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One of the most important human activities is to manage. Since

people began to form groups to achieve goals that they could not
reach as individuals, management has been essential to ensure
coordination of individual efforts. As society has come to rely
increasingly on Group effort and many organized groups have
become larger, the task of managers has grown in importance.
Management is the process of designing and
maintaining an environment where individuals,
working together in groups, make specific goals
We define an organization as a group of
people working together to create a surperavit. In
business organizations,this surplus translates into
profits. In nonprofit organizations, and charitable
organizations, may be the satisfaction of needs.
Universities also create a surplus through the
generation and dissemination of knowledge and
serve the community or society.
The relative importance of these skills may be
different at various levels
the organizational hierarchy. technical skills are
important to supervisor level and human skills are
useful in frequent interactions with subordinates.
Moreover, design and conceptual skills, usually are
not critical for the lowest level supervisors. For
Level middle management the needing of technical

skills decreases, human skills are still essential,

while the conceptual skills grow in importance.
At senior level, conceptual skills, design and human
especially valuable, but there is relatively little need
for technical skills.
The authors identified eight characteristics of
excellent companies. specifically,
these companies
1. were oriented to action,
2. learning about the needs of its customers,
3. promoting managerial autonomy and
4. productivity able to pay close attention to the
needs of their
5. were often driven by a company philosophy
based on the values of its leaders
6. focused on the business who knew better,
7. had a simple organization structure with a
minimum of personnel,
8. were centralized and decentralized, as
The fundamental principles underlying Taylor saw
the scientific approach are following:
Replace the rules of science finger (organized
Get harmony rather than discord in the group
Achieving cooperation of human beings, rather
than chaotic individualism.
Working for maximum production rather than
restricted production.

Develop all employees to the extent possible for

their own prosperity
and Company.
Authority and responsibility. Fayol suggests that
the authority and responsibility are related, and
one is consecuence from the other. Go authority
as a combination
Official factors derived from the position of manager
and personal factors "compounds intelligence,
moral value, prior service, etc. ".
Control Unit. Employees should receive orders
just one superior.
Chain of scale. To Fayol this is like a "chain of
from the highest to the lowest positions.
Esprit of corps. This means "unity is strength"
And Highlights the need of teamwork and the
importance of
communication to obtain it.
What Mayo and his colleagues found, in part
based on the above ideas of Vilfredo Pareto,
would have to have a radical effect on management
Change the lighting group test, modify, rest periods,
cut workdays and various incentive payment
did not seem to account for changes in productivity.
Mayo and his researchers then concluded that other
factors were responsible. Generally found that the
improvement in productivity was due to social
factors such as moral,

satisfying relationships between members of a

workgroup (a sense of membership) and effective
administration, a type of management that takes
care the human behavior, especially the behavior of
the attending group through interpersonal skills
such as motivation, guidance, leadership and
this approach is to observe what managers do and
from these observations reach conclusions as to
what activities (or roles) management is about.
Several researchers have studied the real work-from
managers to supervisors CEO line- but Mintzberg
has given this approach much more vision.
After systematically study the activities of five CEOs
in a variety of organizations, Mintzberg concluded
that none executives made the classic management
functions of planning, organizing, commanding,
coordinating and controlling.
Instead, they engage in a variety of different
activities. In this research Mintzberg concluded that
managers play a series of ten roles:
interpersonal roles
roles news
Roles decision
The process or operational theory and management
science meets the relevant knowledge management
by relating it to the task management approach,

managers do. Like other operational sciences, seeks

to integrate the concepts, principles and techniques
underlying the task of managing.
This approach recognizes that there is a cluster of
core knowledge about administration which is
relevant only in this field. Issues such as online
personal adviser (staff), departmentalization,
management assessment and various techniques
management control include concepts and theories
that are found only in situations involving managers.
Moreover, this approach uses knowledge and
absorbed other fields, including systems theory,
concepts of quality and reengineering theory of the
decision, theories of motivation and leadership,
individual behavior and group social cooperation
and communication systems and analysis
and mathematical concepts.
An organized company, of course, does not exist in
a vacuum. Rather, it depends on its external
environment; is part of larger systems, such as
industry to which it belongs, economic system and
society. Thus, the company receives inputs,
and exports the results to the environment
. However, this simple model needs to be extended
and developed into a model process management,
or operational, to indicate how the various inputs
are transformed through the managerial functions of
planning, organizing, integrating
personal, directing and controlling.

Planning involves selecting missions and objectives

and actions to achieve them:
requires decision making, that is to say choosing
future action projects among alternatives.
There is no real plan until a decisin is taken
Before making a decision
there is a study of planning, analysis or a proposal;
there is no real plan.
Organize, then, is that part of the administration
including the establishment an intentional structure
of roles for people to play in a organization. It is
intentional in the sense of ensuring that all
necessary tasks to achieve goals are assigned and is
expected to be allocated to those who can
performed the best.
The purpose of an organizational structure is to help
create an environment for human development. It
is, then, an administrative tool.
Although the structure defines the tasks, roles and
also established be designed in light of the skills and
motivations of people available.
Integration of staff required to cover and keep
covered positions in the structure of the
organization. This is accomplished by identifying
workforce requirements;
re-inventory available to people; and recruit, select,
place, promotion,
evaluate and plan careers, compensate and train, or
otherwise develop
candidates or current occupants of positions so that
tasks can meet
effectiveness and efficiency.

Leading is influencing people to contribute to
organizational goals and group; also has to do
mainly with the interpersonal administer aspect. All
managers will agree that the most important
problems arise from people, their desires and
attitudes, and Individual and group behavior that
effective managers also need to be effective
Then leading involves monitoring capacity and that
people tend to follow those who offer ways to meet
their needs, wishes and desires, so directing
includes motivation, leadership styles and
approaches and communication.
Control is to measure and correct the individual and
organizational performance to ensure that events
follow the plans. In short, control facilitates
compliance plans. although
planning must precede control, the plans are not
achieved alone, they guide the managers in the use
of resources to achieve specific goals; then activities
are examined to determine if they conform to the
the technology and specially information technology (IT) have a penetrating impact on organizations and individuals.
The World Wide Web and Internet connect people and organizations through a global network. Electronic commerce
(e-cornmerce) is used increasingly for transactions between individuals and companies. Another trend is the use of mcommerce, in other words, mobile commerce or wireless to buy and sell goods using, for example, cell phones or
assistants personal digital. Increasingly, people can communicate without computers when using wireless devices.

Globalization (or globalisation) is the process of international integration arising from the
interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture.[1][2] Advances
in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of
the telegraph and its posterity the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating
further interdependence of economic and cultural activities.[3].
The term globalization has been increasingly used since the mid-1980s and especially
since the mid-1990s.[6] In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic
aspects of
globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and
movement of people, and the dissemination of knowledge.[7] Further, environmental
challenges such as climate change, cross-boundarywater and air pollution, and overfishing of the ocean are linked with globalization.[8] Globalizing processes affect and are
affected bybusiness and work organization, economics, socio-cultural resources, and
the natural environment.

Entrepreneurship is a creative process, centered on
the notion of identifying market opportunities and
unmet needs. Build solutions that meet these needs
and bring value to customers. Entrepreneurs create
organizations that provide products to relieve pain
of people (such as pharmaceutical) companies, or
provide the means for people to improve their own
lives through sophisticated telecommunications
(such as companies
information technology).