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LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESMENT FOR A SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT FOR FLACQ


REGIONS
10
1.0 Introduction

10

2.0 Legislative Framework...

10

2.1 The Environmental Protection Act 2002

11

2.2 The Town and Country Planning Act

11

2.3 Noise Prevention Act 1938

12

2.4 The Waste Water Management Authority Act of 2000

12

2.5 Public Health Act 2008

12

2.6 Employment Right Act 2008

12

2.7 Maritime Zone Act Of 2005

13

2.8 Legal Register

13

3.0 Description of the proposed project

14

3.1 Primary Design Criteria

14

3.2 Wastewater Characterization

14

3.3 Proposed Method of treatment

15

3.4 Design of Primary Settling tanks

16

3.4A Parameters

16

3.4.2 Design considerations

16

3.4.3 Calculations

17

3.5 Sludge Disposal

18

3.6 Alternatives for eluent disposal

20

4.0 Description of the existing environment

21

4.1 Overview of Bassin Requins

21

4.2 Climatic Conditions

4.3 Geological and hydrological conditions

21
22

v.-

4.4. Aquatic Communities (Fauna and Flora)


5.0 Identification of possible impacts
5.1 Construction Phase

23
24
25

5.1 A Anticipated Significant Impacts on Physical Environment

25

5.1.2 Anticipated significant impacts on Biological Environment

29

5.1.3 Anticipated Signiicant Impacts on Socio-Economic settings

30

5.2 Operation Phase

32

5.2.1 Anticipated Significant Impacts on Physical Environment

32

5.2.2 Anticipated Significant Impacts on Biological conditions

34

5.2.3 Anticipated Significant Impacts on Social-Economic conditions

36

6.0 Mitigation Measures


6.1 Construction Phase

39
39

(5.7.7 Mitigation measures on Physical Environment

39

6.1.2 Mitigation measures on Biological Environment

43

6A.3Mitigation measures on Socio-Economic Environment

43

6.2 Operation Phase

44

6.2.1 Physical Environment

44

6.2.2 Odour

45

6.2.3 Sludge Storage

46

6.2.2 Biological

46

6.2.3 Socio-Economic settings

52

7.0 Recommendations

54

8.0 Conclusion

55

9.0 References

56

ANNEX

57

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Summary of legislation and administrative ramework
Table 2: Summary of the climatology of the East of Mauritius
Table 3: Noise levels of equipment
Table 4: Workforce of WWTP
Table 5: Employees working at the WWTP
Table 6: Standard for particulate matter
Table 7: Standard for onsite substances discharge
Table 8: Noise exposure limits
Table 9: Pollutant Exposure limits
Table 10: Permissible limits for wastewater parameters

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: General map of the proposed waste water treatment plant at Bassin Requins
Figure 2: Layout of the proposed facilities
Figure 3: Air Quality Standards
Figure 4: Map showing the B62 road

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to show our gratitude and heartfelt thanks to our lecturer, Mrs. Rana, who guided
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throughout the completion of this report.


/
v

ABSTRACT
This report contains a detailed Environmental Impact Assessment for a wastewater
treatment plant based at Bassin Requins, situated in the East of Mauritius.
The areas that will be beneiting rom this service is the East region comprising of only the
major
villages.
The wastewater treatment will comprise of primary to tertiary method of treatment so the
treated efluent can be used for irrigation purposes for the golf courses around Belle Mare.
^'
INTRODUCTION
Water is a fundamental ingredient of life. Houses, commercial buildings, educational institutions,
industries and in the agricultural sector consume water and produce waste water.
Sanitary
sewage is of domestic origin and its quantity depends on the number of people living in an
area.
Storm water comes rom catchments particularly rom roofs and roads and directly depends
on
the intensity and duration of rainfall. Industrial wastewater is the effluent delivered
out

of

particular industries. Its quality depends upon nature of industry, raw materials
used;
manufacturing process .Wastewater is generally composed of water, pathogen, organic
and
inorganic materials, big debris, emulsions and dissolved minerals.
Wastewater is treated irst before it is disposed in rivers and seas. It is usually done in a
waste water treatment plant. The objective of a waste water treatment plant is to
reduce the concentration of specific pollutants to the level at which the discharge effluent
will not adversely affect the environment or pose health threat. In Mauritius, we have 19
treatment plants, the main one being at St Martin, Grand Baie, Baie Du Tombeau and
Montagne Jacquot.
Most oten, before the construction a treatment plant or any project, the promoters
require an environment impact assessment (EIA) permit. The EIA is an assessment of the
possible impacts that a proposed project may have on the environment, consisting of
environment, social and economic aspects. It ensures that decision makers whether or not to
proceed with the project. The EIA is reinforced by the Environment Protection Act 2002
which helps in the protection of the environment assets of Mauritius and Sustainable
development.

LITERATURE

REVIEW

Sewage treatment
Sewage treatment is a process where contaminant rom wastewater and household sewage is
removed by chemical and biological processes. Its objective is to produce an environmentally
safe effluent and solid waste (sludge) that is safe for disposal or reuse. Using advanced
technology it is now possible to treat wastewater back to drinking water standards.
Note: Singapore is the only country to re-use sewage efluent for drinking purposes
Process Overview
Sewage is collected and transported by a network of pipes to the treatment plant. Sewage
treatment is typically subject to federal regulations and standards.
Sewage treatment generally involves three main stages:
Primary treatment involves temporarily in a quiescent basin where large particle can
settle to the bottom and are removed
Secondary treatment include removal of dissolved and suspended biological matter using
indigenous micro-organism in a supervised environment
Tertiary treatment can be defined as anything beyond primary and secondary treatment
s
prior to disposal into a ragile and sensitive environment or or drinking purposes

Choosing Location for Treatment plant

*i

When a site for a waste water treatment plant is to be set up, it is preferable to choose a site
which is considerably away from residential areas. Even if most of the treatment plant
components are odor tight, in an aesthetical point of view these kinds of sites are chosen
Besides it is usually chosen at low-level grounds. With a treatment plant at low-level most of the
water is likely to low to the treatment plant by gravity. This means that less pumping will be
necessary making the project more economical.

7|

Moreover location of the site with respect to the eluent disposal must also be considered. There are
two main method of eluent disposal:
Land disposal
Disposal in sea or ivers
Satisfactory disposal of wastewater is dependent on its treatment prior to disposal

Forecasting population growth over the years


According to the Statistics Mauritius (under the aegis of the Ministry of Finance and Economic
Development) website, whenever a population growth need to be forecasted over the years, a
growth rate of 1.18% per annum shall be taken into account.
Px(l + r)n
Where, P is the current population
r is the growth rate
n is the number of year which needs to be
forecasted

^ /

Environmental impacts
Any development irrespective of the nature of the type of work, scale and scope will generate
impacts. They can be either direct or indirect impacts both qualitatively and quantitatively in
terms of the physical aspects of the environment, namely land use, soil and geology, lora, fauna,
air quality, water quality, noise, visual aesthetics and the landscape. The impacts could also be
positive or negative or a mixture of both depending on the nature and complexity of the project.
Apart rom the impact on the physical environment development will have a significant impact
related to the socio-economic aspects, which include the effects on employment and traic. An

assessment of the likely impact of the project on these environmental components has been
carried and elaborated in subsequent sections

Mitigations
Mitigation in legislative terms is the principle that a party who has suffered or caused any
adverse impact has to take reasonable actions to minimize the amount of the loss suffered. For
the development of a wastewater treatment plant, we shall take into account the concerns which
have been expressed rom the developments in recent years. Subsequently substantial
investments shall be expected in the mitigation of the general hostile impacts such as odour
mitigation, noise mitigation, reduction of landscape use, visual impact mitigation and traic
disruption. The adoption of a good management practices and speciic environmental control
measures will mitigate these impacts.

V.

ENVIRONMENTAL

IMPACT

ASSESMENT

FOR

SEWAGE

TREATMENT PLANT FOR FLACQ REGIONS

1.0 Introduction
The Republic of Mauritius intends to construct a new waste water treatment plant in the region of
Flacq, under the National Sewerage Master Plan. As part of this regime, the Government of
Mauritius is planning to modernize the system of treatment of waste water and provide the
inhabitants with the facility of sewerage for the major villages governing the district of Flacq.
In regard of this matter, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) will consider all the laws and
guidelines that can be applied for the construction of a new waste water treatment plant. EIAs
are important to consider prior to approval and design phase, so as to ensure that all the
conditions regarding the protection of the environment are met and that the construction of the
project will not cause any damage to the surroundings.
The proposed site is called Bassin Requins and is found near the coastal region of Poste de Flacq and
is a location whereby no activities are conducted except for pig-rearing. The fact this region has,
since many years, been used for pig rearing, no urban expansion and no tourism activities have
been developed.
Near the proposed site is found Belle Mare Golf club and Le Prince Maurice hotels, and Riviere
du Poste de Flacq river.

2.0 Legislative Framework


Legislation is a law which has been proclaimed by a governing body. Before an item of
legislation becomes a law it is known as a bill. Legislation can have many purposes; to regulate, to
approve, to forbid, to fund, to sanction, to grant, to declare or to restrict in order to promote
sustainable and economic development in the country. Our National environment legislation
consists of the legislations, standards, regulations, institutions and administrations adopted to
control activities damaging to the environment. This chapter describes the relevant legal tools of the
laws and regulations concerning the construction of a treatment plant.

10

2d The Environmental Protection Act 2002


Similarly in Mauritius an institutional and legislative policy for environmental protection has
been established primarily rom the National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) which has
been prepared by a joint Government/World Bank team in 1988. The Environmental Protection
Act of 2002 is one of the major products of the NEAP. The Environmental Protection Act of
2002 provides a legal ramework to the protection and management of the environment in the
country. As speciied in the Act a National Environmental Commission was founded to establish
national goals and objectives and enforce policies and priorities for the protection of the
environment.
The Commission must oeuvre in such a way so as to:Set national ambitions and objectives and establish policies and precedence for the
protection of the environment
To protect the environment and promote all its elements such as water, air and land in a
sustainable manner, as well as to monitor the measuring of these elements and their
components.
To prohibit the admission of harmful and hazardous substances, costing a way or
embedding them in the State's lands.
Assess progress by public departments viewing it in an environmental aspect.
Ensure synchronization and collaboration between public departments, local authorities,
and other government organizations engaged in environmental protection programmes. Issue
directions and recommendations to public department
Supervise and evaluate the activities of public departments involved in the protection and
management of the environment.
2.2 The Town and Country Planning Act
The Town and Country Planning Act ^yas established in order to set out a planning ramework
for new development. The Act allows development permits to be allocated for developments.
National Physical Development Plan was prepared in 1993/94 to provide a ramework for
meticulous local development planning and control. The Board is the sole authoity allowed to
grant permit for development of land. The Board has the authority to grant permit to conditions
as they may deem it or may simply refuse permission for development. Liable to the Minister's
111

approval, the Board can also appoint a planning committee that shall furnish the board with
information concerning the future planning needs and nature of development.
23 Noise Prevention Act 1938
Noise is one of our major environmental problems which is giving rise to lots of public
complaints, due mainly to juxtaposition of residential, religious, commercial and industrial
activities. The Act declares that noisy activities related to construction such as demolition of a
building, excavation or illing of land and use of heavy machines require prior authorisation from
the local authority if such activities are carried out before 7 am or ater 7 pm on any day.
2.4 The Waste Water Management Authority Act of 2000
The Waste Water Management Authority Act of 2000, explicitly, provides the ruling classes of
the Waste Water Management Authority (WMA) as an institution responsible of the wastewater
sector in Mauritius. These codes provide guidelines about the power of the authority over the
design and installation of the water system and septic tanks.
The Board is responsible for:
Carrying out, monitoring, supervising, maintaining,

managing, and controlling

wastewater work.
Promoting treatment and reuse of wastewater.
Handling researches and studies on the wastewater sector
Safeguarding resources to inance operations and maintenance
Monitoring pollutions due to wastewater treatment

x/

2.5 Public Health Act 2008


The Law stipulates: The Ministry of Health shall supervise the water of Sewage system and the
sewage system networks and the internal installations and the refinement stations in coordination
with other concerned Departments, and according to its own legislations, in order to ensure the
presence of health standards and conditions, so that no harm could reach the public health.
2.6 Employment Right Act 2008
The Employment Right Act was issued to regulate the relationship between the Employer and
the Employee. The Act afirms that any contract or any term in any contract between both parties
that contradicts the labour law is considered invalid. Employment contracts can be limited or
^
12

unlimited contracts, the law has specified the speciic conditions for each. According to
labour law, it is not allowed to employ any foreigner workers without prior consent rom
the Ministry of Labour. The work permit should not exceed one year and can be renewed
for extra years.
2.7 Maritime Zone Act Of 2005
The Maritime act was introduced in 2005 in order to make necessary controls in thecontiguous
zone to prevent and punish infringement of the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary
laws
within Mauritius, its archipelagic waters, internal waters and territorial sea. The Act also
states
that solely the Prime Minister has the right to make regulations to provide for the
authorization
for any construction, operation or the laying of pipelines or cables in the exclusive
economic
zone
2.8 Legal Register
A summary of legislation and administrative ramework applicable during both phases
(construction and operation) is shown in the Table below:
Legislation

Responsible Authority

The Environmental Protection Act 2002

Ministry Of Environment

The Town and Country Planning Act

Ministry Of Public Works And Housing

Noise Prevention Act 1938

Ministry Of Environment

The Waste Water Management Authority Act

Ministry Of Environment

of2000
Public Health Act 2008

Ministry Of Environment

Employment Right Act 2008

Ministry Of Labour

The Maritime Zone Act of 2005

Ministry of Fisheries

Table 1: Summary of legislation and administrative ramework


/

13

3.0 Description of the proposed project


3.1 Primary Design Criteria
The new wastewater treatment plant at Bassin Requins is to be designed for the inhabitants for
part of the Flacq regions (Centre de Flacq, Bon Accueil, Montagne Blanche, Camp Ithier,
Lallmatie, St Julien, Bonne Mere, Poste de Flacq, Bel Air, several hotels around Belle Mare), and
in view for the future population estimate for the next 20years. This will allow adequate time for
design and completion of the project.
According to the Statistics Mauritius (under the aegis of the Ministry of Finance and Economic
Development) website, Flacq district comprises of approximately 90,000 inhabitants and each
km of land is occupied by 614 inhabitants and projecting a growth rate of 1.18% for Flacq
region over a period of 20 years, it is thought that around 140,000 heads will beneit rom the
sewerage system, making provision for the growth rate.
Note: The area of land that will beneit of the project is taken about 150Km 2
Present industries in the area include hotel, food processing, ishing industry, stone crushing
plant. No industries (MIDA Industrial Site, DBM Industrial site or sugar factories require sewage
system. Thus, the domestic portion of the wastewater stream dominates the flow volume and the
wastewater characteristics can be considered representative of typical domestic sewage for this
region.
Storm water has been assumed that it will not signiicantly affect the treatment operations
because of the climatic conditions over the Flacq region (See Section 2.2). The per capita water
usage in the above mentioned Flacq regions has been estimated to be 200L per day (average
water usage value used by the Central Water Authority). A design low of 35000 cubic metre per
day has therefore been selected for Flacq district. This is based on 200 L per capita per day
consumption rate, and includes an allowance for both industrial flows and iniltration.
3.2 Wastewater Characterization
For design purposes, a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of 250 mg/L and total suspended
solids (TSS) of 300mg/L has been used, with a flow of 35,000 m3/day.
V

14

3.3 Proposed Method of treatment


Only one method of treatment of sewage was considered and that is the conventional method,
consisting of the preliminary treatment, primary, secondary treatment, which will be followed by the
tertiary treatment of the wastewater.
The individual processed include:
Preliminary Treatment - Removal of large solid materials delivered by sewers that could
obstruct flow through the plant or damage equipment.
Primary Treatment- Ater removal of the coarse materials, sewage passes to
sedimentation tanks, which aim to remove the settleable by gravity.

Secondary treatment- The secondary treatment process aims to reduce the BOD exerted by
reducing organic matter. This is mediated, primarily, by a mixed population of
heterotrophic bacteria that utilize the organic constituent for energy and growth.

Tertiary Treatment- Tertiary and/or advanced wastewater treatment is employed when


specific wastewater constituents which cannot be removed by secondary treatment must
be removed. This will be done so as the wastewater could be used as water for irrigation
purposes, for the nearby golf courses at Belle Mare.

A large number of biological unit operations are available to achieve the aerobic oxidation of
BOD. All operations can be classified on the basis of their microbial population, into either ixed ilm
or dispersed growth processes. Fixed ilm reactors have bioilms attached to a ixed surface where
organic compounds are adsorbed into the bio ilm and aerobically degraded. In suspended (e.g.
activated sludge) growth reactors the microorganisms mix reely with the wastewater and are kept in
suspension by mechanical agitation or mixing by air diffusers.

15 1 ? g e

3 A Design of Primary Settling tanks


3.4.1 Parameters
Discharge Q = 35,000m3/day
BOD=250mg/L
TSS= 300mg/L
3.4.2 Design considerations
1. Overlow rate or surface loading rate is 15 to 35 nrVm /d for average low and 40 to 50
m /m /d for peak flow. Overflow rate must be checked both at average flows and peak
flows.
2. Detention time: The rate of removal of BOD and SS is maximum during the irst 2 to2Vi
hours of settling and thereater decreases appreciably. Longer detention time beyond 4
hours may affect the tank performance adversely due to setting in of septic conditions,
particularly in tropical climates. Experience has shown that a detention period of 2 to 2lA
hours for primary settling tanks and VA to 2 hours for secondary settling tanks will
produce the optimum results.
3. Weir loading: Weir loading influences the removal of solids in sedimentation tank,
particularly in secondary settling tanks where flocculated solids are settled. For all
primary and secondary settling tanks, in all cases except in the case of secondary tanks
for activated sludge process, weir loading not greater than 100 m3/d/m for average low is
recommended. For secondary settling tank in activated sludge or its modiications, the
weir loading shall not exceed 150 nrVd/m.
4. Performance: Primary sedimentation of domestic sewage may be expected to
accomplish 30 to 45% removal of BOD and 45 to 60% removal of suspended solids.

16

3.4.3 Calculations
Discharge of sewage Q = 35,000 m3/day
Q 3S000
Plan area of tank A = =
= 700 in2
Assuming L = AB
L x B = 4B2 = 700
B = 13.2 = 14m
But B must not be greater than 6m (scrapping becomes dificult otherwise)
Therefore, 5 PST must be provided.
700
4B2=
B = V35 = 5.92 = 6
Therefore L = 4 x 6 = 24

Assuming a depth of 4m,


,N V
24
Detention time (t) = =3 x 24 x 6 x 5 x = 1.87 hours
Q
3500
(<3 hours OK)

Length of Weir
Weir Loadinq rate =
a

-of Weir
Length J

Q
35000
L-r=^ = -ioF = 3SOm
350
^ weir for each tank = = 70 m

17 I i

3.5 Sludge Disposal


Based on the system used for wastewater treatment, biological sludge will be generated. This
sludge will be thickened and stabilized so as to be disposed of safely and to avoid any health
hazards.
Sludge will be removed every two years by mechanical means rom a sludge drying lagoon, to be
then sold to agricultural firms.

18

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tFigure 2: Layout of the proposed facilities
J-BA

Major industrial and commercial activities are located to the east and west of the proposed
treatment plant. The major tourism activities are located at Belle Mare and a few others at Poste
La Fayette. The nearest hotels are Le Prince Maurice and Le Touressrok; each ofthem having
their own waste water treatment plant and discharging the treated effluent into the nearby seas or
used as water for irrigation purposes.

\*S s

3.6 Alternatives for efluent disposal


Two methods of effluent disposal were considered:
Land disposal
Discharge in the Bras de Mer Requins
Discharge into Riviere du Poste river
Due to lack of available land and nearby hotels, land disposal was rejected and the most
convenient one remains discharge into the Bras de Mer Requins because the seaside is neither
considered as a bathing area nor is considered to have endemic fauna or flora and is not a
preserved lagoon or a marine park in the East.

20

4.0 Description of the existing environment


4.1 Overview of Bassin Requins
Bassin Requins is found on the coast of the East of Mauritius near the East Coast of Mauritius,
and is one among the various places around the island that is used for pig farming. This area is not
occupied by any inhabitants and is an undeveloped plot. The nearest Road Development
Authority "owned" road is the B62 road, which means there is no oicial access to this area. The
discharge area is found at about 2Km away rom Bassin Requins, with a decreasing slope (See
Annex for contour map).
This makes Bassin Requins a suitable site for a wastewater treatment plant, that is away rom
any houses and since it is a remote place, there is no cultural or religious heritage nearby. As for
the design of the pipeline carrying wastewater, a gravity main can easily be used for the sea
outfall.
The discharge area, Bras de Mer Requins, the nearest discharge area rom the proposed site, is
not used for any recreational purposes, except rom leisure fishing by the local inhabitants.
Therefore, there is no health hazard when the treated wastewater will be discharged into the seas.

4.2 Climatic Conditions


The country has two seasons; a warm humid summer extending from November to April and a
relatively cool dry winter from June to September.
Mean summer temperature is 24.7C and mean winter temperature is 20.4 C.
Long term mean annual rainfall (1971 -2000) over the Island is 2010 mm. The wettest months are
February and March. The driest month is October.
The climatology of the district of Flacq is as summarized in the following table.

Month

Mean maximum

Mean wind speed

Average rainfall

Temperature (C)

(Ka/h)

(mm)

January

28.8

8.0

261.3

February

28.7

9.1

334.1

March

28.6

9.6

231.2

21

- -n r- ^

April

27.6

9.1

240.0

May

26.2

9.3

167.7

June

24.6

10.8

104.0

July

23.7

12.3

102.5

August

23.8

11.7

104.9

September

24.3

11.2

70.1

October

25.4

11.0

62.2

November

27.1

10.1

82.0

December

28.2

9.1

201.8

Table 2: Summary of the climatology of the East of Mauritius


(Source: Mauritius Meteorological Services website, http://metservice.Intnet.mu.climatcscrvices/climatc-or-mauritius.nliD). V-
4.3 Geological and hydrological conditions
Volcanic deposits which formed Mauritius, through three basaltic lava flows, greater than 3.5
million years ago, greater than

500,000 years ago and greater than

100,000 years ago,

respectively, dominate the geology of Mauritius. The soil of Bassin Requins mostly belongs to the
Lowland Latosolic Reddish Brown Prairie soils.
The surface drainage pattern of Mauritius has been classiied into major drainage areas with
permanently lowing rivers and minor drainage areas, which lie between the major ones.
The Riviere Francoise North and Riviere du Poste East are fed principally rom groundwater
originating in the Nouvelle Decouverte area. Riviere du Poste, in addition to its natural low,
receives water rom Riviere Francoise (North) via Constance Canal as well as rom G.R.S.E via
Sans Souci canal.
To the east of Riviere du Poste is the minor drainage area, which is similar to the Plaine des
Roches minor catchment.
The next drainage area, Riviere Seche East is also fed rom groundwater originating in Nouvelle
Decouverte and Quartier Militaire, lowing underground between Fayence and Montagne
Blanche, to appear at Clemencia as Riviere Seche.
22

j--

r\

4.4. Aquatic Communities (Fauna and Flora)


A satellite view of the efluent discharge area (Bras de Mer Requins) indicates that the coral reef
is a barrier one which is found away rom the mainland and which is separated by a deep channel or
lagoon.
The Bras de Mer Requins is dominated by species such as mammals, reptiles, bony fishes,
cartilaginous ishes, molluscs, echinoderms, corals, mangroves, seagrass, chlorophyceae, and
phaeophyceae.
However, according to a report of the State of the Environment in Mauritius clearly indicates the
deterioration of the coastal and marine environment; the fouling of seas due to industrial
effluents, sedimentation, erosion of shores, decrease in ish production among others.
Bras de Mer Requins is one among several seaside in Mauritius, where there has been massive
deterioration of the coastal and marine environment. No activities, except rom ishing can be
noticed in that area.
As for the environment near Bassin Requins, no fauna or lora or any endemic species of animals
or plants have been identiied.

23 j ri r-: -'>
~i -

5.0 Identification of possible impacts


Any development irrespective of the nature of the type of work, scale and scope will generate
impacts. They can be either direct or indirect impacts both qualitatively and quantitatively in
terms of the physical aspects of the environment, namely land use, soil and geology, lora, fauna,
air quality, water quality, noise, visual aesthetics and the landscape. The impacts could also be
positive or negative or a mixture of both depending on the nature and complexity of the project.
Apart rom the impact on the physical environment development will have a significant impact
related to the socio-economic aspects, which include the effects on employment and trafic. An
assessment of the likely impact of the project on these environmental components has been
carried and elaborated in subsequent sections.
During the construction phase, the following environmental and social aspects were identified as
signiicant:

1) Impacts on Physical Environment


Air Quality
Noise
Land
Visual

2) Impacts on Biological Environment


Fauna
Flora
Pest nuisance

3) Impacts on Socio-Economic settings


Cultural resources
Employment
Traffic and transportation

24 I F a 2 e

During the operation phase, the following environmental and social aspects were identified as
signiicant:
1) Impacts on Physical Environment
Air Quality
Noise
Water
quality
Land Use and Landscape

&

quantity

2) Impacts on Biological Environment


Pest nuisance
Marine life
3) Impacts on Socio-Economic settings
Employment
Trafic and transportation

5.1 Construction Phase


5.1.1 Anticipated Significant Impacts on Physical Environment
5. L L1 Noise
Noise is traditionally deined as unwanted sound that interferes with normal activities in a way that
reduces the quality of the environment.
Increases in noise associated with construction activities will temporarily impact local residents
of Poste de Flacq in the project area. There are no hospitals, schools or other public facilities
within the project area that would be adversely affected by construction noise.
The impact rom noise generated during the construction phase on the surrounding
properties/land uses located along the line of the sewers is likely to be significant at different
times throughout the construction period. The project work would be far rom residential and

25 | P a g a

During the operation phase, the following environmental and social aspects were identified as
signiicant:
1) Impacts on Physical Environment
Air Quality
Noise
Water
quality
Land Use and Landscape

&

quantity

2) Impacts on Biological Environment


Pest nuisance
Marine life
3) Impacts on Socio-Economic settings
Employment
Trafic and transportation

5.1 Construction Phase


5.1.1 Anticipated Significant Impacts on Physical Environment
5. L L1 Noise
Noise is traditionally deined as unwanted sound that interferes with normal activities in a way that
reduces the quality of the environment.
Increases in noise associated with construction activities will temporarily impact local residents
of Poste de Flacq in the project area. There are no hospitals, schools or other public facilities
within the project area that would be adversely affected by construction noise.
The impact rom noise generated during the construction phase on the surrounding
properties/land uses located along the line of the sewers is likely to be significant at different
times throughout the construction period. The project work would be far rom residential and

25 | P a g a

commercial establishments. Therefore, the noise sensitive receptors to the site are the
houses, commercial premises along roads, schools, and a hospital.
Common construction activities will include truck traffic, heavy machinery
movement

and

hauling of construction materials. Rock is known to be present in many parts of the


project

area

and rock excavation and use of pneumatic rock breaking equipment will also generate
severe
noise impact.
These higher noise levels may have significant and negative health impacts on staff
working within the construction site.
The

following table gives

an idea of the

noise

levels

generated by typical

construction equipment.
Equipment

Average Noise Level (dB)

Bulldozers

80

Backhoe

82

Bobcat

75

Crane

76

Dump Truck

88

Jack Hammer

90
Table 3: Noise levels of equipment

Given that the nearest receptors are at least1 km away rom the construction site, the noise
pressure levels are within acceptable levels during day and night. The overall noise level will be
higher during the day time compared with the night
time.
Mitigation measures
accordingly.

will

have

to

be

\1

wV. '- --' -<'


:* \ ': 7~ r.J _\
^

i
applied - V/ ^ I.. M-

5.1.1.2 Air Quality


Air quality in a given location is described by the concentration of various pollutants
in

the

atmosphere. A region's air quality is inluenced by many factors including the type and
amount
of pollutants

emitted

into

the

atmosphere

and

the

prevailing

meteorological

conditions.

r\

During the construction phase, the harmful agent affecting air quality will mainly be dust and
vehicular emissions arising rom construction activities.
Construction activities at the different sites will inevitably generate dust, particularly during
excavation, and earth moving operations. Vehicle movements along the roads will also generate
dust, which is likely to have a slight temporary effect on neighboring properties.

Also some of the construction equipment and vehicles may result in emission of gases like:
Sulphur dioxide [SO2 ]
Nitrogen oxides [NOx]
Carbon monoxide [ CO ]
The general guidelines for air quality standards for Mauritius and as recommended by the
World Health Organisation (WHO) are listed in the table below.
POLLUTANT
MAURITIUS
PM10
150 ug m3 50 ug m3
S02
1 000 ug m3 200
HgJm3 50 ug m3
N02

200 uc'ui

CO

40 000 uam,"1

OO
70 Mg ni3
350 u;g/m3 125
ugm3 50 M8-P13
400pgm3 150
Mgm3
30 000 ng m3

Averaging Time
1-h 24-h Annual
1-h 3-h 24-h Annual
i -h 24-h
1-h

Figure 3: Air Quality Standards


5.1.1.3 Land

Solid Waste

Pre-construction activities such as site clearance will cause the generation of some forms of solid
waste.
During the construction phase, solid wastes would include concrete waste, glass, scrap metals,
some wooden strips, as well as domestic waste like remnants of foods, plastics, paper and

27 n r\-

r
aluminum cans. These waste if not properly disposed would not only cause eyesore and attract
rodents but would also pose as health and safety hazards.
Thus, it is important that ater construction, the site is free rom any form of waste that could
cause land pollution.
The pre-construction and construction phase will not generate hazardous wastes that have toxic,
reactive and corrosive characteristics.

Domestic waste

The proposed construction site will accommodate a temporary site oice, equipped with toilet
facilities.
Wrongful disposal of the domestic wastewater will result in land degradation and emission of
offensive odors. This will in turn prevent a healthy atmosphere rom prevailing on the
construction site.
Appropriate mitigation measures will have to be implemented.

5.1.1.4 Visual
Landscape and visual impacts associated with the construction and operation phases of the
project are important to assess the land use, regarding the Waste Water Treatment Plant.
The proposed site is bordered on the residential side by mature trees, which will not be disturbed by
construction activities.
It is anticipated that the WWTP will be visible to travelers on the B62 Road. The mature trees
that are present provide a natural buffer. Where possible, additional trees will be planted at the
outskirts of the site to provide additional buffer between the newly planted trees will serve as a
carbon sink.

iS

28 I ? 3 s e

Additional electrical cables in the vicinity of the proposed Treatment Plant are expected
following the completion of construction.
There will be no post-construction impacts on the surrounding community since disturbed areas will
be restored to their original condition.
Short-term, minor, adverse impacts to local visual aesthetics are expected due to construction
equipment and excavation work.

5.1.2 Anticipated significant impacts on Biological Environment


Biological resources include native or naturalized plants, animals and their habitats in which they
live. Protected biological resources include plant and animal species. Special concern species are not
afforded the same level of protection, but their presence may be taken into consideration by local
authorities involved in reviewing projects and permit applications.

5.1.2.1 Flora
Bassin Requin's lora consists mainly of grasses and herbaceous vegetation. Rows of eucalyptus and
Pine trees also form part of the vegetative decor. Therefore, there would be limited impacts on
terrestrial

ecology

as

the

habitat

lost

is

not

of

nature

conservation

value.

Site clearing activities for the implementation of the project would necessitate the felling of these
trees and the removal of invasive exotic shrubs.
Proposed sewer pipe work extends through forested area and would have minimal impact on
vegetation.
The removal of mature trees will have a short term impacts on the surrounding landscape.
5.1.2.2 Fauna
The construction site consists of no endangered species. Certain species, particularly bird
species, could lee to nearby habitat during the construction phase of projects when their habitat
will be disrupted. However, given the temporary nature of construction-related impacts to
29 ^

::

'< *.:

wildlife and the likely separations in implementation timerames, there is little potential for
cumulative impact to resident wildlife rom construction activities associated with the proposed
action.
Therefore, there would be no significant impacts to wildlife rom the construction phase.
5.1.2.3 Pest nuisance
Construction activities will not have any impact on pest nuisance as the inluence comes rom
operation activities.

5.1.3 Anticipated Significant Impacts on Socio-Economic settings


5.1.3.1 Employment
The project is expected to generate employment opportunities in a number of ways.
Duringconstruction phase, that will last around 20 months, two types of employment
opportunities could be distinguished, direct and indirect:
Direct employment as workforce and associated engineering, supervision and other.
Indirect employment as services to be supplied to the workforce

Direct employment
The table below gives a general breakdown of the workforce that will be employed by the
contractor during the construction of the wastewater treatment plant at Bassin Requins.

30 | PC

Category

Number

Manual workers

40

Semi-skilled (Truck Drivers)

12

Skilled (Engineers & Technicians)

15

Table 4: Workforce of WWTP


Indirect employment
Indirect employment could be generated by services to be provided to the labour force. As it is
expected that workers will be rom the neighboring areas, the only one service to be provided
could be catering services.

5.1.3.2 Traic and Transportation


The construction stage of the development will cause some increase in traic movements in the
vicinity of the site but these are not expected to cause any significant impact.

There will be a temporary intensification of traic going in and out of Bassin Requins because of
the transport of workers, construction materials and equipment. Workers will access the site
either by private cars or by buses, construction materials and equipment will be transported by
trucks.
Therefore, impacts on external and internal (inside the plant boundaries) current traic during
construction phase , that will last 20 months, have to be identified and mitigation measures will
have to be implemented to minimize negative impacts.
5.1.3.3 Cultural Heritage
There is currently no recorded evidence or visible evidence for archaeological remains on the
site. It is possible that objects of ancestral value may be found during excavations. If any
31 3 :: ..j f

archaeological resources are discovered at the various work locations, work must be stopped
immediately in the area of discovery and the concerned authority alerted.

5.2 Operation Phase

5.2.1 Anticipated Signiicant Impacts on Physical Environment


5.2.1.1 Noise
While some of the additional noise sources will be located relatively close to residential
properties, the proposed noise control measures will significantly attenuate the intensity of any
noise emissions.
The building enclosure will ensure that no individual noise source gives rise to a noise level in
excess of 30 dB at the perimeter of the site.
No significant noise impacts will, therefore, be caused by the proposed plant during the operation
phase.
5.2.1.2 Odour
It is most probable to have odour emissions rom the wastewater treatment plant. Formation of
hydrogen sulphide, a foul smell gas is likely to occur during the early stage of processing. The
operation phase will have no significant adverse impact on the air quality as an odour control
\
system will be set up.
Although sewers can be the source of odours, particularly rom hydrogen sulphide, the gradients of
the sewers to be laid in this project are good and therefore the retention times within the
system will be low and generation of odourous gases negligible.
As such, proper odour mitigation measures will be adopted to abate this nuisance. Further details on
such measures will be detailed in the mitigation steps.

32

r C:
-. - ,- '., ^,
^

5.2.1.3 Water Quantity & Quality


The new treatment plant will have a 140,000 person-equivalent capacity. The Treatment Plant
will make provisions for tertiary treatment. Therefore, water will be made available for irrigation
purposes as well.
During operation, the following positive impacts are expected:

Increasing population wastewater treatment needs will be met.


Possible overflows of untreated water to the receiving watercourse will be avoided.
The number of households having the possibility to be connected to the sewage system
will increase. Hence, a high number of the already active cesspools will be
decommissioned and associated nuisances such as groundwater pollution, insects, will
decrease.
The number of illegal dumping by cesspit emptying trucks will diminish.
Volume of high quality irrigation water made available for farmers

All in all, the expected impacts will eventually protect public health, maintain good living
conditions for lora and fauna in the affected areas, decrease pollution of water resources
(surface and ground) and support the already existing agricultural activities. Awareness
campaigns on the proper handling and usage of treated water in agriculture should be conducted for
the farmers in the area.
Thus, all impacts are expected to be significantly positive, both directly and indirectly in the
short and long terms.

33 D p C-O

5.2.1.4 Land Use and Landscape

During the operational phase, there will not be any expected negative or positive impacts on land use
and landscape, as no new land usage or change in landscape will be done. Expansion of the WWTP
is not forecasted before the year 2035.

5.2.2 Anticipated Significant Impacts on Biological conditions


5.2.2.1 Pest Nuisance
Mauritius being a tropical country represents, unfortunately, a paradise for mosquitoes.
Torrential rainfall during the summer is now becoming a regular event. This will eventually
cause widespread accumulation of water.

Local population of Poste de Flacq have reported large populations of insects

(flies and

mosquitoes) around Bassin Requins and believed their presence was mainly due to the stagnant
water ponds present there.
The Pig Farm in the vicinity also has a telling effect on the mosquito breed.
The possible sources of lies in the vicinity, as they represent a source of organic food for them,
are:
Agricultural

activities

(resh

manure)

Livestock animals (pigs)


Household dumping
Poor household sanitation (open evacuation channels, cesspits in bad conditions, absence of
wastewater network and treatment
Sludge storage around the WWTP
During the running of the wastewater treatment plant, the problem of pest nuisance will have to be
kept to a minimum, if not eradicated. The impacts of such a high insect population are:
34 | p ? g e

Physical nuisances as per flies lying around.


Financial cost of pesticides applied by local population and businesses.
Possible pollution of surface water and soil by pesticides.
Health issues associated to the diseases where lies and mosquitoes may act as vectors
(Chikungunya & Dengue)
5.2.2.2Marine Life
Increased wastewater lows will raise pollutant loadings to marine waters rom the new treatment
plants. These increased loadings, in turn, would mainly result in localized impacts near the
outfalls. The extent of adverse impact on the marine environment will depend on outfall
discharge volumes and location. Biological resources can be affected either through physical
changes in their environment (sediment size, water temperature, and levels of dissolved oxygen),
or through chemical toxicity associated with contaminants in the water column and sediments.
Some contaminants, including metals and toxic organics, can be conveyed through wastewater
discharges.
Design and operation of the system's treatment plants and outfalls would comply with local
water and sediment quality standards. This would minimize impacts on the biological resources of
the marine environment.
Cleaner water would contribute to productivity of food sources such as crustaceans,
invertebrates, and aquatic plants. Chronic pollutant loadings to fish habitat, the potential
exposure oish to contaminants, ingestion of or entanglement in loatable material, and the
likelihood of exposure to dissolved oxygen "sags" would all be reduced.

Potential adverse operational impacts include accidental spills of diluted or undiluted sewage or
other waste materials into water bodies if a pipeline leaked, particularly in cases where pipelines
cross streams or pass through water bodies.

35 I F a t e

Such accidental spills are rare and temporary and can be corrected quickly. These spills typically do
not result in specific adverse impacts to biological resources because they are rare and the
receiving water body further dilutes the waste.
5.2.3 Anticipated Signiicant Impacts on Social-Economic condiions
5.2.3.1 Employment
The new treatment plant will create a large number of job opportunities. These will cater for all
skills, ranging rom cleaners to plant operators. The recruitment process will be in line with the
Equal Opportunities Act (2008). Therefore, no part of the recruitment will be subject to
discrimination and every eligible candidate applying for a position will have a fair opportunity.
The following table shows an overview of the overall expected personnel operating the treatment
plant.

Category

Number

Manual (Cleaners)

10

Semi-skilled (Drivers, plant operators,

24

scrapers)
Skilled (Engineers & Technicians)
Table 5: Employees working at the WWTP

12
^

5.2.3.2 Traic and Transpotation


Traic and transportation to and rom Bassin Requins Treatment Plant will get back to normal
situation in operation phase. Therefore no negative impacts are expected, along the B62 road.

36 t- o a

I- *'< *

'^

' '-J**i*J*-.*
A

Figure 4: Map showing the B62 road

5.2.3.3 Public Utilities


The construction of the Morcellement project will automatically require connection to the
national water, electricity and telecommunication networks. Each of the main additional
requirements rom the utilities is listed hereunder.

Potable Water

The potable water demand for the proposed development has been estimated to be approximately
30m3/day.
The National Development Strategy (NDS) recommends the need for judicious use of water
resources on the island while the National Physical Development Policy sets out clearly defined
guidelines for eicient use of water resources:
Policy No U.l: Reduction of losses in water supply systems
Policy No U.3: Water Source Development
Policy No U.5: Augmentation of Service Reservoir Storage Capacity

37

Policy No U.6: Rehabilitation and Strengthening of Water Distribution Networks

Electricity

The electrical power demand for the proposed development is of significant value. The Central
Electricity Board (CEB) has been informed of the power needs and necessary contributions will be
paid by the promoter.

38 | P a 2 e

6.0 Mitigation Measures


Mitigation in legislative terms is the principle that a party who has suffered or caused any
minimize
the development of a wastewater treatment plant, we shall take into account the concerns which
have been expressed rom the developments in recent years. Subsequently substantial
investments shall be expected in the mitigation of the general hostile impacts such as odour
mitigation, noise mitigation, reduction of landscape use, visual impact mitigation and traic
disruption. The adoption of a good management practices and specific environmental control
measures will mitigate these impacts.
6.1 Construction Phase
6.1.1 Mitigation measures on Physical Environment
6.1.1.1 Noise
The loudest noise emission will be around 90 dB. Noise abatement measures will be required to
reduce impact of noise during the pre-construction and construction phases of the project.
Persistent noise propagation might play on the nerves of the immediate inhabitants and constitute a
serious nuisance. This could also give rise to public outcry if not well controlled.
The measures are outlined as follows:
To control noise generated by construction equipment, construction activities will be
limited to normal work hours.
Construction machinery will be equipped with attenuation devices (muflers) to minimize
noise.
Workers should not be exposed to noise exceeding 85 dB an 8-hour working day.
All workers working in heavy duty vehicles and those undertaking drilling activities
should wear hearing protectors.
Sound barriers will be erected around the construction site
The site manager will be responsible for ensuring these measures are being met adequately.
These will be monitored on a daily basis.

39 | ? ? g a

6.1.1 Air quality


The air quality will be most affected during the construction phase with the emission of dust
particles rom machinery like excavators, electric grinders and equipment. For the construction
phase, air quality will be mostly affected rom heavy plant, logistic of workers and equipment.
The impact receptors are likely to include site worker. The substance, which will most
significantly contribute to air pollution, will be particulate matter (PMio).Paniculate matter
(PMio) may cause health hazards when inhaled in significant amounts and can also reduce the
visibility. Most of those dust particles will come rom basaltic dust particles.
The Government authorities of Mauritius have published the maximum tolerable emission of
particulate matter for industrial plant. These regulations are cited in the Environment Protection
(Standards for Air) Regulations 1998.

Pollutant

Applicable to

Standard

Particulate Matter (PMio)

Any trade, industry or process

200 mg/m3

Table 6: Standard for particulate matter


Although the site is of large scale, the level of pollution is very unlikely to be above the normal
tolerable level and hence does not require tar reaching mitigating measures to be applied.
Dust suppression measures implemented will include:
Limit construction activities during extremely windy or dry conditions
Cover dust producing materials being transported to and rom the area
Wet down or chemically treat exposed earth during construction
Washing facilities maintained
Roads
Vehicle

kept

clear
speeds

of

mud

controlled

Working areas kept damp


Service vehicles regularly maintained

40 ' - a- -

Mitigation techniques to control excessive vehicular emissions are:

Conserving energy by reducing idle times when equipment is not in use


Operate

equipment

eficiently

to

decrease

fuel

consumption

Use of newer or more energy efficient equipment


Perorm routine operation and maintenance services on construction equipment
Use of clean fuel in combustion-type engines
Implement a traffic management plan to minimize any delays.
6.1.1 Land
Solid waste
Debris recovered rom site clearing and excavation activities will have to be collected,
stored and carted away properly.
The site should not be a breeding ground for mosquitoes, dogs and rodents during the
construction phase.
All solid wastes should be properly stored and disposed of so that the site is ree rom
physical hazards objects.
An adequate solid waste management system should be put in place to prevent any form
of land degradation.
No open yard burning would be allowed.
Moreover, no organic waste would be dumped onto adjacent lands.

Domestic waste
During the construction phase, the main source of efluent will occur when staff and workers will
be present on site. The amount of sewage generated will obviously depend on the number of staff
present on site. However it is expected that the rate of generation will be at a maximum of 10
m7day.

41 | P a g e

In order to account for the above, the selected contractor will be required to provide an adequate
mobile toilet facility for the duration of works on the proposed site for development. The above
effluents cannot be disposed of in the environment since their bacterial concentrations exceed the
threshold set by the authorities.
The Wastewater Management

Authority has published

standards

regarding

various

concentrations for substances to be discharged.


Parameter

Standards

COD

120

TKN

25

NH4 Nitrogen

Nitrate

10

Total Phosphate

10

Total Suspended Solids

45

pH

5-9

Table 7: Standard for onsite substances discharge t


V

-\
\V
V
\ > t-

X: ^
V
The following shall be implemented to mitigate domestic waste during the construction phase
Implementation of an onsite disposal facilities, namely a septic tank.

After construction, the toilet facilities will be decommissioned and the resulting sludge
will be pumped at carted away in accordance to the requirements of the local authorities.
The toilet facilities should be kept in a clean and sanitary condition at all times.
Domestic wash water will be channeled to a temporary soakaway pit.
These short-term measures will prevent the occurrence of land degradation and eliminate
emissions of ofensive odours rom the generation of domestic liquid waste.

42 -> '-\

6.1.2 Mitigaion measures on Biological Environment


6.1.2.1 Flora
New trees will be planted in landscaped portions of the premises to replace those
removed.

Plans would incorporate existing trees into the project design to the maximum extent
possible
During construction, the contractor will be required to minimize the impact of the
excavation and backfill activities. Disturbed areas will be graded and vegetated with noninvasive native species as quickly as possible following construction to restore the natural
setting.
6.1.2.2 Fauna
The impact upon existing animals will be minimal, as they will relocate to the nearest available
habitats, which will be present near to the WWTP itself.
The noise and air quality abatement measures mentioned above will mitigate any negative
impact.
6.1.3Mitigation measures on Socio-Economic Environment
6.1.3.1 Employment
For the construction of the WWTP facilities, it is currently planned bring the number of
construction staf to around 100 people, mainly technicians and operators.
Since the overall efect is positive, no mitigation measures are required.

6.1.3.2 Trafic and Transportation


The following measures will be implemented to mitigate any risk of accident during construction
phase:

43 I F a - c

Appropriate sign posts set up well before the region of Bassin Requins to indicate
construction and the crossing of heavy trucks ahead.
Presence of policeman to regulate traffic during peak hours.

6.2 Operation Phase


6.2.1 Physical Environment
6.2.1.1 Noise
Noise is considered to be a nuisance when the following conditions are all met:
1. The combined expected maximum noise level exceeds 68dB
2. The relevant noise is at least LOdB above the prevailing noise level
3. The contribution to the increase in noise level of the new or altered development is at
least 1 .OdB
According to the Environment Protection (Environmental Standards for Noise) Regulations
1997, the permissible noise exposure limits for industrial noise are:
Time range

Noise level (dB)

07.00-21.00

60

21.00-07.00

55
Table 8: Noise exposure limits

The presence of vegetation and green spaces surrounding the proposed site is likely to reduce the
noise experienced.
Buffer zones between the site and closest residential areas will be provided to reduce noise
propagation.
Therefore, no significant noise impacts will be caused by the proposed plant.

44 | P a s e

6.2.2 Odour
During the processing of wastewater hazardous and smelling gases are released into the air,
mainly Hydrogen Sulphide and methane.
In our Mauritian context, The Standard for Air (1998), listed in the Environment
Protect Act (2002) stipulates the following limits for the above-mentioned pollutant.

Pollutant
Hydrogen sulphide

Applicable to

Standard

Any trade, industry or process 5 ppm as hydrogen sulphide


gas
Table 9: Pollutant Exposure limits

At Bassin Requins Treatment Plant, an odour control system will be set up to mitigate any
effect of foul air.
The objective of the odour control system is to eliminate the gases contained in the
polluted air prior to discharge in the environment. The odour control system consists
of a polluted air collection system driven by a number of fans at critical process units,
e.g. pre-treatment unit, pimary settling tank, sludge mixing tank and sludge collection
tanks. The air will guided to the odour treatment unit, where the odorous pollutants
contained in the air are neutralized: a desulphurization odour control followed by
biological odour control.
The eficiency of the odour control system is constantly monitored by a network of gas
sensors,
mainly for Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) and Methane (CH4). The sensors will be placed in
buildings
with high probability of occurrence of gas concentration exceeding the limits to warn the
people
inside the building. The occurrence of gas concentrations will activate an alarm
inside

the

building (siren) and an alarm at the process control centre in the administration building.
Life-saving measures will be initiated if needed and the alarm will be followed by a
number

of

controlled procedures identifying the cause of high gas concentration and


rectifying
deiciency.

the

45

6.2.3 Sludge Storage


Sludge produced by the Treatment Plant will be stored for a period not exceeding two years.
The potential impacts related to sludge storage and disposal/reuse can be minimized or prevented
through the setting up of sludge management plan by the responsible parties working at Bassin
Requins treatment Plant. They will have the following as main responsibilities:
A Sludge Management Plan will help establish appropriate environmental, health, and
safety procedures for the construction, operation, and closure of sludge facilities.
The Sludge Management Plan will be updated annually to reflect, among other things,
current operating conditions, sludge characteristics and the inal disposal or reuse strategy

The Sludge Management Plan will allow for adaptive management of environmental
compliance and improved performance throughout all stages of sludge production,
treatment, drying, storage, and disposal or reuse.

It should address impacts and risks of concern such as ire, odour, insects, groundwater
seepage, and any additional impacts or risks that may be identiied in the future.

The Sludge Management Plan will clearly identify the party responsible or
implementing, monitoring and reporting on the operating and maintenance procedures. It
will establish
6.2.2 Biological

622.1 Efluent discharge & Marine Life


Environmental regulations in Mauritius have placed strict control over the discharge of efluent
into the aquatic environment.
The Effluent into Oceans regulations, stipulated under the Environment Protection Act 2002
states that the following standards are permissible limits or range for the corresponding
parameters:
46 | Pa z e

Parameter

Unit

Temperature

T5

Permissible Limits

pH

40
5-9

Floatables

mm

Biochemical Oxygen

mg/1

250

mg/1

750

Suspended Solids

mg/1

300

Cadmium

MS/1

20

Chromium (VI)

Mg/1

100

Chromiura Total

Mg/1

500

Cyanides (as CN-)

Mi/1

100

Lead

mg/1

Nickel

mg/1

Zinc

mg/1

Total Mercury

Mg/1

10

Arsenic

Jig/1

200

Total pesticides

mg/1

Oil & Grease

mg/1

20

Demand (BOD5)
Chemical Oxygen Demand
(COD)

Table 10: Permissible limits for wastewater parameters


'" \
V
\
--" .v
N
To ensure the above limits are being respected over time, a Wastewater and Marine Water
Quality Monitoring team will be set up. They will consist of qualiied personnel with
prior expertise in this area.
The objectives of wastewater and marine water quality monitoring are:

Minimize the impact of the proposed project on the environment.

47

a e c

Ensure that mitigation associated with all phases, construction and operation, of the
proposed project meets or exceeds the water quality standards outlined within the
associated permit.

Ensure that unmitigated impacts of the proposed project do not adversely influence
wastewater and/or marine waters beyond an acceptable level.

Ensure compliance with the following laws and regulations:


- Standards for eluent discharge into the ocean Regulations 2003
The monitoring team should provide the following information regarding the wastewater
generated by all phases of the proposed project:

All processes that are expected to generate wastewater that will be discharged into a
sewerage system or marine waters and that will be treated for reuse should be described.

When relevant, storm water should be identified as a source of wastewater. This


description should include whether the storm water is discharged into a sewerage system or
directly into marine waters.
Any dredging or reclamation activities that may impact marine waters should be detailed.

The water balance of the proposed project should be described. A water balance identifies all
successive water uses (e.g., sanitary, boiler, cooling, on-site water treatment) and
associated flow direction and flow rates

The structures discharging wastewater into the marine waters and/or sewerage system
should be described. The structure associated with each wastewater outlet should be
identified with the outlet identifier. For discharge of wastewater into marine waters,

48 | P a 9_ e

information on the pipe dimensions, the material(s), and the distance of discharge rom the
shoreline should also be provided.

Any pre-treatment or treatment that wastewater, including storm water, will undergo
prior to discharge or reuse should be described. Details regarding the treatment systems
and processes, as well as the biological, chemical, and physical properties that will be
altered by the treatments should be provided.
If treated wastewater will be reused, identification and description of the fate or final use of
the treated wastewater should be detailed.
The main parameters that will inluence the quality of the effluent are:

The probable pollutants in wastewater, including storm water, discharged into a sewerage
system and/or marine waters or wastewater treated prior to reuse should be described.
The probable pollutants created with dredging and reclamation activity should be
described. This information should provide a detailed account of the locations and
probable amounts of materials that will be dredged and reclaimed.

The pollutants that will be monitored in wastewater discharged into sewerage or marine
systems, marine water (monitored at sampling locations in the marine waters receiving
wastewater and dredged.

The sample collection and handling procedures that will be implemented for wastewater and
marine water quality monitoring should be described.
Sample collection should be conducted in a manner that is representative of the discharge or
monitoring location and depth. In addition, the samples should be handled in a manner that is
standardized and ensures the highest level of analysis precision and accuracy.

49 | F age

6.2.2.2 Pest
The temporary storage of sludge around the Treatment Plant represents a source of breeding for
flies and mosquitoes.
Mosquitoes can act as vectors for many disease-causing viruses and parasites.

Infected

mosquitoes carry these organisms rom person to person, without exhibiting symptoms
themselves.
General maintenance principles:
With the exception of certain treatment control measures designed to hold permanent
water, treatment measures should drain completely within five days to effectively
suppress vector production.

Any circumstances that restrict the low of water rom a system as designed should be
corrected. Debris or silt build-up obstructing an outell structure should be removed.

Under drains and iltration media should be inspected periodically and cleaned out or
replaced as needed.
Conduct maintenance activities regularly, in accordance with a municipality-approved
maintenance plan.

There are a number of wet ponds around Bassin Requins Treatment Plant. The following
measures should be put in place for pest control:
Long-term site maintenance as well as routine monitoring and management of
mosquitoes by a qualified agency

50 | P c=1 e e

Long-term management of mosquitoes in wet ponds and wetlands should integrate


biological control, vegetation management and other physical practices, and chemical
control as appropriate.
Provide for regular inspection of sites for detection of developing mosquito populations.

Perform routine maintenance to reduce emergent plant densities. Emergent vegetation


provides mosquito larvae with refuge rom predators, protection rom surface
disturbances, and increased nutrient availability while interfering with monitoring and
control efforts.

Vegetation management maintenance principles:


Conduct annual vegetative management, such as removing weeds and restricting growth of
aquatic vegetation to the periphery of wet ponds.

Remove grass cuttings, trash and other debris, especially at outlet structures.

Avoid producing ruts when mowing (water may pool in ruts).

51 | P s g e

6.2.3 Socio-Economic settings


6.2.3.1 Traffic
Access the new WWTP will be provided by the construction of a new access road. There will no
impact upon the existing flow of traffic. The following shall be implemented to facilitate trafic
flow and minimize the risk of accidents:
Installation of traffic lights at junction of access road with the B62 main road
Addition of traffic sign posts indicating any hazards.
Appropriate road markings

6.2.3.1 Increased public utility: Water


The proposed mitigating measures to reduce wastage on water resources include the following:
Encourage harvest of rain water

Ensure no leakage occurs in the potable water distribution network within the Treatment
Plant.
Setting up of a monitoring system to ensure water losses are kept to a minimum.

Storm water will be channeled towards landscaped areas to make eficient use of
rainwater.

6.2.3.1 Increased public utility: Electricity


The proposed mitigating measures to reduce wastage on electrical resources include the
following:
Encourage use of solar based power
Encourage workers to minimise electrical power waste

52 | P s gr\

Setting up of an underground electrical network to minimize risks of electrical power


losses and cuts during tropical storms

Minimize effects of magnetic ields within the internal electrical network of the
Treatment Plant o'reduce electrical power losses.

6.2.3.2 Employment
Employees recruited by the WWTP must be done a fair and non-discriminatory basis. The
following mediators present will ensure this:
Open advertisement in local newspapers
Employment agencies may be contacted to facilitate recruitment. This will also help to
decrease the unemployment rate in the country.
The Equal Opportunity Act will be enforced to ensure no discrimination on basis of race,
colour and sex.
Employees Rights Tribunal, in the case of unfair treatment on the place of work.
A

53 | P aP 9.

7*0 Recommendations
The Project can further be improved by implementation of the following
The Treatment Plant can be upgraded to make provision for the production of drinking
water.
Over time, provision for a larger demand of treated wastewater will be required. Land is
available on the suburbs of the WWTP. Thus, the treatment plant can undergo expansion to
meet future demands of the population.
A better system can be set up for the disposal of sludge. An underground disposal facility
can be constructed. This will eradicate the problem of pest on control on the sludge
disposal site.
Medical follow ups can be carried out on a regular basis on the employees of the WWTP.
These will be under the aegis of the Ministry of Health.
V

54 I P ?

8.0 Conclusion
In the light of the present discussion, we have observed that wastewater treatment is an
increasingly impotant aspect in the society. And among the multiple steps in building a
wastewater treatment plant, writing an Environmental Impact assessment(EIA) is a very
significant phase of it. Furthermore when writing an EIA we must consider the various acts and
regulations, that is relevant to the development we intend to undertake. Moreover a brief
description of the proposed project and identification of the impacts on the environtment is key
to the EIA. On this note, we can conclude that the purpose of an EIA is the process of
identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other pertinent
effects of development prior to major permission being granted for development and the EIA
report assist in ensuring that the authority is considering the appropriate impacts when deciding
whether to proceed or not with a project.

55 | P ag e

9.0 References
ALTEO Ltd. (Dec 2013). Closure of Beau Champs Sugar Milling Operations and
Centralisation at Union Flacq. Available:
http://environment.gov.mu/English/eia/Documents/Reports/res_UEL/eia/annex.pdf

Last

accessed 1st April 2014.


Constance Belle Mare Plage. (April 2012). Constance Belle Mare Plage-Installation of
Seawater Desalination Plant Available:
http://environment.gov.mu/English/eia/Documents/Reports/rev_osm_constance/execsum.
pdf. Last accessed 1st April 2014.
Dr Mitrasen Bhikajee. (2002). The Marine Biodiversity of Mauritius .Available:
http://www.oceandocs.Org/bitstream/1834/333/l/MB188205.pdf. Last accessed 30th
March 2014.
Kaselor Ltd. (19th September 2011). Geotechnical Survey. Available:
http^/environment.gov.mu/English^eia/Docunients/Repots/res^EL/eia/annex.pdf.

Last

accessed 1st April 2014.


MOI. (2011). Annual Report 2011. Available: http://moi.gov.mu/publications.htra Last
accessed 1st April 2014.
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