You are on page 1of 6

h

ho
s
G

CS-602

20

15

Ar
jo

COMPUTER NETWORKS

Arjo Ghosh
CEO | PROGRAMWITHUS.COM

TRANSPORT LAYER
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
What is choke packet?

ho
s

A specialized packet that is used for flow control along a network.


A router detects congestion by measuring the percentage of buffers in
use, line utilization and average queue lengths.
When it detects congestion, it sends choke packets across the network to
all the data sources associated with the congestion.
The sources respond by reducing the amount of data they are sending.

Explain Leaky Bucket algorithm for congestion control.

The leaky bucket is an algorithm used in packet switched computer networks


and telecommunications networks.

Ar
jo

It can be used to check that data transmissions, in the form of packets, conform
to defined limits on bandwidth and burstiness (a measure of the unevenness or
variations in the traffic flow).

15

The Leaky Bucket Algorithm is based on, and gets its name from, an analogy of
a bucket that has a hole in the bottom through which any water it contains will
leak away at a constant rate, until or unless it is empty.

20

Water can be added intermittently, i.e. in bursts, but if too much is added at
once, or it is added at too high an average rate, the water will exceed the
capacity of the bucket, which will overflow.

Hence, this leaky bucket determines whether adding some amount of water
would exceed or conform to a limit on the average rate at which water can be
added, set by the leak rate, and a limit on how much water can be added in a
burst, set by the depth of the bucket.
DIAGRAM Page 258 MATRIX
CONCEPT OF OPERATION
A fixed capacity bucket, associated with each virtual connection or user,
leaks at a fixed rate.

CS-602

ARJO GHOSH

If the bucket is empty, it stops leaking.


For a packet to conform, it has to be possible to add a specific amount of
water to the bucket: The specific amount added by a conforming packet
can be the same for all packets, or can be proportional to the length of
the packet.
If this amount of water would cause the bucket to exceed its capacity
then the packet does not conform and the water in the bucket is left
unchanged.

ho
s

Besides bandwidth and latency, which other parameters are


needed to give a good characterization of QoS offered by a
network used for digitized voice traffic?

There are many parameters to describe the QoS of voice traffic. Such as:
Error ratio

Connection set up delay

Ar
jo

The probability of the data packets made mistakes, loss, or retransmission.

The time interval from requesting set up a connection to the connection


setup was confirmed.
Frames (or packets) loss ratio

15

The rate of loss frames (or packets) when transmission.

What is congestion?

20

A state occurring in part of a network when the message traffic is so heavy that
it slows down network response time.

Why do congestion occur?


Congestion results from applications sending more data than the network
devices (e.g., routers and switches) can accommodate, thus causing the buffers
on such devices to fill up and possibly overflow.

CS-602

ARJO GHOSH

Differentiate between UDP and TCP.


TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
TCP is a connection-oriented
protocol.
UDP is faster because there is no The speed for TCP is slower than UDP.
error-checking for packets.
UDP Header size is 8 bytes.
TCP header size is 20 bytes
UDP does error checking, but no TCP does error checking
recovery options.
UDP does not have an option for flow TCP does flow control.
control.
UDP does not ensure that TCP is more reliable since it manages
communication has reached receiver message
acknowledgment
and
since concepts of acknowledgment, retransmissions in case of lost parts.
time out and retransmission are not Thus there is absolutely no missing
present.
data.

Ar
jo

ho
s

UDP
User Datagram Protocol
UDP is a connectionless protocol.

15

Whats the difference between the flow control and the


congestion control?

20

FLOW CONTROL
CONGESTION CONTROL
Flow control is an end to end Congestion control is a mechanism
mechanism that controls the traffic that is used by a network to control
between a sender and a receiver, congestion in the network.
when a fast sender is transmitting
data to a slow receiver.

Flow control refers to mechanisms


used to handle the transmission
between a particular sender and a
receiver.

CS-602

Congestion control can be seen as a


mechanism that makes sure that an
entire network can handle the traffic
that is coming to the network.
Congestion control prevents loss of
packets and delay caused due to
congestion in the network.

ARJO GHOSH

Justify for the long haul communication, the window flow


control is ineffective.
LONG HAUL COMMUNICATION
In public switched networks, pertaining to circuits that span large distances.

Compare reservation based congestion control with permit


based congestion control.

ho
s

CNCS-77 Organizer

Give the argument why the leaky bucket should allow just
one packet per tick, independent of how large the packet is.

Page 271 MATRIX

Short Note

Ar
jo

QoS in Transport Layer

20

15

Short for Quality of Service, a networking term that specifies a guaranteed


throughput level.
The goal of QoS is to provide guarantees on the ability of a network to
deliver predictable results.
Elements of network performance within the scope of QoS often include
availability (uptime), bandwidth (throughput), latency (delay), and error
rate.
QoS involves prioritization of network traffic.
QoS can be targeted at a network interface, toward a given server or
router's performance, or in terms of specific applications.
A network monitoring system must typically be deployed as part of QoS,
to insure that networks are performing at the desired level.
QoS is especially important for the new generation of Internet
applications such as VoIP, video-on-demand and other consumer services.

CS-602

ARJO GHOSH

MULTIPLE CHOICE TYPE QUESTIONS


Flow control is used to prevent overflow of receiver buffer.
State whether the following statements are true or false.
Maximum length of the TCP header is 40 bytes.
Transport layer uses socket address.

(i)
(ii)

ho
s

FALSE BOTH*

The two parameters used for measuring performance of a


network are throughput and delay.

The maximum size of TCP Header is 16 byte.

Ar
jo

In computer network, load shedding is a terminology


associated with congestion control.
Which is not the congestion control transport layer policy?
Acknowledgement

Port No. in packet indicates Unique No. for a communicating process

15

4-way handshaking of
associated with TCP Protocol

connection

establishment

20

Flow control is the responsibilities of the

is

Data Link Layer +

Transport Layer.

CS-602

ARJO GHOSH