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Literature Review

Research paper-1

Experimental study of an air assisted mist generator


In this paper, a twin fluid internally mixed generator was studied

experimentally. In this type of mist generator, atomization is attained
by injecting a small amount of compressed air into a liquid stream in a
mixing chamber inside the mist generator. Since most of the energy for
atomization is supplied to the liquid by the atomizing air, a significant
small pressure drop can produce a fine spray.
Now as per the result of this research paper, it suggest that the injector
could be used to control the flow rate and spray characteristics
independent of each other by simultaneously varying the supply
pressure of the liquid and the atomizing air.
The controlled atomization for a twin fluid internally mixed atomizer
makes it attractive to be used for fire suppression application in
particular because of high mist generation rate.

Research paper-2

Liquid Atomization And Spraying


This research paper tells about the spray characterization and atomizer
design consideration.
Practical atomizer generate spray with a distribution of drop sizes with
average size in the diameter ranges from a few micron to a large as
0.5mm.spray drop size distribution can be measured nonintrusive by
using optical laser diffraction and phase/Doppler instruments.
Atomizer can be broadly characterized as those producing hollow cone
and solid cone sprays. In solid cone sprays the spray liquid is
concentrated along the spray axis. In hollow cone sprays the axis
region is relatively free of drops giving wide spray dispersal.
As per our requirement, we will be designing a hollow cone atomizer

Research paper-3

Effect of spray nozzle design and measurement techniques on reported

drop size data


Accurate spray nozzle drop size is an important factor in the overall

effectiveness of spray operation. Drop size is especially critical in
spraying application.
There are two types of drop sampling techniques: spatial and flux

The spatial techniques is used when a collection of drop occupying a

given volume are sampled instantaneously.
The flux technique is applied when individual drop that pass through
the cross section of a sampling region are examined during an interval
of time.
To verify the drop size result, various drop size analyzer are available
which are
i) Malvern
ii) Particle measuring system
iii) Aerometric
We will be using Malvern particle analyzer for finding the drop size.

Research paper-4
Design and experiment investigation of 600 pressure swirl nozzle for
penetration length and cone angle at different pressure


Spray penetration is of prime importance for combustion chamber

design .Over penetration of the spray leads to impingement of the fuel
on the combustion chamber wall and if the walls are cold it causes the
fuel wastage. Optimum engine performance is obtained when the
spray penetration is matched to the size the geometry of the
combustion chamber and methods of calculating penetrations.
Designed pressure swirl nozzle experimentally investigated at different
pressure ranging from 3 bars to 18 bars in the step of 3 bars. In gas
turbine combustor spray angle has strong influence on ignition
performance, flame blow out limit and pollutants, emission of unburned
hydrocarbon and smoke.
The result for penetration length and spray cone angle suggests that at
designed pressure, pressure swirl nozzle gives best performance.

Research paper-5
Automated quantitative interrogation of volume to size high speed


A recently developed digital image analysis technique capable of sizing

particles of arbitrary shape is examined. A series of experiments were
conducted in order to assess the robustness and accuracy of the
technique in its application to the sizing of relatively small droplets
whose diameters are predominantly in the range of 5 to 30 micron.
Following a description of the fundamental principle of the technique, a
through description of the calibration procedure is provided in which
the image processing routine has been calibrated down to micron. The
depth of filed characteristics as a function of object diameter were
determined experimentally for the optical set up and conformed an
approximate linear relationship . In order to verify whether this linearity

is still valid for object diameters in the ranges 10 to 18 micron

simulations using single lens approximations were performed and is of
particular interest when measuring fuel and other finely atomized
sprays. The measurement performance of the PDIA system has been
assessed in terms of individual object diameter number and volume
probability density functions of object diameters and this data has
been compared with Phase Doppler Anemometry PDA results of the
same spray in space and time. It is shown that the larger object are
measured directly and PIDA is arguably more accurate since object
diameters is based upon the measured area/perimeter rather than
local object curvature as in the case of PDA . Smaller objects may also
be measured correctly by both methods although sensitivity to signal
to noise ratio for both methods can generate spurious and
contradictory errors.