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1.

0 TITLE:
Laminar and Turbulent Flow

2.0 OBJECTIVE:
The purpose of the Reynold experiment is to illustrate laminar, transitional
(intermittently turbulent), and fully turbulent pipe flows, and to determine the
conditions under which these types of flow occur. The equipment consists of a
hydraulics bench, an Osborne Reynolds apparatus, dye, a stopwatch, a graduated
cylinder. The diameter of the flow visualization pipe is d= 7.67mm.

3.0 THEORY:
In viscous flow, there are 3 types of it. The Reynolds number is a primary way to
investigate the type of flow. It is the ratio of inertial force (u) to viscous flow force
(/L). This Reynolds number is used to determine whether the flow will be laminar or
turbulent.
The formula for Reynolds number is Re = (ud/)
= Density of Fluid
= Dynamic viscosity of fluid
u = Norminal Velocity
D = Diameter of pipe
There are 3 types of viscous flow
Re < 2000 = Laminar Flow
2000 < Re < 4000 = Transition Flow
Re > 4000 = Turbulent Flow

4.0 PROCEDURE:
a

d
e

Started the pump and establish a water flow through the test section. Raised the
swivel tube of the outlet tank so that it is close to the vertical. Adjusted the bench
regulating valve (or pump speed) to provide a small overflow from the inlet tank and
overflow pipe. Ensure that any air bubbles are bled from the manometer tubes.
Set up a series of flow conditions with differential heads starting at 25mm in step of
25mm up to 150mm and thereafter in steps of 50mm up to a maximum of 500mm. at
each condition carefully measure the flow rate using volumetric tank and a stop
watch.
The water flow stopped, allowed the rest unit to drain and replace the inlet tank with
the feedback. Connected the test section pressure tapping to the water mercury
manometer. Established a water flow and bleed the manometer.
A series of flow conditions with differential heads in steps of 25mm of mercury was
set up. At each condition the volumetric flow rate was measured.
Measured the water temperature.

Diameter (m)
Length (m)
Area (m2)

Pipe dimension : 10.1mm


0.0101
0.0101
0.36
0.36
0.000080 0.000080
1
1

Fluid properties : Water


0.001
0.001
Dynamic Viscosity (kg m-1 s-1)
1000.00
1000.00
Density
20
20
Temp

Variable Outlet Head (mm)


Quantity of water collected
(liter)
Time to collect water, t (s)
Inlet head, hi (mm)
Outlet head, ho (mm)

Recorded values:
10.00
15.00

0.0101
0.36
0.000080
1

0.0101
0.36
0.000080
1

0.001
1000.00
20

0.001
1000.00
20

20.00

25.00

60
20.00
7.60

67
21.30
10.80

70
22.90
13.20

77
25.50
17.80

Calculated value:

Volume flow rate, Q (m3/s)


Mean velocity, V (m/s)
ln V
Reynolds number, Re
ln Re
Friction head loss,hf (mm)
ln hf
friction factor, f
ln f

Diameter (m)
Length (m)
Area (m2)

0.000050
0.624
-0.472
6302.349
8.749
12.40
2.518
0.00683
-4.987

0.000045
0.559
-0.582
5643.895
8.638
10.50
2.351
0.00578
-5.153

0.000043
0.535
-0.626
5402.013
8.595
9.70
2.272
0.00534
-5.233

0.000039
0.486
-0.721
4910.921
8.499
7.70
2.041
0.00424
-5.464

Pipe dimension : 7.67mm


0.0077
0.0077
0.36
0.36
0.000046 0.000046
2
2

0.0077
0.36
0.000046
2

0.0077
0.36
0.000046
2

0.001
1000.00
20

0.001
1000.00
20

20.00

25.00

Fluid properties : Water


0.001
0.001
Dynamic Viscosity (kg m-1 s-1)
1000.00
1000.00
Density
20
20
Temp

Variable Outlet Head (mm)


Quantity of water collected
(liter)
Time to collect water, t (s)
Inlet head, hi (mm)
Outlet head, ho (mm)

Volume flow rate, Q (m3/s)


Mean velocity, V (m/s)
ln V
Reynolds number, Re
ln Re
Friction head loss,hf (mm)
ln hf
friction factor, f
ln f

Recorded values:
10.00
15.00
3

27
26.20
6.10

29
29.30
12.20

32
32.20
17.90

34
35.60
23.30

0.000094
2.029
0.707
15560.72
1
9.653
14.30
2.660
0.00598
-5.120

0.000088
1.909
0.647
14645.38
5
9.592
12.30
2.510
0.00514
-5.270

Calculated value:
0.000111 0.000103
2.404
2.239
0.877
0.806
18442.33 17170.45
6
1
9.822
9.751
20.10
17.10
3.001
2.839
0.00840
0.00715
-4.779
-4.941

3.100
3.000
2.900
2.800
2.700
Ln hf 2.600

Plotted Value
Linear (Plotted Value)

2.500
2.400
2.300
2.200
1.800 2.000 2.200 2.400 2.600
ln V

Graph of ln Hf against ln V for 7.67mm

3.000
2.500
2.000

ln hf

1.500
Plotted Value
Linear (Plotted Value)

1.000
0.500
0.000
0.450 0.500 0.550 0.600 0.650
ln V

Graph of Ln Hf against Ln V

Figure 1 :Pipe 7.67mm

Figure 2 :Fluid Bench 1 and 2

5.0 SAMPLE CALCULATION


1.1 Volume flow rate
Q=

quantity of water collected ( liter ) 1meter 3


1000 liter
timetaken ( s )

Q=

3 liters 1 meter 3
=5.00 105 m3 /s
60 s 1000 liter

1.2 Mean Velocity

Q=velocity , V area , A
V=

Q
A , where

A= r 2
5

V=

Q
5.00 10
=
=1.08 m s1
2
2
r
(0.00767 m)

1.3 Reynolds number


=

UD 1000 1.08 0.00767


=
=7396.07

1.12 103

1.4 Friction Factor


* Assuming roughness height is negligible
fe=

64
64
=
=0.00865
Re 7396.07

6.0 DISCUSSION

The purpose of this experiment is to investigate or to determine the turbulent


and laminar flow in a pipe. Due to errors from the equipment and the human errors,
the experiment was not as successful as it should be.
There were a few problems that were occurring while the experiment was being
conducted. A straight line graph was achieved which is a linear graph which is a
straight line graph which is from the obtained results. One of the problems is there
was some a little difference on the obtained data. This is because of there was a zero
error on the equipment and the parallax error while taking the reading from the
manometer.
To solve the problems, we asked other students to crisscross or to check the
result or the data obtained to make sure the accuracy. And the figure obtained was
taken to be as little as 3 significant figures. And this is to remove or to avoid the
inaccuracy of the obtained data. When we obtain the data from the graph of hf which
is a straight line graph, hf can be expressed as v because hf = v-0.618.
. But we did find out the flow was turbulent but we failed to investigate the
laminar flow because the diameter of the pipe was too small and this made the
manometer failed to give any data.
After recording some readings while adjusting the speed or the velocity of the
water going through the section with the pumps controller, the manometer did record
some readings. But the overflow of the variable head was too small for the
experiment.
We need the velocity of the flow of the water to be a little lower with the
velocity pump with smaller diameter variable outlet valve, and this is to allow the
manometer to give out readings when the variable head overflows into the reservoir.
Also, during the experiment, we were in a cold temperature room where the
temperature was 22 but we were supposed to conduct the experiment in room
temperature which is about 27. The temperature affects the viscosity of the fluid. If
the temperature is high, the viscosity would be lower, and vice versa if the
temperature is high.

7.0 CONCLUSION
The obtained graph was supposed to be a straight line graph which is a linear
graph. This made sure that the graph of log hf is directly proportional to log v. Due to
parallax error and the zero errors which was obtained from the equipment, there were
some difference during the reading of the manometer.
In laminar flow the motion of the particles of fluid is very orderly with all
particles moving in straight lines parallel to the pipe walls. As the velocity of flow
increases the fluid tends to from Laminar to Transitional to Turbulent flow.
The graph of log hf is directly proportional to log V. This relationship means that the
head loss is always depending on the velocity of the flow. Layers of water flow over
one another at different speeds with virtually
no mixing between layers.
The flow velocity profile for laminar flow in circular pipes is parabolic in shape, with
a maximum flow in the center of the pipe and a minimum flow at the pipewalls. The
average flow velocity is approximately one half of the maximum velocity.
The turbulent flow is characterized by the irregular movement of particles of
the fluid. The flow velocity profile for turbulent flow is fairly flat across the center
section of a pipe and drops rapidly extremely close to the walls. Viscosity is the fluid
property that measures the resistance of the fluid to deforming due to a shear force.
For most fluids, temperature and viscosity are inversely proportional.

8.0 Reference
1.5 Dubbel, W. (1994). Werkstoffkunde and Werkstoffprufung (10th Ed).
Dusseldorf: CornelsenVerlag, Berlin.
1.6 J. M. Cimbala and Y.A. Cengel. (2008). Essentials of Fluid Mechancis,
Fundamentals and Apllications. McGraw-Hill International Edition,
Singapore.
1.7 K.L Kumar. (2006). Engineering Fluid MEchancis. EURASIA
PUBLISHINGHOUSE (P) LTD. Ram Nagar, New Delhi.
1.8 Dr. R. K. Bansal. (2012), A Textbook of Fluid Mechanis, LAXMI
PUBLICATION (P) LTD, New Delhi.