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You are on page 1of 10

By Tom Irvine

Email: tomirvine@aol.com

August 14, 2003

_______________________________________________________________________

Theory

EI, m

Figure 1.

The governing differential equation for the transverse displacement y(x, t) of a simplysupported beam subject to an axial load applied at its free end is

2

d2

2 y( x , t )

y( x , t ) + m

= 0

EI(x ) 2 y( x , t ) + P

x x

x 2

x

t2

(1)

where

E

is the length

Assume that the load P is constant.

2

d2

d2

2 y( x , t )

EI(x )

y( x , t ) + P

y( x , t ) + m

= 0

x 2

x 2

x 2

t2

(2)

(8)

Equation (8) yields two independent equations.

d 2 d 2

EI

Y( x ) + P

dx 2 dx 2

d2

Y( x ) m 2 Y( x ) = 0

dx 2

(9)

d2

d t2

f ( t ) + 2 f ( t ) = 0

(10)

The weighted residual method is applied to equation (9). This method is suitable for

boundary value problems. An alternative method would be the energy method.

There are numerous techniques for applying the weighted residual method. Specifically,

the Galerkin approach is used in this tutorial.

The differential equation (9) is multiplied by a test function ( x ) . Note that the test

function ( x ) must satisfy the homogeneous essential boundary conditions. The essential

boundary conditions are the prescribed values of Y and its first derivative.

The test function is not required to satisfy the differential equation, however.

The product of the test function and the differential equation is integrated over the domain.

The integral equation is set to zero.

Mass and Stiffness Matrices

The elemental mass and stiffness matrices are taken from References 3 and 4.

156 22 54 13

4 13 3

hm

Mj=

156 22

420

(36)

12 6 12 6

4 6

2

EI

K j =

12 6

h3

36 3 36 3

4 3 1

P 1

+

36 3

h 30

(37)

where h is the element length.

An example is given in Appendix B.

References

1. L. Meirovitch, Analytical Methods in Vibration, Macmillan, New York, 1967.

2. L. Meirovitch, Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics, Sijthoff & Noordhoff,

The Netherlands, 1980.

3. T. Irvine, Transverse Vibration of a Beam via the Finite Element Method, Revision A,

Vibrationdata, 2000.

Axial Load via the Finite Element Method, Vibrationdata, 2003.

5. T. Irvine, Natural Frequencies of Beams Subjected to a Uniform Axial Load, Revision

A, Vibrationdata, 2003.

6. T. Irvine, Bending Frequencies of Beam, Rods, and Pipes, Revision J, Vibrationdata,

2003.

APPENDIX A

Example 1

Model the simply-supported beam in Figure A-1 as a single element using the mass and

stiffness matrices in equations 36 and 37. The model consists of one element and two

nodes as shown in Figure B-1.

E1

N2

N1

Figure A-1.

Note that h = L.

156 22 54 13

3

4

13

L m 22

M=

420 54 13 156 22

4

13 3 22

(A-1)

The stiffness matrix is

12 6 12 6

4 6

2

EI

K j =

12 6

h3

36 3 36 3

4 3 1

P 1

+

36 3

h 30

(A-2)

P cr =

2 EI

(A-3)

L2

Let

P = 0.4 P cr

P =

P =

(A-4)

0.4 2 EI

(A-5)

L2

2 2 EI

(A-6)

5 L2

6 12 6

12

6

4

2

6

EI

K j =

L3 12 6 12 6

2

4

6

6

36 3 36 3

4 3 1

2 2 EI 1 1

+

36 3

5 L2 L 30

(A-7)

6 12 6

12

6

4

2

6

EI

K j =

L3 12 6 12 6

2

4

6

6

36

2 EI 3

+

75 L3 36

36

36

3

1

3

4

(A-8)

16.74

6.395

4.527 6.395 1.868

EI

K j =

L3 16.74 6.395 16.74 6.395

6.395

(A-9)

16.74

6.395

4.527 6.395 1.868 h 1

EI

Lm

= 2

420

L3 16.74 6.395 16.74 6.395 y 2

6.395

156 22 54 13 y1

22

3 h 1

4

13

54 13 156 22 y 2

4 h 2

13 3 22

(A-10)

16.74

6.395

4.527 6.395 1.868 h 1

=

16.74 6.395 16.74 6.395 y 2

6.395

156 22 54 13 y1

22

3 h 1

4

13

54 13 156 22 y 2

4 h 2

13 3 22

(A-11)

where

L4 m

2

=

420 EI

(A-12)

420 EI

=

L4 m

(A-13)

y1 = 0

(A-14)

y2 = 0

(A-15)

The first row and first column are struck out to meet the first boundary condition. The

third row and third column are struck out to meet the second boundary condition.

The resulting eigen equation is thus

4 3 h 1

4.527 1.868 h 1

=

3 4 h

1.868 4.527 h

2

(A-17)

1 0.3799

= 6.395

(A-18)

1 0.6164

2 2.5288

(A-19)

The finite element results for the natural frequencies are thus

1

=

2

1

=

2

420 EI 0.6164

m L4 2.5288

(A-20)

12.632

m L4 51.826

(A-21)

EI

The finite element results are compared to the classical results in Table B-1.

Table B-1.

P = 0.4 Pcr Case, Natural Frequency Comparison, 1 Element

Finite Element

Model

Classical

Solution

Mode

m L4

EI

12.632

m L4

EI

11.679

The finite element value is 8.15 % higher than the classical solution. The classical result is

taken from Reference 6.

Note that

L4

= 9.871

EI

Reference 5.

The analysis is repeated for other model sizes, representing the same beam, in Table B-2.

Table B-2.

P = 0.4 Pcr Case, Fundamental Frequency for Various Model Sizes

Classical

Solution

Finite Element

Model

Elements

in Model

m L4

EI

Error

m L4

EI

12.631

11.679

8.15 %

11.714

11.679

0.30 %

11.672

11.679

-0.06 %

11.758

11.679

0.68 %

16

11.465

11.679

-1.83 %

10

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