You are on page 1of 303

TAJUK: CELL STRUCTURE AND CELL ORGANISATION

SUBTAJUK: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION


1

Which of the following organelles are involved in protein synthesis?


Manakah antara organel-organel berikut terlibat dalam sintesis protein?
I
Nucleus
Nukleus
II
Ribosomes
Ribosom
III
Golgi apparatus
Jasad Golgi
IV
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Jalinan endoplasma kasar
A
B
C
D

I and II only
I, III and IV only
II, III and IV only
I, II, III and IV

Which of the following statements is not true about animal cells?


Yang manakah antara pernyataan berikut adalah tidak benar tentang sel haiwan?
A The cell membrane controls the entrance of specific dissolved substance only
Membran sel mengawal kemasukan bahan larut yang tertentu sahaja
B The ribosome is the site of protein synthesis
Ribosom adalah tapak sintesis protein
C The chloroplast absorbs light energy to be used in photosynthesis
Kloroplas menyerap cahaya matahari untuk digunakan ketika fotosintesis
D The mitochondrion generates energy
Mitokondria menghasilkan tenaga

Which of the following is the correct statement of a plant cell?


Antara berikut yang manakah benar mengenai sel tumbuhan?

A
B
C
D

Cell wall
Absent
Absent
Present
Present

Chloroplast
Absent
Present
Present
Absent

Centriole
Present
Present
Absent
Absent

Which organelle can be found in animal cell and plant cell?


Apakah organel yang boleh didapati di dalam sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan?
A Golgi apparatus
Jasad Golgi
B Centriole
Sentriol
C Vacuole
Vakuol
D Cell wall
Dinding sel

Diagram 11 shows that cell A and cell B are different in shapes.


Rajah 11 menunjukkan sel A dan sel B mempunyai bentuk yang berbeza.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

Cell A

Cell B
Diagram 11/ Rajah 11

Cell A has a fixed shape because


Sel A mempunyai bentuk yang tetap kerana
A it has many vacuoles
Ia mempunyai banyak vakuol
B it has bigger nucleus
Ia memiliki nukleus yang lebih besar
C it has a cell wall but not a plasma membrane
Ia mempunyai dinding sel tetapi tidak mempunyai membran plasma
D it has both a cell wall and a plasma membrane
Ia mempunyai kedua-dua dinding sel dan membran plasma

What is the similarity between animal cell and plant cell?


Apakah persamaan di antara sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan?
A They can undergo photosynthesis
Mereka menjalankan fotosintesis
B They have sac filled with cell sap
Mereka mempunyai karung yang dipenuhi oleh sap sel
C They have a jelly-like substance that fills the cell
Mereka mempunyai bahan seperti gel yang memenuhi sel
D They have thick layer of tough substance known as cellulose
Mereka mempunyai lapisan tebal suatu bahan tegar yang dipanggil selulos.

In which of the following is mitochondrion most abundantly found?


Manakah antara yang berikut mempunyai kepadatan mitokondria yang paling
tinggi?
A
An ovum
C
A nerve cell
Ovum
sel saraf
B
A sperm cell
D
A monocyte
Sperma
Monosit

Golgi apparatus is found in abundance in


Jasad Golgi didapati dengan banyak di dalam
I
liver cells / sel hati
II
pancreatic cells/sel pankreas
III
interstitial cells in the testes/sel interstis di dalam testis
IV
goblet cells in the intestinal epithelium/ sel goblet di dalam epithelium usus
A
B
C
D

I and III only


II and IV only
I, II and III only
II, III and IV only

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

Which organ consists of cells which have the highest density of rough endoplasmic
reticulum?
Organ manakah mengandungi sel-sel yang mempunyai kepadatan reticulum
endoplasma kasar yang tinggi?
A stomach
B heart
perut
jantung
C brain
D kidney
otak
buah pinggang

10

Diagram 12 shows different types of cells.


Rajah 12 menunjukkan sel yang berlainan jenis.

Z
X
W

Diagram 12/ Rajah 12


Which of the following cells has high density of mitochondria?
Sel yang manakah mempunyai kepadatan mitokondrion yang tinggi?
A W
B X
C Y
D Z

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

1. Diagram 3 shows a plant cell as seen under an electron microscope.


Rajah 3 menunjukkan satu sel tumbuhan yang dilihat dibawah mikroskop electron.

Diagram 1 / Rajah 1
(a) (i) On Diagram 1, label the structures P, Q, R and S.
Pada rajah 1, labelkan struktur P, Q, R dan S.

[4 marks]

(ii) State the function of structure :


Nyatakan fungsi struktur :
P :

Q :

R :

S :

[4 marks]
(b) Explain why the sperm cell contain more mitochondria.
Terangkan mengapa sel sperma mempunyai lebih mitokondria.
.
.
[2 marks]
(c) Explain how lysosomes help in eliminating damaged organelles in the cells.
Terangkan bagaimana lisosom membantu dalam penyingkiran ogranel-organel yang
rosak dalam sel.

....
[2 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

2. Diagram 8 shows the organelles involved during the synthesis and secretion of an
enzyme in an animal cell.
Rajah 8 menunjukkan organel yang terlibat semasa sintesis dan perembesan enzim
dalam sel haiwan.

Diagram 8 / Rajah 8
(a) Name the organelles labeled P and R.
Namakan orgenel P dan R.
P :
R :

[2 marks]

(b) (i) State the function of organelle S.


Nyatakan fungsi orgenel S.

[1 mark]
(ii)

Explain the role of organelle Q in the synthesis of the enzyme.


Terangkan peranan orgenel Q dalam sintesis enzim.

[2 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

1. Diagram below shows an animal cell.


Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu sel haiwan.

Diagram/Rajah

(a) Based on the given model, identify the cell components labelled P, Q, R and S.
Berdasarkan pada model yang diberi, kenal pasti komponen sel berlabel P, Q, R, dan S.
[4 marks/markah]
(b) (i) On Diagram above, label a cell component which has the following properties.
Pada Rajah di atas, labelkan komponen sel yang mempunyai ciri-ciri berikut.
It is a rod-shaped organelle with two membranes.
Organel berbentuk rod dengan dua membran.
Its size ranges from 1 to 10 m.
Saiznya berukuran di antara 1 hingga 10 m.
[1 mark/markah]
(ii) What is the function of the cell component labelled in (b)i?
Apakah fungsi komponen sel yang dilabel di (b)i?
[1 mark/markah]
(iii) It is found that a human male sex cell has a larger number of the organelle labelled in
(b)i. than a human somatic cell. Give an explanation for this.
Didapati bahawa sel seks jantan manusia mempunyai bilangan organel yang berlabel
di (b)i. yang banyak berbanding sel soma manusia. Berikan penerangan tentang hal
ini.
[2 marks/markah]
(c) Based on your answer in (a),

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

Berdasarkan pada jawapan kamu di (a),


(i) suggest the function of the part labelled S.
cadangkan fungsi struktur berlabel S.
[1 mark/markah]
(ii) name the component in S that helps to conduct the function which you have
suggested in (c)i.
nyatakan komponen dalam S yang membantu untuk menjalankan fungsi yang kamu
cadangkan di (b)i.
[1 mark/markah]

(d) Name the process whereby unspecialised cells become specialised for particular
functions.
Namakan proses dimana sel yang tidak spesifik menjadi spesifik bagi fungsi yang
tertentu.
[1 mark/markah]
(e) Give an example of the process which you have named in (d).
Berikan satu contoh proses yang kamu namakan di (d).
[1 mark/markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

TAJUK :CELL STRUCTURE AND CELL ORGANISATION


SUBTAJUK: CELL ORGANISATION AND APPRECIATING THE UNIQUENESS OF THE
CELL
1. Diagram 1 shows a type of tissue
Rajah 1 menunjukkan sejenis tisu

Diagram 1

Which of the following human body system includes the tissue shown?
Manakah antara sistem berikut yang melibatkan tisu di atas?
A Skeletal system
Sistem rangka
B Nervous system
Sistem saraf
C Endocrine system
Sistem endokrin
D Circulatory system
Sistem peredaran darah

2. Which of the following is a muscle tissue?


Yang manakah antara berikut merupakan tisu otot?
A

3. Which of the following system are wrongly matched to their respective functions?
Yang manakah antara sistem berikut tidak dipadankan dengan fungsi yang betul?
I

Digestive system : regulates body temperature


Sistem pencernaan : mengawal suhu badan

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

II

Skeletal system : protects internal organ


Sistem rangka : melindungi organ dalaman
III Excretory system : removes waste products from the body
Sistem perkumuhan : menyingkirkan bahan kumuh daripada badan
IV Muscular system : provides support for the body
Sistem otot : member sokongan kepada badan
A
B
C
D

I and III
I and IV
II and III
II and IV

4. Which organ is not involved in regulating the internal environment?


Manakah antara organ berikut yang tidak terlibat dalam pengawalaturan persekitaran
dalaman?
A

5. Where in a living organism can the intracellular fluid can be found?


Di manakah bendalir interstis boleh ditemui di dalam badan manusia?
A In the space between cells
Di ruang antara sel
B In the space between the organs
Di ruang antara organ
C Inside the organs
Di dalam organ
D Inside the bones
Di dalam tulang

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

1. Diagram
.
shows the different levels of cell organisation in human from cell to organ.
Rajah menunjukkan aras yang berbeza dalam organisasi sel bagi manusia daripada
sel ke organ.

Diagram/Rajah
(a) (i) Name P, Q and R.
Namakan P, Q dan R.
P:
_______________________________________________________________
Q:
_______________________________________________________________
R:
_______________________________________________________________
[3 marks]
(ii) State one function of the red blood cell.
Nyatakan satu fungsi sel darah merah.
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

10

_______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(b) Explain the function of Q in regulating the blood glucose level.
Terangkan fungsi Q dalam mengawal atur aras glukosa darah.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(c) Diagram shows the movement of a bolus of food in oesophagus.
Rajah menunjukkan pergerakan bolus makanan dalam esofagus.

Diagram
Rajah
Explain how the bolus of food moves down from the oesophagus to the stomach.
Terangkan bagaimana bolus makanan bergerak turun dari esofagus ke perut.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[3 marks]
[3 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

11

2. The photograph in Diagram below shows a type of human epithelial tissue, as seen by
using an electron microscope. The tissue shown in Diagram below has a goblet cell which
contains a large number of Golgi apparatus.
Gambar foto dalam Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sejenis tisu epitelium manusia yang
diperhatikan dengan menggunakan mikroskop elektron. Tisu yang ditunjukkan pada
Rajah di bawah mempunyai satu sel goblet yang mengandungi banyak jasad Golgi.

Diagram/Rajah

(a) Based on the information given, explain the meaning of the term tissue.
Berdasarkan maklumat yang diberikan, terangkan maksud istilah tisu.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
[2 marks/2 markah]

(b) The goblet cell is supplied with radioactive amino acids to produce proteins.
Sel goblet itu telah dibekalkan dengan asid amino yang beradioaktif untuk
menghasilkan protein.
(i) Name the organelles of the cell that are involved in protein synthesis.
Namakan organel sel yang terlibat dalam sintesis protein.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/1 markah]

(ii) In the space below, draw a diagram of the Golgi apparatus. Draw an arrow in your
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

12

diagram to show the direction of movement of the protein molecules as they move
through the Golgi apparatus.
Dalam ruangan di bawah, lukis rajah jasad Golgi. Lukis anak panah pada lukisan
anda untuk menunjukkan arah pergerakan molekul protein ketika bergerak
merentasi jasad Golgi.

[3 marks/3 markah]

(iii) Describe the events that take place as the protein molecules reach the Golgi
apparatus.
Jelaskan apakah yang berlaku ketika molekul protein tiba di jasad Golgi.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[3 marks/3 markah]

(iv) In an investigation, it was found that the quantity of radioactivity in the protein that
entered the Golgi apparatus was less than that supplied to the cell.
Suggest two reasons for this difference.
Dalam satu penyiasatan, didapati kuantiti radioaktif di dalam protein yang
memasuki jasad Golgi adalah kurang daripada yang telah dibekalkan kepada sel.
Cadangkan dua sebab bagi perbezaan ini.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[2 marks/2 markah]

Apart from goblet cells, suggest one more example of cells that also have a high
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

13

(c) density of Golgi apparatus.


Selain daripada sel goblet, cadangkan satu contoh sel lain yang juga mempunyai
kepadatan jasad Golgi yang tinggi.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/1 markah]

3. Diagram 1 shows a cross section of organ X in the human body.


Rajah menunjukkan keratan rentas organ X dalam badan manusia.

Organ X
(a) (i) Name organ X.
Namakan organ X

[1 mark]
(ii) Table 1 shows the function of several organs in the human body.
Jadual 1 menunjukkan fungsi beberapa organ dalam badan manusia.
Transporting oxygen / Mengangkut oksigen
Regulating body temperature / Mengawalatur suhu badan
Eliminating urea / Menyingkirkan urea
Converting excess glucose to glycogen
Menukarkan glukosa berlebihan kepada glikogen.
As a protective layer / Sebagai lapisan pelindung.
Table 1 / Jadual 1
Tick () the three correct functions of organ X, in the boxes provided in Table 1.
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

14

Tandakan ( )bagi tiga fungsi organ X yang betul, dalam petak-petak yang \
disediakan dalam jadual 1.
[3 marks]
(b) Erector muscle is a tissue. State reasons why X is classified as an organ and erector
muscle is classified as a tissue.
Otot regang adalah tisu. Nyatakan sebab mengapa X dikelaskan sebagai organ dan otot
regang sebagai tisu.

X : ..
Erector muscle / otot regang :

[2 marks]
(c) The following information shows some of the organ systems found in the human body.
Maklumat berikut menunjukkan beberapa sistem organ yang terdapat dalam badan
manusia
Tick () the two systems which contain below.
Tandakan () bagi dua sistem yang mengandungi organ X, dalam petak-petak yang
disediakan dibawah.
Blood circulatory system
Respiratory system
Integumentary system
Excretory system

(d) Human body temperature is maintained at 37 oC. Explain the role of the erector muscle,
hair follicle and sweat gland in maintaining the body temperature on a hot day.
Suhu badan manusia dikekalkan pada 37 oC. Terangkan peranan otot regang, bulu roma
dan kelenjar peluh dalam mengekalkan suhu badan pada hari yang panas.
Erector Muscle / Otot regang :

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

15

Hair follicle / Bulu roma :

Sweat gland / Kelenjar peluh :

SOALAN ESEI:
1.

(a) (i) Large organisms have many specialised cells.


Explain, using examples, the need of larger organisms for specialised cells.
Organisma besar mempunyai banyak sel khusus.
Terangkan dengan menggunakan contoh-contoh, keperluan organisma besar
mempunyai sel-sel khusus.
[8 marks/8 markah]
(ii) Diagram below shows a mammalian red blood cell.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu sel darah merah mamalia.

Diagram /Rajah

Explain how the red blood cell is specialised to carry out its function.
Terangkan bagaimana sel darah merah dikhususkan untuk menjalankan
fungsinya.
[4 marks/4 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

16

(b) Diagram below shows four types of plant cell, labelled P, Q, R and S.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan empat jenis sel tumbuhan yang berlabel P, Q, R, dan
S.

Diagram/Rajah

Describe how these plant cells are specialised for their respective functions.
Huraikan bagaimana sel-sel tumbuhan tersebut dikhususkan untuk fungsi masingmasing.
[8 marks/8 markah]

2.
Multicellular organisms like humans, need specific transport systems
as compared to unicellular organisms like Amoeba sp., which do not
need a transport system.
Give an evaluation of an above statement based on the physical features of the
organisms with the following physiological processes:

Respiration

Nutrition

Excretion
[10 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

17

TAJUK :

Movement of substances across plasma membrane

SUBTAJUK:

Movement of substances across in plasma membrane.

SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1.

Which of the following process will take place when the root hair cells are deprived of
oxygen ?
A
Diffusion
B
Diffusion and osmosis
C
Active transport
D
Active transport and osmosis

2.

In an experiment conducted on the content of cell sap in the vacuoles of a seaweed


species, it was found that the calcium ion concentration of the vacuole was 337 mg
dm-3, while the calcium ion concentration in sea water was 12 mg dm-3. What is the
process that contributes to the change in calcium ion concentration in the cell sap of
seaweed vacuole ?
A
Osmosis
B
Diffusion
C
Plasmolysis
D
Active transport

3.

What are the factors which will increase the diffusion rate of simple diffusion in a
medium ?
I High pH of the medium
II Low concentration gradient
III High temperature of the medium
IV Small molecular size of the substance
A
I and II
B
III and IV
C
I, III and IV
D
I, II, III and IV

4.

The following information shows the mechanism of transport in Paramecium sp..


Paramecium sp. Carries out respiration by exchange of gases with the
surrounding environment through its cell membrane.
A
B
C
D

5.

Osmosis
Active transport
Simple diffusion
Facilitated diffusion

Why a small polar molecule cannot diffuse freely through the plasma membrane ?
A
Polar molecule is hydrophilic to the membrane
B
Polar molecule can form linkage with the membrane
C
There is hydrophilic region in the middle of the membrane
D
There is hydrophobic region in the middle of the membrane

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

18

6.

Which of the following phenomena cannot be classified as facilitated diffusion ?


I Water uptake by plant roots
II Evaporation of water from leaf cells through stomata
III Absorption of glucose through the villi in small intestine
IV Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange between the alveoli and blood capillaries
A
I and II
B
III and IV
C
I, II and IV
D
I, II, III and IV

7.

Which of the following substances is able to diffuse through the phospholipids bilayer
by simple diffusion ?
A
Sucrose
B
Glucose
C
Vitamin K
D
Potassium ion

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1.

Diagram 1 shows the structure of the plasma membrane.

Diagram 1
a) On Diagram 1, label the following parts of the plasma membrane.
(i) Carrier protein
(ii) Phospholipid bilayer
(iii) Pore protein

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

[3 mark]

19

b) Name two types of proteins that are involved in the transportation of substances
through the plasma membrane.
1. __________________________________________________________________
2.__________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
c) State two characteristics of the phospholipids bilayer.
1. _________________________________________________________________
2._________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
d) Give two factors that affect the permeability of the plasma membrane.
1. _________________________________________________________________
2.__________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
e) Name one substance that is transported across the plasma membrane into the cell
by
(i) Facilitated diffusion
___________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(ii) active transport
___________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
f) Explain the term semi-permeable membrane.
___________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

20

SOALAN ESEI:
1. The following information is about plasma membrane.
The plasma membrane is semi permeable and
allows certain substances to move across.
(a) Based on the above statement, describe and explain the movement of the following
substances across the plasma membrane.
(i)
oxygen and carbon dioxide
(ii)
Water
(iii)
Vitamin K
(iv)
K+ and Na+
(v)
Glucose
[15 marks]
(b) Describe how an amino acid molecule is transported across the plasma membrane
into the cell.
[5 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

21

TAJUK :

Movement of substances across plasma membrane

SUBTAJUK:

Movement of substances across in plasma membrane in everyday life.

SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1.

Honey can be used to preserve certain food from microorganisms. What is the
principle behind this ?
Madu boleh digunakan untuk mengawet beberapa makanan daripada
mikroorganisma. Apakah prinsip disebalik ini?
A
Honey is isotonic to the cell sap of the microorganism
Madu adalah isotonik terhadap sap sel mikroorganisma
B
The water will move from the surroundings into the microorganism
Air akan bergerak dari persekitaran ke dalam mikroorganisma
C
Honey is hypotonic to the intracellular matrix of the microorganism
Madu adalah hipotonik kepada matrik dalaman sel mikroorganisma
D
Honey is hypertonic to the intracellular matrix of the microorganism
Madu adalah hypertonik terhadap matrik dalaman sel mikroorganisma

2.

How does the marine fish control the water content in its body
Bagaimanakah ikan air laut mengawal kandungan air dalam badannya?
I By drinking plenty of water
Dengan cara meminum banyak air
II By producing plenty of urine
Dengan menghasilkan banyak urin
III By producing concentrated urine
Dengan menghasilkan urin yang pekat
IV By eliminating excess salts through the gills
Dengan mengumuhkan kandungan gara berlebihan melalui insang
A
B
C
D

3.

I and IV
I, II and III
I, II and IV
I, II, III and IV

Fresh water amoeba does not experience plasmolysis because


Amoeba air tawar tidak mngalami plasmolisis kerana
A
Amoeba has a cell wall that is waterproof
Amoeba mempunyai dinding sel yang kalis air
B
The cell membrane of amoeba pumps out water actively
Sel membran amoeba mengepam keluar air secara aktif
C
The contractile vacuole in amoeba functions as an osmoregulatory organelle
Vakuol mengecut dalam Amoeba berfungsi sebagai organel pengawal
osmosis
D
The osmotic pressure within the cell is the same as the osmotic pressure
outside the cell
Tekanan osmosis dalam sel adalah sama dengan tekanan osmosis di luar sel

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

22

4.

A slices of potato were cut and the respective lengths measured. One slice of potato
was immersed in distilled water while the rest of the slices in sugar solutions of
varying concentration. After an hour the length of each of the slices was measured
again. The results are shown in Table 2. Which of the solution labeled A, B, C and D
is distilled water ?
Beberapa kepingan kentang telah dipotong dan diukur panjangnya. Satu keping
kentang direndam dalam air suling, seentara yang lain direndam dalam larutan gula
yang berbeza kepekatan. Selepas satu jam , panjang setiap kepingan diukur semula.
Keputusannya ditunjukkan dalam Jadual 2. Larutan berlabel A, B, C, D yang manakah
adalah air suling?

Solution
Larutan
A
B
C
D

Length of the potato slices


before the experiment (mm)
Panjang setiap kepingan
kentang sebelum eksperimen
(mm)
75
80
82
85
Table 2

Length of the potato slices at the end


of the experiment (mm)
Panjang kepingan kentang di akhir
eksperimen (mm)
75
85
80
87

5.

Which of the following is the reason for the biconcave structure (shape) of the red
blood cell ?
Manakah antara berikut adalah sebab bagi sel darah merah berbentuk dwi cekung?
A
To reduce the rate of diffusion
Mengurangkan kadar penyerapan
B
To prevent plasmolysis from occuring
Mengelakkan plasmolisis berlaku
C
To maximize the total surface area per volume
Memaksimakan jumlah luas permukaan per isipadu
D
To maximize the volume per total surface area
Memaksimakan isipadu per jumlah luas permukaan

6.

Table 3 shows the concentration of sodium in a type of algae compared with the
concentration of sodium in marine water of the algal habitat
Jadual 3 menunjukkan kepekatan natrium dalam satu jenis alga berbanding dengan
kepekatan natrium dalam air laut habitatnya.

Ion
Ion
Na+

Concentration of
cell sap of alga
(mg/dm3)
Kepekatan sap sel
alga (mg/dm3)
200
Table 3
Jadual 3

Concentration of sea
water (mg/dm3)
Kepekatan air laut
(mg/dm3)
500

Which of the following process maintains the concentration of the cell sap of the
algae mentioned
Manakah antara proses berikut mengekalkan kepekatan sap sel alga tersebut
A
Osmosis
Osmosis
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

23

B
C
D

Diffusion
Penyerapan
Plasmolysis
Plasmolisis
Active transport
Pengangkutan aktif

7.

The continuous and controlled flow substances across the plasma membrane is
important to
Pengaliran bahan secara berterusan dan terkawal merentsi membran plasma adalah
penting untuk
A
Store toxic substances in the cell
Menyimpan bahan toksik dalam sel
B
Prevent water molecule from entering the cell
Mengelakkan molekul air dari memasuki sel
C
Maintain a suitable pH and ionic concentration inside the cell
Mengekalkan pH dan kepekatan ion yang sesuai dalam sel
D
Prevent the digestive enzymes, hormones and antibodies from secreted
outside the cell
Mengelakkan enzim pencernaan, hormon dan antobodi dari dirembes keluar
dari sel

8.

Diagram 1 shows one way of preserving vegetable.


Rajah 1 menunjukkan satu cara untuk mengawet sayur-sayuran.

Diagram 1 / Rajah 1
Which of the following explain why the vegetable can last longer?
Antara berikut, yang manakah menerangkan mengapa sayur itu boleh bertahan
lama?
A.
B.
C.
D.

The low pH is not conductive for bacterial growth


pH rendah tidak sesuai bagi pertumbuhan bakteria
The vinager causes the vegetable to turn alkaline
Cuka menyebabkan sayur itu menjadi beralkali
The water molecules diffuse into the vegetable
Molekul air meresap kedalam sayur-sayuran
The bacteria are deplasmolysed
Bakteria telah mengalami deplasmolisis

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

24

9. A student soaked an egg in a saturated salt solution. A few days later, he found that the
egg tasted salty. Which of the following statements explain this observation?
Seorang pelajar merendam sebiji telur di dalam larutan garam. Selepas beberapa hari
didapati telur itu berasa masin. Manakah antara kenyataan berikut menerangkan
pemerhatian ini?
I
II
III
IV

A.
C.

10.

The egg shell is permeable to salt solution.


Kulit telur adalah telap terhadap larutan garam.
Salt particles enter the egg by active transport.
Partikel garam memasuki telur secara pengangkutan aktif.
The saturated salt solution is hypertonic to the content of the egg
Larutan garam tepu adalah hipertonik terhadap kandungan telur.
Salt particles can diffuse through the eggshell and plasma membrane.
Partikel garam boleh meresap melalui kulit telur dan membran plasma.
I and III
I dan III
II , III and IV
II, III dan IV

B.
D.

I and IV
I dan IV
I, III and IV
I, III dan IV

Diagram 2 shows two different concentrations of sucrose solution separated by semi


permeable membrane.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan dua larutan sukrosa yang berlainan kepekatan yang
dipisahkan oleh membran separa telap.

Diagram 2 / Rajah 2
Which of the following does not happen when an equilibrium is reached?
Antaraberikut, yang manakah tidak berlaku apabila keseimbangan dicapai?
A. The osmotic concentration in both P and Q are same
Kepekatan osmosis adalah sama dalam kedua-dua P dan Q
B. The solution level in Q is lower than the solution level in P.
Aras larutan dalam Q adalah lebih rendah daripada aras larutan dalam P.
C. Both P and Q have same total number of sucrose molecules
Kedua-dua P dan Q mempunyai jumlah bilangan molekul sukrosa yang sama
D. The water molecules in both P and Q move across the semi permeable at same rate
Molekul air dalam kedua-dua P dan Q bergerak merentasi membran separa telap
pada kadar yang sama.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

25

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1. Diagram 1 shows two types of transport processes across the plasma membrane.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan dua jenis proses pengangkutan merentasi membran plasma.

Diagram 1
Rajah 1
(a)

(b)

P and Q are transport proteins. P only binds to the substance which is specific to it
whereas Q is always open.
P dan Q adalah protein pembawa. P hanya erikat dengan bahan yang spesifik
dengannya, manakala Q selalu terbuka
(i) Name the proteins labeled P and Q.
Namakan protein berlabel P dan Q.
P:
___________________________________________________________________
Q:
___________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

(i)

Name two possible substances of X.


Namakan dua kemungkinan bahan X

1.__________________________________________________________________
2.__________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
(ii)

Explain why substance X cannot move freely across the membrane.


Terangkam mengapa bahan X tidak boleh bergerak bebas merentasi membran

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

(iii) What will happen to the structure P in the transport of substance X into the cell ?
Apakah yang akan berlaku kepada struktur P dalam pengangkutan bahan X ke
dalam sel?
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

26

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
[4 marks]
(c)

Substance Y is a charged ion. Explain how Q is adapted to transport substance Y.


Y adalah bahan ion bercas. Terangkan bagaimana Q mengangkut bahan Y.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

SOALAN ESEI:
1

The semi-permeable characteristics of plasma membranes enables certain substances


to move across the membrane.
Ciri separa telap membran plasma membolehkan beberapa bahan bergerak masuk
merentasi membran.

(a) Explain the structures of the plasma membrane, based on the fluid mosaic model.
Terangkan apakah struktur pada membran plasma, berdasarkan Model cecair Mozek
[3 marks]
(b) Explain how certain substances can pass through the plasma membrane.
Terangkan bagaimana sesetengah bahan yang boleh merentasi plasma membran
[7 marks]
(c) Explain the passive transport of substances across the plasma membrane in:
Terangkan pengangkutan aktif bahan merentasi plasma membran dalam:
(i)
the exchange of gas in the alveolus and blood capillaries
pertukaran gas dalam alveolus dan kapilari darah
(ii)
the absorption of digested food by the villi in the ileum
Penyerapan makanan tercerna oleh vilus didalam usus kecil
[10 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

27

TAJUK : KOMPOSISI KIMIA DALAM SEL


SUBTAJUK:KOMPOSISI KIMIA DALAM SEL
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1.

The following statements are about a chemical compound in cell.


Pernyataan berikut adalah tentang satu sebatian kimia dalam sel.

Medium for chemical reactions in cell / Medium tindakbalas kimia


Maintains osmotic pressure / Mengekalkan tekanan osmosis

Which of the following chemical compound has the characteristics?


Antara yang berikut, sebatian kimia yang manakah mempunyai ciri-ciri tersebut?
A.
B.
C.
D.

2.

Lipid / Lemak
Water / Air
Enzyme / Enzim
Protein / Protein

The following information shows an element.


Maklumat berikut menunjukkan satu elemen.
It can regulate the osmotic pressure and help in the transmission of nerve
impulses in animal cell. It is not required in plant cell.
Ia boleh melaraskan tekanan osmosis dan membantu dalam penghantaran
impuls saraf dalam sel haiwan. Ia tidak diperlukan dalam sel tumbuhan

What is the above description referring to?


Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan penerangan di atas ?

3.

A.

Sodium / Natrium

B.

Potassium / Kalium

C.

Magnesium / Magnesium

D.

Phosphorus / Fosforus

Which organic compound forms the highest proportion in dry weight of a cell?
Manakah antara sebatian organik berikut membentuk nisbah jisim kering sel yang
paling tinggi?
A.

Lipids

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

28

4.

B.

Proteins

C.

Carbohydrates

D.

Nucleic acids

In the diagram below, X is an animal cell and Y is an organelle found in a plant cell.
Dalam rajah di bawah, X ialah sel haiwan dan Y ialah organel yang terdapat di dalam
sel tumbuhan.

Diagram 2/

X contains a red pigment while Y contains a green pigment. What are the names of
the two pigments and the elements which are components of the pigments?
X mengandungi pigmen berwarna merah manakala Y mengandungi pigmen
berwarna hijau. Apakah nama pigmen tersebut dan unsur yang merupakan
komponen pigmen itu?
X
Name of pigment
Nama pigmen
A
B
C
D

5.

Haemoglobin
Hemoglobin
Chlorophyll
Klorofil
Haemoglobin
Hemoglobin
Chlorophyll
Klorofil

Component of
pigment
Komponen pigmen
Iron
Besi
Magnesium
Magnesium
Magnesium
Magnesium
Iron
Besi

Y
Name of pigment
Nama pigmen
Chlorophyll
Klorofil
Haemoglobin
Hemoglobin
Chlorophyll
Klorofil
Haemoglobin
Hemoglobin

Component of
pigment
Komponen pigmen
Magnesium
Magnesium
Iron
Besi
Iron
Besi
Magnesium
Magnesium

The diagram shows a part of the structure of a DNA molecule.


Rajah menunjukkan sebahagian daripada struktur molekul DNA.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

29

Which of the following is represented by J, K and L?


Manakah antara berikut diwakili oleh J, K dan L?

A.
B.
C.
D.

6.

Sugar
Gula
Phosphate
Fosfat
Phosphate
Fosfat
Base
Bes

Base
Bes
Sugar
Gula
Base
Bes
Sugar
Gula

Phosphate
Fosfat
Base
Bes
Sugar
Gula
Base
Bes

Which of the following correctly describes a DNA molecule?


Manakah antara berikut menerangkan molekul DNA dengan betul?
Components
Backbone
Molecules that form the
Komponen
Tulang belakang
link between the two
strands
Molekul yang
membentuk ikatan
antara dua rantaian
A.
Amino acids, sugars
Sugars and
Sugars
and nitrogenous
nitrogenous bases
Gula
bases
Gula dan bes
Asid amino, gula
bernitrogen
dan bes bernitrogen
B.
Sugars, amino
Sugars and
Nitrogenous bases
acids, and
phosphates
Bes bernitrogen
nitrogenous bases
Gula dan fosfat
Gula, asid amino,
gula dan bes
bernitrogen
C.
Phosphates, sugars
Sugars and
Phosphates
and nitrogenous
nitrogenous bases
Fosfat
bases
Gula dan bes
Fosfat, gula dan
bernitrogen
bes bernitrogen

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

30

D.

Phosphates, sugars
and nitrogenous
bases
Fosfat, gula dan
bes bernitrogen

Sugars and
phosphates
Gula dan fosfat

Nitrogenous bases
Bes bernitrogen

7.

Which of the following shows the correct proportion of the dry mass os a cell?
Manakah antara berikut menunjukkan nisbah jisim kering sel yang betul?

8.

The following information shows the function of an element both in animal and plant
cells.
Maklumat yang berikut menunjukkan fungsi unsur dalam kedua-dua sel haiwan dan
sel tumbuhan.

Animal Synthesis of haemoglobin


Haiwan Sintesis hemoglobin
Plant synthesis of cholorophyll
Tumbuhan Sintesis klorofil

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

31

Which of the following elemets is referred to?


Antara berikut, unsur manakah yang dimaksudkan?

9.

A.

Iron / Ferum

B.

Calcium / Kalsium

C.

Potassium / Kalium

D.

Magnesium / Magnesium

Diagram shows a structure of a molecule X.


Rajah menunjukkan satu struktur molekul X.

Oxygen atom
Atom oksigen

Hydrogen atom
Atom hidrogen

Hydrogen atom
Atom hidrogen

Which of the following are true about molecule X?


Manakah antara brikut benar mengenai molekul X?
I

It is a solvent for fat-soluble vitamins


Ia adalah pelarut bagi vitamin larut lemak

II

It is a minor component in all living organisms


Ia adalah komponen kecil dalam semua organisma hidup

III

It provides high surface tension and cohesion


Ia membekalkan tegangan permukaan dan lekitan yang tinggi

IV

It plays a role in maintaining body temperature


Ia memainkan peranan dalam pengekalan suhu badan

A.

I and II

B.

I and III

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

32

C.

II and IV

D.

III and IV

ESSAY QUESTIONS:
SOALAN ESEI:

Diagram 1. Rajah 1
1. Diagram 1 shows a sequence stages in the synthesis of an extracellular enzyme in
ahuman pancrease cells. The stages labeled as Stages I, Stages II, and Stages III.
Stages I shows a change in the specific part of a DNA strand. The DNA strand
involved contains three nitrogenous bases, CTC.
Diagram 1 menunjukkan turutan langkah-langkah dalam sintesis suatu enzim luar sel
dalam pankrease manusia. Langkah-langkah itu dilabelkan sebagai Langkah I,
Langkah II dan Langkah III. Langkah I menunjukkan perubahan bahagian tertentu
rantai DNA. Rantai DNA yang terlibat mengandungi tiga bes nitrogen, iaitu CTC.
(a) Explain the changes that occurred in the double helix of the DNA strand during
Stage I. Terangkan perubahan yang berlaku dalam rantai heliks ganda dua DNA
semasa Langkah I.
(2
marks/2 markah)
(b) Based on Diagram 1:
Berdasarkan Rajah 1:
(i)
State two differences between the structure of the protein polypeptide
molecule and the DNA molecule. Nyatakan dua perbezaan antara struktur
molekul polipeptida protein dengan molekul DNA.
(2
marks/
2
markah)
(ii)

Differentiate between the structures of DNA and RNA.


Bezakan antara struktur DNA dan RNA.
(1
markah)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

mark

33

(c) Explain how the protein formed at the ribosome is transformed into the
extracellular enzyme so that it can be secreted from the cell.
Terangkan bagaimana protein yang terbentuk di ribosom diubah bentuk menjadi
enzim luar sel supaya boleh dirembes keluar daripada sel.
(3
marks/3
markah)
(d) Diagram 2 shows agene mutation that occurs in the DNA strand containing the
base sequence CTC. Rajah 2 menunjukkan mutasi gen yang berlaku pada rantai
DNA yang mengandungi urutan bes CTC.

Diagram 2. Rajah 2
Explain how the mutation affects the specific characteristics or trait controlled.
Terangkan bagaimana mutasi ini mempengaruhi ciri atau trait tertentu yang terkawal.
(2 marks / 2 markah)

2. Siva have participated a marathon. The marathon occurred on a hot day. He ran 10
km for 4 hours. After finished the run he had drink a lots of water. Siva telah
menyertai larian marathon. Larian tersebut berlangsung dalam keadaan cuaca yang
panas. Dia telah berlari sejauh 10 km dalam masa 4 jam. Setelah menamatkan
lariannya, dia telah minum air dengan kuantiti yang banyak.
(a) Explain why does the water intake is important on him. Terangkan mengapa
pengambilan air tersebut penting keatas dirinya.
(7
marks/
7
markah)

(b) Drink lots water could decrease of body temperature. Explain how water cools
the body down on a hot day. Minum air yang banyak boleh menurunkan suhu
badan. Terangkan bagaimana air boleh menurunkan suhu badan ketika cuaca
panas.
( 3 marks/
3 markah)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

34

TOPIC: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL


SUBTOPIC: CARBOHYDRATES
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1. Selulosa adalah komponen penting untuk membentuk
Cellulose is an important component for the formation of
A

Permukaan membran sel

Enzim

Cell surface membrane


C

enzymes

Granul simpanan

Dinding sel tumbuhan

Storage granule

Plant cell wall

2. Karbohidrat disimpan dalam tubuh manusia dalam bentuk


Carbohydrate is stored in the human body in the form of

Adenosine trifosfat
Adenosine triphosphate

Lemak

Kanji
Starch
Glikogen

Fat

Glycogen

3. Rajah menunjukkan satu jenis struktur molekul karbohidrat


Diagram shows a type of molecular structure of carbohydrate

Apakah nama karbohirat tersebut?


What is the name of the carbohydrate?
A

Kanji

Starch
C

Glikogen
Glycogen

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

Selulosa
Cellulosa

Glukosa
Glucose

35

4. Persamaan berikut menunjukkan proses hidrolisis sukrosa

The following equation shows the hydrolysis of sucrose.

Apa yang mewakili P,Q dan R?


What is represented by P,Q dan R?

P
A

Sukrase

Glukosa

Glukosa

Sucrase

glucose

Glucose

Amilase

Maltosa

Glukosa

Amylase

Maltose

Glucose

Sukrase

Glukosa

Fruktosa

Sucrase

Glucose

Fructose

Amilase

Galaktosa

Fruktosa

Amylase

Galactose

Fructose

5. Persamaan di bawah menunjukkan pembentukan disakarida melalui proses X


The equation below shows the formation of disaccharides through the process X

Apakah nama bagi proses X?


What is the name of process X?
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

36

Hidrolisis dan kondensasi

Hydrolysis and condensation


C

Hydrolysis

Condensation
Kondensasi

Hidrolisis

Fotolisis
Photolysis

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1. Diagram 1 shows a simplified structural formula of disaccharide molecule. This molecule
can be broken down into simpler molecules.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan 1 formula struktur ringkas bagi 1 molekul disakarida. Molekul ini9
boleh diuraikan kepada 2 molekul myang lebih ringkas.

Figure 1 / Rajah 1
a) What is this breaking down of a disaccharadi molecule called?
Apakah nama proses penguraian molekul disakarida ini?
_________________________________________________________________
(1 mark)
b) The process named in your answer in (a) can be carried out into two ways. What
are these two ways?
Proses yang dinamakan dalam jawapan anda di (a) boleh dilakukan memlui 2
cara. Apakah 2 cara ini?
i.

____________________________________________________________

ii.

____________________________________________________________
(2 marks)

c) By using simplified structural formulae, show how a disaccharide molecule is


broken down.
Dengan menggunakan formula struktur ringkas, tunjukkan bagaimana satu
molekul disakarida diuraikan.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

37

(3marks)
d) What substance is produced after the disacccharide molecule is broken down?
Apakah bahan yang terhasil selepas molekul disakarida ini diuraikan?
_________________________________________________________________
(1 mark)
e) Thye substance obtained in (d) is boiled with Benedicts solution in a test tube.
Bahan yang diperoleh di (d) dididihkan dengan larutan Benedict dalam satu
tabung uji.
What is the colour of Benedicts solution?

i.

Apakah warna larutan Benedict?


______________________________________________________________
(1 mark)
Why does Benedicts solution have this colour?

ii.

Mengapakah larutan Benedict mempunyai warna ini?


______________________________________________________________
(1 mark)
f)

What can be observed in (e)?


Apakah yang boleh diperhatikan di (e)?

______________________________________________________________
(1 mark)
SOALAN ESEI:
1.Terangkan pembentukan :
Explain the formation of
a) disakarida / Disaccharides

(2m)

b) polisakarida /Polysaccharides (2m)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

38

TAJUK : KOMPOSISI KIMIA DALAM SEL


SUBTAJUK:.4.3 Protein
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1. Rajah menunjukkan satu struktur protein yang telah mengalami proses X.
The diagram shows a protein which has undergone process X.

Apakah proses X ?
What is process X?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Hidrolisis / Hydrolysis
Nyahasli / Denaturation
Kondensasi / Condensation
Pendeaminan / Deamination
x

2. Asid amino + Asid amino


Amino acid + Amino acid

dipeptida + air
dipeptide + water
Y

Apakah X dan Y?
What is process X and Y?
X

Hidrolisis
Hydrolysis

Kondensasi
Condensation

Kondensasi
Condensation

Hidrolisis
Hydrolysis

Hidrolisis
Hydrolysis

Hidrolisis
Hydrolysis

Kondensasi
Condensation

Kondensasi
Condensation

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

39

SOALAN STRUKTUR:

1.
Silk is an example of protein. A silk garment crumples when it is washed
using hot water at a temperature of 65oC.
Sutera adalah satu contoh protein. Pakaian sutera menjadi berkedut
apabila dibasuh menggunakan air panas ada suhu 65oC.
i. Explain the above statement.
Terangkan pernyataan di atas.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[3 marks/3 markah]
ii. Based on the above statement, suggest two ways to maintain the quality of silk
garments.
Berdasarkan pernyataan di atas, cadangkan 2 cara untu mengekalkan kualiti
pakaian sutera.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[2 marks/2 markah]
SOALAN ESEI:
1: Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan dua peringkat organisasi di dalam struktur protein.
Diagram 2.1 shows two levels of organisation in protein structure.

Rajah 2.1

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

40

Rajah 2.2
Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan bagaimana protein X diuraikan untuk membentuk hasil.
Diagram 2.2 shows how protein X is broken down to form products
(a)

Pada rajah 2.1 namakan peringkat organisasi dalam struktur protein X dan Y. Huraikan
struktur protein x dan terangkan bagaimana hasil-hasil dalam rajah 2.2 terbentuk.
In diagram 2.2 name the level of organisation in the protein structures of X and Y. Describe
the structure of protein X and explain how the products in diagram 2.2 are formed.
[ 6 markah]
(b)

Sutera adalah suatu contoh protein. Pakaian sutera menjadi berkedut apabila dibasuh
menggunakan air panas pada suhu 65C.
Silk is an example of protein. A silk garment crumples when it is washed using hot water at a
temperature of 65C.

Terangkan pernyataan diatas dan cadangkan dua cara untuk mengekalkan kualiti pakaian
sutera.
Explain the above statement and suggest two ways to maintain the quality of silk garment
[5 markah/5 marks ]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

41

TOPIK: 4.0 KOMPOSISI KIMIA DALAM SEL


SUBTOPIK:4.4 LIPID
SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1.

(a)

Diagram 2 (a) show the formation of a lipid mplecule.


Rajah 2 (a) menunjukkan pembentukan satu molekul lemak

Diagram 1 (a)
Rajah 2 (a)
(i)

Label X and Y
Label X dan Y
[2 marks]

(ii)

State what process Q is


Nyatakan proses Q
[1 mark]
................................................................................................................

(iii)

Write a word equation to represent the biochemical process in


diagram 2 (a)
Tuliskan persamaan perkataan untuk mewakili proses biokimia dalam
rajah 2 (a)
................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(b)

Diagram 2 (b) shows two types of fats


Rajah 2 (b) menunjukkan dua jenis lemak

Diagram 2 (b)
Rajah 2 (b)
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

42

(i)

State the type of fats shown in diagram 2 (b)


Nyatakan jenis lemak yang ditunjukkan dalam rajah 2 (b)
P : ..........................................................................................................
Q : .........................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(ii)

A girl takes food from group P continuously for a long period of time.
Explain the consequences to the health of her heart.
Seseorang budak perempuan mengambil makanan dari kumpulan P
secara berterusan untuk jangkamasa yang panjang. Terangkan
terhadap kesihatan budak tersebut.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................

(c)

[3 marks]

A man has bile duct blocked with gallstones. He is advised to cut


down on his fat intake. Expalin why such an advice is given to him?
Seorang lelaki telah mengalami masalah tersumbat salur hempedu
oleh batu hempedu. Beliau telah dinasihatkan oleh doktor untuk
mengurangkan pengambilan makanan berlemak. Terangkan
mengapa nasihat seperti itu telah diberikan kepadanya?
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

[3 marks]

43

TAJUK: KOMPOSISI KIMIA DALAM SEL


SUBTAJUK:. ENZIM
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1. Antara berikut yang manakah sifat enzim?
A Enzim memangkinkan tindak balas dalam satu arah sahaja
B Enzim dimusnahkan setelah selesai memangkinkan sesuatu tindak balas
C Aktiviti enzim boleh diperlahankan atau dihentikan oleh suatu koenzim
D Enzim diperlukan dalam kuantiti yang sedikit kerana boleh digunakan
berulang kali.
2. Rajah 2 menunjukkan mekanisme tindakan enzim.
Diagram 2 shows the mechanism of enzyme action

Antara pernyataan berikut, yang manakah tidak benar ?


Which statement is not true?
A

Tindakan enzim adalah spesifik


Enzyme action is specific

Tindakan enzim adalah berbalik


Enzyme reaction is reversible

Enzim tidak dimusnahkan pada akhir tindak balas


Enzim is not destroyed at the end of reaction

Suhu optimum untuk tindakan enzim ialah 60 C

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

44

Optimum temperature for enzyme reaction is 60 C.


3. Rajah 3 menunjukkan struktur substrat dan enzim
Diagram shows the structures of a substrateand an enzyme.

Berdasarkan rajah di atas, yang manakah benar mengenai enzim?


Based on diagram above, which of the following is true about the enzyme?
A

Enzim memerlukan kofaktor untuk berfungsi


Enzyme requires cofactor to function

Tindak balas enzim adalah spesifik


Enzymatic reaction is specific

Enzim peka terhadap pH


Enzymes are sensitive to pH

Enzim peka terhadap suhu


Enzymes are sensitive to temperature

4.The graph below shows the optimum pH of enzyme M and N in its reaction
Graf di bawah menunjukkan pH optimum bagi enzim M dan N di dalam
tindakbalasnya
Rate of reaction
Kadar tindakbalas
N

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

10

pH
pH
45

What is enzyme M and N?


Apakah enzim M dan N?

A
B
C
D

M
Pepsin
Pepsin
Amylase
Amilase
Pepsin
Pepsin
Trypsin

N
Trypsin
Tripsin
Trypsin
Tripsin
Amylase
Amilase
Amylase

5. Which of the following enzymes and functions are incorrect matched?


Yang manakah padanan enzim yang berikut betul dengan fungsinya?

Enzyme / Enzim

Functions / Fungsi

Pepsin

Digests fat / Mencernakan lemak

II

Trypsin

Digests protein / Mencernakan protein

III

Maltase

Digests sucrose / Mencernakan sukrosa

IV

Salivary amylase

Digests starch / Mencernakan kanji

A.
B.
C.
D.

I and II only
II and IV only
I, II and III only
I, II, III and IV

6. Rajah 6 menunjukkan proses hidrolisis oleh enzim.


Diagram 15 shows a hydrolysis process by an enzyme.

Rajah 6
Antara struktur berlabel A,B C dan D, manakah mewakili enzim.
Which of a structure labeled A, B , C and D represent the enzyme.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

46

7.Figure 7 shows how an enzyme works.


Rajah 7 menunjukkan tindakan enzim.

Diagram 10
Rajah 10

Which property of an enzyme is shown in Figure 10?


Sifat enzim yang mankah ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 10?
A

Enzyme reaction is specific


Tindakan enzim adalah spesifik

Enzyme reaction is affected by pH


Tindakan enzim dipengaruhi oleh pH

Enzyme reaction is affected by temperature


Tindakan enzim dipengaruhi oleh suhu

Enzyme structure change at the end of reaction


Struktur enzim berubah pada akhir tindak balas
7. Diagram 8 shows the reaction of an enzyme on a substrate.
Gambar rajah 8 menunjukkan mekanisme tindakan enzim ke atas substrat.

X represents
X mewakili

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

47

A. enzyme /enzim
B. substrate /substrat
C. product of reaction /hasil tindak balas
D.enzyme substrate complex /kompleks enzim-substrat
9. Diagram 9 shows a hydrolysis process by an enzyme .

Rajah 1 menunjukkan proses hidrolisis oleh enzim.

Diagram 9
Rajah 9

Which of a structure labeled A, B , C and D represent the substrate


Antara struktur berlabel A,B C dan D, manakah mewakili substrat.
10 Figure 10 shows how an enzyme works.
Rajah 10 menunjukkan tindakan enzim.

Diagram 10
Rajah 10

Which property of an enzyme is shown in Figure 10?


Sifat enzim yang mankah ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 10?
A.

Enzyme reaction is reversible

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

48

Tindakan enzim adalah berbalik


B.

Enzyme reaction is affected by pH


Tindakan enzim dipengaruhi oleh pH

C.

Enzyme reaction is affected by temperature


Tindakan enzim dipengaruhi oleh suhu

D.

Enzyme structure does not change at the end of reaction


Struktur enzim tidak berubah pada akhir tindak balas

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1.Diagram 1 shows the hypothesis of the mechanism of enyme reaction on a substrate.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan hipotesis bagi mekanisma tindak balas enzim ke atas suatu substrat

a.State what is P,Q,R, and S


Nyatakan apakah P,Q, R dan S.
P:___________________________
Q:__________________________
R:___________________________
S:_____________________________

( 4M)

b. State 2 charaterstic of enzyme as explained by this hypotheis.


Nyatakan 2 ciri enzim seperti hipotesis ini.
i._________________________________________________________________________________
ii.________________________________________________________________________________
( 2M)
c.If enzyme used is sucrase ,name the parts labelled P,Q, S,and T
Jika enzim yang digunakan adalah sucrase, namakan bahagian yang berlabel P,Q, S and T.
P:_____________________________

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

49

Q:____________________________
S:____________________________
T:____________________________

( 4M)

2. (a) Using example of enzyme,explain how does pH affect the enzyme reaction . ( 3M)
Dengan menggunakan contoh enzim, terangkan bagaimana pH mempengaruhi tindak balas enzim
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
(b).using example of substrate,explain how does substrate concentration affect the enzyme reaction
( 3M)
Dengan menggunakan contoh substrat,terangkan bagaimana kepekatan substrat mempengaruhi
tindakan enzim
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
3.
Enzyme are widely used in our life and industries
Enzim banyak digunakan dalam kehidupan seharian dan dalam industri

Explain how enzyme act in:


Terangkan bagaimana enzim bertindal dalam:
i. helping to cook meat.
memudahkan kerja memasak daging

( 2 M)
ii extracting agar from seaweeds
Mengekstrak agar-agar daripada rumpair laut
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
( 3M)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

50

SOALAN ESEI:
1.

Q
P

(b) Figure 6 shows the organelles involved during the synthesis and secretion of an enzyme in
an animal cell.Based on Figure 6, explain how extracellular enzyme are produced by
emphasizing on the role of P, Q, R and S.
Rajah 6 menunjukkan organel-organel yang terlibat semasa penghasilan dan perembesan
enzim di dalam sel haiwan.Berdasarkan Rajah 6, terangkan bagaimana enzim luar sel
dihasilkan dengan menekankan peranan P, Q, R dan S.
[10 Marks]
2. Starch, protein and lipid can be hydrolysed by enzymes X,Y and Z respectively. Diagram
6.3 is a graph which shows the effect of pH on the rate of enzyme activity.
Kanji, protein dan lipid masing-masing dapat dihidrolisis oleh enzim X,Y dan Z. Rajah 6.3
ialah graf yang menunjukkan kesan pH ke atas kadar aktiviti enzim

Diagram 6.3/ Rajah 6.3


Based on the Diagram 6.3 , name x,y and Z and explain how the changes in ph affects enzyme
activity.
Berdasarkan Rajah 6.3 , namakan X,Y , Z dan terangkan bagaimana perubahan pH menjejaskan
aktiviti enzim (10 marks/10 markah)
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

51

TOPIC: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL


SUBTOPIC: THE IMPORTANCE OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION IN CELLS
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:

1.

Which statements is correct about the importance of water?


Antara pernyataan berikut, yang manakah benar tentang kepentingan air?
A

Main component of plasma membrane.


Komponen utama dalam membran plasma.

Main source of energy.


Sumber tenaga yang utama.

Catalyse the process of hydrolysis in small intestine.


Memangkinkan proses hidrolisis dalam usus kecil.

Maintaining body temperature.


Mengekalkan suhu badan.

2.

Water is a good solvent. What property allows water to dissolve many ionic
compounds.
Air adalah pelarut yang baik. Sifat apakah membolehkan air untuk melarutkan
banyak sebatian ionik?
A

Polarity / Kekutuban

Fluidity / Bendalir

Hydrophobic / Hidrofobik

Hydrophilic / Hidrofilik

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

52

3.

What is the chemical compound P as described above?


Apakah sebatian kimia P yang diterangkan di atas.
A

Lipids / Lipid

Enzymes / Enzim

Amino acids / Asid amino

Nucleic acids / Asid nukleik

Figure 3 shows the diagrammatic presentation of an enzyme-catalysed


reaction according to a hypothesis
Rajah 3 menunjukkan tindak balas enzim-katalis mengikut satu hipotesis

Q
Figure 3
(a) Which substances is labelled as the enzyme?
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

53

Bahan berlabel manakah yang dikatakan enzim ?


__________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(b) What is the definition of enzyme?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan enzim ?
__________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
(c) Name the hypothesis.
Namakan hipotesis tersebut.
__________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(d) Which characteristics of enzymes can be explained by the hypothesis as
shown in figure 3?
Apakah sifat enzim yang boleh menerangkan hipotesis ditujukkan di
dalam rajah 3 di atas ?
_________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
(e) State four factors affecting activities of enzymes.
Nyatakan empat faktor yang mempengaruhi aktiviti enzim
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
[4 marks]

SOALAN ESEI:
1.

Starch, protein and lipid can be hydrolysed in human digestive system by the enzymes X, Y and
Z respectively.Diagram 8.3 is a graph which shows the effect of pH on the rate of enzyme

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

54

activity.
Kanji, protein dan lipid masing-masing dapat dihidrolisis di dalam sistem pencernaan oleh
enzim X, Y dan Z.Rajah 6.3 ialah graf yang menunjukkan kesan pH ke atas kadar aktiviti enzim.

Diagram 8.3 / Rajah 8.3


Based on Diagram 8.3, name X, Y, Z and explain how the change in pH affects enzyme activity.
Berdasarkan Rajah 8.3, namakan X, Y, Z dan terangkan bagaimana perubahan pH
mempengaruhi aktiviti enzim.
[10 marks / 10 markah]
2. Enzymes are biological catalysts which can speed up biochemical reactions in the
cell.Enzymes are synthesised by living organisms to regulate the biochemical raections.
Based on the situation given, predict and explain what will happen to the extracellular
enzymes if ribosom is not found in our body.
[10 markah]
TAJUK: CELL DIVISION
SUBTAJUK: MITOSIS

SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1.

The diagram below shows the phases in the cell cycle.


Rajah di bawah menunjukkan fasa dalam kitar sel.

Diagram
Rajah
Which of the following statements is true about the chromosomes at stages X and Y?
Antara pernyataan berikut, yang manakah benar tentang kromosom pada peringkat X
dan Y?

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

55

2.

The table shows changes in a cell during mitosis.


Jadual menunjukkan perubahan yang berlaku dalam sel semasa mitosis.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

56

What are P, Q, R and S?


Apakah peringkat P, Q, R dan S?

3.

Which of the following shows the steps involved in the tissue culture technique,
in the correct order?
Antara yang berikut, manakah yang menunjukkan langkah-langkah yang terlibat
dalam proses pengklonan tumbuhan mengikut urutan yang betul?
A Callus Embryo Plantlet Explant Protoplast
Kalus Embrio Plantlet Eksplan Protoplas
B Explant Protoplast Callus Embryo Plantlet
Eksplan Protoplas Kalus Embrio Plantlet
C Plantlet Protoplast Callus Explant Embryo
Plantlet Protoplas Kalus Eksplan Embrio
D Embryo Callus Explant Protoplast Plantlet
Embrio Kalus Eksplan Protoplas Plantlet

4.

Which of the following statements about mitosis is true?

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

57

Antara pernyataan berikut, yang manakah benar tentang mitosis?


A The process of nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes to half of
the parent cell
Proses pembahagian nukleus yang mengurangkan setengah bilangan kromosom
berbanding sel induk.
B The process of nuclear division that results in the formation of two genetically
identical daughter nuclei
Proses pembahagian nukleus yang menghasilkan dua nukleus anak yang serupa
dari segi genetik.
C The process of growth in a multicellular organism
Proses pertumbuhan di dalam badan organisma multisel.
D The process where the cytoplasm divides to form two daughter cells
Proses di mana sitoplasma membahagi membentuk dua sel anak.
5.

All the somatic cells of a human being


have 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Semua sel soma manusia mempunyai 23
pasang kromosom.
One member of each pair of chromosomes
is of paternal origin while the other
member is of maternal origin.
Satu daripada setiap pasang kromosom
berasal dari induk jantan manakala satu
lagi berasal dari induk betina.
The two chromosomes in each pair are known as...
Dua kromosom dalam setiap pasang kromosom dikenal sebagai...
A sex chromosomes.
kromosom seks.
B haploid chromosomes.
kromosom diploid.
C diploid chromosomes.
kromosom haploid.
D homologous chromosomes.
kromosom homolog.

6.

Diagram below shows a process which occurs during the S phase of interphase of the
cell cycle with the purpose of preparing for mitotic cell division.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu proses yang berlaku semasa fasa S dalam interfasa
kitar sel bagi menyediakan sel untuk mitosis.

DIAGRAM / RAJAH
What is this process called and what are the parts labelled P and Q?
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

58

Apakah proses ini dan apakah bahagian-bahagian yang berlabel P dan Q?


The process
Proses

Hydrolysis
Hidrolisis

DNA
Sister
replication
chromatids
Replikasi DNA Kromatid
beradik

Centromere
Sentromer

Polymerisation Homologous
Pempolimeran chromosomes
Kromosom
homolog

Centriole
Sentriol

Condensation
Kondensasi

Centriole
Sentriol

Homologous
chromosomes
Kromosom
homolog

Sister
chromatids
Kromatid
beradik

Centromere
Sentromer

.
7.

Diagram below shows a process normally seen on a plant stump.


Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu proses yang biasanya dilihat pada tunggul kayu.

Diagram/Rajah
The process is known as...
Proses tersebut dikenal sebagai...
A cloning.
pengklonan.
B regeneration.
pertumbuhan semula.
C growing.
pertumbuhan.
D budding.
pertunasan.
8.

Which of the following statements about mitosis is true?


Antara pernyataan berikut, yang manakah benar tentang mitosis?
A The process of nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes to half of
the parent cell
Proses pembahagian nukleus yang mengurangkan setengah bilangan kromosom
berbanding sel induk.
B The process of nuclear division that results in the formation of two genetically

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

59

identical daughter nuclei


Proses pembahagian nukleus yang menghasilkan dua nukleus anak yang serupa
dari segi genetik.
C The process of growth in a multicellular organism
Proses pertumbuhan di dalam badan organisma multisel.
D The process where the cytoplasm divides to form two daughter cells
Proses di mana sitoplasma membahagi membentuk dua sel anak.
.
9.

The diagram below shows a cell at one particular stage of mitosis.


Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu sel pada satu peringkat mitosis.

Diagram/Rajah
Which of the following statements about the stage in the diagram above is correct?
Antara penyataan berikut, yang manakah benar mengenai peringkat pada rajah di atas?
A The nuclear membrane disappears.
Membran nukleus lenyap.
B The paired centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell.
Sentriol berpasangan bergerak ke hujung sel yang bertentangan.
C The cell membrane on both sides join up, separating the cytoplasm into two
daughter cells.
Membran sel pada dua hujung itu bercantum, seterusnya memisahkan sitoplasma
kepada dua anak sel.
D The vesicles fuse together to form a cell plate.
Vesikel bercantum untuk membentuk satu plat sel.
10. Which of the following is not an advantage of cloning?
Antara berikut, yang manakah bukan kebaikan pengklonan?
A Clones can be produced in a shorter time.
Klon boleh dihasilkan dalam jangka masa yang pendek.
B Transgenic crops resistant to herbicides and diseases can be produced.
Tumbuhan transgenik yang mempunyai ketahanan terhadap racun perosak dan
penyakit boleh dihasilkan.
C All clones have the same level of resistance towards certain diseases.
Kesemua klon mempunyai tahap ketahanan yang sama terhadap penyakit-penyakit
tertentu.
D Transgenic bacteria can be used to control environmental pollution.
Bakteria transgenik boleh digunakan untuk mengawal pencemaran alam sekitar.

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

60

1. Diagram 1 shows cells P which are cancerous cells in the skin, formed after the
normal cells are exposed to factor R.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan sel-sel P yang merupakan sel-sel kanser di kulit, yang
terbentuk selepas sel-sel normal terdedah kepada faktor R.

Diagram 1
Rajah 1
(a) State two examples of factor R.
Nyatakan dua contoh bagi faktor R.
1. ______________________________________________________________
2. ______________________________________________________________
(2 marks)
(b) Describe the formation of cells P.
Huraikan pembentukan sel-sel P.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
(2 marks)
[2 markah]
(c) Give two methods to prevent the development of cells P.
Berikan dua cara untuk menghalang perkembangan sel-sel P.
1. ______________________________________________________________
2. ______________________________________________________________
(2 marks)
[2 markah]
2. Diagram 2 shows two types of cells undergoing the same process.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan dua jenis sel yang menjalankan proses yang sama.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

61

Diagram 2
Rajah 2

(a) Name cells P and Q.


Namakan sel P dan Q.
P : _____________________________________________________________
Q : _____________________________________________________________
(2 marks)
[2 markah]

(b) Name the process shown in Diagram 7.


Namakan proses yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 7.
________________________________________________________________
(1 mark)
[1 markah]
(c) Give the definition of the process named in (b).
Berikan definisi proses yang dinamakan dalam (b).
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
(2 marks)
[2 markah]
(d) What is the difference between the processes taking place in P and Q?
Apakah perbezaan antara proses yang berlaku di P dan Q?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
(3 marks)
[3 markah]
(e) What is the result of processes P and Q?
Apakah hasil proses P dan Q?
________________________________________________________________

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

62

________________________________________________________________
(2 marks)
[2 markah]
SOALAN ESEI:
1. a) A technique that involves in cell cycle as shown in diagram 1 is used in the field of
agriculture. A farmer wishes to increase the quantity of orchid plantlets rapidly. Describe
the technique that is needed to carry out by the farmer. [6 marks]

Diagram 1

b) State the advantages and disadvantages of cloning.


[4 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

63

TAJUK: CELL DIVISION


SUBTAJUK: MEIOSIS / APPRECIATING THE MOVEMENT OF CHROMOSOMES
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1.

Diagram 1 shows a diploid cell. This cell undergoes meiosis.


Rajah 1 menunjukkan satu sel diploid. Sel ini menjalani meiosis.

Diagram 1
Rajah 1
If one of the homologous chromosome pairs does not separate during meiosis I, how
many chromosomes can be found in the gamete?
Jika satu daripada pasangan kromosom homolog tidak berpisah semasa meiosis I,
berapakah bilangan kromosom yang boleh didapati dalam gamet?
A
B
C
D

2.

8
4
5
7

Diagram 2 shows a stage in one of the phases in meiosis.


Rajah 2 menunjukkan satu peringkat dalam fasa meiosis.

Diagram 2
Rajah 2?
What is the importance of process R?
Apakah kepentingan proses R?

A
B

Replace dead cells


Mengggantikan sel-sel mati
Maintain diploid chromosome number of zygote

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

64

C
D

3.

Mengekalkan bilangan kromosom diploid dalam zigot


Variation among the spesies
Variasi di kalangan spesies
Causes the parent cell and the next generation to be identical genetically
Menyebabkan persamaan genetik antara sel induk dan generasi berikutnya.

Diagram 3 shows stage during cell division in an organism.


Rajah 3 menunjukkan satu peringkat semasa pembahagian sel bagi suatu organisma.

Diagram 3
Rajah 3
Which statement are true?
Pernyataan manakah yang benar?
I The diploid number of this organism is 4.
Nombor diploid untuk organisma ini ialah 4
II The diagram shows the telophase stage of meiosis I
Rajah menunjukkan peringkat telofasa semasa meiosis I
III The haploid number of this organism is 2.
Nombor haploid untuk organisma ini ialah 2
IVThe diagram shows the anaphase stage of meiosis I
Rajah menunjukkan peringkat anafasa semasa meiosis I
A
B
C
D

4.

I and II only
I dan II sahaja
II and IV only
II dan IV sahaja
I, II and III only
I, II dan III sahaja
I, III and IV only
I, III dan IV sahaja

The diploid number of chromosomes in an animal cell is 24. During anaphase I, a pair
of the homologous chromosomes fails to separate. What is the number of
chromosomes in each daughter cell after meiosis I is completed?
Bilangan kromosom diploid dalam satu sel haiwan ialah 24. Semasa anafasa I,
sepasang kromosom homolog gagal berpisah. Berapakah bilangan kromosom dalam
setiap sel anak setelah meiosis I selesai?

Daughter cell 1
Sel anak 1
12

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

Daughter cell 2
Sel anak 2
12
65

B
C
D

5.

11
24
23

13
0
24

Diagram 4 shows some of the stages of meiosis.


Rajah 4 menunjukkan beberapa peringkat dalam meiosis.

Diagram 4
Rajah 4
Which of the following is the correct order of stages?
Antara yang berikut, yang manakah merupakan urutan yang betul?
A
B
C
D

6.

P, Q, R, S
S, Q, R, P
S, P, R, Q
Q, S, R, P

In Diagram 5, P, Q and R are the number of chromosomes in a gamete, the zygote and
the multicellular organism respectively.
Dalam Rajah 5, P, Q dan R ialah bilangan kromosom masing-masing dalam gamet,
zigot dan organisma multisel.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

66

Diagram 5
Rajah 5
Which of the following is correct?
Antara yang berikut, yang manakah betul?

A
B
C
D
7.

Diploid number of chromosomes (2n)


Bilangan kromosom diploid (2n)
Q, R
P, R
Q
R

Haploid number of chromosomes(n)


Bilangan kromosom haploid(n)
P
Q
P, R
P, Q

Diagram 6 shows three stages of meiosis.


Rajah 6 menunjukkan tiga peringkat dalam meiosis.

Diagram 6
Rajah 6
What happens to the chromosomes at stage H?
Apakah yang berlaku pada kromosom pada peringkat H?

A
B
C
D

8.

The chromosomes become shorter and thicker


Kromosom menebal dan memendek
The homologous chromosomes arrange themselves at the metaphase plat.
Kromosom homolog tersusun di plat metafasa
The homologous chromosomes pair up and crossing over takes place
Kromosom homolog berpasangan dan berlaku pindah silang
The homologous chromosomes separate and move to the opposite poles
Kromosom homolog berpasangan berpisah dan bergerak ke kutub bertentangan

Diagram 7 shows six stages (P to U) in a meiotic division of a cell with a diploid number
of four.
Rajah 7 menunjukkan enam peringkat dalam pembahagian meiosis (P hingga U) yang
mempunyai nombor diploid empat.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

67

Diagram 7
Rajah 7
Which of the following shows the correct sequence of the stages?
Antara yang berikut, yang manakah menunjukkan urutan yang betul bagi peringkatperingkat itu?
A
B
C
D

9.

Q, T, S, U, P, R
Q, T, P, U, S, R
Q, U, T, S, P, R
Q, T, P, S, U, R

Diagram 8 shows a reproductive cell of an animal which undergo process of meiosis I.


Rajah 8 menunjukkan sel reproduktif suatu haiwan sedang mengalami meiosis 1.

Diagram 8
Rajah 8

Which is correct to describe the cell?


Yang manakah benar menerangkan tentang sel tersebut?

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

68

The Phases of cell division


Peringkat Pembahagian sel

The number of chromosomes in the


gamete cells of the animal
Bilangan kromosom yang terdapat
dalam sel gamet haiwan tersebut
2

Prophase I

Anaphase II

Anaphase
Anafasa
Profasa I
Anafasa II

Anaphase I
Anafasa I

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

69

10.

Diagram 9 shows a stage in meiosis.


Rajah 9 menunjukkan satu peringkat di dalam meiosis.

DIAGRAM 9
Rajah 9
Which of the following shows the stage where the number of chromosomes starts to
reduce to half?
Antara berikut, yang manakah menunjukkan peringkat di mana bilangan kromosom
dikurangkan kepada separuh?

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

70

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1. Diagram below shows the phases of a type of cell division.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan fasa-fasa dalam sejenis pembahagian sel.

Diagram/Rajah

(a) (i) Identify the type of cell division shown in Diagram above.
Kenal pasti jenis pembahagian sel yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah di atas.
__________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
(ii) Name the phases labelled L, M and Q.
Namakan fasa yang berlabel L, M, dan Q.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[3 marks/markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

71

(iii) Where do these phases take place in humans?


Di manakah berlakunya fasa-fasa ini pada manusia?
__________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
(b) Rearrange the phases in the correct order.
Susun semula fasa-fasa tersebut mengikut susunan yang betul.
__________________________________________________________________
[2 marks/markah]
(c) (i) Use the words given below to label the parts of the cell found in phase M and
phase N.
Gunakan perkataan di bawah untuk melabel bahagian-bahagian sel yang terdapat
dalam fasa M dan fasa N.

[3 marks/markah]
(ii) Explain briefly what happens in P.
Terangkan dengan ringkas apa yang berlaku di P.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[2 marks/markah]
(iii) Explain why the process which occurs in (c)ii is important.
Terangkan kepentingan proses yang berlaku di (c)ii.
__________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

72

2. The diagram below shows part of the stages of a meiosis cell division in an animal cell.
The chromosome behaviour in stage S is not shown.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sebahagian daripada peringkat pembahagian sel secara
meiosis dalam satu sel haiwan.
Perlakuan kromosom di peringkat S tidak ditunjukkan.

Diagram/Rajah

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

73

(a) Name the structure labelled X.


Namakan struktur berlabel X.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(b) (i) In the diagram above, complete the diagram in stage S to show the chromosome
behaviour.
Dalam rajah di atas, lengkapkan rajah di peringkat S untuk menunjukkan perlakuan
kromosom.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(ii) State one of the changes which occurs in stage S.
Nyatakan satu perubahan yang berlaku di peringkat S.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
[1 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

74

(c) The diagram below shows process Y which takes place in stage P.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan proses Y yang berlaku di peringkat P.

Diagram/Rajah

(i) In the diagram above, draw a diagram showing the appearance of the
chromosome at the end of process Y.
Dalam rajah di atas, lukis rajah yang menunjukkan rupa kromosom di akhir proses
Y.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(ii) Name process Y.
Namakan proses Y.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(iii) State one importance of process Y to an organism.
Nyatakan satu kepentingan proses Y kepada sesuatu organisma.
__________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
[1 markah]

(d) The diagram below shows skin cells. Cells X are cancerous cells which are formed
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

75

after the normal cells are exposed to factor W.


Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sel-sel kulit. Sel-sel X adalah sel kanser yang terbentuk
selepas sel-sel normal terdedah kepada faktor W.

Diagram
Rajah

(i) Give two examples of factor W.


Beri dua contoh faktor W.
1

_______________________________________________________________

2 ________________________________________________________________

[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(ii) Explain the formation of cells X.
Terangkan pembentukan sel X.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
[2 markah]

(iii) State two ways to prevent the development of cells X.


Nyatakan dua cara untuk mengelakkan perkembangan sel X.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

76

1
________________________________________________________________

2
________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
[2 markah]

SOALAN ESEI:
1

Diagram 4 is a bar chart showing the change in the chromosomal number of two
cells, X and Y after undergoing certain cell division processes.
Rajah 4 adalah satu carta bar yang menunjukkan perubahan bilangan kromosom
dua jenis sel, iaitu X dan Y setelah mengalami proses pembahagian tertentu.

a) Based on the bar chart in Diagram 4, identify the process undergone by cell X
and cell Y. Hence explain the process undergone by cell X.
Berdasarkan carta bar dalam Rajah 4, kenal pasti proses-proses yang telah
dilalui oleh sel X dan sel Y. Seterusnya, terangkan proses yang telah dilalui oleh
sel X.
[14 marks/markah ]
b) Compare and contrast between the processes undergone by cells X and Y.
Banding dan bezakan proses-proses yang dilalui oleh sel X dan sel Y.
[6 marks/markah]
2

a) Explain why meiosis is also known as reduction division?


Terangkan mengapa meiosis dikenali juga dengan pembahagian pengurangan?

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

77

[2 marks/markah]
b) Crossing over occurs during meiosis I which involve the exchange of DNA
segments resulting in the genetic variations.
Describe how crossing over occurs and the structure of genetic material involved.
Pindah Silang yang berlaku semasa meiosis I melibatkan pertukaran bahanbahan DNA yang menyebabkan variasi genetik.
Huraikan bagaimana proses pindah silang itu berlaku dan melibatkan struktur
bahan-bahan genetik.
[10 marks/markah]
c) Discuss the importance of genetic variations to the living organisms.
Bincangkan kepentingan variasi genetik kepada kehidupan.
[4 marks/markah]

d) Besides crossing over, briefly discuss two ways that are possible to cause
genetic variations in living organisms.
Selain proses pindah silang, terangkan secara ringkas dua cara yang mungkin
menyebabkan variasi genetic kepada kehidupan.
[4 marks/markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

78

TAJUK : NUTRITION
SUBTAJUK: TYPES OF NUTRITION
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1

Table 1 shows two types of microorganisms


Jadual 1 menunjukkan dua jenis mikroorganisma.

Mikroorganisms

Nutrition

Mikroorganisma

Nutrisi

Diatoms
Diatom

Chemosynthesis bacteria
Bakteria kemosintetik

T
Table 1/Jadual 1

What types of nutrition are S and T ?


Apakah jenis nutrisi bagi S dan T ?
S
A

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

Autotrophic

Autotrophic

Autotrfik

Autotrofik

Heterotrophic

Heterotrophic

Heterotrofik

Heterotrofik

Heterotrophic

Autotrophic

Heterotrofik

Autotrofik

Autotrophic

Heterotrophic

Autotrofik

Heterotrofik

79

Diagram 1 shows common characteristics of two types organisms.


Rajah 1 menunjukkan kriteria bagi dua jenis organisma.

Chemosynthetic
organisms
Chemosynthetic
organisms

Photosynthetic

organisms
Diagram 1

Which of the following is true about P?


Yang manakah di antara berikut benar tentang P

A They obtain food from the host.


Mereka mendapat makanan daripada perumah.
B They feed on decaying organic matter.
Mereka memakan reputan bahan organik
C They feed on complex organic food particles.
Mereka memakan bahan organik komplek
D They synthesise complex organic matter from carbon dioxide and water.
Mereka mensintesis bahan organik komplek daripada karbon dioksida dan
air.

Which organism and type of nutrition are correctly matched ?


Organisma dan jenis nutrisi manakah yang dipandankan dengan betul ?

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

Fungi

Organism

Type of nutrition

Organisma

Jenis nutrisi
Photosynthetic

80

Kulat

Fotosintetik

Rafflesia sp

Chemosynthhetic

Rafflesia sp

Kemosintetik

Human beings

Holozoic

Manusia

Holozoik

Green plants

Saprophytic

Tumbuhan hijau

Saprofitik

Organism Q is an animal that feeds on organic substance or other organisms that


are decomposing or dead . What is the interaction for organism Q ?
Organisma Q adalah suatu haiwan yang memakan bahan organik atau organismaorganisma lain yang mereput atau mati . Apakah interaksi organisma Q ?
A

Epizoit

Saprozoit

Epizoit
B

Predator
Pemangsa

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

Saprozoite

Ectoparasite
Ektoparasit

81

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1

Diagram 1 shows different types of nutrition.


Rajah 1 menunjukkan jenis nutrisi yang berbeza.
Nutrition
Nutrisi

Autotrophic

Phototrophic

(i)

Heterotrophic

(ii)

Herbivore

Holozoic

Carnivore

( iii )

Omnivore

Fill in the omitted blanks.


Isikan tempat kosong yang ditinggalkan.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[3 marks]

Give an example of organism from ( i ) above that is essential for terrestrial plants.
Briefly explain its contribution /importance to green terrestrial plants.
Berikan contoh organisma daripada (i) diatas yang penting bagi tumbuhan darat.
Terangkan dengan ringkas sumbangan/kepentingan kepada tumbuhan hijau daratan.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

82

Parasitic organism can be further divide into two groups , name the groups and give
one example of an organism from each group that uses humans as their host.
Organisma parasit boleh terus membahagi menjadi dua kumpulan, namakan
kumpulan itu dan beri satu contoh organisma dari setiap kumpulan yang
menggunakan manusia sebagai perumah.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
[4 marks]

State the ultimate source of energy for phototrophic organisms and for the organism
you have stated in (a) ( i) .
Nyatakan punca utama tenaga bago organisma fototrofik dan juga organisma yang
sudah dinyatakan dalam (a) (i).
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

2 Diagram 2.1 shows two organisms


Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan dua organisma

S
Diagram 2.1

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

83

Rajah 2.1
a Identify the type of nutrition practised by R and S.
Kenal pastikan jenis nutrisi yang dilakukan oleh R dan S.
R :..........................................................................................................
S :.........................................................................................................
(2 marks)
b Diagram 2 shows the characteristics of the types of nutrition practised by both R and
S.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan ciri-ciri bagi jenis nutrisi yang dilakukan oleh kedua-dua R dan
S.

R
S

Diagram 2.2
Rajah 2.2
Based on Diagram 2.2 , state two similarities of the characteistics for the shaded
region.
Berdasarkan rajah 2.2, nyatakan dua persamaan ciri bagi bahagian yang berlorek.
1:...............................................................................................................................
2:...............................................................................................................................
(2 marks)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

84

SOALAN ESEI:

a. There are two types of nutrition . Explain what is meant by


Terdapat dua jenis nutrisi. Terangkan maksud bagi
i.

Autotrophic nutrition
Nutrisi Autotrfik

ii.

Heterotrophic nutrition
Nutrisis Heterotrofik
[2 marks]

b. Autotrphic nutrition is divided into two types . What is the source of


energy in a
Nutrisi autotrofik dibahagikan kepada dua jenis. Apakan sumber
tenaga bagi
i.

Photosynthesis
Fotosintesis

ii. Chemosynthesis
Kemosintesis
[ 2 marks]
2

a. Differentiate among holozoic nutrition, saprophytic nutrition and


parasitic nutrition. Give and example of an organism which practise
each type of nutrition
Bezakan di antara nutrisi holozoik, nutrisi saprofitik dan nutrisi
parasitik , Berikan contoh organisma bagi setiap satu nutrisi.
[ 6 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

85

TAJUK:NUTRITION
SUBTAJUK: BALANCED DIET

SOALAN OBJEKTIF:

1 Ahmads diet contains more protein than necessary.


Which of the following substances are secreted excessively?

Ahmad mengambil nutrisi yang mengandungi lebih kandungan protein.


Yang manakah di antara bahan berikut dikeluarkan secara berlebihan?
A

Urea

Urea
B

Sweat
Peluh

Urine

Urin

Lactic asid
Asid laktik

2 The following equation shows the chemical reaction of yeast fermentation.


Persamaan di bawah menunjukkan tindakbalas kimia semasa penapaian.

X
C6H12O6

2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 210 kJ

What is X?
Apakah X?

Lactase / Laktase

Cellulase / Selulase

Amylase / Amilase

Zymase / Zimase

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

86

3 Which of the following best describes holozoic?

A They are able to synthesis complex organic matter from raw materials.
B They feed on complex organic food particles.
C They feed on decaying organic matter.
D They obtain food from the host.

4 The diagram shows an experiment to determine the energy value of food X.

Mass of food X

= 0.5 g

Volume of water

= 20 cm

Mass of water

= 20 g

What is the energy value of food X?


A 1.23 kJ g -1
B 2.06 kJ g-1
C 6.05 kJ g-1
D 7.56 kJ g-1

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

87

The following data is the result of an experiment to determine the energy value
of a peanut.
Data berikut merupakan keputusan suatu eksperimen untuk menentukan nilai
tenaga bagi kacang tanah.

Mass of peanut

0.5g

Jisim
Mass kacang
of watertanah

20g

Jisim
Initial air
temperature of water

25 C

Suhu
awal air
Final temperature
of water

45 C

Suhu akhir air


The specific heat capacity of water is 4.2Jg-1oC-1. Calculate the energy value of
the peanut.
-1o -1
Muatan haba tentu air ialah 4.2Jg C . Hitung nilai tenaga bagi kacang
tanah.

1 680 Jg-1

7 560 Jg-1

-1
3 360 Jg

11 760 Jg-1

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

88

Table 1 shows the nutrient content in 100g of various types of food.


Jadual 1 menunjukkan kandungan nutrient dalam 100g bagi beberapa jenis
makanan.

Nutrien content
Food
Makana n

nutrienCalcium/mg
Protein/g Lipid/g Kandungan
Carbohydrate/g

Iron/g

Protein/

Lipid/g

Karbohidrat/g

Kalsium/mg

Iron/

8.0
g

1.7

54.3

100

bread
Roti
putih
Apple

0.3

12.0

0.3

Epal
Butter

0.5

82.5

15

0.2

Mentega
Rice

6.2

1.0

86.8

0.4

Nasi
Eggs

12.3

10.9

56

2.1

White

Telur

1.7

Table 1
Jadual 1

A student bled and fractured his bone during school sport practice.
Based on Table 1, which types of food are suitable for student for fast recovery?
Seorang murid mengalami luka dan patah tulang semasa menjalani latihan
sukan.
Berdasarkan Jadual 1, jenis makanan yang manakah sesuai diambil alih oleh
murid itu supaya cepat sembuh?

Apple, rice, butter

Epal, nasi, mentega

White bread, eggs, rice


Roti putih, telur, nasi

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

Eggs, apple, butter


Telur, epal, mentega

White bread, butter, apple


Roti putih, mentega, epal

89

SOALAN STRUKTUR:

1. A group of students carried out an experiment to identify the vitamin C content in


different fruit juices. 0.1% ascorbic acid solution and sample from different fruit juices are
used. Table 1 shows the results of the experiment.
Sekumpulan pelajar telah melaksanakan satu eksperimen untuk mengetahui kandungan
vitamin C dalam jus buah yang berbeza. Larutan asid askorbik 0.1% dan sampel jus
buah yang berbeza telah digunakan. Jadual 1 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen
tersebut.

Solution

Initial reading (ml)

Final reading (ml)

The used volume (ml)

Larutan

Bacaan awal (ml)

Bacaan akhir (ml)

Isipadu yang
digunakan (ml)

1.0

2.0

1.0

2.0

3.1

0.9

2.0

4.1

1.9

2.5

5.2

2.3

Ascorbic acid solution


Larutan asid askorbik
X fruit juice
Jus buah X
Y fruit juice
Jus buah Y
Z fruit juice
Jus buah Z

Table 1
Jadual 1

(a) State the type of reaction that cause the DCPIP solution decolourised.
Nyatakan jenis tindak balas yang menyebabkan larutan DCPIP terluntur.

.................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

90

(b) Explain why does the mixture of DCPIP and the ascorbic acid solution or juice sample
cannot be shaken hardly.
Terangkan mengapakah campuran DCPIP dengan larutan asid askorbik atau sampel jus
tidak boleh digoncang dengan kuat.
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
[2 marks ]
(c) Calculate the percentage of vitamin C in fruit juice X and Y.
Hitungkan peratus kandungan vitamin C dalam jus buah X dan Y.

(i)

Fruit juice X
Jus buah X

(ii)

Fruit juice Y
Jus buah Y

[4 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

91

(d) State the relationship between the volume of the fruit juices needed to change the colour
of DCPIP solution with the percentage of vitamin C in the fruit juices.
Nyatakan hubungan antara isipadu jus buah-buahan yang diperlukan untuk perubahan
warna larutan DCPIP dengan peratus vitamin C dalam jus buah-buahan tersebut.

.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
[ 2 marks]
(e) Suggestion not to expose the fruits too long to the sunlight. Based on your knowledge in
Biology, state the relationship between the vitamin C content in fruits and the sunlight
intensity.
Disarankan supaya buah-buahan tidak didedahkan kepada cahaya matahari dengan
terlalu lama. Bersasarkan pengetahuan biologi anda, nyatakan perkaitan antara
kandungan vitamin C dalam buah-buahan dengan keamatan cahaya matahari.

.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
[ 3 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

92

Diagram 2
Rajah 2

2. Diagram 2 shows the set of apparatus used to determine and comparing the energy for
cashew nut and rice. Experimental results are as shown in table below.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan radas yang digunakan untuk menentukan dan membandingkan
kandungan tenaga bagi biji jagus dan nasi. Keputusan eksperimen adalah sepertiman
jaudal di bawah.

Food sample

Cashew Nut

Rice

Sampel makanan

Biji Gajus

Nasi

Mass for each sample


Jisim setiap sampel (g)

Initial Temperature of
water /Suhu awal air

30

30

90

78

(o C)
Final temperature of
water / Suhu akhir air
(o C)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

93

Mass of water / Jisim


air (ml)

20

20

Increase in
temperature / Kenaikan
suhu (o C)

60

48

Diagram 2
Rajah 2

(a) Based on the apparatus arrangement, what is the function of water in this
experiment?
Berdasarkan susunan radas tersebut, apakah peranan air dalam eksperimen itu?
......
[1 markah]
(b) Calculate the energy of cashew nut and rice by using a suitable formula with capacity
heat of water is 4.2 Jg-1 o C-1
Hitungkan nilai tenaga biji jagus dan nasi dengan menggunakan rumus formula yang
sesuai dengan menggunakn muatan haba tentu air ialah 4.2 Jg-1 o C-1

(i)

Cashew Nut / Biji jagus

(ii) Rice / Nasi

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

94

[4 marks]

(c) Based on the above answer, state the relationship between classes of food with the
energy value foe each food sample
Berdasarkan jawapan di atas, nyatakan hubungan antara kelas makanan dengan
nilai tenaganya bagi setiap sampel makanan.
.
..
..
..
[3 marks]

(d) Referring to the above diagram 2 , explain the modification of experimen to get a
correct energy value of food can be achieved
Merujuk kepada Rajah 2 diatas, terangkan pengubahsuaian eksperimen untuk
mendapat nilai tenaga makanan lebih tepat.
..
..
..
..
[2 marks]
(f) If you are a food specialist, explain how you can suggest to a patient is recovering
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

95

from a disease the example of food to be taken to increase the energy level of the
body.
Jika anda adalah seorang pakar pemakanan, terangkan bagaimanakah anda boleh
mencadangkan kepada pesakit yang sedang pulih daripada serangan penyakit
contoh makanan yang boleh diambil untuk meningkatkan paras tenaga di dalam
badan.
.
..
..
..
[2 marks]

SOALAN ESEI:
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

96

1 a.
Food

Protein

Lipid

Carbohydrate

Minerals

Vitamins

Makanan

Protein

Lipid

Karbohidrat

Mineral

Vitamin

(g)

(g)

(g)

Rice

Calsium

Ferum

B1

B2

B3

Kalsium

Ferum

(g)

(g)

(mg)

(mg)

(mg)

(mg)

(mg)

(mg)

6.2

1.0

86.8

0.4

0.08 0.03

1.5

8.0

1.7

54.3

100

1.7

0.18 0.03

2.6

1.4

19.7

0.5

0.08 0.03

1.2

12

18.1

17.1

1.9

0.06 0.19

8.1

12.3

10.9

4.2

100

0.1

155

0.1

0.09 0.47

3.7

3.3

3.8

4.8

120

0.1

44

0.05 0.04 0.15

0.9

0.7

5.4

48

0.6

2000

0.7

Nasi
White
bread
Roti
putih
Potato
Kentang
Meat
Daging
Egg
Telur
Milk
Susu
Carrot

0.06 0.05

Lobak

Table 1: Nutrients content in 100g parts of the eaten food


Jadual 1 : Kandungan Nutrien Per 100g Bahagian Yang Dimakan

Based on Table 1 above, suggest the suitable menu for;


Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

97

Berdasarkan Jadual 1 di atas, cadangkan menu yang sesuai bagi

i) Pregnant mother
Ibu mengandung
ii) Teenager
Remaja

Give the justification for the menu that you choose


Berikan justifikasi untuk menu yang dipilih.
[10 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

98

b) Energy requirement for a girl aged 15 is 9000 kJ daily.


Table 2 shows types of food, quantity and energy content of her daily
menu.
Keperluan tenaga bagi budak perempuan berumur 15 tahun ialah 9000kJ sehari.
Jadual 2 menunjukkan jenis makanan, kuantiti dan kandungan tenaga bagi menu
Hariannya.

Types of food

Quantity taken

Energy Content

(g)

( kJ /100 g )

350

1500

Chips o

150

1000

Roasted Chicken

300

800

Grilled Beef

200

1200

Boiled potato

150

500

Chocolate

100

2500

Yoghurt

200

200

Egg

100

600

Rice
Nasi

Table 2
Jadual 2

Calculate the total energy value taken by the girl daily .


If she continues to take the menu everyday for a long time, explain the
consequences of the habit to her health.
Kirakan jumlah yang tenaga yang diambil oleh budak perempuan itu
sehari. Jika dia berterusan mengambil menu itu setiap hari dalam
jangka masa yang lama, terangkan kesan tabiat itu pada kesihatan.

[ 10 marks ]

2a

Table 1 shows the daily energy requirement for different groups of people.
Jadual 1 menunjukkan keperluan tenaga harian untuk kumpulan individu yang

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

99

berlainan.

Individuals groups
Kumpulan individu

Sedentary work
Moderate work
Heavy work

Daily Energy
Requirement / kJ
Keperluan tenaga
harian / kJ

Carbohydrates
/g
Karbohidrat /
g

Man
Lelaki dewasa
10080
390
11760
455
16380
635

Proteins
/g
Protein /
g

Fats
/g
Lemak /
g

90
105
146

53
62
87

Women
Wanita
Sedentary work
Moderate work
Heavy work
Pregnancy

7980
9420
12600
10500

310
360
490
410

70
85
115
95

42
49
67
56

Up to 2 year
3 to 6 years
7 to 9 years
10 to 12 years

Children
Kanak-kanak
5040
6300
7560
8820

195
245
295
340

45
56
70
80

27
33
40
47

Adolescents
Remaja
13 to 15 yrs. - boys

10500

410

95

56

13 to 15 yrs. girls
16 to 18 yrs. - boys
16 to 18 yrs. girls

9420
12600
9420

360
490
360

82
115
82

49
67
49

Table 3
Jadual 3

i.

What is a balanced diet?


Apakah maksud makanan seimbang?

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

100

[ 2 marks]

ii. Based on Table 3, explain why different groups of people have different daily
energy requirement?
Berdasarkan Jadual 3, terangkan mengapa kumpulan individu yang berlainan
mempunyai keperluan tenaga harian yang berbeza?
[ 8 marks]

b.

Besides the basic nutrients shown in Table 3 , what other nutrients are also
essential to be included in our daily
Selain daripada nutrient asas yang ditunjukkani dijadual 3 apakah nutrient lain yang
perlu di masukkan ke dalam makanan harian kita?
State your answer by giving suitable examples.
Nyatakan jawapan anda dengan memberikan contoh yang sesuai.

[ 4 marks ]

3a

Table 4 shows a daily energy requirement of various individuals.


Jadual 4 menunjukkan keperluan tenaga harian perbagai individu

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

101

INDIVIDUAL

DAILY ENERGY
REQUIREMENT
(kJ)

Very active man

15 100

ii

Breast feeding woman

10 000

iii

Average woman aged 25

9 200

iv

Boy aged 12 15

11 700

Girl aged 12 15

9 600

vi

Child aged 7

7 500

vii

Man aged 70

8 500
Table 4
Jadual 4

Explain the daily energy requirement for any three groups of individual as compared to
that of an average woman aged 25.
Terangkan keperluan tenaga harian bagi mana-mana TIGA kumpulan
individu dibanding dengan se orang perempuan berumur 25 tahun.
[10 Marks]

Based on Table 5, suggest and justify an appropriate menu for each target group:
Berdasarkan Jadual 5. cadangkan dan justifikasikan satu menu yang sesuai untuk
setiap kumpulan yang berikut:

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

102

Food

Prote
in (g)

Lipi
d
(g)

Carbohydr
ate (g)

Minerals

Vitamins

Calciu
m
(mg)

Feru
m
(mg)

A
(g)

D
(g
)

B1
(mg)

Rice

6.2

1.0

86.8

4.0

0.4

0.08

Bread

8.00

1.70

54.30

100.0
0

1.70

0.18

Beef

18.10

17.1
0

7.00

1.90

0.06

Eggs

12.30

10.9
0

4.20

100.0
0

0.10

155.0
0

0.1
0

0.09

Fish

17.40

0.70

16.00

0.50

0.08

Milk

3.30

3.80

4.80

120.0
0

0.10

44.00

0.0
5

0.04

Margari
ne

0.20

81.5
0

4.00

0.30

900.0
0

8.0
0

Orange
s

0.80

8.50

41.00

0.30

8.00

0.10

Yoghurt

5.00

1.00

6.40

180.0
0

0.10

10.00

0.0
2

0.05

Table 5
Jadual 5
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

pregnant mothers
ibu mengandung
people with cardiovascular disease
ibu mengandung
teenagers aged 17
remaja berumur 17 tahun
[10 marks]

TAJUK: NUTRITION
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

103

SUBTAJUK: MALNUTRITION
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
01

Huge amount of food are ingested.


Makan dalam kuantiti yang banyak
This is followed by induced vomiting
Diikuti dengan memuntahkan semula
makanan

The statements above describe the patient suffers from


Pernyataan di atas berkenaan dengan pesakit yang mengalami
A Anorexia nervosa
Anoreksia nervosa
B bulimia
bulimia
C gastritis
gastrik
D obesity
obesiti
02 The following can cause gastric ulcers except
Berikut merupakan penyebab ulser gastrik kecuali
A eating junk food
Makan makanan segera
B drinking alcohol
Minum alkohol
C stress
stress
D irregular meal times
Makan secara tidak tetap
03 The table shows some of the components of the daily diet of Mr. X, and
also the recommended daily intake for a person of his age and
occupation.
Jadual menunjukkan komponen diet harian Encik X dan juga makanan
yang dicadangkan sesuai dengan umur dan pekerjaannya.
Mr Xs diet
Diet Encik X

Energy
Protein
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Calcium
Iron

18.0 MJ
70 g
40 mg
3.5 g
550 mg
10 mg

Recommended
daily intake
Pengambilan
makanan yang
dicadangkan
11.3 MJ
68 g
30 mg
2.5 g
500 mg
10 mg

What will be the likely result, if Mr X continues to eat like this ?


Apakah mungkin akan dihadapi jika Encik X mengamalkan pemakanan di atas
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

104

A. Anaemia
Anamia
B. Obesity
Obesiti
C. Rickets
Riket
D. Scurvy
Skurvi
04. Table 1 shows the average volume of solutions W, X, Y and Z needed to decolourise 1
ml of DCPIP solution.
Jadual 1 menunjukkan purata isipadu larutan W, X, Y dan Z yang diperlukan untuk
melunturkan 1 ml larutan DCPIP
Solution
larutan

Volume of solution to decolourise 1 ml of DCPIP (ml)


Isipadu larutan untuk melunturkan 1 ml DCPIP (ml)

4.7

2.3

3.8

6.5

Which of the solution is best recommended for a person suffering from scurvy?
Larutan yang manakah paling baik disyorkan kepada orang yang mengalami skurvi
A

05.

A child has distended stomach and suffers from diarrhea.


What type of malnutrition does this child suffer from?
Seorang kanak-kanak mempunyai perut buncit dan mengalami cirit birit.
Apakah jenis malnutrisi yang dialami oleh kanak-kanak tersebut.

Kwasyiokor

Kwasyiokor

Obesity
Kegendutan

Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis

Cardiovascular disease.
Penyakit kardiovaskular

A medical check-up shows that a patients pancreas is damaged and has to be removed.
Pemeriksaan kesihatan menunjukkan pankreas seorang pesakit rosak dan perlu dikeluarkan
06. Which of the following should be done by the patient to maintain normal blood sugar
level?
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

105

Apakah yang perlu dilakukan oleh pesakit itu untuk mengekalkan paras gula yang
normal?
A
B
C
D

Take a balanced diet


Mengambil makanan seimbang
Take glucose injections
Mengambil suntikan glukosa
Reduce high intake of calorie food
Mengurangkan makanan berkalori tinggi
Take insulin and glucagon injections
Mengambil suntikan insulin dan glukagon

07. Diagram 4 shows a child suffering from a disease.


Rajah 4 menunjukkan kanak-kanak mengalami sejenis penyakit

Diagram 4

08.

The child suffers the disease because of lack of


Kanak-kanak ini mengalami kekurangan
A
Carbohydrate
C Protein
Karbohidrat
protein
B
Vitamin
D fibre
Vitamin
serat
Diagram 11 shows a healthy diet pyramid.
Rajah 11 menunjukkan pyramid pemakanan sihat.

Diagram 11
Which level of food needs to be taken to avoid constipation?
Makanan pada aras yang manakah perlu diambil untuk mengelak sembelit?
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

106

A
B
C
D

Level 1 / Aras 1
Level 2 / Aras 2
Level 3 / Aras 3
Level 4 / Aras 4

This people may have a normal body mass but experience an intense fear of
gaining weight.
Individu ini selalunya mempunyai berat badan yang normal tetapi sangat takut
menjadi gemuk.

Out of control in consuming food, followed by self-induced vomiting.


Sukar berhenti apabila makan tetapi memuntahkan semula makanan yang dimakan.

This people may die from severe weight loss and undernourished conditions.
Individu mungkin akan mati akibat kehilangan berat badan dan kekurangan nutrien.

09.

Based on the statements above, what is the health problem does the individual most
likely suffering from?
Berdasarkan pernyataan diatas, apakah masalah kesihatan yang dialami oleh individu
tersebut?

Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa

Obesity

Bulimia
Bulimia

Kegemukan

Gastritis
Gastrik

10. Ways to maintain a healthy digestive system include


Cara untuk mengekalkan sistem pencernaan yang sihat termasuklah
I

Good eating habit


Tabiat pemakanan yang baik
II reducing sugar intake
Mengurangkan pengambilan gula
III reducing intake of saturated fats
Mengurangkan pengambilan lemak tepu
IV avoiding junk food
Hindarkan makanan rapu
A.
B.
C.
D.

I and II only
I, III and IV
II, III and IV only
I, II, III and IV.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

107

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1

Table 2 shows the nutrient content of three types of food A, B and C


Jadual 2 menunjukkan kandungan nutrien bagi tiga jenis makanan A, B dan C.

Nutrient content/100g food


Kandungan nutrien/100g
makanan
Carbohydrates
karbohidrat
Fats
Lemak
Proteins
Protein
Vitamin A
Vitamin B1
Vitamin B2
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Iron
Ferum
Calcium
Kalsium
Dietary Fibres
Kandungan serat

A
45.7

Food
Makanan
B
22.1

C
40.0

36.0

10.3

2.5

0.2

15.2

18.4

0
0.05
0.05
0.01
0
0.0012

0
0.078
0.082
0.2
0.048
0.001

0.152
0.12
0.15
0.2
0.055
0.0066

0.01

0.0028

0.0039

2.4

8.7

Table 2
(a)

(i)

In your opinion, which food has the highest energy value?


Pada pendapat anda, makanan manakah mempunyai nilai tenaga paling
tinggi ?
______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(ii)

Give a reason for your answer.


Beri alasan jawapan anda.
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(b)

State three effects of excessive intake of food A as a result of its high fat
content.
Nyatakan 3 kesan pengambilan makanan A berlebihan yang mengakibatkan
kandungan lemak yang tinggi
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

108

[3 marks]

(c)

(i)

(ii)

Which food can help a person to prevent night blindness?


Makanan manakah membantu seseorang mengelakkan rabun malam?
______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
Name the nutrient which helps prevent night blindness.
Namakan nutrien yang membantu mengelakkan rabun malam
______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(d)

Food A is rich in calcium. However, a person who has not been eating food A is
found to be deficient in calcium. Suggest a possible reason for the deficiency.
Makanan A kaya dengan kalsium. Oleh itu seseorang yang tidak mengambil
makanan A mengalami kekurangan kalsium. Cadangkan alasan sesuai kekurangan
tersebut.

_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
(e)

(f)

Food C is deficient in dietary fibres. What problem would be faced by a person


whose usual diet is food C?
Makanan C kekurangan serat. Apakah masalah yang akan dihadapi oleh seseorang
yang selalu mengambil makanan C?
______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
Which food would you recommend for a person who is anaemic?. Give a reason for
your answer.
Apakah makanan yang dicadangkan untuk pesakit anemia? Beri alasan jawapan
anda.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

SOALAN ESEI:

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

109

1. Table 1 shows a daily food intake by a teenager.


Jadual 1 menunjukkan pengambilan makanan harian seorang remaja.

Breakfast / sarapan

Lunch / makan tengahari

Dinner/makan malam

Full cream milk

Fried noodles

Pasta with cream sauce

Susu penuh krim

Mee goreng

Pasta dengan sos krim

Fried egg

Fried chicken

Cream of mushroom soup

Telur goreng

Ayam goreng

Sup cendawan berkrim

Fried sausage

Ice cream

Cheese Cake

Sosej goreng

Ais krim

Kek keju

Carbonated soft drink


Minuman berkarbonat

Table 1
Jadual 1

a) Suggest two health problems which that teenager could have if she continuously
taking the above menu for a long time. Explain your answers.
Cadangkan dua masalah kesihatan yang dihadapi oleh remaja tersebut sekiranya ia
mengambil menu itu dalam jangka masa panjang. Terangkan jawapan anda.

[4 marks]
b) Explain ways to improve daily food intake by stating the reasons for your choice
of food.
Terangkan cara-cara memperbaiki pengambilan makanan dengan menyatakan alasan
pemilihan tersebut.

[6 marks]

2. Diagram 6.4 shows the daily menu taken by a teenage boy aged 15 .
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

110

Rajah 6.4 menunjukkan menu harian yang diambil oleh seorang remaja lelaki
berumur 15 tahun
Carbonated
drink
[

Oil
Minyak

]
Banana
Pisang

Cheese
[keju]

Vegetable
[Sayur]
Meat
[Daging]
Diagram 6.4
Rajah 6.4

Explain whether the menu is suitable for the boy.


Explain the consequences to his health if he continues taking the daily menu for a long time .
Terangkan sama ada menu itu sesuai bagi budak lelaki tersebut.
Terangkan kesan kaetas kesihatanya jika dia terus mengambil menu harian tersebut dalam
satu jangka masa yang panjang
[ 5 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

111

TAJUK: NUTRITION
SUBTAJUK: FOOD DIGESTION
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1

The diagram shows a part of human digestive system.


Diagram menunjukkan sebahagian daripada sistem pencernaan manusia

What will happens if tube X is blocked?


Apakah yang akan berlaku jika tiub x tersumbat?
A The digestion of fat will decrease.
Pencernaan lemak akan berkurangan
B The digestion of carbohydrate will decrease
Pencernaan karbohidrat akan berkurangan
C Digested food cannot be carried to the liver
Makanan tercerna tidak akan dibawa ke hati
D No enzyme can go into the duodenum
Tiada enzim yang dirembeskan ke dudenum

2
.

The diagram shows the four chambered stomach of a ruminant.


Rajah menunjukkan empat ruang perut bagi ruminan.

Which of the following is not a correct match about each chamber and its function?
Yang manakah berikut tidak benar tentang ruang perut dan fungsinya ?
A
M - Rumen, mutualistic bacteria digest cellulose.
M - rumen, bakteria mutualistik mencerna selulosa
B
N - Omasum, the regurgitated food in the mouth is passed into the
omasum.
N - Omasum, makanan yang dikunyah semula dihantar ke omasum
C
O - Reticulum, the partially digested food is formed into balls and
regurgitated into the mouth for chewing.
O - retikulum, makanan separa cerna akan dibentuk bebola dan
dihantar semula ke mulut untuk dikunyah
D
P - Duodenum, the digested products are absorbed.
P dudenum, hasil pencernaan diserap
3

Four different tests were carried out on food a sample P . The results are shown in the

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

112

table below.
Empat ujian berlainan dilakukan untuk sampel P. Keputusan ujian ditunjukkan dalam
jadual di bawah
Test tube
Food Test
Results
Tabung uji
Ujian makanan
keputusan
W

DCPIP test
Ujian DCPIP
X
Benedicts test
Ujian Benedict
Y
Biuret test
Ujian biuret
Z
Iodine test
Ujian Iodin
The food sample P contains
Sampel makanan P mengandungi

Colourless solution
Larutan tak berwarna
Blue solution
Larutan biru
Purple colour
Larutan ungu
Brown solution
Larutan perang

starch
kanji
II protein
protien
III reducing sugar
Gula penurun
IV vitamin C
Vitamin C
A I and III
B II and IV
C I, II and III
D I, II, III and IV

The figure shows the digestion of proteins.


Rajah menunjukkan pencernaan protein
enzyme Y
Protein + water

polypeptides

Which of the following is enzyme Y?


Yang manakah antara berikut adalah enzim Y?
A Rennin
B Pepsin
C Lipase
D Peptidase

Figure below shows a longitudinal section of a villus.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

113

Rajah menunjukkan keratan rentas satu vilus

Nutrients that can be found in Z are,


Nutrien yang terdapat di z adalah,
I
II
III
IV

glucose
vitamin C
vitamin D
amino acid

A
B
C
D

I,II and III


I,II and IV
II,III and IV
I,II,III and IV

6.
P

S
R

FIGURE 2
Figure shows a ruminant digestive system.
Which of the part P, Q, R and S contains large communities of bacteria and protozoa?
Rajah menunjukkan sistem pencernaan haiwan ruminan. Bahagian yang manakah P,Q,
R dan S mengandungi banyak komuniti bakteria dan protozoa
A. P and Q only
B. Q and R only
C. R and S only
D. P and S only

7. Diagram 3 shows human digestive system.


Rajah 3 menunjukkan sistem pencernaan manusia.
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

114

B
C
D

Diagram 3
Which part A, B, C or D, fat is started to be digested?
Antara bahagian A, B, C atau D, di manakah lemak mula dicernakan?
8. The diagram shows part of the human alimentary canal.
Rajah menunjukkan sebahagian dari sistem pencernaan manusia

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

115

Which two structures produce substances involved in the digestion of fat ?


Nyatakan dua struktur menghasilkan bahan yang melibatkan pencernaan lemak?
A.
B.
C.
D.

P and T
Q and R
R and S
S and T

9. The diagram shows the structure of a vilus in the small intestine. The arrows show the
direction of flow of fluids.
Rajah menunjukkan struktur satu vilus dalam usus kecil. Anak panah menunjukkan arah
pengaliran cecair.
Where will fatty acids and glycerol be present in the largest amounts ?
Di manakah asid lemak dan gliserol dihasilkan dalam jumlah yang banyak.

10. The table below shows the observation made during some food tests carried out on
a sample.
Jadual di bawah menunjukkan pemerhatian bagi ujian makanan ke atas sampel

Test for protein


Biuret test
Ujian untuk protein
Ujian Biuret

Test for reducing


Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor sugar
2013
Benedicts solution
Ujian gula penurun
Larutan Benedict

Observation
Purple color
Pemerhatian
Warna ungu

Observation
Light blue
colour
Pemerhatian
Biru muda

116

Observation
Dark blue colour
Pemerhatian
Warna biru tua

Test for starch


Iodine test
Ujian untuk kanji
Ujian Iodin

Based on these results, which of the following conclusions about the food is correct?
Berdasarkan keputusan ujian, yang manakah merupakan kesimpulan ujian yang betul?
Protein
Protein

Reducing sugars
Gula penurun

Starch
Kanji

Present
Ada

Absent
Tiada

Present
Ada

Present
Ada

Present
Ada

Absent
Tiada

Absent
Tiada

Present
Ada

Absent
Tiada

Absent
Tiada

Absent
Tiada

Present
Ada

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1. Figure 1 shows a blood vessel (Q) linking a part of the alimentary canal (P) with an
organ (R) in the abdomen.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan saluran darah Q menyambungkan saluran pencernaan P
dengan organ R dalam abdomen.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

117

Figure 2

a) (i) Identify P, Q and R


Nyatakan P,Q dan R
P:
Q: ..
R: .
(3 marks)
(ii) What type of blood vessel is S ?
Apakah jenis salur darah S ?
.

(1 mark)

b) State the changes in the composition of the blood in Q shortly after a meal has
been eaten which contains protein and carbohydrate.
Nyatakan perubahan komposisi darah dalam Q sejurus selepas mengambil makanan
yang mengandungi protein dan karbohidrat.
...................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
(2 marks)

c) How does the organ R regulate the excess of the end products of protein and
carbohydrate digestion that are brought there by blood vessel Q?
Bagaimanakah organ R mengawalatur hasil pencernaan berlebihan bagi protein dan
karbohidrat yang dibawa oleh salur darah Q?

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

118

..........................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................

(4 marks)

2. Diagram 2 shows several parts of the human digestive system P, Q, R, S, T and U.


Rajah 2 menunjukkan beberapa bahagian pada sistem pencernaan manusia P, Q, R,
S, T dan U.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

119

Diagram 2
(a) Choose the letter that labels the part where each of the following hydrolysis
reaction takes place.
Pilih huruf yang dilabelkan menunjukkan bahagian manakah hidrolisis berikut
berlaku
(i)

Protein

peptides

(ii)

Starch

maltose

[2 marks]
(b) The structure T in Diagram 2 has numerous projections. Draw and label a
longitudinal section of one of these projections in the space below.
Struktur T dalam rajah 2 mempunyai banyak unjuran. Lukis dan label keratin
rentas satu daripada unjuran ini dalam ruangan di bawah.

[2 marks]
(c) (i) State the process that occurs in the projection drawn in (b).
Nyatakan proses yang berlaku dalam unjuran yang dilukis dalam b(i)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

120

(iii)

State one characteristic of the structure T that will help the process in (c)
(i) to
function efficiently.
Nyatakan satu sifat pada struktur T yang membantu proses dalam c(i)
dengan lebih berkesan

[2 marks]

(d) As a Doctor you have confirmed that a patient is suffering from a disease. Organ
S of the patient has to be removed.
Sebagai seorang doctor, anda telah mengesahkan pesakit itu mengalami sejenis
penyakit. Organ S pesakit itu perlu dikeluarkan.
(i)

What explanation would you give to the patient?


In your explanation state the effects of the removal of organ S on enzymes
and hormones, and how these affect the digestion and the level of glucose in
the blood.
Apakah penjelasan yang anda perlu berikan kepada pesakit tersebut? Dalam
penjelasan tersebut, nyatakan kesan mengeluarkan organ S ke atas enzim
dan hormone, dan sejauh mana kesannya kepada pencernaan dan paras
glukosa dalam darah.

[4 marks]

(ii)

What advice can you give to the patient to help him handle health problems
that may arise from the removal of organ S?
Apakah nasihat anda kepada pesakit tersebut dalam membantunya
mengatasi masalah kesihatan akibat pembuangan organ S?

..
[2 marks]

SOALAN ESEI:
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

121

6.

Diagram 6.1 shows three organisms J,K and L


Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan tiga organisma J,K dan L

Diagram 6.1

(a) (i) Name the type of nutrition carried out by organism J and L.
Namakan jenis nutrisi yang dinamalkan oleh J dan L.
[ 2 mark]
(ii) Compare and contrast the alimentary canals of organisms K and L.
Bandingkan dan bezakan salur pencernaany bagi organisma K dan L.
[ 4 mark]

(b) Diagram 6.2 shows a structure found in human digestive system.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

122

Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan satu struktur yang terdapat dalam sistem

pencernaan

manusia.

Diagram 6.2
State the adaptive characteristics of the structure for the absobption of the
digested food.
Nyatakan ciri-ciri penyesuaian struktur ini untuk penyerapan makanan tercerna.
[ 4 marks ]

TAJUK : Chapter 6 : Nutrition


SUBTAJUK: 6.5 Absorption and assimilation of digested food
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

123

1. Which of the following digested food used to build enzymes and hormones?
Manakah antara berikut digunakan untuk menghasilkan enzim dan hormon?
A Glucose
Glukosa
B Amino acid
Acid amino
C Galaktose
Galaktosa
D Fatty acid
Asid lemak

2. Which of the following blood vessel involved in transporting lipid from small intestine to
the heart?
Manakah antara salur darah berikut yang mengangkut lipid dari usus kecil ke jantung?
A Hepatic portal vein.
Vena portal hepa
B Aorta
Aorta
C Pulmonary vein
Vena pulmonari
D Subclavian vein
Vena subklavian.

3. Excess glucose are stored in muscle in form of


Glukosa berlebihan disimpan didalam otot dalam bentuk
A Glycogen
Glikogen
B Amino acid
Acid amino
C Glycerol
Glicerol
D Fatty acid
Asid lemak

4. Which of the following which is not the function of liver?


Manakah antara berikut yang bukan fungsi hati?
A Assimilation
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

124

Asimilasi
B Enzyme production
Penghasilan enzim
C Detoxification
Penyahtoksik
D Deamination
Deaminasi

5. What is the disease might occur if a person eats too much protein in his diet?
Apakah penyakit yang mungkin dihidapi oleh seseorang yang mengambil terlalu banyak
protein dalam diet?
A

Marasmus
Marasmus

Kwashiokor
Kwasiokor

Costipation
Sembelit

Kidney failure
Sakit buah pinggang

6. Which of the following is the function of assimilated glucose in cell?


Manakah antara berikut merupakan kegunaan glukosa yang diasimilasikan oleh sel?
A formation of plasma membrane
Penghasilan membrane plasma
B repairing damage tissue
Membaikpulih tisu yang rosak
C production of energy
Penghasilan tenaga
D Production of enzyme
Penghasilan enzim.

7. What will happen to the by-product of deamination process?


Apakah yang akan berlaku kepada hasil sampingan proses deaminasi?
A Excreted out by kidney
Dinyahkeluar oleh ginjal
B Return back to small intestine,
Dikembalikan semula ke dalam usus kecil
C Act as main component of enzyme.
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

125

Bertindak sebagai komponen utama enzim


D Stored in cell
Disimpan dalam sel

8. The glycogen is formed from


Glycogen dihasilkan daripada
A Glucose
Glukosa
B Amino acid
Acid amino
C Glycerol
Glicerol
D Fatty acid
Asid lemak

9. Lipid is important for


Lipid penting untuk
I penghasilan tenaga
Energy production
II cushioning the internal organ
Menyerap hentakan bagi organ dalaman
III formation of plasma membran
Pembentukkan membran plasma
IV synthesis of antibodies
Penghasilan antibodi
A I, II and III only
I, II dan III sahaja
B I, III and IV only
I, III dand IV sahaja
C II, III and IV only
II, III dan IV sahaja
D I, II, III and IV
I, II, III dan IV sahaja

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1. Explain the process of deamination
Terangkan proses deaminasi
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

126

...............................................................................................................................................
(4 marks/4 markah)
2. Describe the process of assimilation of amino acid in cell
Terangkan proses asimilasi amino asid dalam sel
...............................................................................................................................................
`
(4 marks/4 markah)
SOALAN ESEI:
1. Diagram 1 shows the asimilation process.
.

Explain the assimilation of glucose in liver and cells.


Terangkan proses asimilasi glukosa dalam hati dan sel.
(6 marks/ 6 markah)
2..
The young generation in this country always takes the fast food such as fried
chicken and burger which contain high amout of protein.
Generasi muda gemar mengambil makanan segera seperti ayam goreng dan
burger yang mempunyai kandungan protein yang tinggi.

Explain a disease which might occur due to this bad eating habit.
Terangkan sejenis penyakit yang mungkin dihadapi akibat dari tabiat makanan tersebut,
(6 marks/ 6 markah)
TAJUK
SUBTAJUK

: Chapter 6 : Nutrition
: 6.6 Formation of Faeces and Defaecation

SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

127

1. Which of the following is the importances of microorganism present in colon?


Manakah antara berikut merupakan kepentingan mikroorganisma dalam kolon?
I produce antibiotics
Menghasilkan antibiotics
II produce vitamin
Menghasilkan vitamin
III produce enzymes
Menghasilkan enzim
IV Produce hormone
Menghasilkan hormon

A I, and II only
I, dan II sahaja
B I, II and III only
I, II dan III sahaja
C II, and IV only
II dan IV sahaja
D II, III and IV only
II, III dan IV sahaja

2. Which of the following substances are found in faeces?


Manakah antara berikut terdapat dalam tinja?
I Indigestible fibre
Serat tak tercerna
II Dead cells of intestinal lining
Sel mati dari permukaan usus

III Bile pigment


Pigmen hempedu
IV Toxic substances
Bahan toxic

A I, II and III only


I, II dan III sahaja
B I, III and IV only
I, III dand IV sahaja
C II, III and IV only
II, III dan IV sahaja
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

128

D I, II, III and IV


I, II, III dan IV sahaja

3. Which of the following food can help to prevent constipation?


Makanan yang manakah dapat membantu mengelakkan sembelit?
A Rice
Nasi
B Fish
Ikan
C Fruits
Buah-buahan
D Butter
Mentega

4. The faeces become hard and difficult to expelled is known as


Tinja menjadi keras dan sukar untuk dikeluarkan dinamakan
A

Assimilation
Asimilasi

Kwashiokor
Kwasiokor

Marasmus
Marasmus

Constipation
Sembelit

5. Haemoroids are caused by


Penyakit buasir disebabkan oleh
A
too much pressure in the rectum
Tekanan yang terlalu kuat keatas rektum
B

too much contraction of anus


Pengecutan anus yang terlalu kuat

too less pressure in the rectum


Tekanan yang terlalu lemah keatas rektum

too less contraction of anus


Pengecutan anus yang terlalu lemah

SOALAN ESEI:
1. Diagram 4 shows food which contain a lot of fibres.
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

129

Explain how fibre reduce the risk of constipation.


Terangkan bagaimana serat dapat mengurangkan risiko sembelit.

(5 marks / 5 markah)

TAJUK: Chapter 6 : Nutrition


SUBTAJUK: 6.7 : Eating Habit
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

130

6.8 : The importance of a healthy digestive system


SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1. Severely starved adults become very thin. It is because
Orang dewasa yang menahan lapar akan menjadi terlalu kurus. Ini adalah kerana
A they do not have enough energy for growth
mereka tidak mempunyai cukup tenaga untuk membesar
B they break down body tissues to release energy
mereka memecahkan tisu badan untuk membebaskan tenaga
C they do not have excess carbohydrates to convert into fat
mereka tidak mempunyai karbohidrat berlebihan untuk ditukarkan kepada lemak
D they do not have enough carbon to build up body tissues
mereka tidak mempunyai cukup karbon untuk membina tisu badan

2. A hypertension patient is advised to


Pesakit hipertensi dinasihatkan untuk
I increase sodium intake
meningkatkan pengambilan garam
II eat less processed meat products
kurangkan makan hasil daging yang diproses
III eat more red meat
lebihkan makan daging merah
IV avoid alcohol and smoking
elakkkan alkohol dan merokok
A I and III only
I dan III sahaja
B II and IV only
II dan IV sahaja
C I, II and III only
I, II dan III sahaja
D II, III and IV only
II, III dan IV sahaja

3. Which dietary imbalance does not lead to the health problem stated?
Pemakanan tidak seimbang yang manakah tidak membawa kepada masalah kesihatan
yang dinyatakan.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

131

A
B
C
D

Dietary Imbalance
Pemakanan tidak seimbang
Lack of fresh fruit
Kurang buah-buahan segar
Lack of milk and cod liver oil
Kekurangan susu dan minyak hati ikan kod
Too many sweets and cakes
Terlalu banyak gula dan kek
Too much full-fat cheese and fried food
Terlalu banyak lemak keju dan nasi goreng

Health Problem
Masalah kesihatan
Constipation and scurvy
Sembelit dan skurvi
Rickets and diarrhea
Riket dan cirit-birit
Anaemia and rickets
Anemia dan riket
Chronic heart disease
Penyakit jantung yang kronik

4. What is the role of cellulose in the diet of man?


Apakah peranan selulosa dalam gizi manusia?
A Provides minerals to the bacteria in the intestine
Membekalkan garam mineral kepada bakteria dalam usus
B As a medium for the action of the intestinal muscles
Menyediakan satu medium untuk otot usus bertindak
C As a group of carbohydrates
Adalah satu sumber karbohidrat
D Helps to absorb water in the rectum
Membantu penyerapan air dalam rektum

5. When a doctor examined a child patient, he found the following symptoms:


Apabila doktor memeriksa seorang pesakit kanak-kanak dia mendapati simptom-simptom
berikut:
Bloated stomach
Perut yang besar
Weak body
Badan yang lemah
Retarded body and brain growth
Pertumbuhan badan dan otak yang terencat

Which class of food is lacking in the childs diet and what disease is he suffering from?
Kekurangan kelas makanan yang manakah terdapat di dalam pemakanan kanak-kanak
tersebut dan apakah penyakit yang dia hidapi?

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

132

A
B
C
D

Class of food
Kelas makanan
Carbohydrates
Karbohidrat
Proteins
Protein
Proteins
Protein
Minerals
Mineral

Disease
Penyakit
Marasmus
Marasmus
Kwashiokor
Kwasiokor
Marasmus
Marasmus
Rickets
Riket

6. Good eating habits ensure good health. Beside eating regular meals, the types of food are
also important. Which of the following statements is not true?
Tabiat pemakanan yang baik memastikan kesihatan yang baik. Selain makan makanan
yang rutin, jenis makanan juga adalah penting. Yang manakah di antara berikut tidak
benar?
A suitable mineral salts
garam mineral yang sesuai
B High amount of calories
jumlah kalori yang tinggi
C sufficient water and roughage
air dan pelawas yang mencukupi
D contains fats, carbohydrates and proteins
mengandungi lemak, karbohidrat dan protein

7. Which of the following selections of food is not true?


Yang manakah di antara pilihan makanan berikut tidak benar?
A A pregnant woman needs 10,000 kJ for herself and her baby
Wanita mengandung perlukan 10,000 kJ untuk dirinya dan bayinya
B Intake of alcohol should be avoided during foetal development
Pengambilan alcohol perlu dielakkan semasa perkembangan janin
C Iron is needed to form the red blood cells of the baby and to replace red blood cells
during birth
Besi diperlukan untuk membentuk sel darah merah bayi dan untuk menggantikan sel
darah merah semasa kelahiran.
D Mineral salts like magnesium and phosphorus are important for the formation of teeth
and bones of the foetus
Garam mineral seperti magnesium dan fosforus adalah penting untuk pembentukan gigi
dan tulang janin.

8. The following are the diseases caused by unhealthy eating habits except
Yang berikut adalah penyakit yang disebabkan oleh tabiat pemakanan yang tidak sihat
kecuali
A gastritis
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

133

gastrik
B obesity
obesiti
C anorexia nervosa
anoreksia nervosa
D hemorrhoids
buasir
9. Figure 1 shows a common defecation related problem
Rajah 1 menunjukkan sembelit yang berkaitan dengan satu masalah

Buasir
Figure 1
Rajah 1
The problem can be prevented by
Masalah ini boleh diatasi dengan
I exercising regularly
senaman berterusan
II drinking plenty of water
minum air yang banyak
III taking high fibre diet
mengambil pemakanan yang berserat tinggi
IV defecating regularly
penyahtinjaan berterusan
A I, II and III only
I, II dan III sahaja
B I, III and IV only
I, III dand IV sahaja
C II, III and IV only
II, III dan IV sahaja
D I, II, III and IV
I, II, III dan IV sahaja

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1. Table 1 contains information about the nutrients requires for a healthy body.
Jadual 1 mengandungi maklumat tentang nutrient yang diperlukan untuk badan yang
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

134

sihat.
(a) Complete Table 1 by writing one appropriate answer in each blank box.
Lengkapkan jadual 1 dengan menulis satu jawapan yang betul dalam setiap kotak
kosong.
(3 marks/3 markah)
Nutrient
Nutrisi

Require for
Diperlukan untuk

Deficiency disease
Penyakit

Calcium
Kalsium
(ii)

(i)

Rickets
Riket
Scurvy
Skurvi

Iron
Besi

Maintenance of cartilage bones


and gums
Penjagaan rawan tulang dan gusi
(iii)

Anaemia
Anemia

(b) Give two reason why exercise is good for us.


Berikan dua sebab mengapa senaman baik untuk kita.
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(2 marks/2 markah)

(c) Explain how diet rich in carbohydrates can lead to obesity.


Jelaskan bagaimana pemakanan yang kaya dengan karbohidrat boleh membawa kepada
obesiti.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
(2 marks/2 markah)
(d) Obesity has harmful effects on the body.
Obesiti memberi kesan merbahaya kepada tubuh badan.
Describe the effects of obesity on the heart and circulatory system.
Huraikan kesan-kesan obesity kepada jantung dan sistem peredaran
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
(3 marks/3 markah)

(e) Suggest two ways of maintaining a healthy digestive system


Cadangkan dua cara untuk megekalkan kesihatan sistem pencernaan.
.............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

135

(2 marks/2 markah)
SOALAN ESEI:
1. a)
.
Malaysian families eat out very often because working parents do not have time to
prepare home cooked food. These eating habits lead to many health problems.
Keluarga di Malaysia selalunya makan di luar kerana ibubapa yang bekerja tidak
mempunyai masa untuk memasak makanan di rumah. Tabiat makan ini membawa
kepada terlalu banyak masalah kesihatan.

Imagine that you are preparing a talk on Good eating habits for group of parents, discuss
some good eating habits that you may want to educate them.
Bayangkan anda sedang menyediakan ceramah tentang Tabiat makan yang baik untuk
beberapa kumpulan ibubapa. Bincangkan beberapa tabiat makan yang baik yang boleh
mendidik mereka.
(10 marks/ 10 markah)
b) a)Diagram 1 shows three types of food.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan tiga jenis makanan.

Explain the long term consuming effects of consuming excess of these foods on an
individuals health.
Terangkan kesan jangka masa panjang pengambilan makanan-makanan tersebut yang
berlebihan ke atas kesihatan individu.
(10 marks/10 markah)

2. a) (i)
Poor eating habits result in health problems such as obesity, anaemia, and constipation
Tabiat makan yang buruk membawa kepada masalah seperti obesiti, anemia dan
sembelit.
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

136

Based on the statement above, state the causes and suggest ways on how to
overcome the health problem mentioned.
Berdasarkan pernyataan di atas, nyatakan sebab dan cadangkan cara bagaimana
untuk mengatasi masalah kesihatan tersebut.
(6 marks/6 markah)

(ii)

Poor eyesight at night


Penglihatan malam yang teruk
Face and skin looking pale
Muka dan kulit kelihatan pucat
Suffers from goiter
Menghidapi goiter

If the following symptoms occur to a person, explain how he is able to overcome these
symptoms by changing his diet.
Jika simptom-simptom berikut berlaku pada seseorang, jelaskan bagaimana dia boleh
mengelakkan symptom-simptom tersebut dengan mengubah dietnya.
(4 marks/ 4 markah)
b)
A healthy diet contains many types of nutrients important for a healthy body.
Pemakanan yang sihat mengandungi pelbagai jenis makanan yang penting untuk
kesihatan badan.

Write a report on the nutrient content and benefits to health, for each of the following food:
Tuliskan laporan tentang kandungan nutrient dan kebaikannya kepada kesihatan bagi
setiap makanan berikut:
(i) Meat
Daging
(ii) Potatoes and unpolished rice
Kentang dan beras tanpa kanji
(iii) Green vegetables and oranges
Sayuran hijau dan oren
(10 markah/10 marks)
TAJUK: NUTRITION
SUBTAJUK: The importance of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in Plants.
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

137

1.

Which of the following symptoms can be observed in a plant that is grown in soil
deficient in magnesium?
Yang manakah di antara berikut adalah tanda-tanda yang boleh diperhatikan pada
tumbuhan yang ditanam di dalam tanah yang kekurangan unsur magnesium?
I Poor root growth (Pertumbuhan akar sedikit)
II leaves become cupped (Daun jadi melengkung)
III Red spots on leave surfaces (Tompokan merah pada permukaan daun)
IV Yellowing between veins of leaves (kekuningan di celah urat daun)
A I and II only
C
I, II and III only
B II and IV only
D
II, III and IV only

2.

Which macronutrient is correctly matched to its function?


Makronutrien manakah yang betul dipadankan dengan fungsinya?

3.

Macronutrient
Makronutrien
Calcium

Phosphorus

Sulphur

Nitrogen

Function
Fungsi
Formation of spindle fibres during cell division
Pembentukan gentian gelendung semasa pembahagian sel.
Synthesis of carbohydrates
Sintesis karbohidrat
For rapid stem and leaf growth
Untuk pertumbuhan pesat batang dan daun
As a coenzyme in respiration
Sebagai koenzim dalam respirasi

The following information describes the condition of plant Y.


Maklumat berikut menerangkan keadaan tumbuhan Y
Poor root growth.
Pertumbuhan akar yang sedikit
Dark green leaves
Daun menjadi hijau tua
Plant Y probably lacks of
Pokok Y mungkin kekurangan
A Copper (Kuprum)
B Carbon (Karbon)

C
D

Phosphorus (Fosforus)
Magnesium (Magnesium)

4.

The growth of plant Y is stunted. Plant Y is probably deficient in


Pertumbuhan pokok Y terbantut. Pokok Y berkemungkinan kekurangan
I Copper (Kuprum)
II Sulphur (Sulfur)
III Nitrogen (Nitrogen)
IV Manganese (Mangan)
A I and II only
C
II and IV only
B I and III only
D
III and IV only

5.

Table below shows two types of mineral which are needed by green plants.
Jadual 1 menunjukkan dua kumpulan mineral yang diperlukan oleh tumbuhan hijau.
P
Q
Calcium, Potassium and Sulphur
Boron, Copper and Iron
Kalsium, kalium dan sulfur
Boron, kuprum dan ferum

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

138

Table 1
Jadual 1
Which of the following is NOT true regarding to the minerals shown?
Manakah di antara berikut TIDAK benar mengenai mineral yang ditunjukkan?

A
B

6.

P
Needed in large quantity
Diperlukan dalam jumlah yang besar
Affects the general growth of plants
Mempengaruhi pertumbuhan pokok
secara am.
Elements required by plants in
relatively large amounts.
Diperlukan dalam jumlah yang besar.
Needed in small quantity
Diperlukan dalam jumlah yang sedikit

Q
Needed in small quantity
Diperlukan dalam jumlah yang sedikit
Affects certain growth aspects
Mempengaruhi aspek pertumbuhan
tertentu pokok.
Elements required by plants in small
quantities.
Diperlukan dalam jumlah yang banyak
Needed in large quantity
Diperlukan dalam jumlah yang banyak

Diagram below shows the structure of a leaf.


Rajah di bawah menunjukkan struktur daun.
A

If the plant is deficient in Nitrogen, which part of the leaf is affected?


Jika pokok kekurangan nitrogen, bahagian daun yang manakah yang terjejas?

7.

The following information is regarding the function and deficiency of nutrient Q in plants.
.Maklumat berikut adalah mengenai fungsi dan kekurangan mineral Q terhadap
tumbuhan.

Acts as an cofactor for many enzymes.


Bertindak sebagai pengaktif bagi kebanyakan enzim.
Lack of mineral Q causes yellow-edged of leaves
Kekurangan mineral Q menyebabkan tepi daun menjadi
Hak cipta PPMPkekuningan.
BIO Johor 2013

139

What is mineral Q?
Apakah mineral Q?
A Copper (Kuprum)
B Manganese (Mangan)

C
D

Potassium (Potassium)
Magnesium (Magnesium)

8.

Which of the following is able to determine if an element is necessary for plant growth?
Manakah di antara berikut boleh menentukan samada sesuatu unsur itu diperlukan
untuk pertumbuhan pokok?
A Chemical analysis of plant ash.
Analisis kimia abu tumbuhan.
B Growth of a plant by hydroponics without an element.
Pertumbuhan pokok melalui kaedah hidroponik tanpa kehadiran satu unsur tertentu.
C Measuring the weight of the plant and soil before and after plant growth
Mengukur berat pokok dan tanah sebelum dan selepas pertumbuhan.
D Measuring the amount of the element in the soil before and after plant growth.
Mengukur jumlah unsur di dalam tanah sebelum dan selepas pertumbuhan.

9.

An experiment is carried out to study the effect of deficiency of macronutrients. The


aquatic plant, Lemna which has green leaves is grown in solution X and solution Y. After
six weeks, the observation are as shown in Table 1. Which of the following is true about
solution X and solution Y?
Satu eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji kesan kekurangan makronutrien.
Tumbuhan akuatik berdaun hijau iaitu Lemna sp. telah dipelihara di dalam larutan X dan
Y. Selepas 6 minggu, pemerhatian direkodkan seperti di dalam jadual 1 di bawah. Yang
manakah di antara berikut adalah benar mengenai larutan X dan larutan Y?

Observation after 6 weeks


Solution
Larutan

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

Pemerhatian selepas 6 minggu


Number of leaves

Colour of leaves

Jumlah bilangan
daun

Warna daun

Same

Yellow

Sama

Kuning

More

Yellow

Lebih banyak

Kuning
140

Table 1
Jadual 1
Solution X
Solution Y
A
No phosphorus
No nitrogen
B
No magnesium
No phosphorus
C
No nitrogen
No phosphorus
D
No nitrogen
No magnesium
10. Diagram below shows the apparatus set up of an experiment to study the need of
nutrient for plant growth.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan radas eksperimen bagi mengkaji keperluan nutrien untuk
pertumbuhan pokok.

Tube X is connected to an air pump. What is the function of tube X?


Tiub X disambungkan ke pam udara. Apakah fungsi tiub X?
A To add nutrient to the culture solution
Untuk menambah nutrien di dalam larutan kultur.
B To add oxygen to the culture solution
Untuk menambah oksigen kepada larutan kultur.
C To remove water from the culture solution
Untuk membuang air daripada larutan kultur
D To remove microorganisms from the culture solution
Untuk membuang mikroorganisma daripada larutan kultur.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

141

SOALAN STRUKTUR
1

Table 2 shows an experiment to study the effects of the lack of nutrient in plants.
Bottle
1

0.8 g/ l calcium nitrate

NaNO3

0.2 g / l calcium nitrate

KCl

0.2 g / l magnesium sulphate

K2SO4

Ferrum phosphate

1000 cm3 distilled water

Salt

0.2g / l potassium dihydrogen


phosphate

(a)

TABLE 2
Which of the bottles contained a complete Knops culture solution?

[1 mark ]
(b)

State the mineral nutrients that are not present in the following bottles:
Bottle 1:
Bottle 2:
Bottle 5:

[3 marks]
(c)

Give one function of


i
Phosphorus

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

142

ii

Magnesium

[2 marks]

SOALAN ESEI:
1

Ali found that the leaves of papaya plants turn dark green with red spots. He suspects
this is one of the symptoms of macronutrient deficiencies. Based on your biological
knowledge, design a laboratory experiment to determine the effects of macronutrient
deficiencies in plants.
Ali mendapati daun-daun tanaman betiknya berwarna hijau tua dan berbintik merah. Dia
mengesyaki ini merupakan salah satu simptom kekurangan makronutrien. Berdasarkan
pengetahuan biologi anda, rancang satu eksperimen untuk mengenalpasti kesan-kesan
kekurangan makronutrien dalam tumbuhan.
The planning of your experiment must include the following aspect:
Perancangan eksperimen anda hendaklah meliputi aspek-aspek berikut:

Problem statement
Penyataan masalah

Hypothesis
Hipotesis

Variables
Pembolehubah

Listof materials and apparatus


Senarai bahan dan radas

Experimental procedures
Prosedur eksperimen

Presentation of data
Persembahan data
(17 marks)

2.

(a)

Distinguish between major elements and essential elements in relation to a


plants nutritional requirements.
[12 marks]

(b)

State two functions each for the following elements in plants.


Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potassium
Magnesium
[ 8 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

143

TAJUK: NUTRITION
SUBTAJUK: Photosynthesis.
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1.

2.

3.

Diagram 1 shows the cross section of a leaf of a green plant. Which region contains the
most starch?
Rajah 1 menunjukkan keratan rentas sehelai daun tumbuhan hijau. Kawasan yang
manakah mempunyai jumlah kanji terbanyak?

Diagram 1
Rajah 1
Which of the following are the products of photosynthesis?
Manakah di antara berikut adalah hasil fotosintesis?
I H2O
II CO2
III C6H12O6
IV O2
A I and II only
C
III and IV only
B I and IV only
D
I, III and IV only
Diagram 1 shows a longitudinal section through a chloroplast.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan keratan memanjang menerusi satu kloroplast.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

144

II
III

IV
Diagram 1
Rajah 1
Which parts of the organelle is involved in the reduction of carbon dioxide during
photosynthesis?
A I only
C
I and III only
B II only
D
II and III only
4.

Diagram 2 shows a step in the procedure to test starch in a leaf.


Rajah 2 menunjukkan salah satu langkah dalam kaedah menguji kehadiran kanji di
dalam daun.

Diagram 2
Rajah 2
What is the purpose of doing the step shown in Diagram 2?
Apakah tujuan melakukan langkah yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 2?
A To dissolve the chlorophyll.
Untuk melarutkan klorofil.
B To stop chemical reaction.
Untuk menghentikan tindakbalas kimia.
C To dissolve the starch.
Untuk melarutkan kanji.
D To break the cell walls.
Untuk memecahkan dinding sel.
5.

Diagram 3 shows a section through a leaf of a plant.


Rajah 3 menunjukkan keratan menerusi daun

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

145

DIAGRAM 3
Rajah 3
What is the adaptation of the structure P to optimise photosynthesis?
Apakah penyesuaian struktur P untuk mengoptimakan fotosintesis?
A.
Have a lot of chloroplast
Mempunyai banyak organel kloroplast
B.
Waterproof layer on the leaf surface
Lapisan kalis air di atas permukaan daun
C.
Cylindrical cell arranged end to end in long row
Sel berbentuk silinder disusun hujung ke hujung dalam satu barisan yang
panjang.
D
Large air spaces between cell
Ruang udara antara sel yang besar.
6.

7.

Plants from different habitats are adapted to carry out photosynthesis. Which of the
following is the right adaptation for the following plant?
Tumbuh-tumbuhan dari berbagai habitat disesuaikan bagi menjalankan fotosintesis.
Manakah di antara berikut adalah ciri penyesuaian yang betul untuk jenis tumbuhan
yang dipadankan?
A.
Bunga Raya or Hibiscus have more stomata at the upper epidermis
Bunga raya atau hibiscus mempunyai lebih stomata pada lapisan atas
epidermisnya.
B.
Water Lily have many stomata at the lower epidermis of the leaf
Bunga teratai hanya mempunyai stomata di lapisan bawah epidermis daun.
C.
Hydrilla has no stomata on its leaf
Hydrilla tidak mempunyai stomata pada daunnya
D.
The leaves of cactus have many stomata
Daun kaktus mempunyai banyak stomata.
Diagram 4 shows the structure of a leaf.
Rajah 4 menunjukkan struktur sehelai daun.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

146

Diagram 3
Rajah 3

Which of the parts labelled A, B, C and D is correctly adapted to optimise


photosynthesis?
Manakah di antara bahagian-bahagian berlabel A, B, C dan D mempunyai ciri
penyesuaian yang betul untuk mengoptimakan fotosintesis?
A.
Have a lot of chloroplast
Mempunyai banyak organel kloroplast
B.
Large air spaces between cells
Ruang udara yang banyak di antara sel.
C.
Cylindrical cell arranged end to end in long row
Sel berbentuk silinder disusun hujung ke hujung dalam satu barisan yang
panjang.
D.
Waterproof layer on the leaf surface
Lapisan kalis air di atas permukaan daun
8.

Which of the following plants has no water-proof cuticle on its leaf surface?
Yang manakah di antara tumbuhan berikut tidak mempunyai lapisan kalis air pada
permukaan daunnya?

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

147

9.

Which of the following substances are needed for photosynthesis?


Yang manakah di antara berikut diperlukan untuk fotosintesis?
A.
Glucose, Oxygen and water
Glukosa, oksigen dan air
B.
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
Glukosa, oksigen dan karbon dioksida
C.
Water and Carbon dioxide
Air dan karbon dioksida
D.
Energy, Water and Carbon Dioxide
Tenaga, air dan karbon dioksida

10. Diagram 4 shows the leaf of a plant which is partly covered with black paper on both
sides.
Rajah 4 menunjukkan daun pokok yang telah ditutup sebahagiannya dengan kertas
hitam di kedua-dua belah daun.

Diagram 4
Rajah 4
The plant is placed in bright light for 36 hours. The leaf is then tested for starch. Which
of the following correctly shows the area that contains starch?
Tumbuhan itu ditempatkan di tempat terang selama 36 jam. Daun tersebut
kemudiannya diuji untuk kehadiran kanji. Manakah di antara berikut menunjukkan
kawasan yang betul mengandungi kanji?
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

148

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1

Two leaves P and Q are treated as shown in Diagram 5.


Dua helai daun P dan Q telah diberikan rawatan sebagaimana yang ditunjukkan dalam
Rajah 5.

(a)

Diagram 5
Rajah 5
State the aim of the experiment on leaf P and leaf Q respectively.
Nyatakan tujuan eksperimen ke atas daun P dan Q masing-masing.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

149

(i)

Leaf P: ....................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

(ii) Leaf Q: ....................................................................................................................


.................................................................................................................................
(2 marks)
(b) (i) What is the aim of treating leaf P?
Apakah tujuan rawatan pada daun P?
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
(ii) State solution X and its function.
Nyatakan larutan X dan fungsinya.
.................................................................................................................................

(c)

.................................................................................................................................
(2 marks)
Predict your observation made if each leaf is tested with iodine solution after 3
hours.
Ramalkan pemerhatian yang anda peroleh jika daun diuji dengan larutan iodin
selepas 3 jam.
(i)

Leaf P: ....................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

(ii) Leaf Q: ....................................................................................................................


.................................................................................................................................
(2 marks)
(d)

Explain your observations in (c).


Terangkan pemerhatian anda di (c).
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

(e)

.................................................................................................................................
(2 marks)
State one step which is required to be carried out on the plant before the start of
this experiment.
Nyatakan satu langkah yang perlu dijalankan sebelum memulakan eksperimen
ini.
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

150

.................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................
(1 mark)
Diagram 6 shows the cross section of a leaf of a dicotyledonous plant.
Rajah 6 menunjukkan keratan rentas daun dikotiledon.

Diagram 6
Rajah 6

(a) (i) Name organelle R.


Namakan organel R.
.................................................................................................................................
(1 mark)
(ii) State one function of R.
Nyatakan satu fungsi R.

(b)

.................................................................................................................................
(1 mark)
Give two adaptations of leaves to facilitate photosynthesis.
Berikan dua ciri penyesuaian daun untuk membantu fotosintesis.
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
(2 marks)

(c)

Explain the relationship between the size of Q and the rate of photosynthesis
when the plant is exposed to sunlight from 0600 to 1800.
Terangkan hubungan di antara size Q dengan kadar fotosintesis apabila
tumbuhan didedahkan di bawah sinaran matahari dari jam 0600 hingga 1800.
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

151

.................................................................................................................................
(4 marks)
(d)

If the leaf is left outside a room at 1300, explain the reaction that occurs in
organelle R.
Jika daun dibiarkan di luar bilik pada 1300, terangkan tindakbalas yang berlaku
di dalam organelle R.
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
(4 marks)

SOALAN ESEI:
1

Photosynthesis occurs in green leaves. The leaf is adapted for optimal


photosynthesis.
Fotosintesis berlaku di daun-daun hijau. Daun mengalami ciri penyesuaian
untuk mengoptimumkan fotosintesis.
(a)

Based on the statement above, draw and label a diagram of cross section
of a leaf.
Berdasarkan kenyataan di atas, lukis dan labelkan rajah keratan rentas daun
[4 Marks]

(b)

Explain how the leaf is adapted to optimise photosynthesis.


Terangkan bagaimana daun disesuaikan untuk mengoptimakan fotosintesis.
[10 marks]

(c)

By using two examples, explain how plants from different habitats adapt
themselves to carry out photosynthesis.
Dengan menggunakan contoh, terangkan bagaimana tumbuhan dari habitat
berlainan disesuaikan untuk menjalankan fotosintesis.
[6 marks]
(17 marks)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

152

TAJUK: NUTRITION
SUBTAJUK: Mechanism of Photosynthesis.
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1.

2.

3.

Diagram 1 shows the cross section of a leaf of a green plant. Which region contains the
most starch?
Rajah 1 menunjukkan keratan rentas sehelai daun tumbuhan hijau. Kawasan yang
manakah mempunyai jumlah kanji terbanyak?

Diagram 1
Rajah 1
Which of the following are the products of photosynthesis?
Manakah di antara berikut adalah hasil fotosintesis?
I H2O
II CO2
III C6H12O6
IV O2
A I and II only
C
III and IV only
B I and IV only
D
I, III and IV only
Diagram 1 shows a longitudinal section through a chloroplast.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan keratan memanjang menerusi satu kloroplast.

II
III

IV
Diagram 1
Rajah 1

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

153

Which parts of the organelle is involved in the reduction of carbon dioxide during
photosynthesis?
A I only
C
I and III only
B II only
D
II and III only
4.

Diagram 2 shows a step in the procedure to test starch in a leaf.


Rajah 2 menunjukkan salah satu langkah dalam kaedah menguji kehadiran kanji di
dalam daun.

Diagram 2
Rajah 2
What is the purpose of doing the step shown in Diagram 2?
Apakah tujuan melakukan langkah yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 2?
A To dissolve the chlorophyll.
Untuk melarutkan klorofil.
B To stop chemical reaction.
Untuk menghentikan tindakbalas kimia.
C To dissolve the starch.
Untuk melarutkan kanji.
D To break the cell walls.
Untuk memecahkan dinding sel.
7.

Diagram 3 shows a section through a leaf of a plant.


Rajah 3 menunjukkan keratan menerusi daun

DIAGRAM 3
Rajah 3
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

154

What is the adaptation of the structure P to optimise photosynthesis?


Apakah penyesuaian struktur P untuk mengoptimakan fotosintesis?
A.
Have a lot of chloroplast
Mempunyai banyak organel kloroplast
B.
Waterproof layer on the leaf surface
Lapisan kalis air di atas permukaan daun
C.
Cylindrical cell arranged end to end in long row
Sel berbentuk silinder disusun hujung ke hujung dalam satu barisan yang
panjang.
D
Large air spaces between cell
Ruang udara antara sel yang besar.
8.

7.

Plants from different habitats are adapted to carry out photosynthesis. Which of the
following is the right adaptation for the following plant?
Tumbuh-tumbuhan dari berbagai habitat disesuaikan bagi menjalankan fotosintesis.
Manakah di antara berikut adalah ciri penyesuaian yang betul untuk jenis tumbuhan
yang dipadankan?
A.
Bunga Raya or Hibiscus have more stomata at the upper epidermis
Bunga raya atau hibiscus mempunyai lebih stomata pada lapisan atas
epidermisnya.
B.
Water Lily have many stomata at the lower epidermis of the leaf
Bunga teratai hanya mempunyai stomata di lapisan bawah epidermis daun.
C.
Hydrilla has no stomata on its leaf
Hydrilla tidak mempunyai stomata pada daunnya
D.
The leaves of cactus have many stomata
Daun kaktus mempunyai banyak stomata.
Diagram 4 shows the structure of a leaf.
Rajah 4 menunjukkan struktur sehelai daun.

Diagram 3
Rajah 3

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

155

Which of the parts labelled A, B, C and D is correctly adapted to optimise


photosynthesis?
Manakah di antara bahagian-bahagian berlabel A, B, C dan D mempunyai ciri
penyesuaian yang betul untuk mengoptimakan fotosintesis?
E.
Have a lot of chloroplast
Mempunyai banyak organel kloroplast
F.
Large air spaces between cells
Ruang udara yang banyak di antara sel.
G.
Cylindrical cell arranged end to end in long row
Sel berbentuk silinder disusun hujung ke hujung dalam satu barisan yang
panjang.
H.
Waterproof layer on the leaf surface
Lapisan kalis air di atas permukaan daun
8.

9.

Which of the following plants has no water-proof cuticle on its leaf surface?
Yang manakah di antara tumbuhan berikut tidak mempunyai lapisan kalis air pada
permukaan daunnya?

Which of the following substances are needed for photosynthesis?


Yang manakah di antara berikut diperlukan untuk fotosintesis?
E.
Glucose, Oxygen and water
Glukosa, oksigen dan air
F.
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
Glukosa, oksigen dan karbon dioksida
G.
Water and Carbon dioxide
Air dan karbon dioksida
H.
Energy, Water and Carbon Dioxide
Tenaga, air dan karbon dioksida

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

156

10. Diagram 4 shows the leaf of a plant which is partly covered with black paper on both
sides.
Rajah 4 menunjukkan daun pokok yang telah ditutup sebahagiannya dengan kertas
hitam di kedua-dua belah daun.

Diagram 4
Rajah 4
The plant is placed in bright light for 36 hours. The leaf is then tested for starch. Which
of the following correctly shows the area that contains starch?
Tumbuhan itu ditempatkan di tempat terang selama 36 jam. Daun tersebut
kemudiannya diuji untuk kehadiran kanji. Manakah di antara berikut menunjukkan
kawasan yang betul mengandungi kanji?

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

157

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1

Two leaves P and Q are treated as shown in Diagram 5.


Dua helai daun P dan Q telah diberikan rawatan sebagaimana yang ditunjukkan dalam
Rajah 5.

Diagram 5
Rajah 5
State the aim of the experiment on leaf P and leaf Q respectively.
Nyatakan tujuan eksperimen ke atas daun P dan Q masing-masing.

(a)

(i)

Leaf P: ....................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

(ii) Leaf Q: ....................................................................................................................


.................................................................................................................................
(2 marks)
(b) (i) What is the aim of treating leaf P?
Apakah tujuan rawatan pada daun P?
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
(ii) State solution X and its function.
Nyatakan larutan X dan fungsinya.
.................................................................................................................................

(c)

.................................................................................................................................
(2 marks)
Predict your observation made if each leaf is tested with iodine solution after 3
hours.
Ramalkan pemerhatian yang anda peroleh jika daun diuji dengan larutan iodin
selepas 3 jam.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

158

(i)

Leaf P: ....................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

(ii) Leaf Q: ....................................................................................................................


.................................................................................................................................
(2 marks)
(d)

Explain your observations in (c).


Terangkan pemerhatian anda di (c).
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

(e)

.................................................................................................................................
(2 marks)
State one step which is required to be carried out on the plant before the start of
this experiment.
Nyatakan satu langkah yang perlu dijalankan sebelum memulakan eksperimen
ini.
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................
(1 mark)
Diagram 6 shows the cross section of a leaf of a dicotyledonous plant.
Rajah 6 menunjukkan keratan rentas daun dikotiledon.

Diagram 6
Rajah 6

(a) (i) Name organelle R.


Namakan organel R.
.................................................................................................................................
(1 mark)
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

159

(ii) State one function of R.


Nyatakan satu fungsi R.

(b)

.................................................................................................................................
(1 mark)
Give two adaptations of leaves to facilitate photosynthesis.
Berikan dua ciri penyesuaian daun untuk membantu fotosintesis.
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
(2 marks)

(c)

Explain the relationship between the size of Q and the rate of photosynthesis
when the plant is exposed to sunlight from 0600 to 1800.
Terangkan hubungan di antara size Q dengan kadar fotosintesis apabila
tumbuhan didedahkan di bawah sinaran matahari dari jam 0600 hingga 1800.
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
(4 marks)

(d)

If the leaf is left outside a room at 1300, explain the reaction that occurs in
organelle R.
Jika daun dibiarkan di luar bilik pada 1300, terangkan tindakbalas yang berlaku
di dalam organelle R.
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
(4 marks)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

160

SOALAN ESEI:
1

Photosynthesis occurs in green leaves. The leaf is adapted for optimal


photosynthesis.
Fotosintesis berlaku di daun-daun hijau. Daun mengalami ciri penyesuaian
untuk mengoptimumkan fotosintesis.
(a)

Based on the statement above, draw and label a diagram of cross section
of a leaf.
Berdasarkan kenyataan di atas, lukis dan labelkan rajah keratan rentas daun
[4 Marks]

(b)

Explain how the leaf is adapted to optimise photosynthesis.


Terangkan bagaimana daun disesuaikan untuk mengoptimakan fotosintesis.
[10 marks]

(c)

By using two examples, explain how plants from different habitats adapt
themselves to carry out photosynthesis.
Dengan menggunakan contoh, terangkan bagaimana tumbuhan dari habitat
berlainan disesuaikan untuk menjalankan fotosintesis.
[6 marks]
(17 marks)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

161

TAJUK : NUTRITION
SUBTAJUK:Factors Affecting Photosynthesis
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1 The following chemical equation shows a process of photosynthesis that happens during
light reaction.
Persamaan kimia berikut menunjukkan satu proses fotosintesis yang berlaku semasa
tindak balas cahaya.
Light
Cahaya
24H+ + 24OH-

24H2O
Chlorophyll
Klorofil

What will happen to this process of photosynthesis if the light intensity is high?
Apakah yang akan berlaku kepada proses fotosintesis ini jika keamatan cahaya tinggi?
A Less oxygen is released
keamatan cahaya
B Rate of starch production decreases
Kadar penghasilan kanji menurun
C Rate of photolysis of water decreases
Kadar fotolisis air berkurangan
D More glucose is produced
Lebih banyak glukosa dihasilkan
2. Diagram below shows the graph of the volume of carbon dioxide taken in or released by a
plant in a forest at different light intensities.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan graf isipadu karbon dioksida yang diambil atau dibebaskan
oleh tumbuhan di dalam hutan pada keamatan cahaya yang berbeza.

Which of the following is true about the information obtained from the graph?
Antara yang berikut, yang manakah benar tentang maklumat daripada graf itu ?
A At point W, the quantity of carbon dioxide released is zero
Pada titik W, kuantiti pe,mbebasan karbon dioksida adalah sifar
B At point X, the quantity of intake and release of carbon dioxide are equal
Pada titik X, kuantiti pengambilan karbon dioksida adalah sama dengan kuantiti
pembebasannya
C At point Y, the quantity of carbon dioxide releaseed is the maximum
Pada titik Y, kuantiti karbon dioksida yang dibebaskan adalah maksimum
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

162

D At point Z, the quantity of the intake and release of carbon dioxide is equal
Pada titik Z, kuantiti pengambilan karbon dioksida adalah sama dengan kuantiti
pembebasannya
3. Diagram below is a graph showing the effect of light intensity on the rate of
photosynthesis.
Rajah di bawah ialah graf yang menunjukkan kesan keamatan cahaya ke atas kadar
fotosintesis.

Which of the following can be concluded about the rate of photosynthesis between the
curve J and K?
Antara yang berikut, yang manakah boleh dirumuskan tentang kadar fotosintesis di
antara lengkung J dan K?
A It is not influenced by the concentration of carbo dioxide
Tidak dipengaruhi oleh kepekatan karbon dioksida
B It is limited by the concentration of carbon dioxide
Dihadkan oleh kepekatan karbonh dioksida
C It is limited by the light intensity
Dihadkan oleh keamatan cahaya
D It is not influenced by the temperature
Tidak dipengaruhi oleh suhu
4. The following statements are about the rate of photosynthesis.
Pernyataan berikut adalah mengenai kadar fotosintesis.
The rate of photosynthesis increases when light intensity becomes higher. In some
plants, the rate of photosynthesis decreases in the middle of hot sunny day.
Kadar fotosintesis meningkat apabila keamatan cahaya semakin bertambah. Bagi
sesetengah tumbuhan, kadar fotosintesis berkurang pada waktu tengah hari yang panas.
Which of the following explain the above statements?
Antara yang berikut, yang manakah menerangkan pernyataan di atas?
A The palisade cells plasmolyse due to water loss
Sel palisad mengalami plasmolisis akibat kehilangan air
B The enzymes involved in photosynthesis are denatured
Enzim yang terlibat dalam fotosintesis ternyahasli
C The stomatal pores close to reduce the loss of water from the leaves
Liang stomata tertutup untuk mengurangkan kehilangan air daripada daun
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

163

D The chloroplasts in the pallisade cells are destroyed by the heat


Kloroplas dalam sel palisad dimusnahkan oleh haba
5. Diagram below shows the graph of the relationship between absorption and release of
carbon dioxide and light intensity.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan graf hubungan antara penyerapan dan pembebasan
karbon dioksida dengan keamatan cahaya.

At which point A, B, C or D, is the absorption of carbon dioxide equals to the release of


carbon dioxide?
Pada titik manakah A, B, C dan D, penyerapan karbon dioksida sama dengan
pembebasan karbon dioksida?
A At point W, the quantity of carbon dioxide released is zero
Pada titik W, kuantiti pe,mbebasan karbon dioksida adalah sifar
B At point X, the quantity of intake and release of carbon dioxide are equal
Pada titik X, kuantiti pengambilan karbon dioksida adalah sama dengan kuantiti
pembebasannya
C At point Y, the quantity of carbon dioxide releaseed is the maximum
Pada titik Y, kuantiti karbon dioksida yang dibebaskan adalah maksimum
D At point Z, the quantity of the intake and release of carbon dioxide is equal
Pada titik Z, kuantiti pengambilan karbon dioksida adalah sama dengan kuantiti
pembebasannya

6. Diagram below shows oxygen release and intake of a plant in 24 hours.


Rajah di bawah menunjukkan pembebasan dan pengambilan oksigen oleh tumbuhan
dalam 24 jam.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

164

Which is true about X ?


Yang manakah benar tentang X?
A Respiration starts
Permulaan respirasi
B Photosynthesis stops
Fotosintesis berhenti
C Both photosynthesis and respiration do not occur
Kedua-dua proses respirasi dan fotosintesis tidak berlaku
D Photosynthesis and respiration rate is equal
Kadar fotosintesis dan respirasi adalah sama
7. Diagram below is a graph which shows the volume of carbon dioxide taken in or released
by a plant in a forest at different light intensities.
Rajah di bawah ialah graf yang menunjukkan isipadu karbon dioksida yang diambil atau
dibebaskan oleh suatu tumbuhan pada keamatan cahaya yang berbeza.

At which point A, B, C or D is the rate of respiration higher than the rate of


photosynthesis?
Pada titik A, B, C atau D, yang manakah kadar respirasi lebih tinggi daripada kadar
fotosintesis?
8. Diagram below is a graph that shows oxygen being absorbed and released by a plant
over a 24-hour period.
Rajah di bawah adalah satu graf yang menunjukkan penyerapan dan pembebasan
oksigen oleh sebatang pokok dalam masa 24 jam.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

165

What happens at point P?


Apakah yang berlaku di titik P?
A Respiration stops
Respirasi terhenti
B Photosynthesis stops
Fotosintesis berhenti
C Both photosynthesis and respiration stop
Kedua-dua proses respirasi dan fotosintesis berhenti
D Photosynthesis and respiration rate is equal
Kadar fotosintesis dan respirasi adalah sama

9. Which of the following is the correct graph of rate of photosynthesis against light intensity
of light?
Antara graf berikut, yang manakah menunjukkan graf kadar fotosintesis melawan
keamatan cahaya dengan betul?

10. Diagram below shows a graph of the rate of gas exchange against intensity of light.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu graf kadar pertukaran gas melawan keamatan
cahaya.
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

166

WhIch of the following about the point labelled Y on the graph is correct?
Antara yang berikut, yang manakah benar tentang bahagian berlabel Y pada graf?
A No net gas exchange occurs
Tiada pertukaran gas bersih berlaku
B The rate of photosynthesis is higher than the rate of respiration
Kadar fotosintesis adalah lebih tinggi daripada kadar respirasi
C The rate of respiration is higher than the rate of photosynthesis
Kadar respirasi adalah lebih tinggi daripada kadar fotosintesis
D Both photosynthesis and respiration stops
Kedua-dua fotosintesis dan respirasi berhenti

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1.

Diagram below shows a graph of the effect of light intensity on the rate of
photosynthesis.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan graf kesan keamatan cahaya terhadap kadar fotosintesis.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

167

Explain the diference between graph I and graph II shown above.


Terangkan perbezaan antara graf I dan graf II di atas.
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
[ 3 marks ]
2.

Diagram below shows a graph of the rate of gas exchange against intensity of light.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan graf kadar pertukaran gas melawan keamatan cahaya.

Explain the diference in the rate of gas exchange from 6am to 10am.
Terangkan perbezaan dalam kadar pertukaran gas dari 6 pagi segingga 10 pagi.
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
[ 3 marks ]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

168

SOALAN ESEI:
1.

Diagram below shows the graphs of the effects of carbon dioxide concentration, light
intensity and temperature on the rate of photosynthesis.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan beberapa graf kesan kepekatan karbon dioksida,
keamatan cahaya dan suhu terhadap kadar fotosintesis.

Using the information from the graphs, describe how the structure of a leaf is organised
to maximize the rate of photosynthesis of a plant.
Dengan menggunakan maklumat daripada graf, huraikan bagaimana struktur daun
disusun bagi memaksimumkan kadar fotosintesis tumbuhan.
[ 10 marks ]
2.

Explain how water supply affects the rate of photosynthesis.


[ 6 marks ]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

169

TAJUK : NUTRITION
SUBTAJUK:Caring Attitudes Towards Plants
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1 Which of the following activities are harmful to biodiversity?
Antara aktiviti berikut, aktiviti yang manakah membahayakan biodiversiti?
I

Large area of forests are cleared for agriculture, housing and industrial development
Penebangan hutan secara meluas untuk pertanian, penempatan dan pembangunan
industri
II Logging is carried out illegally destroying large tract of forest habitat
Pembalakan haram memusnahkan sebahagian besar habitat hutan
III Setting up of natural parks to preserve n protect existing and endangered species
Menyediakan taman semulajadi untuk memelihara spesis terancam dan sedia ada
IV Destruction of mangrove forest
Kemusnahan hutan paya bakau
A

I, II and III only


I, II dan III sahaja
B I, II and IV only
I, II dan IV sahaja
C II, III and IV only
II, III dan IV sahaja
D I, II, III and IV
I, II, III dan IV
2. Which of the following are the importance of photosynthesis?
Antara yang berikut, yang manakah merupakan kepentingan fotosintesis?
I
II
III

It helps to maintain the balancein nature via the carbon cycle


Ia membantu mengekalkan keseimbangan alam sekitar melalui kitar karbon
It converts carbon dioxide into oxygen for respiration
Ia menuklarkasn karbon dioksida kepada oksigen untuk respirasi
It enables the growth of plants
Ia membolehkan tumbuhan bertumbuh

I and II only
I dan II sahaja
B I and III only
I dan III sahaja
C II and III only
II dan III sahaja
D I, II and III
I, II dan III

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

170

3. Why do we need to take good care of plants?


Mengapa kita perlu menjaga tumbuhan dengan baik?
I

Plants supply food for us


Tumbuhan membekalkan makanan kepada kita
II Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the air to prevent the greenhouse effect
Tumbuhan menyerap karbon dioksida dari udara untuk mencegah kesan rumah hijau
III Plants play impportant role in water cycle
Tumbuhan memainkan peranan penting dalam kitar air
IV Plants prevent soil erosion
Tumbuhan mencegah hakisan tanan
A

I and II only
I dan II sahaja
B I, II and III only
I, II dan III sahaja
C II, III and IV only
II, III dan IV sahaja
D I, II, III and IV
I, II, III dan IV
SOALAN STRUKTUR:
Plants play important role in keeping the high quality of water and air
Pokok memainkan peranan penting dalam menjamin kualiti air dan udara yang baik
Explain the statement above.
Terangkan penyataan di atas.
Plants influence the quality of the air that we breathe by stopping the movement of
(1)................... and (2).................... Plants reduce the (3)..................................... caused by
burning of fossil fuel by absorbing large amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Forest are also important in maintaining heathy water catchment area. Forest hold (4)...........
and filter (5)........................ from flowing into streams, rivers and lakes.
Pokok mempengaruhi kualiti udara yang kita sedut dengan menghentikan pergerakan
(1).................. dan (2).................... Pokok mengurangkan (3).................................... yang
disebabkan oleh pembakaran bahan fosil dengan menyerap kebanyakan karbon dioksida
dari atmosfera. Hutan juga penting dalam memastikan kawasan tadahan hujan yang baik.
Hutan memegang (4)................ dan menapis (5).................... daripada terus mengalir ke
dalam anak sungai, sungai dan tasik.
SOALAN ESEI:
3.

We should take good care of plants because plants carry out photosynthesis. Discuss
the importance of photosynthesis.
Kita mesti menjaga tumbuhan dengan baik kerana tumbuhan menjalankan fotosintesis.
Bincangkan kepentingan fotosintesis.
[ 6 marks ]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

171

TAJUK : CHAPTER 6 : NUTRITION


SUBTAJUK : 6.14 NUTRITION
6.14 THE TECHNOLOGY USE IN FOOD PRODUCTION
SOALAN OBJEKTIF

1. How to improves soil structure?


Bagaimana untuk memperbaiki struktur tanah?
A Reducing of inorganic fertilizer/Mengurangkan baja bukan organik
B Reducing of organic matter/Mengurangkan bahan organik
C Additional of organic matter/Tambahan bahan organik
D Add salt and inorganic compound/Tambah garam dan sebatian tak organik
2. Direct seedlings need ___________ to irrigate the field.
Benih langsung perlu ___________ untuk mengairi padang.
A water vapour/wap air
B less water/kurang air
C a lot of water/banyak air
D no need water/air tidak perlu

3. How to increasing productivity of crops?


Bagaimana untuk meningkatkan produktiviti tanaman?
A Soil management/Pengurusan tanah
B Addition of predators/Penambahan pemangsa
C Addition of prey/Penambahan mangsa
D Reducing of organic matter to promotes humus/Mengurangkan bahan organik
untuk
menggalakkan humus
4. What is the function of legumes, leafy plants and roots plants like onion and garlic in crop
rotation management?
Apakah fungsi kekacang, tumbuhan berdaun dan akar tumbuhan seperti bawang dan
bawang putih dalam pengurusan tanaman giliran?
A Prevent the build-up of pests/Mencegah perkembangan haiwan perosak
B Prevent the build-up of predators/Mencegah perkembangan pemangsa
C Maintain the pH soil/Mengekalkan pH tanah
D Promotes humus/Menggalakkan humus

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

172

5.

Diagram 1
Golden rice has a higher content of beta-carotene and is orange in colour. What vitamin
content in golden rice?
Beras keemasan mempunyai kandungan beta-karotena yang tinggi dan berwarna jingga.
Apakah kandungan vitamin dalam beras emas?
A Vitamin E
B Vitamin K
C Vitamin C
D Vitamin A

SOALAN STRUKTUR

1. Golden rice is __________________ rice in which __________________ that codes for


synthesis of beta-__________________ has been transferred from daffodil plant. [3
marks]
Beras keemasan adalah beras __________________ di mana __________________
membawa kod untuk sintesis beta-__________________ yang telah dipindahkan dari
tumbuhan dafodil.
[3 markah]

SOALAN ESEI
1. Abuse of food preservatives to human health. Explain the adverse effects of the use of
preservatives by giving suitable examples.
[6 marks]
Penyalahgunaan bahan pengawet makanan telah memudaratkan kesihatan manusia.
Terangkan kesan buruk akibat penggunaan bahan pengawet ini dengan memberikan
contohcontoh yang sesuai.
[ 6 markah

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

173

TAJUK : CHAPTER 6 : NUTRITION


SUBTAJUK : 6.15 NUTRITION
6.15 THE TECHNOLOGY USE IN FOOD PRODUCTION
SOALAN OBJEKTIF
1. Which of the following food processing method carries out by first heating it to a
temperature
to eliminate microorganisms and then seal it in air-tight jars?
Antara kaedah pemprosesan makanan berikut, yang manakah dijalankan dengan
pemanasan pada suhu tertentu untuk menyingkirkan mikrorganisma, seterusnya di
simpan
di dalam bekas yang kalis udara?
A Drying/ Pengeringan
C Cooking /Memasak
B Canning/Pengetinan
D Pickling/Penjerukan
2. Plastic wraps that prevent food from spoiling inhibit the growth of_____________
Pembungkusan plastik dapat mengelakkan makanan rosak dan merencatkan
pertumbuhan____________.
A molds/kulapok
B fungi/kulat
C nitrobacter sp.
D bacteria/bacteria
3. Developments in food have had numerous impacts on how food is___________________
Perkembangan makanan mempunyai kesan yang banyak kepada bagaimana cara
makanan ______________
I packaged/dibungkus
II tested/diuji
III preserve/dijaga
IV produce/menghasilkan
A I and IV/ I dan IV
B II, III and IV/ II, III dan IV
C I, II, III and IV / I, II, III dan IV
D III and IV/ III dan IV
4.

Any living cell in such an environment will become


dehydrate through osmosis and die.
Segala sel hidup di persekitaran akan mengalami
kekeringan melalui proses osmosis dan

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

174

mati.
Preservation using ______________
Pengawetan adalah menggunakan _________________
A Canning/Pengetinan
B Vinegar/Cuka
C Salted/Garam
D Fermentation/Penapaian
5. Fermentation in food processing under____________________
Pemprosesan makanan dalam penapaian adalah secara _______________
A aerobic/aerobik
B anaerobic/anaerobik
C osmosis/osmosis
D yeast and alcohol/yis dan alcohol
SOALAN STRUKTUR
1.

In breeding of plants resulting varieties of plant inherit


beneficial characteristics of both parent plants.
Dalam pengacukan tumbuhan kepelbagaian ciri-ciri
kebaikan baka diwarisi daripada kedua-dua induk
tumbuhan.

State the beneficial of plant in nutritional value.


Berikan kebaikan tumbuhan dalam nilai nutrisi
1.
2
3
4

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

175

SOALAN ESEI
1. Describe the comparison between the pasteurized milk with a sterilized milk.
[5
marks]
Huraikan perbandingan antara susu yang dipasteur dengan susu yang disterilkan.
[5 markah]

2. Why pasteurized milk should be stored in the refrigerator over the sterilized milk?
[4 marks]
Mengapakah susu yang dipasteurkan perlu disimpan di dalam peti sejuk berbanding
susu yang disterilkan?
[4 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

176

7.1 OBJECTIVE (SOALAN) (R)


1
Glucose + oxygen

carbon dioxide + water + ATP

Glukosa + oksigen

karbon dioksida + air + ATP

The above equation shows


Persamaan di atas menunjukkan
A.
B.
C.
D.

condensation of glucose/kondensasi glukosa


hydrolysis of glucose/hidrolisis glukosa
anaerobic respiration/respirasi anaerob
aerobic respiration/respirasi aerob

2
Glucose + X
Glukosa + X

carbon dioxide + water + energy


karbon dioksida + air + tenaga

Which of the following represent X in the above question ?


Berdasarkan persamaan diatas, apakah yang mewakili X ?.
A.
B.
C.
D.

oxygen/ oksigen
sunlight/ cahaya matahari
chlorophyll/ klorofil
starch / kanji

3. What are the end product of anaerobic respiration in yeast ?


Apakah hasil akhir bagi respirasi anaerob dalam yis ?
A.
B.
C.
D.

lactic acid and carbon dioxide/ asid laktik dan karbon dioksida
ethanol and oxygen/ etanol dan oksigen
glucose and water/ glukosa dan air
carbon dioxide and ethanol/ karbon dioksida dan etanol

4. Oxidation of lactic acid occurs mainly in the ____________


Oksidasi bagi laktik asid kebiasaannya berlaku di ____________
A. heart/ jantung
B. muscle/ otot
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

177

C. liver/ hati
D. pancreas /pancreas
5. Anaerobic respiration occurs in the ____________
Respirasi anaerob berlaku di ____________
A.
B.
C.
D.

mitochondria/mitokondria
nucleus/nukleus
plasma membrane/membrane plasma
cytoplasm/ sitoplasma

6. Which of the following is suitable to use for absorbing carbon dioxide ?


Antara berikut yang manakah sesuai digunakan untuk menyerap karbon dioksida ?
A.
B.
C.
D.

lime water/ air kapur


paraffin oil/ minyak parafin
sodium hydroxide/ sodium hidrosida
water/ air

7. What is the main substrate of cellular respiration ?


Apakah substrat utama bagi respirasi sel ?
A.
B.
C.
D.

sucrose/ sukrosa
fructose/ fructosa
glucose/ glukosa
galactose/ galaktosa

8. Table 1 shows the composition of four samples of air .Which of the sample is inhaled air ?
Jadual 1 menunjukkan komposisi udara bagi empat sampel udara.Sampel udara yang
manakah merupakan udara yang disedut ?.
Air sample /
sampel udara

Oxygen / oksigen
(%)

Carbon dioxide /
karbon dioksida
(%)

Water vapour /
wap air

24

0.3

Saturated / tepu

21

0.03

A little / sedikit

14

Saturated / tepu

29

A little / sedikit

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

178

9. What is the main purpose of respiration ?


Apakah tujuan utama respirasi?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Maintain body temperature / Mengekalkan suhu badan


Combine food into body tissue / Menggabungkan makanan ke dalam tisu badan
Remove carbon dioxide from body / Menyingkirkan karbon dioksida daripada badan
Produce energy for body activities / Menghasilkan tenaga untuk menjalankan aktiviti
badan

10. Which of the following causes the muscles to ache when it is accumulated in large
quantities?
Antara berikut, kenaikan kuantiti manakah yang menyebabkan kelesuan otot berlaku?
A.
B.
C.
D.

ATP in muscles / ATP dalam otot


Lactic acid in muscles / Asid laktik dalam otot
Glucose in muscles / Glukosa dalam otot
Oxygen in muscles/ Etanol dalam otot

BIO T4 7.1 (S)


11. Which of the following causes muscle fatigue and cramp ?
Antara yang berikut yang manakah menyebabkan kelesuan otot dan kekejangan ?
A.
B.
C.
D.

the accumulation of lactic acid/asid laktik yang terkumpul


the accumulation of energy/tenaga yang terkumpul
the accumulation of glucose/glukosa yang terkumpul
the accumulation of carbon dioxide/karbon dioksida yang terkumpul

12. Respiration in all living organisms always involves ______________


Respirasi dalam kehidupan melibatkan _____________
A.
B.
C.
D.

oxygen released/ pembebasan oksigen


carbon dioxide released/ pembebasan karbon dioksida
energy released/ pembebasan tenaga
carbon dioxide consumption/ pengumpulan karbon dioksida

13. What is the similarity between anaerobic respiration and aerobic respiration in plants?
Apakah persamaan antara respirasi anaerob dengan respirasi aerob dalam tumbuhan?
A. Water is produced/ Air dihasilkan
B. Alcohol is produced/ Alkohol dihasilkan
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

179

C. Oxygen is used/ Oksigen digunakan


D. Carbon dioxide is produced/ Karbon dioksida dihasilkan
14. Which of the following occur during anaerobic respiration in animals?
Antara berikut, yang manakah berlaku semasa respirasi anaerob haiwan?
I.
II.
III.
IV.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Carbon dioxide is produced/ Karbon dioksida dihasilkan


Accumulation of lactic acid/ Pengumpulan asid laktik
Incomplete breakdown of glucose/ Pemecahan glukosa tidak lengkap
Occurs in all animals cells/ Berlaku dalam semua sel haiwan
II and III only
II and IV only
I, II and IV
I, II, III and IV

15. The energy that is required for the contraction of muscles can be obtained directly from
the breakdown of
Tenaga yang diperlukan untuk pengecutan otot didapati secara langsung daripada
penguraian
I.
II.
III.
IV.

Glucose / Glukosa
Glycogen / Glikogen
Lactic acid / Asid laktik
Adenosine triphosphate/ Adenosina trifosfat
A.
B.
C.
D.

I only
IV only
II and III only
I and IV only

BIO T 4 7.1 (T)


16. Ethanol can be used in ___________
Etanol boleh digunakan di dalam _________
A.
B.
C.
D.

bread making/ membuat roti


biscuit making/ membuat biskut
wine making/ membuat arak
jelly making/ membuat agar-agar

17. A student takes part in a 200 m sprint event. Which equation represent

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

180

his respiration process after he has run the first 100 m ?


Seorang murid mengambil bahagian dalam acara larian pecut 200 m . Persamaan
manakah yang mewakili proses respirasi setelah berlari 100 m pertama ?
A. Glucose
Lactic acid + Energy
Glukosa
asid laktik + tenaga
B. Glucose + Oxygen
Lactic acid + Energy
Glukosa + oksigen
asid laktik + tenaga
C. Glucose
Ethanol + Carbon dioxide + Energy
Glukosa
Etanol + karbon dioksida + tenaga
D. Glucose + Oxygen
Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy
Glukosa + oksigen
Karbon dioksida + air + tenaga
18. How can oxygen debt that occurs in muscle tissues be paid back?.
Bagaimana hutang oksigen yang berlaku dalam tisu otot manusia dibayar balik?
I.
II.
III.
IV.

By breathing rapidly in the recovery period / bernafas dengan lebih cepat


By reducing the vigorous activity / mengurangkan aktiviti cergas
By drinking a lot of water / minum banyak air
By cooling down the body / menyejukkan badan
A.
B.
C.
D.

I only
I and III only
I , II and III only
II , III and IV only

19. Diagram 1 shows an experiment of yeast respiration.


Rajah 1 menunjukkan satu eksperimen tentang respirasi yis .

Diagram 1
Rajah 1
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

181

Which of the following mixtures can increase the rate of respiration of yeast ?
Antara yang berikut, campuran manakah dapat meningkatkan kadar respirasi yis ?
A. 1 g of yeast and 25 ml of 5% glucose solution
1 g yis dan 25 ml larutan glukosa 5%
B. 1 g of yeast and 25 ml of 7% glucose solution
1 g yis dan 25 ml larutan glukosa 7%
C. 1 g of yeast and 25 ml of 10% glucose solution
1 g yis dan 25 ml larutan glukosa 10%
D. 1 g of yeast and 25 ml of 15% glucose solution
1 g yis dan 25 ml larutan glukosa 15%
20. The shaded area of the graph shows an athletes rate of oxygen uptake before , during
and after a five-minute period of exercise. The consumption of oxygen is shown as the
shaded part . / Kawasan yang berlorek pada graf menunjukkan kadar pengambilan oksigen
oleh seorang pelari sebelum , semasa dan selepas berlari selama lima minit . Kadar oksigen
yang diperlukan ditunjukkan dengan bahagian berlorek.

What represents the unshaded part? / Apakah yang diwakili oleh kawasan yang tidak
berlorek pada graf itu?
A. The amount of oxygen taken in / jumlah oksigen yang diambil masuk
B. The amount of oxygen used during exercise / jumlah oksigen yang diperlukan
semasa berlari
C. The amount of oxygen used to pay off the oxygen debt / jumlah oksigen yang
diperlukan untuk membayar hutang oksigen
D. The excess oxygen in the lungs / jumlah oksigen yang berlebihan dalam peparu
21. From the experiment shown in diagram 2 , what conclusion can be drawn? / dalam
eksperimen yang ditunjukkan pada rajah 2 , apakah rumusan yang boleh dibuat daripada
eksperimen tersebut ?

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

182

I.
II.
III.
IV.

Yeast carries out aerobic respiration to produce carbon dioxide. / respirasi yis adalah
secara aerob dan menghasilkan karbon dioksida.
Yeast carries out anaerobic respiration to produce carbon dioxide / respirasi yis
adalah secara anaerob dan menghasilkan karbon dioksida
Yeast carries out respiration to produce carbon dioxide / respirasi yis menghasilkan
tenaga
Yeast carries out respiration to produce alcohol / respirasi yis menghasilkan alkohol

A.
B.
C.
D.

I and III only


II and IV only
I , III and IV only
II , III and IV only

BIO T 4 7.1 (STRUCTURE) (R)(S)(T)


1.

Diagram 1 shows a type of organelle found in muscle cells. A biochemical reaction


occurs in the organelle./ Rajah 1 menunjukkan sejenis organel yang terdapat dalam
sel otot. Tindak balas biokimia berlaku dalam organel tersebut.

Diagram 1
Rajah 1
(a) (i)

Name this organelle. / Namakan organel ini.


_____________________________________________________

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

(R)
(1 marks)
183

(ii)

Explain why membrane X is in the form of numerous folded layers.


Terangkan mengapa membran X adalah dalam bentuk lapisan yang
berlipat-lipat.

(S)

________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________ (2 marks)

(b)

The biochemical reaction that occurs in this organelle is summarised as follows.


Tindak balas biokimia yang berlaku dalam organel ini diringkaskan seperti berikut :
Glucose + P
Glukosa + P

(i)

Q + carbon dioxide + energy


Q + karbon dioksida + tenaga

Name gas P. / Namakan gas P.

(R)

___________________________________________ (1 marks)

(ii)

Name product Q. / Namakan hasil Q.

(R)

___________________________________________ ( 1 marks)

(iii)

Explain why the muscle cell has a large number of these organelles.
Terangkan mengapa sel otot mengandungi banyak bilangan organel ini. (S)
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________ (2 marks)

(iv)

If the blood sugar level is lower than the normal range, the biochemical
reaction in this organelle can still occur. Explain how.
Jika aras gula dalam darah adalah rendah daripada julat normal, tindak balas
biokimia dalam organel ini boleh berlaku. Terangkan bagaimana.
(T)
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

(3marks)
184

(c) State two differences on the biochemical reaction occurring between muscle cell and
yeast cell in the absence of gas P.
Nyatakan dua perbezaan ke atas tindak balas biokimia yang berlaku antara sel otot
dan sel yis tanpa kehadiran gas P.
(T)

(2 marks)
BIO T4 7.1 (ESEI) (R)
1. Fill in the blanks. / lengkapkan ruang yang disediakan

Respiration / respirasi

Aerobic / aerob

Anaerobic / anaerob

Breakdown of glucose in the


absence of ___________
Penguraian glukosa dengan ketidak
hadiran __________

Breakdown of ____________ in the


presence of oxygen
Penguraian __________ dengan
kehadiran oksigen

___________ breakdown of
glucose.
___________penguraian oleh
glukosa

Releases _________ energy


compared to anaerobic respiration
Membebaskan _______ tenaga
berbanding dengan respirasi
anaerob

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

Incomplete breakdown of _______


Penguraian yang tidak lengkap
oleh_________
Release less energy compared to
_________ respiration
Membebaskan kurang tenaga
berbanding respirasi _________

185

Respiration and Requirement of Energy


2. There are two main stages of respiration :
a) External respiration or B_________
External respiration is a process of inhaling air containing oxygen into the L______
and exhaling air containing carbon dioxide out of the lung ( gaseous exchange ).
b) Internal respiration or C_______ respiration
Internal respiration is a process of breaking down organic substances such as glucose
in the cell to release e_______ ( in the form of ATP and heat energy ).

3. Energy is required by cell activities such as m_______ contraction , a_______ transport ,


transmission of nerve impulses , protein synthesis , g______ and to maintain the b______
_________.
4. The main substrate used to produce energy is g______ ( C6H12O6 ). A green plant produces
glucose through photosynthesis but in humans and animals , glucose is obtained from the
digestion of c_______ in ingested food.

Type of cellular Respiration


5. In cellular respiration , glucose is breakdown step by step and energy released is then
captured into ATP molecule .
6. There are two types of cellular respiration :
a. Aerobic respiration
b. A_________ respiration
7. The aim of both respiration is to produce e_______ ( in the form of heat and ATP )
a. Aerobic respiration
Aerobic respiration occurs in the p________ of oxygen . glucose is c_______ broken
down into carbon dioxide , water and a lot of energy is released . It takes place in
m_________ and cytoplasm and catalysed by many enzymes.

Glucose + O_______
C6H12O6 + 6O2

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

E_______ + Carbon d______ + Water


E______

6CO2

+ 6H2O

186

Definition : aerobic respiration is the breaking down or o__________ of glucose in


the presence of o________ to release e_______ ( 2989 kJ // 38ATP ) , carbon
dioxide and water.
A large amount of the energy released is captured by ADP molecule ( Adenosine
d_______ ) with inorganic phosphate to form ATP molecule ( Adenosine
Triphosphate ) .

ADP + phosphate + Energy

ATP

ATP is an instant source of energy . When the energy is required , ATP is broken
down to release energy.

ATP

___________

+ Phosphate + Energy

b. Anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration occurs in the a__________ of oxygen . Glucose is p_________
broken down to release energy. This process takes place only in c__________ of a
cell and also catalysed by enzymes.
Anaerobic respiration may occurs in an active human m_________ , bacteria ,
y_______ and a certain plant such as grass.
Anaerobic respiration in human muscles.
Glucose
( C6H12O6 )

Energy
( 150 kJ or 2 ATP )

lactic acid
( 2 C3H6O3 )

During v________ activities such as running , oxygen used is f________ than oxygen
supply. To meet their requirement the rate of respiration and the rate of heartbeat
i_________
The muscles are in a state of oxygen d__________ and are said to occur an oxygen
d________. At this condition the anaerobic respiration takes place in order to obtain
the extra e_______.
Glucose is broken down incompletely to produce energy and l______ a______. But ,
less energy is produced because most of the e_______ is still trapped within the
molecules of lactic acid.
The accumulation of lactic acid causes muscular pain and f________
The body must remove lactic acid by doing fast and deep b________. It occurs
immediately after someone finishes the exercise. The excess oxygen taken in is used

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

187

to o________ lactic acid to energy , carbon dioxide and water. This oxidation process
takes place in the l______.
Lactic acid + oxygen

E________ + Carbon dioxide + w_______

When the amount of lactic acid is returned to the normal level , the oxygen debt is
said to be paid off.

Anaerobic respiration in Yeast (plant).


Glucose

Zymase

(C6H12O6)

yeast

Energy
(210 kJ // 2ATP)

Ethanol
(2 C2H5OH)

Carbon dioxide
(2CO2)

Normally yeast respires aerobically. In the a________ of oxygen yeast carries out
anaerobic respiration to produce energy (less) , e_______ and carbon dioxide.
This process is also known as f________
Ethanol is widely used in wine and b_______ making , biofuel production and
perfumes.
In bread making , yeast is used as it produced c_______ d________ during
fermentation and causes the dough to rise.

BIO T 4 7.1 (ESEI) (S)


1. State four differences between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration .
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

188

2. The diagram shows energy releasing process in a human muscles M and N.

a) Name the type of respiration in muscle M and muscle N.


M : ______________
N : _______________
b) Explain the cellular respiration process that occurs in M and N .
Muscle M : __________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
Muscle N : ___________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
BIO T 4 7.1 (ESEI) (T)
1 . Diagram below shows tissue P and cell Q . P is found in a multicellular organism. Q is
found in a unicellular organism .
Rajah dibawah menunjukkan tisu P dan sel Q . P terdapat dalam organisma multisel. Q
terdapat dalam organisma unisel.

Based on diagram above , explain the cellular respiration process that occurs on P
and in Q .
Berdasarkan rajah diatas , terangkan proses respirasi sel yang berlaku di P dan di Q
(4 marks)
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

189

2. The diagram shows tissue Y and cell Z. Y is found in a multicellular organism whereas Z is
found in a unicellular organism.
Tissue Y

Chemical equation :
C6H12O6 + 6O2

Cell Z

2898 Kj + 6CO2 + 6H2O

Chemical equation :
C6H12O6

210 Kj + 2C2H5OH + 2CO2

Based on above statement compare (give similarities and differences) between


tissue Y and cell Z.
Similarities :

i) Both are cellular respiration


ii) Both involve the breakdown of g_______
iii) Both processes produces e________ (ATP and heat)
iv) Both are catalysed by e________

Differences :
Tissue Y

Items

Cell Z

Aerobic respiration

Type of respiration

A________ respiration

R_____________

Oxygen requirement

Not required

Complete

Breakdown of glucose

I_____________

C_______ _______ ,
w_______ and energy

Product

Ethanol , carbon dioxide ,


and energy

M__________ and
c_________

Site

Cytoplasm

Large amount (2898 kJ)

Energy released

S_______ amount (210 kJ)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

190

_____ molecules

Number of ATP molecules


produced

_____ molecules

3. The diagram shows an experiment on anaerobic respiration in yeast,

First page

BIO T 4 7.2 (OBJECTIVE) (R)


1. Which structure is involve in the breathing of a frog ?
Struktur yang manakah terlibat dalam pernafasan katak ?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Rib cage/ sangkar rusuk


Diaphragm/ diafragma
Intercostal muscle/ otot interkosta
Mouth cavity/ rongga mulut

2. In the respiratory system of a fish, where does gaseous exchange occurs ?


Dalam sistem respirasi ikan, di manakah pertukaran gas berlaku ?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Gill raker/ sisir insang


Gill arch/ lengkungan insang
Filament/ filamen
Mouth/ mulut

3. Diagram 2 shows the respiratory structure of an insect.


Rajah 2 menunjukkan struktur respirasi bagi seekor serangga .

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

191

Diagram 2
Rajah 2
What is R ? / Apakah R ?
A. Trachea/ Trakea
B. Spiracle/ Spirakel

C. Muscle/ otot
D. Tracheole/ trakeol

4. Diagram 3 shows parts of the tracheal system of insects.


Rajah 3 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada sistem trakea pada serangga.

Diagram 3 Rajah 3
What are substances X and Y ? / Apakah bahan X dan Y ?

A
B
C
D

X
Oxygen/ Oksigen

Y
Carbon dioxide/ Karbon
dioksida

Carbon dioxide/ karbon


dioksida
Oxygen/ oksigen

Oxygen/ oksigen

Water/ air

Oxygen/ oksigen

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

Water/ air

192

5. Diagram 4 shows the structure of the gill of a fish.


Rajah 4 menunjukkan struktur insang ikan.

Diagram 4
Rajah 4
What process occurs at X during the gas exchange of the fish ?
Apakah proses yang berlaku di X semasa pertukaran gas bagi ikan itu ?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Osmosis/ Osmosis
Diffusion/ Resapan
Facilitated diffusion/ Resapan berbantu
Active transport/ Pengangkutan aktif

6. Air enters the trachea of insects through ?


Udara memasuki trakea seekor serangga melalui ?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Trachea/ Trakea
Spiracle/ Spirakel
Air sacs/ Kantung udara
Nostril/ Hidung

7.

Diagram 5 shows the respiratory system of an insect. The part labelled J , K , and L
respectively are the ____________
Rajah 5 menunjukkan sistem resapan bagi seekor serangga. Bahagian yang bertanda J, K
dan L adalah __________

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

193

A.
B.
C.
D.

Muscle, air sacs and tracheole/ otot, rongga udara dan trakea
Tracheole ,muscle and trachea/ trakeol, otot dan trakea
Tracheole ,air sacs and trachea/ trakeol, kantung udara dan trakea
Trachea ,air sacs and tracheole/ trakea, kantung udara dan trakeol

8. Each gill has two rows of ____________


Setiap insang mempunyai dua baris __________
A.
B.
C.
D.

Filament/ filamen
Operculum/ operkulum
Lamellae/ lamella
Gill arch/ lengkungan insang

9.

Diagram 6 shows the respiratory structure of a frog. The parts labelled X, Y and Z are the
Rajah 6 menunjukkan struktur respirasi bagi seekor katak. Bahagian yang bertanda X, Y
dan Z adalah
A.
B.
C.
D.

Glottis ,nostril and lungs/ glottis,hidung dan peparu


Nostril ,glottis and lungs/ hidung,glottis dan peparu
Nostril ,bucco-pharynx cavity and glottis/ hidung,kaviti bucco-pharynx dan glotis
Glottis ,nostril and bucco-pharynx cavity/ glottis,hidung dan kaviti bucco-pharynx

10. Which of the following mechanism occurs when a fish takes in oxygen ?
Antara mekanisme berikut , yang manakah berlaku semasa ikan mengambil bekalan
oksigen?.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The floor of mouth cavity is raised / lantai rongga mulut dinaikkan


The mouth of fish is closed / mulut ikan tertutup
The gills slits are opened / liang-liang insang terbuka
The mouth of fish is opened / mulut ikan terbuka

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

194

BIO T 4 7.2 (OBJECTIVE) (S)


11. Which of the following shows the pathway of air in the human respiratory system?
Antara yang berikut yang manakah menunjukkan laluan bagi udara dalam sistem
Pernafasan manusia ?
A. Nostrils
hidung
B. Nostrils
hidung
C. Nostrils
hidung
D. Nostrils
hidung

Trachea
trakea
Bronchioles
bronkiol
Trachea
trakea
Bronchi
bronkus

Bronchioles
bronkiol
Trachea
trakea
Bronchi
bronkus
Trachea
trakea

Bronchi
bronkus
Bronchi
bronkus
Bronchioles
bronkiol
Bronchioles
bronkiol

Alveoli
alveolus
Alveoli
alveolus
Alveoli
alveolus
Alveoli
alveolus

12. Diagram 7 shows a model of the lungs.


Rajah 7 menunjukkan model peparu.

Diagram 7
Rajah 7
What will happen in P and in Q when the string is pulled downwards ?
Apakah yang berlaku di P dan Q semasa tali ditarik ke bawah ?
P

Volume increase/isipadu
bertambah

Expand/ mengembang

Volume decrease/isipadu
berkurang

Contract/ mengecut

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

195

Pressure increase/tekanan
bertambah

Expand/ mengembang

Pressure decrease/tekanan
berkurang

Contact/ mengecut

13. How does the organism in diagram below carry out respiration ?
Bagaimanakah organism dalam rajah di bawah menjalankan respirasi?

A.
B.
C.
D.

By osmosis / osmosis
By simple diffusion / resapan ringkas
By facilitated diffusion / resapan berbantu
By active transport / pengangkutan aktif

14. Which of the following are the characteristics of the respiratory system in insects ?
Antara ciri-ciri berikut , yang manakah merupakan ciri sistem respirasi serangga ?
i.
ii.
iii.

The wall of trachea is thickened with chitin / penebalan kitin pada trakea
The trachea ends at the body cells / trakea berakhir di sel-sel badan
The trachea is surrounded by a network of blood capillary / trakea diliputi jalinan
kapilari darah
The spiracles have valves to control the movement of air / spirakel berinjap untuk
mengawal pergerakan udara

iv.

A.
B.
C.
D.

i and iii only


ii and iv only
i , ii and iv only
ii , iii and iv only

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

196

15. Diagram below shows the respiratory system of insects.


Rajah dibawah menunjukkan sistem respirasi serangga.

Which characteristic of adaptation is true about the structure Y ? Antara ciri berikut ,
yang manakah benar tentang struktur Y yang disesuaikan dengan fungsinya ?
A. It has blood capillaries to transport oxygen / mempunyai kapilari darah untuk
mengangkut oksigen
B. It has rings of chitin to support it / mempunyai struktur gegelang kitin untuk
mengekalkan bentuknya
C. It has fluid at its end / mempunyai cecair pada hujungnya
D. It has many layers of cells on its walls / struktur dindingnya terdiri daripada banyak
lapisan sel
16. Diagram below shows the structures P , Q , R and S in the respiratory system of a
cockroach. Rajah dibawah menunjukkan bahagian P , Q , R and S dalam system respirasi
seekor lipas.

Which of the following explanation is not correctly matched to its structure?


Antara maklumat yang menerangkan tentang bahagian itu, yang manakah tidak
benar ?
A. P the opening and closing is controlled by the thick cuticle / pembukaan dan
penutupan dikawal oleh kutikel tebal
B. Q has thick rings around to prevent it from collapsing / mempunyai cincin yang
tebal untuk mencegahnya daripada terkempis
C. R has thin walls covered with a layer of moisture / mempunyai dinding nipis
dengan lapisan yang lembap
D. S gaseous exchange occurs by simple diffusion / pertukaran gas berlaku secara
resapan ringkas
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

197

17. Which of the following organism does not have a specialised respiratory system ?
Antara organism berikut , yang manakah tidak mempunyai sistem pernafasan khas ?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Frog / katak
Grasshopper / belalang
Paramecium sp / paramecium
Snake / ular

18. Diagram below shows a model of the ribcage. Rajah dibawah menunjukkan model
sangkar rusuk.

Which parts are involved during breathing ? .


Bahagian manakah yang terlibat semasa pernafasan ?
A.
B.
C.
D.

J and K
J and L
K and M
L and M

19. Diagram below shows a model of the lungs. Rajah dibawah menunjukkan model peparu.

What will happen in R and in S when the string is pulled downwards ?


Apakah akan berlaku di R dan S semasa tali ditarik ke bawah ?

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

198

Pressure increases /
tekanan bertambah

Expand /
mengembang

Pressure decrease /
tekanan berkurang

Contract / mengecut

Volume increase /
isipadu bertambah

Expand /
mengembang

Volume decrease /
isipadu berkurang

Contract / mengecut

20. What are the similarities in the respiratory system of fish , insects and humans ?
Antara berikut , yang manakah menunjukkan persamaan antara sistem pernafasan ikan ,
serangga dan manusia ?
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Large surface area of respiratory surfaces / jumlah luas permukaan respirasi yang
besar
Moist surface of respiratory organ / permukaan organ respirasi yang lembap
Thin wall of respiratory organ / dinding permukaan organ respirasi yang nipis
A network of blood capillaries to transport respiratory gases / jalinan kapilari
darah untuk mengangkut gas respirasi
i and iii only
ii and iv only
i , ii and iii only
i , ii , iii and iv

BIO T 4 7.2 (OBJECTIVE) (T)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

199

21.
K - Rib cage move downwards and inwards
Sangkar rusuk bergerak kebawah dan kedalam
L - High atmospheric pressure inside the lungs forces air out of the lungs
Tekanan atmosfera yang tinggi didalam peparu memaksa udara daripada
peparu
M - External intercostal muscles relax while the internal intercostal muscle
contract
Otot interkosta luar mengendur manakala otot interkosta dalam mengecut
N - Diaphragm muscles relax and curves upwards
Otot diafragma mengendur dan melengkung keatas
O - Volume of the thoracic cavity decreases
Isipadu rongga toraks berkurangan

K,L,M,N,and O describe the mechanism of exhalation in human which is not in the


correct sequence./K,L,M,N dan O adalah susunan yang tidak tepat bagi mekanisma
menghembus nafas bagi manusia.
Which of the following is in the correct sequence ? / Antara yang berikut,yang manakah
susunan yang tepat ?
A.
B.
C.
D.

N,L,K,M,O
M,K,N,O,L
N,O,K,M,L
K,M,N,O,L

22. How does fish maximise the efficiency of gaseous exchange ?


Bagaimanakah ikan memaksimakan kecekapan pertukaran gas ?
A. The closing of mouth and operculum / penutupan mulut dan operculum
B. The opening of mouth and operculum / pembukaan mulut dan operkulum
C. The opposite direction of water and blood flow through the gills / arah pengaliran
air dan darah yang bertentangan melalui insang
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

200

D. The same direction of water and blood flow through the gills / arah pengaliran air
dan darah yang sama melalui insang
23. What happen if alveoli are torn and punctured ?
Apakah yang berlaku jika alveolus koyak dan bocor ?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Gasping / tercungap - cungap


Sneezing / bersin
Shivering / menggigil
Swallowing / menelan

24. Which of the following is not true about the exhalation of fish ?
Antara yang berikut yang manakah tidak benar tentang penghembusan nafas ikan?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Lower pressure in the buccal cavity/ tekanan rendah di dalam rongga bukal
The floor of the buccal cavity is raised/ dasar rongga bukal menaik
The opercular cavity becomes smaller/ rongga operkular menjadi kecil
The mouth is closed/ mulut tertutup

25. Which of the following causes an increase in the air pressure inside the thoracic cavity
during normal breathing of human?.
Antara tindakan berikut , yang manakah akan menambah tekanan udara dalam rongga
toraks manusia semasa pernafasan normal ?
A. The contraction of internal intercostals muscles / pengecutan otot-otot interkosta
dalam
B. The upward movement of the ribcage / pergerakan sangkar rusuk ke atas
C. The flattening of the diaphragm / diafragma menjadi datar
D. The contraction of the diaphragm muscles / pengecutan otot diafragma
26. Why is the flow of blood in the gills of a fish opposite to the direction of the flow of
water?. Mengapakah pengaliran darah dalam insang ikan adalah bertentangan dengan
arah aliran air ?.
A. To ensure small particles are removed from the blood / memastikan zarah-zarah
kecil dikeluarkan dari darah
B. To ensure maximum formation of energy in the form of ATP in the body cells of the
fish / memastikan penghasilan tenaga yang maksimum di dalam bentuk ATP dalam
sel badan ikan
C. To ensure maximum flow of blood / memastikan pengaliran darah yang maksimum
D. To ensure maximum absorption of oxygen in the blood / memastikan penyerapan
oksigen yang maksimum ke dalam aliran darah
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

201

27. When a mammal breathes in, what happens to the diaphragm and to the ribcage?
Semasa mamalia menarik nafas, apakah yang terjadi pada diafragma dan sangkar rusuk ?
Diaphragm / diafragma

Rib cage / sangkar rusuk

Becomes more domeshaped / menjadi lebih


berbentuk kubah

Downwards and inwards / ke


bawah dan kedalam

Becomes more domeshaped / menjadi lebih


berbentuk kubah

Outwards and upwards /


keluar dan keatas

Becomes flatten / menjadi


datar

Downwards and inwards /


kebawah dan kedalam

Becomes flatten / menjadi


datar

Outwards and upwards /


keluar dan keatas

28. The graph in diagram below shows the changes in the volume of air in the lungs during
breathing.
Graf pada rajah dibawah menunjukkan perubahan isi padu udara dalam peparu semasa
pernafasan.

In which stages P , Q , R and S on the graph is the air pressure lowest in the lungs ?
Antara peringkat P , Q , R dan S pada graf , yang manakah menunjukkan tekanan udara
yang paling rendah dalam peparu ?
A.
B.
C.
D.

P and Q
P and R
Q and S
R and S

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

202

29. Diagram below shows the changes in air pressure in the lungs during a breathing
process. The atmospheric pressure is 76 mmHg.
Rajah dibawah menunjukkan perubahan tekanan udara dalam peparu semasa satu kitar
pernafasan. Tekanan atmosfera ialah 76 mmHg.

What happens at stage Y ?.


Apakah yang berlaku pada peringkat Y ?.
A. The ribs move upwards and the diaphragm downwards / tulang rusuk dinaikkan dan
diafragma melengkung kebawah
B. The ribs move upwards and the diaphragm flattens / tulang rusuk dinaikkan dan
diafragma mendatar
C. The ribs move downwards and the diaphragm curves upwards / tulang rusuk
diturunkan dan diafragma melengkung keatas
D. The ribs move downwards and the diaphragm flattens / tulang rusuk diturunkan dan
diafragma mendatar
BIO T4 7.2 ( STRUCTURE) (R) (S) (T)
1. Diagram 2 represents a model of the human lungs in the respiratory mechanism.
Rajah 2 mewakili model peparu manusia dalam mekanisme respirasi.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

203

Diagram 2
Rajah 2
(a) Based on the model of the lungs in diagram 2.1 , what are the equivalent structures
to the glass tube and the bell jar in the human respiratory system ?.
Berdasarkan model peparu dalam rajah 2.1 , apakah struktur yang sepadan dengan
salur kaca dan serkup kaca pada sistem respirasi manusia ?.
(R)
Glass tube / salur kaca :
_____________________________________________________________
Bell jar / serkup kaca :
_____________________________________________________________
(2 marks)

(b) (i) The thin rubber sheet represents the diaphragm in the human respiratory system.
Kepingan getah nipis mewakili diafragma dalam sistem respirasi manusia.
What is the function of the thin rubber sheet in the model of the lungs ?
Apakah fungsi kepingan getah nipis dalam model peparu itu ?
(R)
_____________________________________________________________
(1 marks)
(ii) The ballons represent the human lungs .
Belon mewakili peparu manusia .
Explain one characteristics of the ballons which is similar to the human lungs .
Terangkan satu ciri belon yang serupa dengan ciri peparu manusia. (S)
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
(2 marks)
(c) (i) The string in the model of the lungs is pulled down.
Tali pada model peparu itu ditarik.
Draw the changes to the thin rubber sheet and the ballons in diagram 2.2 below.
Lukiskan keadaan pada kepingan getah nipis dan belon pada rajah 2.2 di bawah.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

204

Diagram 2.2 Rajah 2.2

(ii) Observe your drawing in (c) (i)


Perhatikan lukisan anda di (c) (i)
Explain the relationship between the changes in the model of the lungs you have
drawn and the real human repiratory system .
Jelaskan perkaitan antara perubahan pada model peparu yang anda lukis dengan
sistem respirasi manusia sebenar .
(T)
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________ (3 marks)
(d) Table 2.3 shows the result of a study on the content of inspired and expired air.
Jadual 2.3 menunjukkan keputusan kajian tentang kandungan udara sedutan dan
udara hembusan.
Type of gas
Jenis gas

Inspired air / %
Udara sedutan / %

Expired air / %
Udara hembusan / %

Oxygen / oksigen

21.0

16.0

Carbon dioxide / karbon


dioksida

0.04

4.0

Nitrogen gas / gas


nitrogen

78.0

78.0

Water vapour / wap air

Vary / berubah-ubah

Saturated / tepu

Table 2.3
Jadual 2.3
Explain why there is an increase in percentage of carbon dioxide in the expired air .
Terangkan mengapa terdapat peningkatan peratus karbon dioksida dalam udara
hembusan .
(S)
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

205

2. Diagram 3.1 shows a part of the human respiratory system.


Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada sistem respirasi manusia.

Diagram 3.1
Rajah 3.1
(a) On diagram 3.1 , name P and Q .
Pada rajah 3.1 , namakan P dan Q.

(R)
(2 marks)

(b) Diagram 3.2 shows one stage in human breathing.


Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan satu peringkat dalam pernafasan manusia .

Diagram 3.2
Rajah 3.2

(i)

State the stage of breathing shown in diagram 3.2.


Nyatakan peringkat pernafasan yang ditunjukkan dalam rajah 3.2 . (R)
_______________________________________________________ (1 marks)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

206

(ii)

Explain the function of P in the stage of breathing in 5 (b) (i).


Terangkan fungsi P dalam peringkat pernafasan di 5 (b) (i).
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
(2 marks)
(c) The diaphragm is unable a function .
Explain how this affects the breathing mechanism.
Diafragma itu tidak boleh berfungsi.
Terangkan bagaimanakah ini memberi kesan kepada mekanisma pernafasan . (T)
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________ (3 marks)
(d) Gas exchange takes place across the surface of the alveoli.
Pertukaran gas berlaku merentasi permukaan alveolus.
(i)

Explain the importance of gas exchange in a human .


Terangkan kepentingan pertukaran gas dalam manusia .
(S)
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
(2 marks)

(ii)

State two ways in which the alveoli are adapted for efficient gas exchange.
Nyatakan dua cara alveolus mengadaptasi untuk pertukaran gas yang
efisien.
(R)
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
(2 marks)

BIO T4 7.2 (ESEI) (R)


1. Respiratory structure and adaptations.
a) Although there are different types of respiratory structures in organisms but actual
e_______ of respiratory gases occurs only at respiratory s________.
b) The respiratory surface is a site where oxygen diffuse into the body and carbon
dioxide diffuse out of the body.
c) To increase the efficiency of gaseous exchange, the adaptations of the respiratory
surface are :
i. Thin usually one cell thick for effective d________ of gases.
ii. Moist for the gases to d_______ in the first before diffusing across the respiratory
surface.
iii. Large surface area to m________ the exchange of gases
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

207

d) Different respiratory structure and its respiratory surface.


Organisms

Protozoa

Insects

Fish

Amphibians

Humans

None

Trachea

G_______

Skin , lungs ,
buccal cavity

Lungs

P_______
m________

Tracheoles

Gill
filaments
and
lamellae

S_______
a________

A________

Respiratory
structure
Respiratory
surface
(gases
exchange)

2. Respiratory structure in unicellular organism


a) The respiratory surface area of a unicellular organism such as amoeba is plasma
m_________.
b) Due to s________ in size, these organisms have a large total surface area to volume
ratio (TSA / V) to facilitate the diffusion of respiratory gases.
c) Movement of the respiratory gases into and out of the cell occurs through plasma
membrane by the process of d________.

3. Respiratory structure in insects


a) For the complex and larger organisms, they need s______ respiratory structures to
increase the efficiency of gaseous exchange because their TSA / V is s________
b) The respiratory system of insects is the t________ system.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

208

c) The air passage of inspired air : Spiracle


trachea
tracheoles
body cell
d) The function of v________ is to control the opening and closing of spiracle. The
trachea are reinforced with rings of c_________ with prevent them from c________
or become deflated.
e) The finer tubes called t_________. The larger number of tracheoles provides a large
surface area to maximised the d_________ of gases. The tips of the tracheoles have
t________, permeable walls and contain fluid which respiratory gases can
d________.
f) The contraction and relaxation of the a________ muscle will change the volume and
pressure in abdomen. This causes the movement of air through the spiracles.

4. Respiratory structure of fish


a) Fishes have a respiratory structures called g______. Each gill consist of numerous
f_______. The filaments have numerous thin plate called l________. Gill lamellae are
the respiratory surface of a fish.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

209

b) The structural adaptation of the gills for efficiency of gaseous exchange :


i.
T_______ membranes of lamellae is to facilitate the diffusion of respiratory
gases into and out of the blood capillaries.
ii. Rich of b________ c_________ for transportation of respiratory gases.
iii. Surrounded by w________ which enable respiratory gases to d______
iv.
Large surface area of filaments and lamellae to maximised the g_________
exchange.
5. The breathing mechanism and gases exchange of fish
When the floor of the b_______ cavity is lowered, pressure in buccal cavity d_______.
Water with dissolved oxygen is drawn into the m_______. Water flows through the
l________ and gaseous exchange between the blood capillaries and water occurs.
O_________ diffuses from the flowing water through the gill lamellae into the blood
capillaries. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood capillaries via the gill lamellae into
the flowing water. The efficiency of gaseous exchange is further enhanced by the
c_______ exchange mechanism whereby the direction of blood flow in blood capillaries
of lamellae is o________ water flow.
6. Respiratory structure of amphibians
a) Respiratory surface of a frog is mainly through the s________ buccal cavity and the
l________

b) Adaptation of the skin to efficient the gaseous exchange :


i. Thin : d________ of gases between the skin and the environment is easier
ii. A network of blood capillaries beneath the s________ : to increase the rate
of diffusion and t________ of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
iii. Moist due to the secretion of m__________ by glands found on the surface
of the body : dissolve gases and allow the exchange of gases to occur readily.
d__________ in the mucus and diffuses into the blood capillaries.
c) Adaptation of the lung to efficient gaseous exchange :
i. The membrane of the lungs are thin and moist allow : the d_________ of
respiratory gases in and out rapidly.
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

210

ii.
iii.

Having numerous inner partition : to i________ the surface area and hence
increases the rate of gases diffusion.
Covered with a rich network of blood capillaries : to receive oxygen and
t______ it to body cells and to release carbon dioxide out of the body.

7. Respiratory structure of humans


a) Gaseous exchange in humans takes place in the a__________.
b) Air enters the lungs through :
Trachea

bronchus

b________

a___________

c) Trachea is supported by c________ which keep it from c_________

8. Characteristics of respiratory surface // alveolus


Characteristics of alveoli to their functions

A large number of alveoli

l________ surface area for

(700 million) in the lungs

exchange of gases

Moist walls secrete a

Gases can d_______ in

thin lining of moisture

moisture and diffuse easily

Surrounded by a network

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

Can t______ O2 to and

211

of blood capillaries

CO2 away from the cells

Walls are made of a

Gases can diffuse easily

s________ layer of cells

across the thin walls

BIO T 4 7.2 (ESEI) (S)


1. Mechanism of respiration in humans
a) The breathing mechanism involves the combined action of the intercostals muscle ( between
the ribs ) and diaphragm.
b) There are two set of intercostals muscles : E_________ intercostal muscle and i________
intercostals muscle.
c) Breathing mechanisms :

Inhalation

i)

ii)

iii)

External intercostals
muscles c_______.
Internal intercostals
muscles relax
The rib cage move
u_______ &
o________
The diaphragm muscle
c________ &
diaphragm
f_________

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

Exhalation

I.

External intercostals
muscle relax. Internal
intercostals muscle
c_______

II.

The rib cage move


d_______ &
i________

III. The diaphragm


muscle r_______ and
returns to d_____-_______// resting
212

position
Action I , II , & III i________
the volume of the thoracic
cavity , causing its pressure to
d________ (lower than
atmospheric pressure)
iv)

Action I , II & III d________


the volume of the thoracic
cavity, causing its pressure to
i______ (greater than
atmospheric pressure)

H______ atmospheric
pressure outside
causes the air to rush
i_____ the lungs.

IV.

L____ atmospheric
pressure outside
force the air
o_______ of the
lungs.

BIO T 4 7.2 (ESEI) (T)

1. A person is found dead by police officers in a garage. Investigation shows the death
was caused by excessive inhalation of car exhaust fumes.
State the gas released by the car exhaust and explain the consequences on the
transportation of oxygen by erythrocyte.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

2. Comparison between the human respiratory system with that of other organisms
Similarities
Have a l______ surface area to volume ratio.
Cells lining the respiratory structures are t________.
The surfaces for gaseous exchange are constantly m__________.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

213

Characteristics
Respiratory
system
Respiratory
organs
Respiratory
structures
Respiratory
opening
A large
surface area
to volume
ratio is
achieved by
having

Network of
blood
capillaries

Air passages

Protozoa

Differences
Insects
Fish

Amphibians

Humans

Skin, lungs
and buccal
cavity
Skin and
lungs

L______

None

Tracheal
system

G______

None

T_______

Gills

Plasma
m_______

Tracheoles

Lungs and
s______

A_______

None

Spiracles

Filaments
and
lamellae
Mouth

Nostrils

Nostrils

Unicellular
, f_____
and
s______
bodies

Numerous
tracheoles

Numerous
f_______
and
l________

Numerous
a________

None

None

Lungs with
numerous
inner
partitions
and gaseous
exchange
which takes
place
throughout
the entire
surface area
of the skin
The skin and
lungs are
richly
supplied
with blood
capillaries
Nostrils

None

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

The
filaments
and richly
supplied
with blood
capillaries
Spiracles
Mouth
* Tracheae * Opercular
* Tracheoles
cavity
* Body cells
* gills and
lamellae
*operculum

* bucco
pharyngeal
cavity
* lungs

Lungs

The alveoli
are richly
supplied
with blood
capillaries

Nostrils
* trachea
* bronchi
*bronchioles

214

* alveoli
Other
structures
which help in
external
respiration

None

Thorax ,
abdomen

Operculum
and the
muscular
walls of the
floor of the
buccal
cavity

The strong
muscular
walls of the
buccopharyngeal
floor

D_______,
rib cage and
i_______
muscle

BIO T 4 7.3 (OBJECTIVE) (R)


1. Oxygen combines with respiratory pigment known as ___________ to transport oxygen
Oksigen bergabung dengan pigmen respirasi dikenali sebagai ________ untuk
mengangkut oksigen
A.
B.
C.
D.

Oxyhaemoglobin/ oksihemoglobin
Carbaminohaemoglobin/ karbaminohemoglobin
Haemoglobin/ hemoglobin
Bicarbonate ions/ ion bikarbonat

2. Carbon dioxide can be transported in ____________


Karbon diokdsida boleh diangkut di dalam _________
I.
II.
III.
IV.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Carbaminohaemoglobin/ karbaminohemoglobin
Oxyhaemoglobin/ oksihemoglobin
Bicarbonate ions/ ion bikarbonat
Dissolved carbon dioxide/ larutan karbon dioksida
I , II , and IV only
II , III , and IV only
I, III ,and IV only
I , II , III , and IV

3. Which of the following does not transport carbon dioxide in the blood to the lungs ?
Antara berikut, yang manakah bukan bentuk karbon dioksida yang diangkut oleh darah ke
peparu ?
A. Carbaminohaemoglobin / karbaminohemoglobin
B. Carbonic acid / asid karbonik
C. Sodium bicarbonate / ion bikarbonat
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

215

D. Carboxyhaemoglobin / karboksihemoglobin
4. Which structures are involved in the human gaseous exchange system ?
Antara struktur-struktur berikut, yang manakah terlibat dalam sistem pertukaran gas
manusia ?
I.
II.
III.
IV.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Trachea /trakea
Bronchus / bronkus
Bronchioles / bronkiol
Alveolus / alveolus
I and IV only
II and III only
II , III and IV only
I , II , III , and IV

5. What are the characteristics that enable gaseous exchange at the gill filaments of the fish
to be carried out efficiently?
Apakah ciri-ciri yang membolehkan pertukaran gas yang cekap di filamen insang ikan ?
I.
II.
III.
IV.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Large surface area / permukaan yang luas


Thin walls of membrane / membrannya yang nipis
A network of blood capillaries / kehadiran banyak kapilari darah
The flow of blood which is opposite to the direction of the flow of water / aliran
darah menentang pengaliran air
I and II only
III and IV only
I , II and IV only
I , II , III and IV

BIO T 4 7.3 (OBJECTIVE) (S)


6. How is carbon dioxide transported in the blood plasma ?
Bagaimanakah karbon dioksida dihantar ke plasma darah?
A. Combine with water to form carbonic acid/ bergabung dengan air menjadi asid
karbonik
B. As dissolved carbon dioxide/ sebagai larutan karbon dioksida
C. In the form of bicarbonate ions/ dalam bentuk ion bikarbonat
D. Binds to the haemoglobin and in the form of carbaminohaemoglobin/ bergabung
dengan haemoglobin dan dalam bentuk karbaminohemoglobin
7. Diagram 8 shows a cross section through a part of a lung.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

216

Rajah 8 menunjukkan keratan rentas melalui sebahagian peparu.

Diagram 8
Rajah 8
What are the adaptations of alveolus which increase the rate of gaseous exchange ?
Apakah adaptasi pada alveolus yang menambahkan kadar pertukaran gas?
I.
II.
III.
IV.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Able to expand and contract/ boleh mengembang dan menguncup


Small surface area/ luas permukaan yang kecil
Located close to blood capillaries/ terletak berdekatan pada kapilari darah
Covered by a thin film of moisture/ diliputi oleh satu lapisan nipis kelembapan
I and II
I and IV
II and III
III and IV

8. Which are the characteristics that enable the alveolus to carry out gaseous exchange
efficiently ?
Antara ciri-ciri berikut, yang manakah membolehkan alveolus melakukan pertukaran gas
dengan berkesan ?
I.
II.
III.
IV.

A large surface area / mempunyai permukaan yang luas


A layer of moisture on its surface / mempunyai permukaan yang lembap
A network of blood capillaries around it / mempunyai kapilari darah yang banyak di
sekelilingnya
A layer of fat on its surface / mempunyai permukaan yang berlemak
A. I and III only
B. II and III only

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

217

C. I , II and III only


D. I , II , III and IV
9. Which of the following is not an important characteristic for gaseous exchange in
mammals ?
Antara berikut, yang manakah bukan ciri penting untuk pertukaran gas dalam mamalia?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Thin membrane / membrane sel yang nipis


Large surface area / luas permukaan yang besar
Soft membrane surface / permukaan membran yang lembut
A network of blood capillaries / rangkaian kapilari darah yang banyak

10. What path does a molecule of carbon dioxide take as it leaves the body?
Antara turutan berikut, yang manakah menunjukkan aliran yang dilalui oleh satu molekul
karbon dioksida sebelum disingkirkan dari badan ?
A. Bronchus
Bronkus
B. Trachea
Trakea
C. Alveolus
Alveolus
D. Trachea
Trakea

bronchioles
bronkiol
larynx
larinks

larinks

bronkus

bronkiol

alveolus

bronkiol

bronkus
bronchiole

alveolus

alveolus

bronchiole

bronchus

bronkiol

trachea

trakea

bronchus

bronchioles

alveolus

larynx

alveolus

alveolus

trachea
trakea

larynx

larinks

bronchus
bronkus

larynx

larinks

11. Diagram below shows a section of an alveolus and its blood supply in the human lung.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan keratin rentas alveolus manusia dan jalinan kapilari dalam
peparu manusia.

Which of the following occur at the alveolus during inhalation?


Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

218

Antara berikut, yang manakah berlaku pada alveolus semasa menarik nafas ?
I.

II.

III.
IV.

The concentration of oxygen in P is higher than the concentration of oxygen in the


blood capillaries / kepekatan oksigen di P lebih tinggi daripada kepekatan oksigen
dalam kapilari darah
The concentration of oxygen in P is lower than the concentration of oxygen in the
blood capillaries / kepekatan oksigen di P lebih rendah daripada kepekatan oksigen
dalam kapilari darah
The gaseous exchange occurs by simple diffusion / pertukaran gas berlaku secara
resapan ringkas
A lot of oxyhaemoglobin are formed / banyak oksihemoglobin terbentuk
A.
B.
C.
D.

I and III only


II and IV only
I , II and III only
I , III and IV only

BIO T 4 7.3 (OBJECTIVE) (T)


12. The following information shows the result of an experiment to determine the oxygen
content in exhaled air using J-tube.
Maklumat berikut menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen untuk menentukan kandungan
oksigen didalam udara hembusan dengan menggunakan tiub-J.

Length of exhaled air column /Panjang turus udara hembusan

= 10.0 cm

Length of exhaled air column aftertreatment with potassium hydroxide/


Panjang turus udara hembusan selepas dirawat dengan kalium hidroksida= 9.6 cm

Length of exhaled air column after Treatment with potassium pyrogallate /


Panjang turus udara hembusan selepas dirawat dengan kalium pirogalat = 8.5 cm

The percentage of oxygen content in the exhaled air is


Peratusan kandungan oksigen dalam udara hembusan ialah

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

219

A.
B.
C.
D.

4.2%
8.5%
11.0%
21.0%

13. Diagram 9 shows a longitudinal section of an alveolus and a blood capillary.


Rajah 9 menunjukkan keratan memanjang alveolus dan kapilari darah

Diagram 9
Rajah 9

What are the partial pressure of oxygen at P , Q and R ?


Apakah tekanan separa oksigen di P , Q dan R ?
P

High/tinggi

Low/rendah

High/tinggi

Low/rendah

High/tinggi

Low/rendah

High/tinggi

Low/rendah

Low/rendah

Low/rendah

High/tinggi

High/tinggi

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

220

14. Diagram 10 shows an alveolus and a blood capillary in a lung. Which of the following is
true about X , Y and Z in the blood vessel ?
Rajah 10 menunjukkan alveolus dan kapilari darah didalam peparu. Antara yang berikut
benar mengenai X , Y dan Z dalam saluran darah.

Diagram 10
Rajah 10

Contains blood with a


high concentration of
carbon dioxide/ darah
yang mengandungi
kepekatan karbon
dioksida yang tinggi

Diffusion of carbon dioxide


into the alveolus/ resapan
karbon dioksida ke dalam
alveolus

Contains blood with a high


concentration of oxygen/
darah yang mengandungi
kepekatan oksigen yang
tinggi

Contains blood with a


high concentration of
carbon dioxide/ darah
yang mengandungi
karbon dioksida yang
tinggi

Diffusion of oxygen into the


alveolus/ resapan oksigen
ke dalam alveolus

Contains blood with a high


concentration of oxygen/
darah yang mengandungi
kepekatan oksigen yang
tinggi

Contains blood with a


high concentration of
oxygen/ darah yang
mengandungi
kepekatan oksigen
yang tinggi

Diffusion of carbon dioxide


into the alveolus/ resapan
karbon dioksida ke dalam
alveolus

Contains blood with a high


concentration of carbon
dioxide/ darah yang
mengandungi kepekatan
karbon dioksida yang tinggi

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

221

Contains blood with a


high concentration of
oxygen/ darah yang
mengandungi
kepekatan oksigen
yang tinggi

Diffusion of oxygen into the


alveolus/ resapan oksigen
ke dalam alveolus

Contains blood with a high


concentration of carbon
dioxide/ darah yang
mengandungi kepekatan
karbon dioksida yang tinggi

15. Diagram below shows a section of an alveolus in a human lung.


Rajah di bawah menunjukkan keratan satu alveolus dalam peparu manusia.

What is the oxygen concentration in the parts labelled X , Y , and Z ?


Bagaimanakah keadaan kepekatan oksigen di bahagian yang berlabel X , Y , and Z ?

A
B
C
D

Low / rendah

High / tinggi

Low / rendah

Low / rendah

High / tinggi

High / tinggi

High / tinggi

Low / rendah

Low / rendah

High / tinggi

Low / rendah

High / tinggi

16. What causes the gaseous exchange at the lungs of an amphibian to be inefficient ?
Antara berikut, yang manakah menyebabkan ketidakcekapan pertukaran gas di peparu
amfibia ?
I.

Few alveoli for gaseous exchange / bilangan alveolus yang kurang untuk pertukaran
gas berlaku

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

222

II.
III.
IV.

No ribcage to expand and contract the lungs / tiada sangkar rusuk untuk
mengembang dan mengecutkan peparu
Breathing depends on the mouth cavity / pernafasan bergantung kepada rongga
mulut
No diaphragm to change the volume of the lungs / tiada diafragma untuk mengubah
isipadu peparu
A. I and III only
B. I , II and IV only
C. II , III and IV only
D. I , II , III and IV

BIO T 4 7.3 (STRUCTURE) (R)(S)(T)


1. Diagram below shows the gaseous exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the
lungs and surrounding blood capillaries.
Rajah dibawah menunjukkan pertukaran gas oksigen dan karbon dioksida diantara peparu
dan saluran darah.

Name V , W , X , Y , and Z shows in the diagram above.


Namakan V , W , X , Y , dan Z yang ditunjukkan pada rajah diatas.
V : ________________________

W : _______________________

X : ________________________

Y : _______________________

Z : ________________________

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

223

BIO T 4 7.3 (ESEI) (R)


1. The gaseous exchange occurs at two parts : between the surface of alveolus and blood
capillaries [R] and between the blood capillaries and body cell [S].

[R] Between the surface of alveolus and blood capillaries


{ Note : Po2 = partial pressure of oxygen , Pco2 = partial pressure of Carbon dioxide }

A gas diffuses from a region of h_______ partial pressure to a region of l_______


partial pressure.
Po2 in alveoli is higher than Po2 in blood capillary, so, Oxygen diffuses from the
alveoli into the b_______ c________.
Pco2 in alveoli lower than Pco2 in blood capillary, so, Carbon dioxide diffuse from the
blood capillaries into the a________.
When oxygen enter the blood capillaries, oxygen combines with haemoglobin in RBC
to form o_______ and carried to all parts of the body.
in lungs

Haemoglobin + oxygen

oxyhaemoglobin

[S] Between the blood capillaries and body cells

As the low partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) in body cell, oxyhaemoglobin releases
o_______ which then diffuses through the capillaries walls into the b_______
cells/tissues
Oxyhaemoglobin

in tissue

haemoglobin + oxygen

Oxygen is used in cellular respiration to produce energy, water and c_______


d________

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

224

Glucose + oxygen

energy + water + carbon dioxide

C_______ respiration produce carbon dioxide. Pco2 in body cells / tissues is higher
than Pco2 in capillaries. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the body cells into the blood
c_______ and is carried to the l________ by three ways:
a) Most dissolved in the blood plasma as b________ ions (HCO3-) : 70%
b) Combines with haemoglobin in the form of c__________ : (HbCO2) : 23%
c) Dissolved in the blood plasma as d________ CO2 molecules : 7%

2. The composition of inhaled and exhaled air


Content

Inhaled air

Exhaled air

Oxygen

21.09 %

___________%

Carbon dioxide

___________%

4.1%

Nitrogen

79.0%

79.0%

Water vapour

Varies and is never


saturated

Saturated

Temperature

Room temperature

Body temperature

BIO T 4 7.3 (ESEI) (T)


1. The following information shows the results of an experiment to determine the oxygen
content in exhaled air using a J-tube .

Length of exhaled air column

(x) = 10.0 cm

Length of exhaled air column


after treatment with potassium hydroxide
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

(y) = 9.6 cm
225

Length of exhaled air column


after treatment with potassium pyrogallate

(z) = 8.0 cm

calculate the percentage of carbon dioxide and oxygen content in the exhaled air
% of carbon dioxide = ( x y ) x 100
x

% of oxygen = (y z) x 100
x

2. Breathing mechanism in human / mekanisma pernafasan manusia


Inhalation / menarik nafas

Exhalation / penghembusan nafas

Outer intercostals muscle contract / otot


luar intercosta mengecut
Inner intercostals muscle relax / otot dalam
intercosta mengendur
Rib cage moves upwards and outwards /
sangkar rusuk dinaikkan ke atas dan ke
depan
Diaphragm muscle relax / otot diafragma
mengendur
Diaphragm flattens / diafragma mendatar
Volume of thorax decreases / isipadu
rongga toraks berkurangan
Pressure of thorax increase / tekanan
rongga toraks bertambah
Air moves into the lungs / udara masuk ke
dalam peparu.
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

226

BIO T 4. 7.4 R
The regulation mechanism in respiration
Corelation the rate of respiration with oxygen and carbon dioxide contents in the body:
Fill in the blanks with correct word.
1. During v..................... exercise, more e.................... is required. Therefore, the muscle need
more ox................. and g ....................... to release energy during cellular respiration.
Therefore the rate of respiration and heat beats i ........................... (5m)
2. The rate and depth of breathing i.............................. to supply more oxygen to the cell.
3. At the same time, the h................... rate increases to pump more b.......................... to the
cells
4. During cellular respiration more carbon dioxide to be r.......................... from the cell.
5. High concentration of CO2 d............................. the blood pH. The rate of external
respiration increases to eliminate .................................. through the lung and bring in more
oxygen into the body.
BIO T 4 7.4 S
Explain how does our body eliminate the excess carbon dioxide during vigorous exercise
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

During vigorous exercise, c............... d...................... is produced and increase in the


respiring cells.
Higher carbon dioxide concentration in blood results in d.......................... in blood pH and
cerebrospinal fluid.
The central chemoreceptor in medulla oblongata, d.................... the higher concentration of
CO2 ( and low concentration and send the nerve impulses to the r.........................
c.................
The respiratory centre produce new impulses and sent to the respiratory muscles (
intercostals muscles). The muscles is then contarct and relax , m........................ rapidly.
Breathing rate and v ........................... rate increase
As excess CO2 is el...................................... from body, CO2 concentration and blood pH
return to n........................................

BIO T4 7.4. T
Describing and relate the human respiratory response and rate of respiration in different situation.
1.
2.
3.
4.

In fear/emergency
At high altitude
Relaxing
Vigorous activity.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

227

BIO 4 7.5 R
The importance of maintaining a healthy respiratory system
1. The air we inhale contains dirt,dust,soot, various irritants and harmful p............................
2. Cigarette smoke contains over ....................... chemicals. A smoker inhales s............... which
contains ......................, carbon monoxide, n.........................., acetone, b.............................
and formadelhyde.
3. Some these chemicals are c..................................... compounds which can cause lung cancer.
BIO 4 7.5 S
1. COPD ( Chronic Obstructive Pulomonary Disease) , 2 types of COPD are E..........................
and Chronic bronchitis.
2. Emphysema is a disease in which the walls between the a........................ s............................
in the lungs are d............... Thus, the effeciency of gaseous exchange is greatly reduced.
3. Chronic bronchitis is the i........................... of the bronchi that caused by frequent
c............... due to overproduction of mucus.
BIO 4 7.5 T
What are the effects of tobacco smokes on the human healthy?

BIO 4 7.6 S
Respiration in plant
1. Plant derive their e.................... from c........................ respiration
2. During cellular respiration, plant cells take in o...................... and produce C.........................
d..............................
3. Photosynthesis only occur in the presence of l.................... in darkness, plants carry out only
r................................. Plant need energy continously to sustain their living process.
4. Label diagram:
Stomata and lenticel

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

228

BIO 4 7.6 S
1. Gaseous exchange between plant cell and the environment occurs by d................ ... through
s.................................. and l.....................................
2. The s.............................of most plant o......................... when there is l............................ and
they c................... in the d.................
3. O.................... from atmosphere diffuses to the a...... s................. and then into the
m................... cells. During a................... respiration, oxygen
Net gain in sugar (rate of
concentration in the cells is l....... than the concentration of
oxygen in the a....... ....................thus allows it to
photosynthesis > rate of
d............from the air space into the c...................................
respiration
4. C....................... d......................... which is produced during
aerobic respiration is u........ in p................................... during the
Net loss of sugar (sugar
day. E.................. carbon dioxide diffuses
used in respiration >
into air spaces and then through the
Releases of
sugar produced during
s............... into the atsmophere.
CO2

BIO T4 7.6 T
1.

photosynthesis

Low

high

Alysis of
the absorption and releases of CO2 versus light intensity.

light intensity
graph :

Absorption of
CO2

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

229

a.
b.
2.

Describes what happened in P, Q and R (refer to respiration rate and photosynthesis)


Explain the proceses that occur in compensation point (Q)

Compare and contrast between photosynthesis and respiration. ( S =1, D = 8 points)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

230

TAJUK
: Dynamic Ecosystem
SUBTAJUK : 8.1 Understanding the abiotic and biotic component of the
environment
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1.

The diagram shows the flow of energy in an ecosystem.


Rajah menunjukkan aliran tenaga di dalam sebuah ekosistem.

Which of the following represents a carnivor?


Antara berikut, yang manakah mewakili satu karnivor?
A
B
C
D

2 and 5
2 dan 5
3 and 5
3 dan 5
4 and 5
4 dan 5
3 and 4
3 dan 4

2. The diagram shows a food web.


Rajah menunjukkan satu jaringan makanan.

Which of the food chains transfer the most energy to human beings.
Antara rantai makanan tersebut diatas, yang manakah memindahkan paling banyak tenaga
kepada manusia?

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

231

3. The diagram shows the energy flow in an ecosystem.


Rajah menunjukkan aliran tenaga di dalam satu ekosistem.

What is the amount of energy received by the secondary consumer?


Apakah jumlah tenaga yang diterima oleh pengguna sekunder?
A
B
C
D

750 KJ
750 KJ
15 000 KJ
15 000 KJ
30 000 KJ
30 000 KJ
38 250 KJ
38 250 KJ

4. The graph shows a type of interaction between organisms.


Graf menunjukkan satu jenis interaksi antara organisma.

Which of the following represents the graph shown?


Antara berikut, yang manakah mewakili sepertimana dalam graf?
A
B
C
D

Commensalism
Komensalisme
Prey-predator
Mangsa-pemangsa
Parasitism
Parasitism
Saprophytism
Saprofitisme

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

232

5. The diagram shows a food chain.


Rajah berikut menunjukkan satu rantai makanan.

In the food chain, the birds that eat insects can be considered as
Di dalam rantai makanan ini, burung yang boleh memakan serangga boleh dikira sebagai
I
II
III
IV

A
B
C
D

prey
mangsa
predator
pemangsa
primary consumer
pengguna primer
secondary consumer
pengguna sekunder
I and III only
I dan III sahaja
I, II and III only
I,II dan III sahaja
I, II and IV only
I, II dan IV sahaja
II and IV only
II dan IV sahaja

6. The picture shows two types of plants that grow on tree stems.
Gambar menunjukkan dua jenis tumbuhan yang tumbuh pada batang pokok.

Which of the following differences are not true?


Antara perbezaan berikut, yang manakah adalah tidak benar?

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

233

I
II

III
IV

A
B

Mistletoe
Mistletoe
Can photosynthesize
Boleh berfotosintesis
Absorbs water and mineral salts from the
host
Menyerap air dan garam mineral daripada
perumah
Endoparasite
Endoparasit
Reproduce sexually
Membiak secara seksual
I and II only
I dan II sahaja
III and IV only
III dan IV sahaja

C
D

Rafflesia
Raflesia
Cannot photosynthesize
Tidak boleh berfotosintesis
Absorbs food from the host
Menyerap makanan daripada perumah
Ectoparasite
Ektoparasit
Reproduce asexually
Membiak secara aseksual
I, II and III only
I, II dan III sahaja
II, III and IV only
II, III dan IV sahaja

7. Which of the following is not true about the trophic level in an ecosystem?
Yang manakah antara berikut adalah tidak benar mengenai aras trofik di dalam ekosistem?
I
II
III
IV

A
B
C
D

The higher the trophic level, the more energy it has


Lebih tinggi aras trofik, lebih tenaga ia ada
The higher the trophic level, the bigger the size of the organism
Lebih tinggi aras trofik, lebih besar saiz organisma
The lower the trophic level, the more the number of organisms
Lebih rendah aras trofik, lebih banyak bilangan organisma
The lower the trophic level, the greater the biomass
Lebih rendah aras trofik, lebih besar jisim
I only
I sahaja
II and III only
II dan III sahaja
I and IV only
I dan IV sahaja
III and IV only
III dan IV sahaja

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

234

8.

44 Diagram 30 shows the energy flow of a food chain which represented by four level of
organisms.
Rajah 30 menunjukkan aliran tenaga dalam satu rantai makanan yang diwakili oleh empat
peringkat organisma.

Based on the above diagram, calculate the amount of energy received by the tertiary
consumer.
Berdasarkan rajah di atas, kira jumlah tenaga yang diterima oleh pengguna tertier.
A
B
C
D

9.

4kJ
40kJ
400kJ
4000kj

Diagram 16 represents the energy flow through a food chain which consists of four
organisms.
Rajah 16 menunjukkan aliran tenaga melalui rantai makanan yang mengandungi empat jenis
organism.

What is the total energy in the tissues of organism S if total energy in P is 9000kJ?
Apakah jumlah tenaga di dalam tisu organism S jika jumlah tenaga dalam P ialah 9000kJ?
A
B
C
D

8l0kJ
729kJ
90kJ
9kJ

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

235

10. In Figure 13. the amount of energy available to the primary consumers is approximately
Pada rajah 13, jumlah tenaga yang diterima oleh pengguna primer ialah

Figure 13
A
B
C
D

4.186 kJ/m/year
4.186 kJ/m/tahun
41.869 kJ/m/year
41.869 kJ/m/tahun
418.600 kJ/m/year
418.600 kJ/m/tahun
4186.00 kJ/m/year
4186.00 kJ/m/tahun

11. Diagram shows the energy flow in an ecoystcm.


Rajah menunjukkan pengaliran tenaga dalam sebuah ekosistem.

What is the amount of energy received by the secondary consumer?


Berapakah jumlah tenaga yang diterima oleh pengguna sekunder?

A
B
C
D

750kJ
15 000kJ
30 000kJ
38 250kJ

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

236

12. The diagram below shows the energy flow from phytoplankton to the tertiary consumer.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan aliran tenaga dan fitoplankton ke pengguna tertier.

If 90% of energy is loss from one trophic level to the next trophic, how much energy is
received by the tertiary consumer?
Jika 90% tenaga hilang dan satu aras trof ke aras trof yang lain, berapakah tenaga yang
diterima oleh pengguna tertier?
A
B
C
D

l5kJ
85kJ
l50kJ
13500kJ

13. Diagram 11 shows the energy flow in an ecosyslem.


Rajah 11 menunjukkan aliran tenaga dalam satu ekosistem.

What is the amount of energy received by the secondary consumer?


Berapa jumlah tenaga yang diterima oleh pengguna sekunder?
A
B
C
D

200kJ
2000kJ
l800kJ
l8000kJ

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

237

14. Diagram 18 shows the energy flow of a food chain which represented by four level of
organisms.
Rajah 18 menunjukkan aliran tenaga dalam satu rantaian makanan yang diwakili oleh empat
peringkat organisma.

Based on the above diagram, calculate the amount of energy received by the tertiary
consumer.
Berdasarkan rajah di atas, kira jumlah tenaga yang diterima oleh pengguna tertier.
A
B
C
D

4 kJ
40 kJ
400 kJ
4000 kJ

15. Diagram 17 shows the energy flow in an ecosystem.


Rajah 1 7 menunjukkan aliran tenaga dalam suatu ekosistem.

What is the amount of energy received by the secondary consumer?


Berapakah jumlah tenaga yang diterima oleh pengguna sekunder?
A
B
C
D

50kJ
500kJ
5000kJ
50000kJ

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

238

16. Diagram 19 shows the energy flow from producer to secondary consumer.
Rajah 19 menunjukkan aliran tenaga daripada pengeluar kepada pengguna sekunder.
Secondary consumer
Pengguna sekunder

Primary consumer

60% loss in its faeces


60% hilang melalui tinja

Diagram 19
Rajah 19

1200 kJ

Producer
Pengeluar

What is the total energy passed down to the secondary consumer?


Apakah jumlah tenaga yang diterima oleh pengguna sekunder?
A

1080 kJ

720 kJ

Jawapan D

30% used for primary consumer


C 360 kJ
respiration
D respirasi
120 kJ
30% digunakan untuk
pengguna primer

17. The information shows the organisms involved in four types of interactions.
Mucor sp. grows on the
surface of bread.
Mosses live on the
branches of a tree.
Toadstools grow on
dead stumps.
Bacteria live in the root
nodules of leguminous
plants.
Which organism is commensal?
A. Mucor sp. C. Toadstools
B. Mosses D. Bacteria
18. Which statements are true about the pyramid of numbers?
I The size of organisms increases from the base to the top of the pyramid.
II The number of organisms increases from the top to the base of the pyramid.
III The energy level decreases from the base to the top of the pyramid.
IV The loss of energy decreases from the base to the top of the pyramid.
A. I and II only
B. II and IV only
C. I, II and III only
D. II, III and IV only

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

239

19. The graph shows changes in the population size of a predator in a natural habitat.
Population

time

Why is there a drastic drop in the population size at X?


A. The sudden death of the predators
B. A decrease in the number of prey in the habitat
C. A change in climate of the habitat
D. The migration of the predators to different habitats
20. Diagram 1 shows the interaction among organisms at a lake.
Rajah menunjukkan interaksi di kalangan organisma di sebuah tasik.
Fish
Microscopic algae Shrimp
Wild Duck
If the lake water contains a trace amount of herbicide chemical, which organism may
have the highest concentration of the herbicide chemical, which organism may have
the highest concentration of the highest concentration?
Jika air tasik mengandungi sedikit bahan kimia racun rumpai, organism yang
manakah berkemungkinan mempunyai kepekatan racun rumpai paling tinggi dalam
badannya?
A. Microscopic algae
C. Fish
Alga mikroskopik
Ikan
B. Shrimp
D. Wild duck
Udang
Itik liar

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

240

21. Diagram 2 shows the effect of industrial waste on the organisms that live in a river.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan kesan sisa industri terhadap organism yang hidup di dalam
sungai.

Number / amount
Bilangan / jumlah

Herbivore animal
Haiwan herbivor

Algae
Alga
Poison
Racun

Industrial waste
Sisa perindustrian

Distance from source of pollution


Jarak dari sumber pencemaran

The number of algae decreased from X to Y due to the


Bilangan alga berkurang daripada X ke Y disebabkan oleh
A. Increase in the number of herbivores
Peningkatan bilangan haiwan herbivor
B. Reduction in the amount of toxic substances in the river
Pengurangan bahan toksik dalam sungai
C. Industrial waste reduced the amount of light penetration in water
Sisa industri mengurangkan kadar penembusan cahaya dalam air
D. The river water carried the algae further down stream
Air sungai mengalirkan alga lebih jauh ke hilir sungai
22. The following information is regarding the effects of temperature towards the activity
of an organism.
The flies become very active in the
afternoon, but they become less
active and more slowly at night.

Which of the following is true about the above statement?


A. During hot day, water evaporates faster from the moist surface
B. Some species can survive in extreme condition
C. Drop in temperature results in a decline in the metabolic activities of an organism
D. The homoiotherm animals can maintain their body temperature

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

241

23. Diagram 3 shows a pyramid of energy used to determine the energy transfer from
one trophic level to another in a food chain.

P
Q
R
S
Diagram 1
Which of the following is true about the energy stored in trophic level Q, if the energy
stores in trophic level S is XkJ?
A. 1/10000 X
C. 1/100 X
B. 1/1000 X
D. 1/10 X
24. Diagram 4 shows an interaction between two organisms, P and Q of different
species.
Benefit
Organism P

Organism Q
Benefit

Diagram 4
Which of the following represent organism P and organism Q?
Organism P
Organism Q
A

Crab

Barnacles

Shark

Remora fish

Fungi

Algae

Owl

Mouse

25. For every 100 kJ of energy obtained from food, a cow uses 5kJ for growth, 40 kJ to
maintain its body temperature and 55 kJ for defecation. What is the percentage of
energy absorbed by the body of the cow?
Bagi setiap 100kJ tenaga yang diperolehi daripada makanan , lembu menggunakan
5kJ umtuk pertumbuhan, 40kJ untuk mengekalkan suhu badan dan 55 kJ untuk
penyahtinjaan. Apakah peratus tenaga yang diserap oleh badan lembu?
A. 5%
B. 10%
C. 45%
D. 50%

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

242

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1. Diagram 1 shows the flow of energy through part of the food chain.
Gambar rajah 1 menunjukkan aliran tenaga mengikut bahagiannya pada rantai
makanan.

Diagram 1
Gambarajah 1
(a) (i) How much energy from the green plants is not being utilized in the building
of tissues in the primary consumer?
Berapakah jumlah tenaga yang dihasilkan oleh tumbuhan hijau yang tidak
digunakan dalam membina tisu-tisu pengguna primer.
=______________________________ kJ
(1 marks)
(1 markah)
(ii) Calculate the percentage of energy from the secondary consumer that is
converted and stored in the tissues of the tertiary consumer.
Kira peratus tenaga terhasil daripada pengguna sekunder yang
ditukarkan dan disimpan di dalam tisu-tisu pengguna tertier.
=______________________________ %
(1 marks)
(1 markah)
(b) (i) What is the role of the green plants in this food chain?
Apakah peranan tumbuhan hijau dalam rantaian makanan ini?
__________________________________________________________
(1 mark)
(1 markah)
(ii) How is the nutritional habit of the green plants different from those of the
consumers?
Bagaimanakah tabiat pemakanan tumbuhan hijau berbeza daripada
pengguna-pengguna yang lain.
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
( 2 marks)
(2 markah)
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

243

(iii) In what form does the energy pass from the green plants to the primary
consumer?
Apakah bentuk tenaga yang dipindahkan daripada tumbuhan hijau
kepada pengguna consumer?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
(1 mark)
(1 markah)
(c) What is the term used for the organism that feed on the remains of dead
organisms and the wastes of plants and animals?
Apakah terma yang digunakan bagi organisma yang memakan sisa-sisa
organisma-organisma mati dan sisa-sisa buangan tumbuhan dan haiwan?
_____________________________________________________________
(1 mark)
(1 markah)
(d) What process is likely to be responsible for the loss of energy to air at various
stages of the food chain?
Apakah proses yang bertanggungjawab untuk kehilangan tenaga ke udara pada
pada pelbagai aras rantai makanan?
_____________________________________________________________
(1 mark)
(1 markah)
(e) The following organisms live in the same habitat : Snakes, grass, frogs,
grasshoppers, eagles.
Draw and label a food chain with five trophic levels linking these organism
Berikut adalah organisma-organisma yang tinggal dalam habitat yang sama :
Ular, Rumput, katak, belalang, helang.
Lukiskan dan labelkan rantai makanan dengan menghubungkan aras-aras
organisma tersebut

(2 marks)
(2 markah)
(f) Explain why it is better for humans to be the last organism in a short food
chain.
Jelaskan apakah baiknya manusia menjadi organisma terakhir dalam rantai
makanan yang ringkas.
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
(2 marks)
(2 markah)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

244

4.a)

Diagram 3 shows a terrestrial ecosystem. / Rajah 3 menunjukkan ekosistem daratan.

Diagram 3 / Rajah 3

(b)

(i)

State the definition of ecosystem. / Nyatakan definisi ekosistem.


__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(ii)

A niche of an organism is its roles in the ecosystem.


Based on organisms in Diagram 3, state an example of niche.
Nic bagi organisma adalah peranannya dalam suatu ekosistem.
Berdasarkan organism dalam Rajah 3, nyatakan satu contoh nic.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(i)

Based on the Diagram 3, construct a food web showing the interaction of four
organisms.
Berdasarkan Rajah 3, bina satu jaringan makanan menunjukkan interaksi empat
organism.

(ii)

[2 marks]
Based on constructed food web in (b) (i) construct a pyramid of numbers.
Berdasarkan jaringan makanan yang telah dibina di (b) (i) binakan pyramid nombor.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

245

[2 marks]
(c)

(i)

The organisms in the first trophic level absorb 15 000kJ solar energy. Energy loss
at each trophic level is 90%.
Calculate the total energy transferred to the organisms in the third trophic level.
Organisma-organisma dalam aras trof pertama menyerap 15 000kJ tenaga
matahari. Tenaga hilang sebanyak 90% pada setiap aras trof.
Kirakan jumlah tenaga yang dipindahkan kepada organism pada aras trof ketiga.

= kJ
[2 marks]
(ii)

(d)

State two ways in which energy may be lost in the food web.
Nyatakan dua cara yang memungkinkan kehilangan tenaga dalam jaringan
makanan.
1. _______________________________________________________________
2. _______________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

Many problems related to the environment are the results of human activities.
Explain one bad effect of the activities on the ecosystem.
Banyak masalah berkaitan alam sekitar adalah disebabkan oleh aktiviti manusia.
Terangkan satu kesan buruk aktiviti-aktiviti itu ke atas ekosistem.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

246

SOALAN ESEI:
1. Diagram 6.1 shows a food chain in a terrestrial ecosystem. The sun is the source of energy for
the organisms.
Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan satu rantai makanan dalam ekosistem daratan. Matahari adalah
sumber tenaga bagi organisma-organisma tersebut.

Sun
Matahari
Energy 4 850 000 kJ
Tenaga 4 850 000 kJ

Grasshopper
Frog
Snake
Belalang Diagram 6.1 / Rajah 6.1
Katak
Ular
Explain the role of the plant and the frog in the food chain.
Terangkan peranan tumbuhan dan katak dalam rantai makanan .

Plant
Tumbuhan
(a)

(i)

[6 marks]
(ii)

Explain the energy transfer in the food chain.


Terangkan pemindahan tenaga dalam rantai makanan tersebut.
[4 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

247

2(a)

(i)

Diagram 8.1 shows types of interaction between two organisms in an ecosystem.

Diagram
8.1
Explain how the interaction between the two organisms controls each other
population.
[6 marks]
(ii)

A farmer is having a problem of pest such as rats in the palm oil estate. Instead of
using pesticides, how can the population of rats be controlled? Explain these two
methods.
[4 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

248

TAJUK : DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM


SUBTAJUK: The Processes of Colonisation and Succession in an Ecosystem
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1.

Which of the following are adaptations by the Sonneratia sp. to enable it to grow in the mangrove
swamp?
Antara berikut, yang manakah penyesuaian Sonneratia sp. untuk membolehkannya tumbuh di
paya bakau?
I
II
A
B

2.

III
IV
C
D

Buttress roots
Akar banir
High osmotic pressure in the cell sap
Tekanan osmosis dalam sap sel tinggi
I, II and III only
I, II dan III sahaja
I, II and IV only
I, II dan IV sahaja

The number of prawns caught in a river is drastically reduced after the mangrove swamp near
the river bank is reclaimed. Which of the following plants should be planted more to increase the
prawns population in the river?
Hasil tangkapan udang di sungai berkurangan secara mendadak setelah kawasan paya bakau di
tebing sungai itu ditebus guna. Antara tumbuhan berikut, manakah yang perlu ditanam lebih
banyak untuk meningkatkan populasi udang di dalam sungai itu?
I
II
A
B

3.

Thick and succulent leaves


Daun yang tebal dan sukulen
Viviparity
Vivipariti
I and II only
I dan II sahaja
I and III only
I dan III sahaja

Pandanus sp.
Bruguiera sp.
I and II
I dan II
I and III
I dan III

III
IV
C
D

Avicennia sp.
Rhizophora sp.
II and IV
II dan IV
III and IV
III dan IV

Exchange of gases for the mangrove plants occur through the


Pertukaran gas bagi tumbuhan paya bakau berlaku melalui
I
II
A
B

Stem
Batang
Lenticel
Lentisel
II and III
II dan III
I and IV
I dan IV

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

III
IV
C
D

Stoma
Stoma
Hydathodes
Hidatod
II and IV
II dan IV
III and IV
III dan IV

249

4. Diagram 1 shows the different zones of a magrove swamp.


Rajah 1 menunjukkan zon-zon yang berlainan di sebuah paya bakau.

Zone P
Zone Zone Q
R

Zone S

Which of the following is true about the mangrove swamp?


Antara berikut yang manakah betul mengenai hutan paya bakau?
A
B
C
D

The seeds of the mangrove species in zone Q are dispersed by wind


Biji benih spesies bakau dalam zon Q disebarkan oleh angin
The species in zone P is replaced by a successor species
Spesies dalam zon P diganti oleh spesies penyesar
The species which is in zone R has buttress roots
Spesies dalam zon R berakar banir
The pioneer species grows in zone S
Spesis perintis tumbuh di zon S

5. Which of the following is carried out by a pioneer species in a natural pond?


Antara berikut yang manakah yang dijalankan oleh sepsis perintis dalam kolam semulajadi?
I
II
III
IV
A
B
C
D

Decomposed organic remains are deposited as sediment at the base of the pond
Sisa organik terurai terenap sebagai sedimen di dasar kolam
Carry out photosynthesis to increase the level of dissolved oxygen in the pond
Menjalankan fotosintesis untuk meningkatkan oksigen terlarut dalam kolam
Reproduce at a fast rate to compete with other plant species
Membiak dengan kadar yang cepat untuk bersaing dengan sepsis tumbuhan lain
Change the abiotic factors of the pond to make it more favourable for themselves
Mengubah faktor abiotik di kolam untuk menjadikannya lebih sesuai untuk mereka.
I and IV only
I dan IV sahaja
II and III only
II dan III sahaja
I, II and III only
I, II dan III sahaja
II, III and IV only
II, III dan IV sahaja

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

250

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1.

Diagram 1.1 shows plants involved in the processes of colonisation and succession in a
disused pond. Diagram 1.2 shows part of the succession that takes place at that
particular pond.
Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan tumbuhan-tumbuhan yang terlibat proses pengkolonian dan
sesaran di sebuah kolam terbiar. Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada
penyesaran yang berlaku di kolam itu.
Submerged plants
Tumbuhan tenggelam

Phase R
Fasa R

Phase S
Fasa S

M
Phase T
Fasa T

Diagram 1.1 / Rajah 1.1


(a)

Phase U
Fasa U
Diagram 1.2 / Rajah 1.2

Give an example of plants :


Berikan contoh tumbuhan :
L: _______________________________________________________________
N : ______________________________________________________________
[2 marks/2 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

251

(b)

Based on Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2, state which plant is considered as the
primary successor. State one adaptation for this plant.
Berdasarkan Rajah 1.1 dan Rajah 1.2, nyatakan tumbuhan yang dianggap
penyesar primer. Nyatakan satu penyesuaian tumbuhan ini.
Primary successor
Penyesar primer : ________________________________________________
Adaptation
Penyesuaian

(c)

: ________________________________________________

[2 marks/2 markah]
Based on succession phase R in Diagram 1.2, explain how species from
primary succession in (b) can replace the pioneer species at the pond.
Berdasarkan fasa penyesaran R dalam Rajah 1.2, terangkan bagaimana spesies
penyesar primer di (b) boleh menggantikan spesies perintis di kolam itu.
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
[2 marks/2 markah]

(d)

Residents from housing areas nearby dump their domestic wastes into the
pond. Explain the effect of the activity to the ecosystem for phase S.
Penduduk dari kawasan perumahan berhampiran membuang bahan buangan
domestik ke dalam kolam. Terangkan kesan aktiviti itu ke atas ekosistem bagi
fasa S.
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
[3 marks/3 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

252

2.

Diagram below shows a mangrove swamp at a river mouth in the year 1999.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu paya bakau di muara sungai pada tahun 1999.

The line XY shows the original shore line at that time.


Garisan XY menunjukkan garisan asal pantai pada waktu itu.
(a)

(i)

(ii)

With reference to the line XY, name the process that caused the extension
of the zone at the river mouth over the years.
Dengan merujuk kepada garisan XY, namakan proses yang menyebabkan
penambahan zon di muara sungai selepas bertahun-tahun.
_____________________________________________________________
[1 mark/1 markah]
Explain how the pioneer plants in diagram above change the physical
pattern of the ground.
Terangkan bagaimana tumbuhan perintis dalam rajah mengubah keadaan
fizikal tanah.
_____________________________________________________________

(b)

_____________________________________________________________
[2 marks/2 markah]
Name the plant species found in zone J and zone K.
Namakan spesies tumbuhan ditemui dalam zon J dan zon K.
Zone J / Zon J: _____________________________________________________
Zone K / Zon K : ___________________________________________________
[2 marks/2 markah]

(c)

Draw further land extensions on the zone shown in diagram that will form in the
year 2003.
Lukiskan penambahan daratan yang akan terbentuk pada zon yang ditunjukkan

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

253

dalam rajah pada tahun 2003.


[1 mark/1 markah]
(d)

(i)

What is viviparous seedling?


Apakah biji benih vivipariti?
_____________________________________________________________
[1 mark/1 markah]

(ii)

What is the benefit of this seedling to the mangrove plants?


Apakah kelebihan biji benih ini pada tumbuhan bakau?
_____________________________________________________________
[1 mark/1 markah]

SOALAN ESEI:

1. (a)
Pioneer mangrove species colonised muddy river banks which later grow into a
mangrove swamp forest.
Spesies perintis paya bakau mengkoloni tebing berlumpur sungai yang akhirnya
berkembang menjadi hutan paya bakau.

Explain how the pioneer mangrove species are adapted to overcome the problems
encountered during process of colonisation.
Terangkan bagaimana spesies perintis paya bakau disesuaikan untuk mengatasi
masalah yang dihadapi semasa proses pengkolonian.
[8 marks/ 8 markah]
(b)

Diagram 9.1 shows a mangrove swamp forest and Diagram 9.2 shows the same area 30
years later.
Gambarajah 9.1 menunjukkan hutan paya bakau dan Gambarajah 9.2 menunjukkan
kawasan yang sama pada 30 tahun kemudiannya.

Diagram 9.1/ Rajah 9.1

Diagram 9.2/ Rajah 9.2

Discuss the good and bad effects of the activities that caused the changes.
Bincangkan kesan baik dan buruk akibat aktiviti yang menyebabkan perubahan tersebut.
[12 marks /12 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

254

2. (a) Diagram 2.1 shows the process of colonization and succession in a habitat.
Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan proses pengkolonian dan sesaran dalam satu habitat.

Diagram 2.1 / Rajah 2.1


What is meant by colonization and succession in a habitat?
Based on Diagram 2.1, explain how colonization and succession bring about the
formation of primary forest in a habitat.
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan pengkolonian dan sesaran dalam satu habitat?
Berdasarkan Rajah 2.1, terangkan bagaimana pengkolonian dan sesaran membawa
kepada pembentukan hutan primer dalam satu habitat.
[10marks/10 markah]
(b) Diagram 2.2 shows an ecosystem in Malaysia.
Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan satu ekosistem di Malaysia.

Diagram 2.2 / Rajah 2.2


Based on Diagram 2.2, discuss why the ecosystem has to be maintained.
Berdasarkan Rajah 2.2, bincangkan mengapa ekosistem ini perlu dikekalkan.
[10 marks/10 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

255

TAJUK : DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM


SUBTAJUK: POPULATION ECOLOGY

SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1.

In a study to determine the population number of garden snails, 120 garden snails are
captured, marked and released on the first visit. After three days, 100 garden snails are
captured. Of these, 80 snails are unmarked.
Dalam satu kajian untuk menentukan bilangan populasi siput babi, 120 ekor siput babi
ditangkap, ditanda dan dilepaskan pada lawatan pertama. Selepas tiga hari, 100 ekor
siput babi ditangkap. Daripadanya, 80 ekor siput babi adalah tidak bertanda.
What is the population of garden snails in the area?
Apakah populasi siput babi di kawasan tesebut?
A
B

2.

300
150

A student carried out an experiment to determine the population of butterflies in a


garden. 100 butterflies are captured, marked and released on the first visit.
After one week,50 butterflies are captured. Of these, 20 were marked.
Seorang pelajar menjalankan eksperimen untuk menentukan populasi rama-rama di
dalam taman.100 ekor rama-rama titangkap, ditanda dan dilepaskan pada lawatan
pertama. Selepas satu minggu, 50 ekor rama-rama ditangkap. Daripadanya, 15 adalah
bertanda.
What is the estimated population of butterflies in the garden?
Apakah anggaran populasi rama-rama di dalam taman?
A
B

3.

C
D

1200
600

C
D

62
250

375
750

The table shows the result of a study on the population of wood lice near a tree.
Jadual menunjukkan keputusan kajian populasi kutu kayu berhampiran sebatang pokok.
Number of wood lice
Bilangan kutu kayu
Visit/ lawatan

Marked
Bertanda

Unmarked
Tidak bertanda

200

50

80

First
Pertama
Second (after a week)
Kedua (selepas satu minggu)
The estimated population of the wood lice is
Anggaran populasi kutu kayu adalah
A
B

20
125

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

C
D

320
520

256

4.

Table 1 shows the results obtained from the capture-mark-release and recapture
technique for a population of dragonflies in a school field.
Jadual 1 menunjukkan keputusan yang diperoleh daripada teknik tangkap-tanda-lepas dan
tangkap semula untuk satu populasi pepatung dalam padang sekolah.
Sample / Sampel

Number / Bilangan

First sampling (Dragonflies caught, marked and released)


Persampelan pertama (Pepatung ditangkap, ditanda dan dilepas)
Second sampling
Persampelan kedua
Total Dragonflies caught
Jumlah bilangan pepatung ditangkap
Dragonflies that are marked
Pepatung ditanda

20

40
10

Table 1 Jadual 1
Estimate the population size of the dragonflies based on the information given above.
Anggarkan saiz populasi pepatung berdasarkan maklumat yang diberi di atas.
A
B

5.

0.8
80

C
D

88
800

Table 1 shows the number of plant S in eight different quadrat, each measuring 1.5 m x 1.5 m.
Jadual 1 menunjukkan bilangan tumbuhan S dalam lapan kuadrat yang berlainan. Setiap satu
berukuran 1.5 m x 1.5 m.
Quadrat Number
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
Nombor kuadrat
Number of plant S
15
10
11
22
13
11
0
8
Bilangan tumbuhan
S
Table 1/Jadual 1
Calculate the density of plant S.
Hitung kepadatan tumbuhan S.
A 5 m-2
C 25.3 m-2

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

B 0.2 m-2
D 320 m-2

257

6.

A group of students used the quadrat sampling technique to estimate the percentage coverage
of a species of grass in the school field. Each quadrat has an area of 1 m2. Table 2 shows the
results.
Sekumpulan pelajar menggunakan teknik persampelan kuadrat untuk menganggar peratus
litupan satu spesies rumput di padang sekolah. Setiap kuadrat mempunyai luas 1m2. Jadual 2
menunjukkan keputusan itu.
Quadrat
Area covered by the species of grass (m2)
Kuadrat
Luas litupan rumput spesies itu (m2)
1
0.21
2
0.57
3
0.32
4
0.25
5
0.14
6
0.35
7
0.62
8
0.54
Table 2/Jadual 2
What is the percentage coverage of the species of grass?
Berapakah preratus litupan rumput spesies itu?
A 36.5%
B 37.5%
C 37.6%
D 38.5%

7.

A student carried out an experiment to estimate the population size of garden snails in a
vegetable farm. Table 3 shows the results of the experiment.
Seorang pelajar telah menjalankan ujikaji untuk menganggarkan saiz populasi siput di kebun
sayuran. Jadual 3 menunjukkan keputusan ujikaji.
Capture
Number of garden snails captured
Tangkapan
Bilangan siput yang ditangkap
First
150 were marked
Pertama
150 ditanda
Second
60 marked
40 unmarked
Kedua
60 bertanda
40 tidak bertanda
Table 3/Jadual 3
Based on the data given, calculate the approximate population of garden snails in the
vegetable farm.
Berdasarkan kepada data yang diberikan, hitung anggaran populasi siput di dalam kebun
sayuran tersebut.
A 125
B 160
C 250
D 320

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

258

8.

Five quadrat, each measuring 1 m x 1 m, are set up by a student to estimate the distribution of
Mimosa pudica in a school field as shown in Diagram 1.
Lima kuadrat yang berukuran 1 m x 1 m, digunakan oleh seorang pelajar untuk menganggar
taburan Mimosa pudica di padang sekolah seperti ditunjukkan dalam rajah 1.

Determine the percentage coverage and the percentage frequency of Mimosa pudica in the
school field.
Tentukan peratus litupan dan peratus kekerapan Mimosa pudica di dalam padang sekolah
tersebut.
Percentage coverage (%)
Peratus litupan (%)
A
B
C
D

9.

44
50
44
56

Percentage frequency
(%)
Peratus kekerapan (%)
50
100
50
100

A student carried out study on the population of Mimosa pudica in the schools field
using a 2m x2m quadrat. Table below shows the results of the study.
Seorang murid menjalankan kajian ke atas populasi Mimosa pudica di sebuah padang
sekolah menggunakan kuadrat 2m x 2m. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan keputusan
kajian itu.
Quadrat number
Nombor kuadrat
Area covered by Mimosa pudica (m2)
Kawasan yang dilitupi Mimosa pudica (m2)

0.8

1.2

4.0

3.6

2.4

What is the percentage coverage of Mimosa pudica in the field?


Apakah peratus litupan Mimosa pudica di padang tersebut?
A
C

20%
40%

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

B
D

50%
83%

259

10. Table below shows the data obtained by a student who carried out the experiment to
study the distribution of plants in two fresh water ponds, R and S.
Jadual di bawah menunjukkan data diperolehi oleh seorang pelajar yang menjalankan
eksperimen untuk mengkaji taburan tumbuhan di dua kolam air tawar, Rdan S.

Quadrat
Kuadrat

1
2
3
4
5
6

Number of plants in the ponds


Bilangan tumbuhan di dalam kolam
Pond R
Pond S
Kolam R
Kolam S
Floating plants
Amphibious
Floating plants
Amphibious
Tumbuhan
plants
Tumbuhan
plants
terapung
Tumbuhan
terapung
Tumbuhan
amfibia
amfibia
4
0
2
8
3
0
0
5
5
0
1
4
2
0
2
3
3
1
0
8
7
0
1
6

What is the frequency and density of floating plants in pond R and S?


Apakah kekerapan dan kepadatan tumbuhan terapung di kolam R dan S?
Pond R
Frequency
A
B
C
D

Pond S
Density per
quadrat
24
6
4
4

100
50
50
100

Frequency

Density per
quadrat
6
1
6
1

100
100
66.7
66.7

11. Table below shows the number of plant species H found within the boundary of a
quadrat measuring 1mx1m, placed 10 times at randomly selected sites throughout a
habitat.
Jadual di bawah menunjukkan bilangan spesies tumbuhan H yang terdapat dalam
sempadan kuadrat berukuran 1m x1m yang diletakkan di 10 tapak yang dipilih secara
rawak di seluruh habitat.
Quadrat number
Nombor kuadrat
Number of species H
Bilangan spesies H

10

24

30

26

28

20

44

36

32

What is the density of species H?


Apakah kepadatan spesies H?
A
B

20 m-2
24 m-2

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

C
D

44 m-2
240 m-2

260

12. A student wants to estimate the population size of rats using the capture, mark, release
and recapture technique. Table below shows the result of the study.
Seorang murid ingin menganggarkan saiz populasi tikus dengan menggunakan teknik
tangkap, tanda, lepas dan tangkap semula. Ladual di bawah menunjukkan keputusan
kajian tersebut.
Number of rats
Bilangan tikus
Capture
Tangkapan

Marked
Bertanda

Unmarked
Tidak bertanda

70

10

15

First
Pertama
Second
Kedua

Which factor reduces the number of marked rats to less than 10 in the second capture?
Faktor manakah yang mengurangkan bilangan tikus bertanda menjadi kurang daripada 10
dalam tangkapan kedua?
A Migration
Migrasi
B Competition
Persaingan
C An increase in the number of prey
Peningkatan bilangan mangsa
D An increase in the number of predators
Peningkatan bilangan pemangsa
13. A student carried out an experiment to study the the percentage coverage of the fungal
growth on a piece of bread. Diagram below shows the results of this experiment by the
quadrat sampling technique.
Seorang murid menjalankan eksperimen untuk mengkaji peratus litupan pertumbuhan
fungus di atas sekeping roti. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen ini
menggunakan teknik persampelan kuadrat.

The percentage coverage of fungi on the bread is


Peratus litupan fungi di atas roti ialah
A
B

55%
63%

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

C
D

68%
70%

261

14. Table below shows the number of plant X in a pond.


Jadual di bawah menunjukkan bilangan tumbuhan X di dalam kolam.
Quadrat / Kuadrat
Number of plants / bilangan tumbuhan

1
3

2
4

3
4

4
2

5
0

What are the density and percentage frequency of plant X in the pond?
Apakah kepadatan dan peratus kekerapan tumbuhan X di dalam kolam?
Density (per quadrat)
Kepadatan (per kuadrat)
2.5
2.6
2.8
5.0

A
B
C
D

Percentage frequency
Peratus kekerapan
75%
80%
85%
80%

15. The table shows the number of plant X present in 5 different quadrats each measuring
1m x 1 m.
Jadual menunjukkan bilangan tumbuhan X yang terdapat dalam 5 kuadrat yang
berlainan, setiap satu berukuran 1m x 1m.
Quadrats
Kuadrat

Number of individuals
Bilangan individu

Calculate the percentage frequency of plant X.


Kirakan peratus kekerapan bagi tumbuhan X.
A
B

40%
50%

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

C
D

80%
100%

262

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1. Hawks are the dominant carnivores and tertiary consumers in the grassland. Table below
shows the result of a study on the population of hawks in the grassland using the capture,
mark, release and recapture technique.
Burung helang adalah karnivor dominan dan pengguna ketiga di padang rumput. Jadual
di bawah menunjukkan keputusan kajian ke atas populasi burung helang di padang
rumput menggunakan teknik tangkap, tanda, lepas dan tangkap semula.

Visit
Lawatan
First
Pertama
Second (after a week)
Kedua (selepas satu minggu)

Number of hawks
Bilangan burung helang
Marked
Unmarked
Bertanda
Tidak bertanda
14
0
7

(a) What is the approximate population of the hawks in the grassland?


Apakah anggaran populasi burung helang di padang rumput?

[2 marks]
(b) Suggest one suitable method to tag the hawks.
Cadangkan satu kaedah yang sesuai untuk menanda burung helang.
____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(c) State two conditions which make the method in (b) suitable for tagging the hawks.
Nyatakan dua keadaan yang menjadikan kaedah di (b) sesuai untuk menanda burung
helang.
1. _________________________________________________________________
2. _________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
(d) Why is the second visit carried out a week later and not a few hours after the first
visit?
Mengapakah lawatan kedua dilakukan seminggu selepas dan bukannya beberapa
jam selepas lawatan pertama?
____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

263

(e) Explain briefly the possible effect on the grassland community if the ecosystem is
suffering from a severe drought.
Terangkan dengan ringkas kesan yang mungkin ke atas komuniti padang rumput
sekiranya dilanda kemarau yang teruk.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
(f) Table below shows the number of Mimosa pudica found within the boundary of a
quadrat measuring 1 m X 1 m, placed 10 times at randomly selected site throughout
the grassland.
Jadual di bawah menunjukkan jumlah Mimosa pudica ditemui dalam kuadrat
berukuran 1m x 1m, diletakkan 10 kali secara rawak di kawasan terpilih di padang
rumput tersebut.
Quadrat number
Nombor kuadrat
Number of Mimosa pudica
Bilangan Mimosa pudica

10

10

(i) Calculate the density of Mimosa pudica.


Kirakan kepadatan Mimosa pudica.

[2 marks]
(ii) Calculate the percentage frequency of Mimosa pudica.
Kirakan peratus kekerapan Mimosa pudica.

[2 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

264

2. An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of type of soil on the population
size of Mimosa sp.
Satu eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji kesan jenis tanah yang berbeza ke atas
saiz populasi tumbuhan Mimosa sp
The following steps were carried out.
Langkah-langkah berikut telah dijalankan.
Step 1:
Three boxes X, Y and Z measured 1m x 1m x 0.1m was prepared in an area which
is exposed to the uniform sunlight.
Langkah 1:
Tiga kotak X, Y dan Z berukuran 1m x 1m x 0.1m telah disediakan di satu kawasan
yang terdedah kepada sinaran cahaya matahari yang seragam.
Step 2:
Three samples of soil was chosen as follows:
Sample A: Top soil
The soil removed from the top layer of the garden soil.
This soil contains a lot of decomposed leaf and branches.
Sample B : Half meter inner soil
The soil removed half meter beneath the surface of the garden soil.
This soil contains less decomposed leaf and branches.
Sample B : One meter inner soil
The soil removed one meter beneath the surface of the garden soil.
This soil do not contains decomposed leaf and branches.
Langkah 2:
Tiga sampel tanah telah dipilih seperti berikut:
Sampel A: Tanah Permukaan
Tanah yang diambil dipermukaan tanah kebun.
Tanah ini mengandungi banyak daun- daun dan ranting kayu yang telah reput
Sampel B: Tanah pada kedalaman setengah meter
Tanah yang diambil setengah meter di bawah permukaan tanah kebun.
Tanah ini mengandungi sedikit daun-daun dan ranting kayu yang telah reput
Sampel C: Tanah pada kedalaman satu meter
Tanah yang diambil satu meter di bawah permukaan tanah kebun.
Tanah ini tidak mengandungi daun-daun dan ranting kayu yang telah reput
Step 3
Box X is filled with 5kg soil sample A , box Y is filled with 5kg soil sample B and box Z
is filled with 5kg soil sample C.
Langkah 3
Kotak X diisi dengan 5kg sampel tanah A, kotak Y diisi dengan 5kg sampel tanah B dan
kotak Z diisi dengan 5kg sampel tanah C.
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

265

Step 4
Each box is planted with five seeds of Mimosa sp in the same distance and pattern as
shown in diagram 1.
Langkah 4
Setiap kotak ditanam dengan lima biji benih tumbuhan Mimosa sp pada jarak dan corak
yang sama seperti ditunjukkan dalam rajah 1.

X: position of the seeds


kedudukan biji benih
Diagram 1/ Rajah 1
Step 5
Every morning all boxes is watered with the same amount of water and make sure all
seeds are germinate. Other species germinated will be removed from the boxes.
Langkah 5
Setiap pagi semua kotak disiram dengan kuantiti air yang sama dan kesemua biji benih
dipastikan bercambah. Sebarang percambahan spesies lain akan dikeluarkan daripada
kotak tersebut.
Step 6
After three weeks the percentage of area covered by Mimosa sp is count using plastic
grid.If Mimosa sp covers more than half a square, count it as 1%, if less than half a
square, count as 0%.
Table 1.1 shows the result of experiment.
Langkah 6
Selepas 3 minggu peratusan kawasan yang dilitupi oleh tumbuhan Mimosa sp di atas
setiap kotak dikira menggunakan grid plastik.
Jika tumbuhan Mimosa sp melitupi lebih separuh kotak pada grid, dikira sebagai 1%,
jika kurang separuh kotak pada grid dikira sebagai 0%.
Jadual 1.1 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

266

Type of soil
Jenis tanah

Area covered by Mimosa sp (%)


Luas kawasan dilitupi oleh Mimosa sp (%)
10cm

10cm

Top soil
Tanah Permukaan

Area covered
by Mimosa sp
Luas kawasan
dilitupi Mimosa sp
10cm
10cm

Half meter Inner soil


Tanah pada kedalaman
setengah meter

Area covered
by Mimosa sp
Luas kawasan
dilitupi Mimosa sp

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

267

10cm
10cm

One meter Inner soil


Tanah pada kedalaman
satu meter
Area covered
by Mimosa sp
Luas kawasan
dilitupi Mimosa sp

Table 1.1 / Jadual 1.1


a) Record the area covered by Mimosa sp in the boxes provided in Table 1.1.
Rekodkan luas kawasan yang dilitupi oleh Mimosa sp dalam kotak yang
disediakan dalam jadual 1.1.
[3 marks]
[3 markah]
b) (i) State two different observation made from table 1.1.
Nyatakan dua pemerhatian yang berbeza yang dibuat daripada jadual 1.1.

For
Examiners
Use
1(a)

Observation 1 / Pemerhatian1:
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
Observation 2 / Pemerhatian 2:
.........................................................................................................................

1(b)(i)

..........................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
[3 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

268

(ii) State the inferences from the observation in 1(b)(i).


Nyatakan inferens daripada pemerhatian di 1 (b)(i).
Inference from observation 1/ Inferens daripada pemerhatian 1:
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
Inference from observation 2 / Inferens daripada pemerhatian 2:
........................................................................................................................

1(b)(ii)

.........................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
[3 markah]
c) Complete Table 1.2 based on this experiment.
Lengkapkan jadual 1.2 berdasarkan eksperimen ini.

For
Examiner
s Use

Variables
Pembolehubah

Method to handle the variable


Cara mengendali pembolehubah

Manipulated variable
Pembolehubah dimanipulasikan

...............................................................

......................................................

...............................................................

......................................................

...............................................................

Responding variable
Pembolehubah bergerak balas
....................................................
....................................................

...............................................................
...............................................................
...............................................................

Constant variable
Pembolehubah dimalarkan

...............................................................

....................................................

...............................................................

....................................................

...............................................................
1(c)

Table 1.2 / Jadual 1.2


[3 marks]
[3 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

269

(d) State the hypothesis for this experiment.


Nyatakan hipotesis bagi eksperimen ini.
............................................................................................................................

1(d)

.............................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
[3 markah

(e) Construct a table and record all the data collected in this experiment.
Bina satu jadual dan rekodkan semua data yang dikumpul dalam eksperimen
ini.
Your table should have the following titles:
Jadual anda hendaklah mengandungi tajuk-tajuk berikut:

Type of soil
Jenis tanah

the area covered by Mimosa sp


Luas kawasan dilitupi Mimosa sp
The growth rate of Mimosa sp
Kadar pertumbuhan Mimosa sp

Use the formula:


The growth rate of Mimosa sp

Area covered by Mimosa sp (%)


--------------------------------------------3 weeks

Gunakan formula:
Kadar pertumbuhan Mimosa sp

Luas kawasan dilitupi Mimosa sp (%)


---------------------------------------------3 minggu

1(e)
[3 marks]
[3 markah]
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

270

f (i) Use the graph paper provided to answer this question.


Using the data in 1(e), draw a bar chart of the type of soil against the
population size of Mimosa sp.
Gunakan kertas graf yang disediakan untuk menjawab soalan ini.
Menggunakan data dalam 1(e), lukiskan carta bar bagi jenis tanah melawan
saiz populasi Mimosa sp.
[3 marks]
[3 markah]

For
Examiners
Use

1(f)(i)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

271

(ii) Based on the bar chart in 1(f)(i), explain the relationship between the type of
soil and population size of Mimosa sp.
Berdasarkan carta bar dalam 1(f)(i), terangkan perhubungan di antara
jenis tanah dan saiz populasi Mimosa sp.

For
Examiners
Use

............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

1(f)(ii)

.............................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
[3 markah]

(g) Based on the experiment, define operationally the population distribution of


Mimosa sp.
Berdasarkan eksperimen, definisikan secara operasi bagi taburan populasi
Mimosa sp.
...........................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................

1(g)

...........................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
[3 markah]

(h) If other species of plant such as cowgrass (Axonopos sp) and lalang
(Imperata sp) grow in box X, predict the area covered by Mimosa sp after
three weeks. Explain your prediction.
Jika spesies-spesies tumbuhan lain seperti rumput padang (Axonopos sp) dan
lalang (Imperata sp) dibiarkan tumbuh didalam kotak X, ramalkan kawasan
yang dilitupi oleh Mimosa sp selepas tiga minggu. Terangkan ramalan anda.
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................

1(h)

..............................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
[3 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

272

(i) Classify the biotic and abiotic factors from the list below.
Kelaskan faktor biotik dan faktor abiotik daripada senarai dibawah.

For
Examiners
Use

light intensity
keamatan cahaya

decomposer
pengurai

parasites
parasit

soil texture
tekstur tanah

invertebrates
invertebrata

humidity
kelembapan

Biotic factor
Faktor biotik

Abiotic factor
Faktor abiotik

1(i)

[3 marks]
[3 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

273

SOALAN ESEI:

1. A farmer found that there are snails in his farm. These snails feed on the plants in the
farm. He wants to find out how the density of plants in the farm can affect the size of the
snails population.
Seorang petani mendapati ada siput babi di ladangnyanya. Siput babi ini makan tumbuhtumbuhan di ladangnya. Dia ingin mengetahui bagaimana kepadatan tumbuhan di
ladang mempengaruhi saiz populasi siput babi.
Based on the above information, design a laboratory experiment to estimate the size of
snail population
Berdasarkan maklumat di atas, reka bentuk satu eksperimen makmal untuk
menganggarkan saiz populasi siput babi.
The planning of your experiment must include the following aspects:
Perancangan eksperimen anda haruslah meliputi aspek-aspek berikut:
(a) Problem statement
Pernyataan masalah
(b) Hypothesis
Hipotesis
(c) Variables
Pemboleh ubah
(d) List of apparatus and materials
Senarai radas dan bahan
(e) Experimental procedure or method
Prosedur eksperimen atau kaedah
(f) Presentation of data
Persembahan data
[17 marks]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

274

TAJUK : DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM


SUBTAJUK: BIODIVERSITY
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1.

Which statements about the naming of an organism based on the Linnaeus binomial
system are true?
Pernyataan manakah mengenai penamaan organism berdasarkan sistem binomial
Linnaeus adalah benar?
I

The name of the species is followed by the name of the genus.


Nama spesies adalah diikuti dengan nama genus.
II The name of the genus and the name of the species are written in italics.
Nama genus dan nama spesies ditulis dengan huruf condong.
III Both the generic and the specific names are written in capital letters.
Kedua-dua nama genus dan nama spesies ditulis bermula dengan huruf besar.
IV Both the generic and specific names are written in Latin.
Kedua-dua nama genus dan nama spesies adalah ditulis dalam bahasa Latin.
A
B
C
D

2.

I and II only
I dan II sahaja
I, II and III only
I, II dan III sahaja
I, II, III and IV
I, II, III dan IV
II and IV only
II dan IV sahaja

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the kingdom Protista?


Yang manakah bukan sifat alam Protista?
A
B
C
D

Some protists are motile by using flagella or cilia.


Ada protista yang boleh bergerak menggunakan flagella atau sillia.
They do not have a nuclear membrane.
Mereka tidak mempunyai membran nukleus.
Some protists are photosynthetic.
Ada protista yang berfotosintesis.
They are unicellular colonial or multicellur.
Mereka adalah koloni unisel atau multisel.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

275

3.

Which of the following characteristics belong to organism from the Kingdom Monera?
Manakah sifat-sifat organism berikut kepunyaan Alam Monera?
I
II
III
IV

A
B
C
D

4.

5.

Unicellular organism.
Organisma unisel.
Has cell wall.
Mempunyai dinding sel.
Digests its food externally.
Menghadamkan makanannya diluar badan.
Reproduces within the host cell.
Membiak di dalam sel perumah.
I and II only
I dan II sahaja
I and IV only
I dan IV sahaja
II and III only
II dan III sahaja
II and IV only
II dan IV sahaja

Which of the following is the correct name for house fly?


Antara berikut, manakah merupakan nama yang betul bagi lalat?
A

Musca domestica

musca domestica

Musca Domestica

musca Domestica

Diagram below shows three types of organisms.


Rajah di bawah menunjukkan tiga jenis organisma.

What is the kingdom of these organism?


Apakah alam bagi organisma tersebut?
A

Fungi

Protista

Monera

Bacteria

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

276

6.

Two animals which belong to different orders must also belong to different
Dua haiwan yang tergolong kepada order yang berbeza juga berbeza dalam
A
B

7.

8.

phylum
filum
classes
kelas

C
D

family
famili
kingdoms
alam

Which naming of Linnaeus binomial system for palm trees is correct?


Manakah penamaan sistem binomial Linnaeus yang betul bagi pokok kelapa sawit?
A

elaeis guineensis

Elaeis guineensis

elaeis guineensis

Elaeis guineensis

Diagram shows a living organism


Rajah menunjukkan satu organisma hidup

Which of the following kingdoms, the organism belongs to?


Manakah antara alam berikut, organisma ini tergolong?

9.

Monera
Monera

Animalia
Animalia

Fungi
Fungi

Protista
Protista

Which of the following organisms can be categorised into the Monera kingdom?
Antara berikut, yang manakah boleh dikategorikan ke dalam alam Monera?

A
B

I, II and III
I, II dan III
I, II and IV
I, II dan IV

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

C
D

I, III dan IV
I, III dan IV
II, III dan IV
II, III dan IV
277

10.

Diagram below shows the hierarchy in the classification of organisms.


Rajah di bawah menunjukkan hierarki pengelasan organisma.

Which of the following repesents V for cockroach?


Antara berikut, yang manakah mewakili V untuk lipas?
A

Insecta

Periplaneta

Animalia

Arthropoda

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

278

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1. Diagram 1 shows two organisms which are grouped in the same genus but are different
species.
Gambarajah 1 menunjukkan dua organism yang dikelaskan dalam genus yang sama tetapi
spesies yang berlainan.

Diagram 1/Rajah 1
In the taxonomic system first developed by Linnaeus, organisms are given a two-part Latin
name. Suggest two advantages of this system.
Dalam sistem taksonomi yang mula-mula sekali diperkenalkan oleh Linnaeus, organism
telah diberikan dua nama Latin. Cadangkan dua kelebihan sistem ini.
1. _______________________________________________________________________
2. _______________________________________________________________________
[2 marks/2 markah]
Table 5 shows the complete classification of the tiger, Panthera tigris.
Jadual 5 menunjukkan pengelasan lengkap bagi hariumau, Panthera tigris.
Classification
Pengelasan
Kingdom
Alam
Phylum
Filum
Class
Kelas
Order
Order
Family
Famili
Genus
Genus
Species
Spesies

Tiger
Harimau
Animalia

Leopard
Harimau bintang
Animalia

Chordata
Mammalia
Carnivora
Felidae
Panthera

Panthera

Tigris

Pardus

Table 5/Jadual 5
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

279

(i) Complete Table 5 by suggesting appropriate names for the classification of the leopard,
Panthera pardus.
Lengkapkan Jadual 5 dengan mencadangkan nama-nama yang sesuai bagi pengelasan
harimau bintang , Panthera pardus.
[2 marks/2 markah]
(ii) Based on the information given in Table 5, the term kingdom simply indicates that the
tiger is an animal.
Using the tiger as an example, suggest what characteristics of the tiger are indicated by the
following terms:
Berdasarkan maklumat yang diberikan dalam Jadual 5, istilah alam menunjukkan bahawa
harimau adalah seekor haiwan.
Dengan menggunakan harimau sebagai satu contoh, cadangkan ciri-ciri harimau yang
ditunjukkan oleh istilah-istilah berikut:
Phylum/Filum: _____________________________________________________________
Class/Kelas: _______________________________________________________________
Order/order: _______________________________________________________________
[3 marks/3 markah]
(iii) Suggest three reasons for the classification of the tiger and the leopard in the same
genus, Panthera, but as different species.
Cadangkan tiga alasan mengapa harimau dan harimau bintang dikelaskan dalam genus
yang sama, iaitu Panthera, tetapi merupakan spesies yang berlainan.
1. _______________________________________________________________________
2.________________________________________________________________________
3.________________________________________________________________________
[3 marks/3 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

280

SOALAN ESEI:
a) Explain the meaning of the Linnaeus Binomial Classification System
Terangkan maksud Sistem Pengkelasan Binomial Linnaeus.
[3 marks/3 markah]
b) Discuss two important reasons for this system.
Bincangkan dua sebab utama sistem ini.
[3 marks/3 markah]
c) The classification of organisms is very important in ecological studies. Figure 2 shows
two different animals.
Pengkelasan organisma-organisma adalah penting dalam pengajian ekologi.
Gambarajah 2 menunjukkan dua haiwan berbeza.

Panthera leo

Panthera tigris
Figure 2/Gambarajah 2

Based on Figure 2, explain how a classification system is used to name both these animals.
Berdasarkan Gambarajah 2, terangkan bagaimana sistem pengkelasan digunakan untuk
menamakan kedua-dua haiwan tersebut.
[4 marks/4 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

281

TAJUK :DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM


SUBTAJUK:THE IMPACT OF MICROORGANISMS ON LIFE

SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1. Which of the following are reasons for conservation and preservation of
biodiversity?
Antara berikut, yang manakah sebab pemuliharaan dan pemeliharaan biokepelbagaian?

To provide humans with basic necessities of life


Untuk menyediakan keperluan asas kehidupan manusia

II

To maintain stable ecosystems


Untuk menyeimbangkan kestabilan ekosystem

III

To appreciate the unspoilt natural environment


Untuk menghargai persekitaran semulajadi yang belum dicemari/dirosakkan

IV

Humans should not cause extinction of other species


Manusia bukan penyebab kepupusan spesis lain.

A
B
C
D

I and IV only
I, II and III only
II, III and IV only
I, II, III and IV

2. The following information shows part of the nitrogen cycle.


Informasi berikut menunjukkan sebahagian daripada kitaran nitrogen.

Bacteria

Bacteria

Ammonium

Nitries

Nitrates

What are bacteria X and Y?


Apakah bakteria X dan Y?

Rhizobium sp.

Nitrosomonas sp.

Nitrosomonas sp.

Nitrobacter sp.

Azotobacter sp.

Nitrobacter sp.

Nitrobacter sp.

Nostoc sp.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

282

3. A person who is suffering from disease P has the following symptoms.


Seseorang yang menderita dari penyakit P mempunyai gejala berikut.

Fever/demam
Fatique/lesu
Nausea/loya
Jaundice/penyakit kuning

What is the disease P?


Apakah penyakit P?
A Malaria/malaria
B Chicken pox/cacar air
C SARS/SARS
D Hepatitis A/hepatitis A

4. Which of the following are the uses of microorganism in biotechnology?


Antara berikut, yang manakah kegunaan mikroorganisma dalam bioteknologi?

I
II
III
IV
A
B
C
D

Digestion of cellulose/Pencernaan selulosa


Food processing/Pencernaan makanan
Nitrogen fixation/Penetapan Nitrogen
Production of bioplastic/Pengeluaran Bioplastik
I and III
I and IV
II and III
II and IV

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

283

SOALAN STRUKTUR:

1. Diagram 8 represents part of the nitrogen cycle


Diagram 8 mewakili sebahagian daripada kitaran nitrogen.

A
K

Absorbed by plants/

Diserap oleh tumbuhan

Component B in plants/

Nitrates/nitrat
To form/membentuk

Komponen B dalam tumbuhan

Decomposition/pereputan
N

M
C

D
Diagram 8

(a) What is A?
Apakah A?

___________________________________________________________
(1 Mark)
(b) Name component B found in plants.
Namakan komponen B yand terdapat dalam tumbuhan.

___________________________________________________________
(1 Mark)
(c) Explain the processes M and N.
Terangkan proses M dan N.

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
(2 Marks)
(d) Why is the process K important in the cycle?
Mengapakah proses K penting dalam kitaran ini?

___________________________________________________________
(1 Mark)
(e) If you are an agriculture officer, suggest to the farmers two ways to
increase soil fertility.
Sekiranya anda seorang pegawai pertanian, cadangkan dua cara kepada petani untuk
meningkatkan kesuburan tanah.

___________________________________________________________
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

284

___________________________________________________________
(2 Marks)
(f) Which group of microorganisms is involved in the nitrogen cycle?
Kumpulan mikroorganisma yang manakah terlibat dalam kitaran nitrogen?

___________________________________________________________
(1 Mark)

SOALAN ESEI:
1.

(a) State the differences between viruses and bacteria.


Nyatakan perbezaan di antara virus dan bakteria.

(10 Marks)
(b) Describe the processes involved over a period of time on a piece of
barred land until it reaches a stable community.
Terangkan proses yang terlibat sepanjang tempoh masa ke atas sebidang tanah yang
terhalang sehingga mencapai kestabilan komuniti.

(10 Marks)

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

285

TAJUK : ENDANGERED ECOSYSTEM


SUBTAJUK: HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT ENDANGER AN ECOSYSTEM
SOALAN OBJEKTIF:

1.

Diagram below shows the disposal of sewage into a river. The sewage contains a lot of
organic waste and the water is turbid at location F.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan pelupusan kumbahan ke dalam sungai. Kumbahan
mengandungi banyak sisa organik dan air adalah keruh di lokasi F.

Diagram/Rajah
Which of the following correctly describes the conditions at location F as compared with
that at location E?
Antara yang berikut, manakah yang menghuraikan dengan betul keadaan di lokasi F
jika dibandingkan dengan lokasi E?

2.

The increase in global temperature due to deforestation causes


Peningkatan suhu bumi akibat penebangan hutan yang berleluasa menyebabkan

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

286

soil erosion
hakisan tanah
II climatic change
perubahan iklim
III air pollution
pencemaran udara
IV rise in sea level
peningkatan aras laut
A I and II only
I dan II sahaja
B II and IV only
II dan IV sahaja
C I, II and IV only
I, II dan IV sahaja
D II, III and IV only
II, III dan IV sahaja
3.

Table below shows the result of an experiment to compare the qualities of water from
two areas, R and S.
Jadual di bawah menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen untuk membandingkan kualiti air
dari dua kawasan, R dan S.

Table
Jadual
Which of the following statements explain the result of the experiment?
Antara pernyataan berikut, yang manakah menerangkan keputusan eksperimen itu?
I Water sample from area R is more polluted than area S
Sampel air dari kawasan R lebih tercemar dari kawasan S
II Water sample from area R has lower B.O.D value than area S
Sampel air dari kawasan R mempunyai nilai B.O.D yang lebih rendah dari kawasan
S
III Water sample from area R has less microorganisms than area S
Sampel air dari kawasan R mempunyai bilangan mikroorganisma yang kurang dari
kawasan S
IV Water sample with higher B.O.D value causes slow decolourisation of methylene
blue
Sampel air yang mempunyai nilai B.O.D yang lebih tinggi menyebabkan pelunturan
warna metilena biru perlahan
A I and III
I dan III
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

287

B II and III
II dan III
C II and IV
II dan IV
D III and IV
III dan IV
4.

Four samples of water are collected from different sources as shown below.
Empat sampel air dikumpulkan dari sumber yang berlainan seperti yang ditunjukkan di
bawah.

100 ml of these four samples of water are poured into separate reagent bottles. A
syringe is used to add 1 ml of methylene blue solution to each sample of water. The
reagent bottles are kept in a dark cupboard.
In which sample of water is the methylene blue solution not decolourised?
Sebanyak 100 ml bagi setiap sampel air ini dimasukkan ke dalam botol reagen yang
berasingan. Satu picagari digunakan untuk menambahkan 1 ml larutan metilena biru ke
dalam setiap sampel air itu. Botol reagen itu kemudiannya disimpan di dalam almari
gelap. Sampel air yang manakah tidak melunturkan warna larutan metilena biru?
A W
C Y
5.

B X
D Z

Sewage is discharged from a village into a river running through it. Which graph shows
how the discharge of sewage into the river affects the amount of oxygen dissolved in it?
Kumbahan dari sebuah kampung dibuang ke dalam sebuah sungai yang mengalir
melaluinya. Graf yang manakah menunjukkan bagaimana pembuangan kumbahan ke
dalam sebuah sungai mempengaruhi kuantiti oksigen yang terlarut di dalamnya?

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

288

6.

Diagram below shows a flock of birds collecting around a waterhole.


Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sekumpulan burung berkumpul di sekeliling lopak air.

DIAGRAM / RAJAH
What process may occur in the waterhole as a result of the activity shown in Diagram
above?
Apakah proses yang mungkin berlaku di lopak air ini disebabkan aktiviti yang
ditunjukkan dalam Rajah di atas?
A Respiration
B Cannibalism
Respirasi
Kanibalisme
C Transpiration
D Eutrophication
Transpirasi
Eutrofikasi
7.

What are the effects of global warming?


Apakah kesan-kesan pemanasan global?
I Climatic changes
Perubahan cuaca
II Melting of polar ice caps
Pencairan ais kutub
III Destruction of forests
Kemusnahan hutan
IV eterioration of the immune system of the body
Kemusnahan sistem keimunan badan
A I and II only
C I, II and III only
I dan II sahaja
I, II, dan III sahaja
B I and III only
D I, II, III and IV
I dan III sahaja
I, II, III, dan IV

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

289

8.

What cause the decline in oxygen concentration in a lake polluted by sewage?


Apakah yang menyebabkan kepekatan oksigen menurun di tasik yang dicemari sisa
kumbahan?
A A decline in the dissolve nitrate concentration
Penurunan kepekatan nitrate terlarut
B Chemical reactions between oxygen and the organic matter in the sewage
Tindakbalas kimia antara oksigen dan bahan organic dalam sisa kumbahan
C An increase in the number of decomposers
Pertambahan bilangan organisma pengurai
D A rapid increase in the number of green plants
Peningkatan mendadak bilangan tumbuhan hijau

9.

What is the purpose of the above step?


Apakah tujuan langkah di atas?
A To supply oxygen to the algae
Untuk membekalkan oksigen kepada alga
B To oxidize the organic wastes
Untuk mengoksidakan bahan buangan organik
C To inhibit the growth of fungi
Untuk merencat pertumbuhan kulat
D To encourage the growth of aerobic bacteria
Untuk menggalakkan pertumbuhan bakteria aerobik
10. A student carried out a study on water pollution. He collected water from different
sources and used 1% methylene blue solution to determine the level of water pollution.
The table below shows the results of the study.
Seorang pelajar telah menjalankan satu kajian tentang pencemaran air. Dia telah
mengumpul air dari pelbagai sumber dan menggunakan larutan metilena biru 1% untuk
menentukan tahap pencemaran air. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan keputusan kajian itu.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

290

Table/Jadual
The BOD value is the highest in...
Nilai BOD adalah paling tinggi bagi...
A river I.
C river II.
sungai I.
sungai II.
B pond I.
D pond II.
kolam I.
kolam II.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

291

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1 Figure 1 shows the Air Pollution Index (API) of three cities, P, Q ad R in
Malaysia and three major cities, X, Y and Z in Asia in the month of June.

Figure 1

a.

State the air pollution index on 13 June for the three cities in Malaysia.
P : ....................................
Q : ...................................
R : ...................................

[3 marks]

b.

Based on the graph, which city in Malaysia falls under the category of
very unhealthy?

[1 mark]

.....................................................................................................................
c.

What is the level of air pollution of city X as compared to Y?

[1 mark]

.....................................................................................................................

d.

The air in city Z contains a high level of sulphur dioxide while the air in
city X contains a high level of carbon particles.
Make inferences on the sources of air pollution in both cities.

[2 marks]

Z :................................................................................................................
X: ................................................................................................................
e

If city X continues to register similar API readings for a few months,


predict some of the most common health problems faced by the people
living in that city.

[2 marks]

.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

292

2 Diagram 2(a) shows an effect of acid rain onto trees.

Diagram 2(a)
a What is the source of air pollutants that causes acid rain?

[1 mark]

.....................................................................................................................

b With the help of the diagram 2(b) below, explain the formation of acid rain.

[3 marks]

Diagram 2(b)
.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
c

State the effects of acid rain on agriculture.

[2 marks]

.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

293

3 Diagram 3 shows a flash flood in Kuala Lumpur recently.

Diagram 3
a State one human activity that causes this situation.

[1 mark]

.....................................................................................................................
b Explain the impacts of the human activity stated in (a) on the ecosystem.

[4 marks]

.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
c

Suggest ways to overcome this problem

[2 marks]

.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

294

SOALAN ESEI:

(a) Diagram 1 shows the average temperature of the world has changed from 1805 to
2000.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan bagaimana suhu purata dunia berubah dari tahun 1805
hingga tahun 2000.

Diagram 1 / Rajah 1
Explain this phenomenon and its impact on the ecosystems of the world.
Terangkan fenomena ini dan kesannya terhadap ekosistem dunia
[10 marks/10 markah]

(b) A landfill is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form
of waste treatment. Explain the positive and negative effects of landfills on the
ecosystem. In term of proper management of development activities.
Tapak pelupusan sampah merupakan tempat pelupusan bahan-bahan buangan
dengan cara menanam sampah dan juga merupakan bentuk rawatan bahan
buangan yang paling lama. Terangkan kesan positif dan kesan negative tapak
pelupusan sampah terhadap ekosistem dari segi pengurusan aktiviti
pembangunan yang betul.
[10 marks/10 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

295

2. Diagram 2.1 shows contamination of water sources in Malaysia


Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan pencemaran sumber air di Malaysia

Diagram 2.1/Rajah 2.1


(a) What are the cause of water pollution? What are the harmful effects of water pollution
on the environment , human beings and other living organism?
Apakah penyebab pencemaran air? Apakah kesan berbahaya akibat pencemaran air
ke atas alam sekitar, manusia dan organisma hidup yang lain?
[16 marks/16 markah]
(b) Diagram 2.2 shows the changes in the population of algae and the BOD level of a
source of freshwater when sewage containing nitrates is discharged into the water.
Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan perubahan populasi alga dan aras BOD sumber air tawar
apabila air kumbahan yang mengandungi nitrat dibuang ke dalam air.

Diagram 2.2/Rajah 2.2


With the help of the diagram given above, explain briefly how eutrophication takes
place.
Dengan bantuan rajah di atas, terangkan secara ringkas bagaimana eutrofikasi
berlaku.
[4 marks/4 markah]
Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

296

3. (a) Diagram 3.1 shows a gas cycle which occurs in the atmosphere
Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan kitar gas yang berlaku di atmosfera.

Diagram 3.1/ Rajah 3.1


(i)

Explain the process involved in the gas cycle and the effects on the bodies of
water(lakes,rivers and the seas) if it rains.
Terangkan proses yang terlibat dalam kitar gas dan kesannya terhadap kawasan
berair (tasik,sungai dan laut) sekiranya berlaku hujan
[4 marks/4 markah]

(ii)

It is found that a hilly area has been cleared due to illegal falling of trees. Explain
the possible environmental impact if there is heavy rain in the hilly area.
Didapati kawasan berbukit telah dibersihkan akibat aktiviti penebangan pokok
secara haram. Terangkan kesan terhadap alam sekitar yang mungkin berlaku
sekiranya hujan lebat berlaku di kawasan yang berbukit ini.
[6 marks/6 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

297

(b)Diagram 3.2 shows the factory and its surrounding area.


Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan sebuah kilang dan kawasan sekelilingnya.

Diagram 3.2/ Rajah 3.2


Based on Diagram 3.2 discuss the pollution and the impact on the environment, health
and community
Berdasarkan Rajah 3.2 bincangkan pencemaran dan kesannya terhadap alam sekitar,
kesihatan dan komuniti.
[10 marks/10 markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

298

TAJUK : ENDANGERED ECOSYSTEM


SUBTAJUK: THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND THE THINNING OF THE OZONE LAYER

SOALAN OBJEKTIF:
1.

What are the effects of global warming?


Apakah kesan-kesan pemanasan global?
I Climatic changes
Perubahan cuaca
II Melting of polar ice caps
Pencairan ais kutub
III Destruction of forests
Kemusnahan hutan
IV Deterioration of the immune system of the body
Kemerosotan sistem keimunan badan
A I and II only
C I, II and III only
B I and III only

2.

D I, II, III and IV

The following information shows steps in the reactions during the destruction of the
ozone layer.
Maklumat berikut menunjukkan langkah-langkah dalam tindak balas semasa
pemusnahan lapisan ozon.

Which of the following sequences of steps is correct during ozone destruction?


Antara yang berikut, yang manakah merupakan urutan langkah yang betul semasa
pemusnahan ozon?
A P, R, Q, S
B Q, P, R, S
C R, P, Q, S
D R, Q, P, S

3.

The following reaction represents the breakdown of ozone in the stratosphere.


Reaksi kimia berikut menunjukkan proses pecahan ozon di stratosfera.

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

299

X + O3 chlorine monoxide+ O2
X + O3 klorin monoksida + O2
What is represented by X?
Apakah yang mewakili X?
A Chlorine
Klorin
B Fluorine
Florin
C Carbon dioxide
Karbon dioksida
D Sulphur dioxide
Sulfur dioksida
4.

What are the solutions to reduce the greenhouse effect?


Apakah tindakan yang dapat mengurangkan kesan rumah hijau?
I Use solar and geothermal energy
Menggunakan tenaga solar dan geoterma
II Use biodegradable detergents
Menggunakan bahan pencuci mesra alam
III Replant trees which have been cut down
Menanam semula pokok yang telah ditebang
IV Reduce the use of pesticides in farming
Mengurangkan penggunaan racun serangga perosak di lading
A I and II
B I and III
C II and IV
D III and IV

5.

What are the diseases that can be caused by ozone hole?


Apakah jenis penyakit yang disebabkan oleh lapisan ozon yang berlubang?
I Cataract
Katarak
II Melanoma
Melanoma
III Nerve dysfunction
Kegagalan saraf
IV Shortness of breath and coughing
Sesak nafas dan batuk
A I and II
B I and III
C II and IV
D III and IV

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

300

SOALAN STRUKTUR:
1. Diagram below shows a satellite image of the ozone hole over the Antarctica.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan imej satelit lapisan ozon di Antartika.

Diagram/Rajah

(a) Where is the ozone layer located?


Dimanakah lapisan ozon terletak?
____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
(b) State the function of the ozone layer.
Apakah fungsi lapisan ozon?
____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
(c) Name one ozone-depleting substance.
Namakan satu bahan penghakis ozon?
____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
(d) State the main cause of ozone depletion.
Nyatakan punca utama penipisan ozon?
____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]

(e) Give three sources of ozone-depleting substance.


Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

301

Berikan tiga sumber bahan penipisan ozon.

1. __________________________________________________________________

2. __________________________________________________________________

3. __________________________________________________________________
[3 marks/markah]
(f) Give one effect of ozone depletion on...
Berikan satu kesan penipisan ozon keatas...
i. Humans.
Manusia.
__________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
ii. Plants.
Tumbuhan
__________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
iii. The environment.
Alam sekitar
__________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
(g) State two ways to reduce ozone depletion.
Berikan dua kaedah untuk mengurangkan kesan penipisan ozon.

1. __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

2. __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[2 marks/markah]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

302

SOALAN ESEI:

Ultraviolet ray
Sinar ultrungu

Ozone layer
Lapisan ozon

Diagram 1 / Rajah 1
1. Diagram 1 shows the ozone layer in atmosphere that protects earth from ultraviolet rays
from the sun.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan lapisan ozon di atmosfera yang melindungi Bumi dari sinaran
ultraungu yang datang daripada matahari.
Describe how the ozone layer becomes thinner. Discuss its effects on humans and the
environment and suggest the ways to solve these problems.
Huraikan bagaimana lapisan ozon boleh menjadi nipis. Bincangkan kesan-kesannya ke
atas manusia dan alam sekitar serta cadangkan cara-cara mengatasi maslah tersebut.
[10 marks ]

Hak cipta PPMP BIO Johor 2013

303