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Abstract

The aim of this experiment is find out whether different concentration of salt
solution will have effects on the percentage of weight changes in potato cubes. The
hypothesis of this experiment is the salt solution will affect the percentage of weight
changes in potato cubes. In this experiment, five 50ml beakers are prepared and were
filled with same volume but different concentration of salt solution. Potato cubes are
immersed into the solution for 20 minutes. The mass of potatoes in this experiment
depends on the concentration of salt solution. This is because the salt solutions are
either hypotonic or hypertonic and some are isotonic. The changes in mass only affect
the texture of the potato cubes either become soft or turgid and does not affect the
shape of potato cubes. The conclusion of this experiment is the concentration of salt
solution will affect the percentage of weight changes in potato cubes.
Aim
To investigate the effect of salt concentration on the percentage of weight changes in
potato cubes
Variables
Independent: Concentration of salt solution
Dependent: The percentage of weight changes in potato cubes
Fixed: Size of potato cubes, Volume of salt solution, Type of potato, Time taken for
the potato cubes to immerse
Hypothesis
The salt concentration will affect the percentage of weight changes in potato cubes.
Prediction
The higher the concentration of salt solution, the higher the percentage of weight
changes in potato cubes.
Significance of experiment
By doing this experiment, we can know that osmosis can is a very important process
occurs in human body. Our bodies' cells regulate absorption of water through osmosis.
Foods such as fruits, vegetables or meat can be preserved with salt, sugar or vinegar.

All this preservation processes are by osmosis. Osmosis process also occur in plants
to regulate the water content in the plants cell. If the plants lose water by osmosis,
plasmolysis will take place causes the plants to wilt.
Apparatus and Materials
Potato, knife, different concentration of salt solution, 50ml beaker, forceps, ruler,
electronic balance, cutting board, measuring cylinder, peeler, tissue
Method
1. Five 50ml beakers were prepared and labeled as A, B, C, D and E.
2. Beaker A, B, C, D and E were filled with same volume of 0% (distilled water),
0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% of salt solution that measured by measuring
cylinder respectively.
3. 5 potato cubes were cut 3cm3 by using a knife and each initial potato cubes
were weighed by using electronic balance and recorded.
4. The five potato cubes were then put inside to each beaker and immersed for
about 20 minutes time.
5. After 20 minutes, each potato cubes were removed from the beaker by using
forceps and dried using tissue paper.
6. The mass of the 5 potato cubes were weighed again and recorded as final
mass.
7. A set of fresh apparatus and materials were prepared and repeated from step 1
to step 6 to obtain the average result.
8. The results were tabulated.
9. The percentage of weight changes in potato cubes were calculated using the
formula below.
Final mass of potato cubeInitial mass of potato cube
100
Initial mass of potato cube

Results
Beak

Concentrati

Mass of potato cube (g)


Initial mass
Final mass

Differen

Percentage of

er

on of salt

ce in

weight changes

solution (%)

mass (g)

in potato cubes
(%)

Averag

Averag

0.0

2.3

1.6

e
2.01

2.5

1.8

e
2.15

0.14

6.97

0.5

5
1.9

7
2.2

2.10

0
2.0

0
2.2

2.19

0.09

4.29

1.0

8
2.2

1
2.5

2.40

8
2.2

9
2.6

2.43

0.03

1.25

2.0

2
2.1

8
1.8

2.03

5
2.1

1
1.8

1.97

-0.06

-2.96

3.0

6
2.1

9
2.0

2.13

1
2.0

3
1.9

2.00

-0.13

-6.10

A
B

Pattern of Observation
1. When the concentration of salt solution is 0%, which is distilled water, the
difference in mass is 0.14g and the percentage of weight changes is 6.97%.
2. When the concentration of salt solution is 0.5%, the difference in mass is
0.09g and the percentage of weight changes is 4.29%.
3. When the concentration of salt solution is 1.0%, the different in mass is 0.03g
and the percentage of weight changes is 1.25%.
4. When the concentration of salt solution is 2.0%, the different in mass is
-0.06g, which means the water from potato cubes diffuses out through osmosis
and the percentage of weight changes in potato cubes is -2.96%.
5. When the concentration of salt solution is 3.0%, the different in mass is -0.13g
and the percentage of weight changes in potato cubes is -6.10%.
6. The change in mass of potato cubes will only affect the texture of potato cubes
either to be turgid or soft instead of the shape of the potato cubes.

Discussion
When the concentration of salt solution is the lowest, which is 0%, the
difference in mass is the highest and the percentage of weight in potato cubes is also
the highest. This is due to the diffusion of water by osmosis into the potato cube. The
solution in beaker A is hypotonic which means it is less concentrated than potato
cube. Water diffuses into the potato cube by osmosis. This causes the mass of the
potato cube to increase. The same goes to the potato cube in beaker B because there
was increase in the mass of potato cube. For beaker C, the solution can say to be
isotonic because there was very little difference in mass of potato cube after
immersing into the solution. The rate of water diffuses in and out was almost the
same. Hence, the net movement of water is considered as 0. Next, the solutions in
beaker D and E are hypertonic which means it is more concentrated than the potato
cubes. Water diffuses out of the potato cubes by osmosis. This causes the mass of
potato cubes to decrease. Even though the masses of potato cubes have changes, the
shape of the potato cubes will be the same, its just the texture will either become soft
or turgid. For example, if the solution is hypotonic, the potato will be turgid. On the
opposite side, if the solution is hypotonic, the potato cube will become soft.
There are some random errors in the experiment. One of the random errors is
the size of the potato cubes. When one of the size of the potato cube is different, there
will be a huge difference in mass. Thus, the data will be not precise and causing the
graph to has scatter point. Next, the concentration of salt solution could be one of the
random errors. When one of the concentrations of salt solution is wrongly taken, the
rate of diffusion of water will be different. Other than that, the time of potato cube left
in the beaker is also the random error. The time the potato cube is left in the solution
must be kept the same for each potato cube. This is because more or less solution may
be absorbed depending on time. That is why the time for potato cubes immersed in the
beaker is the same, which is 20 minutes. There are ways to reduce the effect of
random errors such as increasing the sample size. For example, having 2 sets for each
concentration and obtain the average result will help in reducing the effect of random
errors.

One of the systematic errors that may occur is the type of potato used. This is
because different potatoes may absorb water at different rates. Thats why all the
potatoes used must be the same type. Next, the volume of salt solution used must also
be the same in each beaker. This is because different volume of water will be absorb
by potatoes. Hence, the data will be not accurate. Furthermore, the next systematic
error is the type of electronic balance used in measuring the masses of potato cubes.
Different electronic balance has different sensitivity. Hence, the masses of potato
cubes measured will be inaccurate. To minimize the occurrence of systematic errors,
experiment should be done again using fresh apparatus and materials to obtain
average result.
The strength of this experiment is the ability of a measuring cylinder to
measure accurately. Without measuring cylinder, the volume of salt solution cannot be
measured accurately. Other than that, the electronic balance is also one of the strength.
Electronic balance is very accurate in measuring the masses of potato cubes. The
weakness of this experiment is the time taken for the potato cubes are too short to
obtain an accurate result. The improvement that can be made is lengthen the time
taken for the potato cubes to immerse, for example: 30 minutes.
There are four members in our group. Each of our group members has our
own role in this experiment. Firstly, the leader distributed the works equally to each of
us to make sure that there is no one that did not contribute in the experiment. After we
have prepared the apparatus and materials, we started doing our own part and weve
recorded the result. Our group work is good because everyone did his or her own role
with responsibility.
Safety procedure is the most important thing in this experiment. All of the
students wore their lab coat before starting their experiment to ensure own self-safety.
Girls tied their hair before the experiment starts to prevent and accident to happen.
Conclusion
Hypothesis is accepted. The salt concentration will affect the percentage of weight
changes in potato cubes.

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