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Q.1 How does Branding impact the behaviour of

Branding is a key concept in marketing circles, as it is the
pivotal springboard that can thrust your business forward, and
give you a competitive edge. A well-defined and strong brand
will drive sales, build customer loyalty, create brand value, and
most of all, it will be the catalyst for business growth, as
consumers will be motivated to buy your product.

A brand is usually associated with the logo, sign, name, or

other image that consumers associate with your company and
product. But in fact, brand also incorporates other factors, and
encompasses those unique characteristics that distinguish your
product, and sets it apart from the competition. It also relates
to the quality of your product, the way you do business, and
how you are perceived by others.
Business branding is therefore important to every business
regardless of the size, because it communicates information
about your business and product to the market. It will influence
the cost of your product, packaging, marketing and advertising
strategies, distribution channels, and more. Branding is all
about establishing an identity, and becoming recognized for it.
There is no denying the importance of branding, especially for
the small business. Consumers are always willing to buy
products they know and trust. A strong, well defined brand,
gives you a competitive advantage in the market. It allows you
to charge more for your product, knowing that consumers will
remain loyal, and buy it at the higher cost. That is the result of
consistent reinforcing of the brand, which enables positive
responses from the consumer.

Branding is one way to attract new customers. When a

customer comes to you because of all they have heard about
your product and business, then you can be certain that they
are serious about buying. When you run marketing campaigns,
you are simply throwing out a wide net to attract a large
number of customers. From there your marketing guys spend
time with those leads to find out who is really serious. That
takes a lot of time and money, and in the end, you are not sure
that those customers will buy. On the other hand, branding
puts you in a position to attract serious buyers first off.
Those leads might have been generated because of satisfied
customers, who are happy to spread the word. Or, they might
have been the result of persistent market reinforcement.
However the key is, they came about due to a branding
strategy that effectively communicated the solution the
customer was looking for.
Branding puts you in touch with customers who know your
business and your product before they even step inside your
place of business, or buy your product off the shelf. They know
about you because of your brand, and the value that goes with
As we have seen, branding is an effective way to facilitate the
growth of your business. When successfully implemented,
branding can give you a strategic position in the market, and
eventually lead to increased profit. This is achieved as a result
of the influx of new customers, and the continuing support of
existing ones. Branding builds brand loyalty and value, attracts
new customers, and makes you stand out from the
competition. These are all key components in ensuring the
continued profitability of your business.
Ultimately, branding is perhaps most essential because it
increases the chances that people will remember you, even as
the battle for consumers attention (and money) rages on. A
fully-developed brand identity will push your business to the

forefront of consumers minds, making them more likely to

recognize you, enlist your services, and remain loyal long after
the conclusion of your professional relationship. It takes a lot of
time to build (and maintain) these valuable customer
relationships. Let me give you a few examples of successful
Coca Cola: The majority of people instantly recognize
this brand. Their logo, the Christmas songs, TV commercials,
ads and cans are a part of the Coca Cola branding strategy. This
brand has been around for decades, allowing its message to go
from generation to generation, and all of Coca Colas efforts
have paid off. Wouldnt you agree it is quite hard to imagine a
world without Coca Cola?

Branding on packaging acts as an important cue to guide

consumer choice in the retail environment. From a
psychological perspective, branding on packaging serves two
important purposes, crucial to decision making:
1) It guides consumers attention, drawing attention to certain
2) It allows consumers to recognise and find familiar brands.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact
branding has on these processes, and therefore consumer
The role of branding was examined in three specific areas:


The impact of reduced branding on consumer choice.

When branding on packaging is reduced, how does this
influence decision making?
The impact of increased non-branded information on
consumer choice. What effect does non-branded
information, such as nutritional information, have on


The impact of copycat branding on consumer choice.

When a brand is perceptually similar to another, well
established brand, how does this effect decision
making? In order to answer these questions, eye
tracking and visual search tasks were employed to
measure attention and recognition, in a scientifically
validated and rigorous manner.

Key findings are described below:


The impact of reduced branding on consumer choice

The results demonstrated that reducing the branding on
packaging can influence consumer behaviour, by
reducing attention to and recognition of certain brands.
Strong evidence from the recognition data suggested
that reducing the size of a logo on packaging impairs
consumers ability to recognise and find a brand they
are looking for. This effect was particularly pronounced
when the changes to the logo size are large.


The impact of increased non-branded information on

consumer choice. Both the eye tracking and recognition
data provided some tentative evidence that increasing
the size of nutritional labels displayed on packaging
may influence consumer behaviour, by increasing
attention to but reducing recognition of certain brands.
However, the observed effects were not statistically
reliable, indicating that the impact of nutritional
information may not be significant.


The impact of copycat branding on consumer choice.

Strong evidence from the recognition data suggested
that copycat branding can influence consumer choice;
the results demonstrated the impact of perceptually
similar (copycat) brands on an established brand. In
cases where an established brand was displayed
alongside a copycat supermarket brand, participants
were slower and more inaccurate in identifying the

established brand. This was compared to cases where

the established brand was displayed alongside a noncopy supermarket brand. These robust results suggest
that the presence of a copycat brand may distract or
confuse consumers, impairing their ability to find the
brand they are looking for, and in some cases causing
them to choose the wrong brand.

Q.2 Difference between Brand Equity/Brand Image / Brand Personality.

Brand Identity
Set of brand associations that the brand strategist aspires to create and
The associations imply promise to customers from the organization and
its members.
Used for driving all brand building efforts.
Not an advertising tagline or positioning statement.
Establish relationship between the brand and the customer.
Create value proposition functional, emotional or self- expressive
Alternatively, provide credibility for the endorsed brand.
Brand identity involves: core identity; extended identity; and brand

Prism Elements
Salient objective features that gives the brand its identity. Example
Symbol of Coca Cola bottle on Coke cans
Human personality trait(s) relevant for the brand(s). Example
Levis ruggedness
Set of values that feed the brands inspiration. It is the source of the
brands aspirational powers. Example German efficiency behind
Voks Wagen - Das Auto

The mode of conduct that most identifies with the brand. It is a

logical extension of the personality. Example Bacardi Life is
Customer reflection
How the customer wants to be seen as a result of using the brand.
Example Scooty Pep + customer reflection is stylish, trendy and
Self image
If reflection is the outward image then this is what the customer
sees within himself as an user of the brand. Example Van Heusen
users attach themselves with the brand through power, and
Kapferers Brand Identity Prism

Brand Personality
Set of human characteristics associated with a brand.

Personality traits associated with a brand, such as those associated with

individual, tend to be enduring and distinct.
Brand personality is developed through the brand users imagery. The
imagery can be defined as the set of human characteristics associated
with a typical user of the brand.
Brand personality may refer to personality characteristics as well as
demographic characteristics.
Brand Image
Current view of the customers about the brand
Unique bundle of associations
These associations result in developing perceptions about the brand
Perceptions create imagery
Woodland associated with outdoor activities, mountaineering,
trekking, hiking etc. These gives makes the customer perceive it is
in outdoor, adventure, rugged lifestyle brand. Thus, the image of
woodland is that a people engaged in adventure sport and outdoor

Q.3 Prepare a Doodle/Google for the occasion of 2015 World Cup.