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1. Explain the term network management and its components.

2. Give two examples of how network management can help an enterprise IT department
save money.

A famous requirement for availability is five nines. This refers to the requirement that
a device or a service must be available 99.999 percent of the time. Assume that you
have a device with hardware availability of 99.9995 percent. Now assume that an
operational error is made that causes the device to go offline for 5 minutes until the
error is corrected. Calculated over a period of a month, how much has the operational
error just caused availability to drop?

4. Name two or more reasons for network management applications to be approached as

distributed systems.

1. Is running a network only a matter of network management technology, or are there
other considerations?
2. Which of the following can be used as management tools? A. alarm management
system, B. spreadsheet, C. pencil and piece of paper, D. all of them. Please Explain.

1. State and explain components of FCAPS

BML - Business Management Layer

Manage the overall business, acheiving return on investment, market share, employee
satisfaction, community and governmental goal.
SML - Service Management Layer
Manage the service offered to customer or internal users, meeting customer service level,
service quality, cost and time-to-market objectives
NML - Network Management Layer
Manage the network and systems that deliver those services, capacity, diversity, and
EML - Element Management Layer
Manage the elements comprising the networks and systems
NEL - Network Element Layer
Switches, routers, tramission, distribution systems

2. State and explain components of OAM&P

Operation, Administrsation, Maintenance, Provisioning

3. What is the difference between alarm filtering and alarm correlation?
Alarm Filtering - > dapat digunakan untuk menampilkan informasi berdasarkan tingkat
keparahan. Tampilan Filter alarm menunjukkan pengaturan tingkat keparahan yang
digunakan untuk melaporkan alarm, jumlah record, dan saat ini dan maksimum ukuran
Alarm Correlation -> Korelasi Logging dapat digunakan untuk mengisolasi pesan akar
paling signifikan untuk acara yang mempengaruhi kinerja sistem. Seorang operator
dapat mengambil semua pesan berkorelasi dari buffer correlator logging untuk melihat
peristiwa korelasi yang telah terjadi.
Alarm dapat disaring sesuai dengan tingkat keparahan yang ditunjukkan dalam tabel
4. Performance and accounting management are similar, in that both are interested in
collecting usage data from the network. Describe an important way in which the use of
this data and the requirements for its collection differ.
5. I have no need for security management functions because I am using a dedicated and
secure management network. Please comment on this statement.


Name the two contexts in which the term agent is used in network management.


Compare the manager/agent and client/server paradigms. What are the commonalities
and what are?the differences?
Relasi antara manager/agent dan client/server, angka terbesar pada server adalah
agent & angka terkecil pada client adalah managernya. Element network harus
disediakan sebagai software yang mengimplementasikan management interface
kemudian menjadi management agent. Software memperbolehkan element network
untuk menjalankan peran yang di sediakan management interface dan representasikan
device yang dimanage oleh manager.


Explain the term MIBwhat does the acronym stand for, what is it, and who provides
MIB adalah singkatan dari Management Information Database. Yang berguna untuk
mengatur struktur basis data dari elemen jaringan yang dikelola. Jadi MIB dapat
menolak akses yang tidak diperbolehkan didalam suatu jaringan tersebut.


Name one difference between a MIB and a database.

MIB -> struktur basis data dari elemen jaringan yang dikelola. Struktur ini bersifat
hierarki dan memiliki aturan sedemikian rupa sehingga informasi setiap variable dapat
dikelola dengan mudah.
Database -> merupakan sekumpulan basis data informasi yang telah terstruktur
dengan rapi.


Management traffic is different from other communication traffic, in that the NE itself is
a destination and originator of traffic. However, it is not the only type of traffic for
which this is true. Name an example of other network traffic that the NE does not just
switch or route, but actively participates in.
Umunya digunakan untuk mengontrol akses terhadap siapa saja yang memiliki akses
terhadap jaringan pribadi dari pihak luar. Mengontrol dan mengawasi paket data yang
mengalir didalam jaringan.


What could be the most important reason for using a dedicated management network
instead of a shared one?
Memakai dedicated management network karena dapat memiliki kontrol yang lebih
besar untuk membuat perubahan ke server yaitu program meng-upload,
menambahkan fitur tambahan dan tweaking umum.



What are the different aspects, or subdimensions, of management interoperability?

Why is a management protocol needed between managers and agents, and why isnt
mere connectivity between them sufficient?
Why is it important for interoperability that a manager understand the functions
provided by an agent?
What does TMN stand for?
Would the layers of the TMN reference model apply to application management? Why
or why not?
Name three phases in a typical network management life cycle.
If an upgrade in a network is not carefully planned, service outages can occur. Name
three ways in which upgrade operations might impact network availability.