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BIOLOGY MAY/JUNE 2006 PAPER 1

1
B

The electron microscope has a 0.5 nm resolution


while the light microscope has one of 0.2 m i.e.
200 nm.

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2
C

Golgi bodies, lysosomes and cytoplasm all have


single cell membranes while mitochondria and nuclei
have double membranes.

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Golgi bodies are abundantly found in secretory cells


like goblet cells. The other cells in the list are not
secretory.

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Increased surface area to volume ratio increases the


area for molecules to move into cells. Increased
molecular movement increases active transport rate.

Cell walls are completely permeable and do not


affect active transport efficiency.

Same as option B.

Active transport does not require a partially


permeable membrane.

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All prokaryotes contain ribosomes for protein


synthesis.

All prokaryotes have cell membranes.

Prokaryotes divide by binary fission.

Prokaryotes do not have mitochondria.

Magnification = image length/object length. The


image has a 1.75 cm i.e. 17500000 nm thick
membrane. The actual membrane thickness is 7 nm.
M = 17500000/7 = 2.5 10^6.

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Hydrolysis is the breakdown of larger molecules into


smaller ones with the addition of water i.e.
converting starch to glucose.

Condensation is the formation of complex molecules


from simple ones i.e. starch from glucose.

Polymerization is the formation of polymers from


monomers.

Synthesis is any formation process.

Starch digestion is tested with Benedicts solution


which turns brick red in the presence of reducing
sugars.

Biurets test is for proteins.

Ethanol emulsion test is for fats.

Iodine test is for the presence of starch.

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Amylose has 1, 4 linkages with no branches.

Cellulose has 1, 6 linkages.

Amylopectin has both 1, 4 and 1, 6 linkages.

Cellulose has 1, 6 linkages and amylopectin has


both 1, 4 and 1, 6 linkages.

Hydrophobic interactions are found in both tertiary


and quaternary structures.

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11
C

Peptide bond has C=O and N-H bonds.

The bond doesnt have C=O.

The bond doesnt have C=O or N-H.

The bond doesnt have N-H.

Water movement in the xylem depends in molecular


cohesion-adhesion forces.

Density does not affect water transport.

Solvent properties do not affect water movement

Heat capacity does not affect water transport.

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13
A

At 37 C the product concentration increases until it


becomes constant since the enzyme is saturated.
From 37 C to 80 C, increased temperature
increases enzyme activity, so the graph slope for this
experiment is steeper than X. However, the enzyme
denatures at high temperatures so less product is
formed.

Product concentration is decreasing and not


becoming constant in graph 2.

Product concentration in graph 2 is the same as that


in graph 1.

Same as option B.

Non-competitive inhibition occurs at sites other than


the active site. This changes the enzyme 3-D
structure which cannot be reversed by introducing
more substrate.

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15
B

Active transport is molecular movement from an


area of lower concentration to an area of higher
concentration i.e. against a concentration gradient,
and requires energy.

Active transport involves moving against a


concentration gradient.

Diffusion is molecular movement from an area of


higher concentration to an area of lower
concentration i.e. down a concentration gradient

Osmosis is water molecule movement down a water


potential gradient.

Molecular size and diffusion distance are inversely


proportional to the diffusion rate.

Conc. gradient is directly proportional to diffusion


rate.

Surface area is directly proportional to diffusion rate.

Conc. gradient and surface area are directly


proportional to diffusion rate.

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17
A

Water molecules move into the potato tissue via


osmosis causing an increased pressure potential.

Solute potential increases as solute concentration


decreases by water movement into the tissue.

The water potential becomes less negative as the


tissue water potential increases when water moves
into it via osmosis.

The water potential becomes more negative as the


solution water potential decreases when water
moves out of it via osmosis.

DNA replication in the S phase occurs before mitosis


or prophase happens.

Nucleus breakdown happens during prophase in


mitosis.

mRNA is not needed for mitosis.

Centrioles migrate in prophase.

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19
B

DNA replicates before prophase, giving 46


chromosomes and 92 chromatids. Spindle formation
and nuclear envelop breakdown occur in prophase
and not before that.

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DNA replication takes place in interphase just before


mitosis. Nucleotides are utilized in the replication.

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21
A

A nucleotide contains a pentose sugar, a nitrogenous


base and a phosphate group.

This is only a nitrogenous base.

These are two nucleotides joined by hydrogen bonds.

These are two phosphodiester bonds and a free


phosphate.

The generation produced by one division will have


hybrid DNA because of semi-conservative replication.

The generation will have only N14 DNA after multiple


divisions.

The DNA will not contain only N15 after bacteria are
introduced to N14.

This solution is obtained after more than one


division.

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23
B

Out of 6000 nucleotides, 3000 will be used for


transcription from the sense strand. 3 nucleotides
represent 1 amino acid translated, so 3000
nucleotides will give 1000 amino acids.

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If 20% bases are cytosine, guanine will also be 30%.


The remaining pyrimidines makeup 40%, in which
there is 20% adenine. This, when transcribed, gives
20% uracil.

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25
B

As humidity increases, water vapour concentration


outside the leaves increases. Water vapour in the
leaves stops diffusing out of the leaves because of
the concentration gradient, so vapour loss decreases
with humidity increase.

Temperature increase causes increased vapour loss


through diffusion.

Light intensity increase causes increased vapour


diffusion and water loss.

Increased wind velocity removes water vapour from


the leaf surrounding, increasing the water vapour
concentration which therefore increases loss of
vapour via diffusion.

The structure is a lignified xylem vessel.

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27
C

Water moves up the xylem due to molecular


cohesion-adhesion forces as well as an increasing
water potential gradient caused by a decreased
potential in the leaves which causes it to move up
via osmosis.

Water is not actively moved in the xylem.

Water potential is decreased in the leaves, and


osmosis in roots helps water move into the roots and
not the xylem.

Translocation occurs in phloem.

Tissue fluid contains phagocytes, but no platelets or


proteins which are too big to pass into the fluid from
the capillaries or cells.

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29
D

The curve shifts to the right when oxygen affinity


decreases and cells require more oxygen i.e. in case
of high CO2 concentration and low pH.

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The duration when both valves are closed is between


1 and 2, and 3 and 4 i.e. 0.07 seconds.

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31
D

Cartilage and goblet cells are present in the trachea


and bronchi, while smooth muscle is present in the
bronchi and bronchioles, and cilia in the trachea and
bronchioles.

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Phagocytes invade the alveolar walls in response to


inflammation and release the enzyme elastase to
digest elastin the walls.

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33
B

Nicotine causes accumulation of cholesterol in the


vessels which are deposited and form plaques that
obstruct the vessels.

Tumours do not form in vessels by smoking.

Tar sticks to the cilia in the trachea and bronchioles


and not to artery walls.

Carbon monoxide causes CO poisoning which does


not block arteries.

All three organisms contain DNA and so have genes.

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35
D

The greater the people with drug resistant strains,


the more incurable cases of TB, which makes the
drug more ineffective.

Streptomycin is an antibiotic and is not antiviral.

Overcrowding increases disease incidences but does


not decrease drug effectiveness.

The newly activated bacterium would also be


effectively treated with the same antibiotic as long
as it is not drug-resistant.

Antigens on cell surfaces stimulate T helper cells


which in turn cause B lymphocytes to divide and
produce plasma cells that release antibodies in
response to the antigen.

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37
A

The babies receive already activated antibodies from


mothers milk but do not receive any active
lymphocytes which can give secondary responses
and produce memory cells. So the antibodies provide
temporary immunity.

The number of antibodies is insignificant since they


eventually break down and immunity will still be lost.

The antibodies function in the babies as well but only


temporarily.

The baby does no inherit immunity but receives


antibodies from mothers milk.

A niche is an organisms influence in a single


community. The tree acts as a habitat and food
source, and also maintains external conditions in its
community.

A community is different species living or interacting


in the same area.

Ecosystem involves all the biological organisms and


communities and their interactions together.

A habitat is an area occupied by a single species.

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39
B

The food web contains all the organisms between


which energy transfer is occurring.

Inorganic minerals and sunlight are not organisms.

Decomposers are also organisms involved in energy


transfer.

Primary, secondary and tertiary consumers, as well


as decomposers, all make up the food web, and a
single individual species does not.

Denitrification releases fixed nitrogen in the soil as


ammonia into the atmosphere.

Ammonification releases ammonium ions into the


soil for plants.

Nitrogen fixation fixes nitrates in the soil for plants.

Same as option C.

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