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Describe the orchestras pay structure in terms of levels,

differentials,

and

job-

or

person-based

approach.

The orchestras pay structure is clearly structured in a hierarchal


nature. The fee for each position in the orchestra varies by level
starting at the bottom level for positions such as viola to the top
positions such as principal viola. The differentials, which indicate the
pay differences among levels, are evidenced by the fact that those that
play instruments that are more highly valued are paid more. I assume
that those who play those instruments in the orchestra are those that
also play in the more important concert bookings. Typically, the
positions that add more value or require greater skill are paid more
than others. The orchestra approaches its pay structure from a personbased structural approach. It depends on the skill, competency, and
musical knowledge of each orchestra musician. However, as with most
jobs, it also relies on a job-based structure in that it relies n the output
that the musician in the orchestra is able to produce.
Discuss what factors may explain the structure. Why does
violinist I receive more than the oboist and trombonist? Why
does the principal trumpet player earn more than the principal
cellist and principal clarinetist but less than the principal viola

and principal flute players? What explains these differences?


Does the relative supply versus the demand for violinists
compare to the supply versus the demand for trombonists? Is
it

that

violins

play

more

notes?

I think there are several internal and external factors that explain the
pay structure within the orchestra. For one, different venues and
locations that the orchestra is asked to play in plays a role in the pay
structure. Some venues and locations are more highly valued than
others. In those situations, the top playing musicians are in more
demand than those considered to be in lower demand. Additionally,
human capital plays a major role in the structure within the orchestra.
Again, the skills and abilities required to play within the orchestra
influences the pay structure as well.

I think the reason the violinist 1 pays more than the oboist and
trombonist because there are several different levels of violinists within
the orchestra. Beneath the violin 1 is also a violin 2 position, which can
pay below the oboist and trombonist. There are not very many levels of
oboists or trombonists within the orchestra. According to the table
there is only one level of trombonist and two of oboist. This would
further indicate to me that perhaps the violinists are in more of a

demand than the trombonist and oboists. Or it may indicate that there
is a greater supply of trombonists and oboists comparative to their
demand than violinist.

What is the pay differential between the principal viola and


next highest paid viola? What about between the principal
trumpet and the next highest paid trumpet? Why these
differentials between the principal and other? Why arent they
larger? Smaller? Why is the differential between trumpet
players

different

than

between

the

viola

players?

The pay differential between the principal viola and the next highest
paid voila is $2,553. The difference between the principal trumpet and
the next highest paid trumpet is 595.00. I assume that the pay
differential for the viola is larger because the viola players are in higher
demand than the trumpet players. Additionally, there are only two
trumpet positions; trumpet 1 and principal trumpet, which is the
highest playing, trumpet level. On the other hand, there are 4 viola
levels within the orchestra.

How well do equity and tournament models apply? Do custom


and tradition play any role? What about institutional theory?

Considering the fact that employees judge the fairness of their


compensation by making comparisons to similar positions in other
companies as well as internally, I think that equity theory applies
within the orchestra example. I would imagine that the orchestra
musicians compare their pay to others within the orchestra that play
the same instrument. Additionally, I would argue that they also
compare their pay within the orchestra exampled to other musicians
that play similar instruments within other orchestras. I think that the
orchestra can justify the equity of this pay structure to its employees
by explaining the rationale for the leveling differences.

Ideally the

tournament theory can also be applied. Because within the tournament


theory the bigger the prize in the next level the greater the
motivational impact of the structure, the tournament theory certainly
applies to a position such as the viola in which the next level pays
significantly more. I would imagine that institutional theory could be
applied to the orchestra as well. I would imagine that this particular
orchestra would adopt similar pay structures from other orchestras or
other going rates for certain instruments in the orchestra.