speed.Theresultisthatthetireslowsdownatthesamerateasthecar,withthebrakeskeeping
thetiresverynearthepointatwhichtheywillstarttolockup.Thisgivesthesystemmaximum
brakingpower.
3. Thisreplacestheneedtomanuallypumpthebrakeswhiledrivingonaslipperyoralowtraction
surface,allowingtosteereveninthemostemergencybrakingconditions.
4. WhentheABSisinoperationthedriverwillfeelapulsinginthebrakepedalthiscomesfromthe
rapidopeningandclosingofthevalves.ThispulsingalsotellsthedriverthattheABShasbeen
triggered.SomeABSsystemscancycleupto16timespersecond.

Braketypes

[edit]

Antilockbrakingsystemsusedifferentschemesdependingonthetypeofbrakesinuse.Theycanbe
differentiatedbythenumberofchannels:thatis,howmanyvalvesthatareindividuallycontrolledand
thenumberofspeedsensors.[18]
Fourchannel,foursensorABS
Thisisthebestscheme.Thereisaspeedsensoronallfourwheelsandaseparatevalveforallfour
wheels.Withthissetup,thecontrollermonitorseachwheelindividuallytomakesureitisachieving
maximumbrakingforce.
Threechannel,foursensorABS
Thereisaspeedsensoronallfourwheelsandaseparatevalveforeachofthefrontwheels,but
onlyonevalveforbothoftherearwheels.OldervehicleswithfourwheelABSusuallyusethistype.
Threechannel,threesensorABS
Thisscheme,commonlyfoundonpickuptruckswithfourwheelABS,hasaspeedsensoranda
valveforeachofthefrontwheels,withonevalveandonesensorforbothrearwheels.Thespeed
sensorfortherearwheelsislocatedintherearaxle.Thissystemprovidesindividualcontrolofthe
frontwheels,sotheycanbothachievemaximumbrakingforce.Therearwheels,however,are
monitoredtogethertheybothhavetostarttolockupbeforetheABSwillactivateontherear.With
thissystem,itispossiblethatoneoftherearwheelswilllockduringastop,reducingbrake
effectiveness.Thissystemiseasytoidentify,astherearenoindividualspeedsensorsfortherear
wheels.
Twochannel,foursensorABS
Thissystem,commonlyfoundonpassengercarsfromthelate'80sthroughearly2000s(before
governmentmandatedstabilitycontrol),usesaspeedsensorateachwheel,withonecontrolvalve
eachforthefrontandrearwheelsasapair.Ifthespeedsensordetectlockupatanyindividual
wheel,thecontrolmodulepulsesthevalveforbothwheelsonthatendofthecar.
Onechannel,onesensorABS
ThissystemiscommonlyfoundonpickuptruckswithrearwheelABS.Ithasonevalve,which

controlsbothrearwheels,andonespeedsensor,locatedintherearaxle.Thissystemoperatesthe
sameastherearendofathreechannelsystem.Therearwheelsaremonitoredtogetherandthey
bothhavetostarttolockupbeforetheABSkicksin.Inthissystemitisalsopossiblethatoneofthe
rearwheelswilllock,reducingbrakeeffectiveness.Thissystemisalsoeasytoidentify,asthereare
noindividualspeedsensorsforanyofthewheels.

Effectiveness

[edit]

A2004AustralianstudybyMonashUniversityAccidentResearchCentrefoundthatABS:[1]
Reducedtheriskofmultiplevehiclecrashesby18percent,
Decreasedtheriskofrunoffroadcrashesby35percent.
Onhightractionsurfacessuchasbitumen,orconcrete,many(thoughnotall)ABSequippedcarsare
abletoattainbrakingdistancesbetter(i.e.shorter)thanthosethatwouldbepossiblewithoutthebenefit
ofABS.Inrealworldconditions,evenanalertandexperienceddriverwithoutABSwouldfinditdifficult
tomatchorimproveontheperformanceofatypicaldriverwithamodernABSequippedvehicle.ABS
reduceschancesofcrashing,and/ortheseverityofimpact.Therecommendedtechniquefornon
expertdriversinanABSequippedcar,inatypicalfullbrakingemergency,istopressthebrakepedal
asfirmlyaspossibleand,whereappropriate,tosteeraroundobstructions.Insuchsituations,ABSwill
significantlyreducethechancesofaskidandsubsequentlossofcontrol.
Ingravel,sandanddeepsnow,ABStendstoincreasebrakingdistances.Onthesesurfaces,locked
wheelsdiginandstopthevehiclemorequickly.ABSpreventsthisfromoccurring.SomeABS
calibrationsreducethisproblembyslowingthecyclingtime,thuslettingthewheelsrepeatedlybriefly
lockandunlock.Somevehiclemanufacturersprovidean"offroad"buttontoturnABSfunctionoff.The
primarybenefitofABSonsuchsurfacesistoincreasetheabilityofthedrivertomaintaincontrolofthe
carratherthangointoaskid,thoughlossofcontrolremainsmorelikelyonsoftsurfacessuchasgravel
oronslipperysurfacessuchassnoworice.Onaveryslipperysurfacesuchassheeticeorgravel,itis
possibletolockmultiplewheelsatonce,andthiscandefeatABS(whichreliesoncomparingallfour
wheels,anddetectingindividualwheelsskidding).AvailabilityofABSrelievesmostdriversfromlearning
thresholdbraking.
AJune1999NationalHighwayTrafficSafetyAdministration(NHTSA)studyfoundthatABSincreased
stoppingdistancesonloosegravelbyanaverageof27.2percent.[20]
AccordingtotheNHTSA,
"ABSworkswithyourregularbrakingsystembyautomaticallypumpingthem.Invehicles
notequippedwithABS,thedriverhastomanuallypumpthebrakestopreventwheel
lockup.InvehiclesequippedwithABS,yourfootshouldremainfirmlyplantedonthebrake
pedal,whileABSpumpsthebrakesforyousoyoucanconcentrateonsteeringtosafety."
Whenactivated,someearlierABSsystemscausedthebrakepedaltopulsenoticeably.Asmostdrivers
rarelyordonotbrakehardenoughtocausebrakelockup,anddriverstypicallydonotreadthe
vehicle'sownersmanual,thismaynotbenoticeableuntilanemergency.Somemanufacturershave
thereforeimplementedabrakeassistsystemthatdeterminesthatthedriverisattemptinga"panicstop"
(bydetectingthatthebrakepedalwasdepressedveryfast,unlikeanormalstopwherethepedal

pressurewouldusuallybegraduallyincreased,Somesystemsadditionallymonitortherateatthe
acceleratorwasreleased)[citationneeded]andthesystemautomaticallyincreasesbrakingforcewherenot
enoughpressureisapplied.Hardorpanicbrakingonbumpysurfaces,becauseofthebumpscausing
thespeedofthewheel(s)tobecomeerraticmayalsotriggertheABS.Nevertheless,ABSsignificantly
improvessafetyandcontrolfordriversinmostonroadsituations.
Antilockbrakesarethesubjectofsomeexperimentscentredaroundriskcompensationtheory,which
assertsthatdriversadapttothesafetybenefitofABSbydrivingmoreaggressively.InaMunichstudy,
halfafleetoftaxicabswasequippedwithantilockbrakes,whiletheotherhalfhadconventionalbrake
systems.Thecrashratewassubstantiallythesameforbothtypesofcab,andWildeconcludesthiswas
duetodriversofABSequippedcabstakingmorerisks,assumingthatABSwouldtakecareofthem,
whilethenonABSdriversdrovemorecarefullysinceABSwouldnotbetheretohelpincaseofa
dangeroussituation.[21]
TheInsuranceInstituteforHighwaySafetyreleasedastudyin2010thatfoundmotorcycleswithABS
37%lesslikelytobeinvolvedinafatalcrashthanmodelswithoutABS.[22]

Regulations

[edit]

ABSarerequiredonallnewpassengercarssoldintheEUsince2007.IntheUnitedStates,theNHTSA
hasmandatedABSinconjunctionwithElectronicStabilityControlundertheprovisionsofFMVSS126
asofSeptember1,2011.[23]