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ECG504 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING

LABORATORY
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Skidding, i.e. loss of adhesion between a vehicle's tyres and the road surface, occurs in
many road accidents whether or not it is the actual cause of the accident. Over the years,
tyre manufacturers have done a lot of research into different types of rubber and tread
patterns to improve the safety of motor vehicles. Governments have introduced regulations
concerning the tread depth and general condition of the tyres. Highway engineers have also
researched ways to improve the skid resistance of road surfaces. The impetus for this
research came from the Transport and Road Research Laboratory (TRRL) of UK. One of
the first things they did was to devise the Pendulum Skid Tester which, being portable, can
be taken to the site or used in laboratory experiments.
This device simulates the skid resistance offered by a road surface to a motor car
travelling at 50 km/h. It gives a number, being a percentage, somewhat akin to a coefficient
of friction. Subsequently, they devised the Sideways Force Coefficient Routine
Investigation Machine (SCRIM). This is a lorry with a fifth wheel set at an angle to the
direction of travel and the lateral force on this wheel is measured and recorded. The lorry
travels at 50 km/h and continually monitors the Sideways Force Coefficient (SFC). Other
devices include braking force trailer and the meter. These can be used at the high speeds
required for testing airport runways. With devices to measure skidding resistance,
researchers then monitored changes during the life of road pavements. It was found that
skid resistance falls rapidly after a road is opened to traffic but the rate of deterioration
slows down, eventually settling to a constant value. This latter value is dependent on the
surface texture, rock type and traffic volume.

Figure 1 : A Portable Pendulum Skid Resistance Tester


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ECG504 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING


LABORATORY
2.0 OBJECTIVE
The objective of this test is to determine the skid resistance value (SRV), microtexture of
road pavement surface.
3.0 APPARATUS
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

Portable Pendulum Skid Resistance Tester


Rubber slider
Scale ruler
Brush
Water container
Thermometer

4.0 PROCEDURE
i.

Clean the road surface selected for test with a brush from debris, dust, and any fine
granular particles
ii.
Set up a skid resistance tester so that the center column is vertical (this is done by
adjusting the three levelling screws at the base of the skid resistance tester)
iii.
Adjust the height of the pivot so that the arms swing freely through its arc without
touching road surface (check that it swings freely right through to the zero on the
scale)
iv. The lower the pivot height so that the pendulum rubber slide is in contact with the
surface between 124 and 127 mm by the contact path gauge (thin scale ruler), which
is placed alongside for measuring contact path length.
v. Raise the slider by lifting handle of the pendulum arm so that it is moved to right top
right hand side and the starting locked ring is positioned. Then a drag pointer is set
to zero. The pendulum is released by pressing the release button, allowing its rubber
slider to make contact with the test surface prior to engaging it the retaining catch.
vi.
The direct mean skid resistance value for the dry pavement surface is indicated by
the drag pointers as results of at least five swings of the pendulum are made for each
test dry surface.
vii.
Water the road surface (wet condition) where the readings of skid resistance value
are to be taken.
viii.
Repeat step number 5
ix.
After it has swung through, catch the arm to prevent a back swing which could
affect the related reading.Note and record the readings on the scale
x.
Repeat the above steps to obtain a minimum of three readings in order to get the
average skid resistance value.
5.0 RECOMMENDATION

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ECG504 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING


LABORATORY
The stiffness of the rubber slider varies with temperature. Hence, it is recommended to measure
the surrounding temperature during the test, and apply the reading of the pendulum tester with its
correlated correction value, as below:

Figure 1: Skid resistance/ temperature correction relationship (TRRL, 1969)

The test was conducted at the same spot of pavement, thus the readings obtained might
not differ much from each other. Hence, it is recommended to change the spot due to possible
difference in surface texture.
It is suggested that the pendulum arm is lowered gently so that the rubber slider barely
touch the road surface. This will gives minimum value for maximum safety, since most vehicles
that skid are usually driven at high speed.
When conducting the test, we found out that the surface resistance lessen once it is wetted
with water. However, in realistic condition during heavy rain, the water always flow (which in
wetted condition the water will probably flow out or into the texture) hence the depth of water
may be greater thus reducing much more road resistance to skidding. If applicable, the test might
be deepened using flowing water if considered important.

6.0 RESULT
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ECG504 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING


LABORATORY

Location

1 (concrete)

2 (Brick)

3 (Road)

Surface Texture
and Condition

Smooth

Medium

Rough

Reading on Skid Resistance Tester


Wet
Dry
25

24

27

24

25

23

24

27

28

26

29

27

45

34

45

34

45

32

Average
wet
dry
26

24

41

27

45

33

7.0 DISCUSSION

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ECG504 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING


LABORATORY
The desired texture on concrete pavements is obtained by treating the surface of the fresh
concrete. A properly constructed concrete pavement usually does not exhibit any
unevenness. This will make the microtexture of the concrete in smooth condition. The skid
resistance of concrete in dry condition is 24 mm of sliding length and 26mm sliding length
in wet condition. This is because of the smooth surface of the concrete provide a small
resistance to the rubber.
The brick which in medium rough is providing a 27mm sliding length in dry condition and
41 mm in wet condition which give us an medium resistance between the other two
material. Brick microtexture which is brittle give small unevenness and give us a resistance
slightly higher than concrete skid value. The difference between wet and dry condition is
14mm is to large. That mean the resistance is decrease greatly when the material is wet.
Then, for our third material which is road that have rough macrotexture and even
microtexture surface give us the highest skid resistance compare to the other material which
is 45 in wet condition and 33 in dry condition. The difference is also acceptable when in wet
with 12mm sliding value. This is proved that road is texture is suitable for use as transport
material.
8.0 CONCLUSION
Base on the result of skid resistance of the material, its is proved that the road is best
material to be used as surfacing material which have the highest value of skid resistance
which is 33mm in dry condition and 45mm in wet condition because of its rough
microtexture at the surface material and have the best effective contact area. The road also
have acceptable drop in skid resistance when in wet condition which is give balance
between optimum contact area and water effective water dispersion.

9.0 REFERENCES
i.

BSI (1990). British Standard BS 812:Part 114:1989 Testing aggregates -Method for
determination of the polished-stone value. British Standards Institution, London.
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ECG504 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING


LABORATORY
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

10.0

Hosking, R. (1992). Road aggregate and skidding. Transport Research Laboratory


State-of-the-art Review 4, HMSO.
TRRL (1969). Instructions for Using the Portable Skid Resistance Tester. Road Note
27, Transport and Road Research Laboratory HMSO.
FKA, Laboratory Manual. University Teknologi Mara , Shah Alam . February 2013.
Muniandy R., Radin Umar Radin Sohadi. Highway Materials, A Guide Book For
Beginners.University Putra Malaysia: Penerbit Universiti Putra Malaysia; 2010.
Standard Road Skid Resistance; B.S.I., 1990; British Standards Institution; 1990.

APPENDIX

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LABORATORY

A portable skid resistance tester

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ECG504 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING


LABORATORY

Set up the apparatus

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ECG504 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING


LABORATORY

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