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Hanon The Virtuoso Pianist eo HANON ¥* THE VIRTUOSO- PIANIST PREFACE. ‘The study of the piano is now-a-days so general, and good pianists are so numerous, that mediocrity on this instrument is no longer endured. In con- sequence, one must study the piano eight or ten years before venturing to perform a piece of any difficulty, even at a gathering of amateurs. Now, how few persons are in a position to devote so many years to this study! It often happens, therefore, that for want of sufficient practice the playing is uneven and incorrect. The left hand gives out in passages of slight difficulty; the fourth and fifth fingers are almost useless for lack of special exercises for these fingers, which are always weaker than the rest; and when passages in octaves, in tremolo or trills occur, they are usually executed only by dint of exertion and fatigue, so that the performance is very incorrect and wholly wanting in expression. For several years we have labored to overcome this state of affairs, mak- ing it our aim to unite in one work special exercises which render possible a complete course of pianistic study in far less time. ‘To attain this end, it sufficed to find the solution of the following problem: If all five fingers of the hand were absolutely equally well trained, they would be ready to execute anything written for the instrument, and the only question remain ing would be that of fingering, which could be readily solved. ‘We have found the solution of this problem in our work “The Virtuoso- Pianist, in 60 Exercises,” etc. In this volume will be found the exercises necessary for the acquirement of agility, independence, strength and perfect ‘evenness in the fingers, as well as suppleness of the wrists—all indispensable ‘qualities for fine execution; furthermore, these exercises are calculated to ren- der the left hand equally skilful with the right. Excepting a few exercises, to be found in several methods, the entire book is our personal work. These exercises are interesting, and do not fatigue the student like the generality of five-finger exercises, which are so dry that one requires the perseverance of a true artist to summon up courage to study them. ‘These exercises are written in such a manner that, after having read them 1 few times, they can be played in quite a rapid movement; they thus become HANON ¥ THE VIRTUOSO- PIANIST PREFACE.—Continued. excellent practice for the fingers, and one loses no time in studying them. If desired, any of these exercises may be played on several pianos simul- taneously, rousing a spirit of emulation among the students, and habituating them to ensemble-playing. All descriptions of difficulties will be met with, The exercises are so arranged, that in each successive number the fingers are rested from the fatigue ‘caused by the one preceding. The result of this combination is, that all mechanical difficulties are executed without effort or weariness; and, after such practice, the fingers attain to astonishing facility of execution. This work is intended for all piano-pupils. It may be taken up after the pupil has studied about a year. As for more advanced students, they will study it in a very short time, and will thereafter never experience the stiff ness which may have been previously felt in fingers or wrists; this will render them capable of surmounting the principal mechanical difficulties. Pianists and teachers who cannot find time for sufficient practice to keep up their playing, need only to play these exercises a few hours in order to regain all the dexterity of their fingers. ‘This entire volume can be played through in an hour; and if, after it hhas been thoroughly mastered, it be repeated daily for a time, difficulties will disappear as if by enchantment, and that beautiful, clear, clean, pearling execu- tion will have been acquired which is the secret of distinguished artists. Finally, we offer this work as giving the key to all mechanical difficul- ties, We therefore consider that we are rendering a real service to young pianists, to teachers, and to the directors of boarding-schools, in proposing their adoption of our work, “The Virtuoso-Pianist.”” 2 The Virtuoso-Pianist. Part I. Preparatory Exercises for the Acquirement of Agility, Independence, Strength and Perfect Evenness in the Fingers. Ne1. Stretch between the fifth and fourth fingers of the left hand in ascending, and the fifth ano fourth fin- gers of the right hand in descend For studying the 20 exercises in this First Part, begin with the metronome set at 60, gradually increas- ing the speed up to 108; this is the meaning of the double metronome-mark at the head of each exercise Lift the fingers high and with precision, playing each note very distinctly Gatat, d= 60 to 108) @) For brevity, we shall henceforward indicate only hy their figures those Fingers which are to be specially tained in each exercise; 0g 3-4 in N02; 2-3-4 in NO 8, ete, ‘Onerve that, throughout the book, both hands are coatinoally executing the same diffcuties; in this way the Ieft hand becomes ns skilful as the right. Besides, the difficulties executed by the left hand in ascending, are exactly copied by the Sane fingers of the right hand in descending; this new style of exercise will cause the hands 0 acquire perfect equality 3 As soon asx. ro on to Exe ig oaths note ther oF (3-4) When this exercise is mastered, recommence the preceding one, and play both together four times without interruption; the fingers will gain considerably by practising these exercises, and those following, in this way. (The fourth and Fifth Fingers being naturally weak, it should be observed that this exercise, and those following it up to N0 84, are intended to render them as strong and agile as the second and third 4 Ne3, (2-8-4) Before beginning to practise N2 8, play through the preceding exercises once or twice without stopping. When N23 is mastered, practice N24, and then N 5, and as soon as they are thoroughly learned play through all three at’ least four times without interruption, not stopping until the last note on page 6. The entire work should be practised in this ‘manner, Therefore, when playing the mumbers in the First Part, stop only on the last note on pp. 3, 6,9, 12,15, 18,and 21. 3. tessaags| tose = : ca re Ne4. (9-4-8) () Special exercise for the 374, 4th and Sth fingers of the hand 6 NOS. (eee 5) We repeat, that the fingers should be lifted high, and with precision, until this entire vol- ume is mastered () Preparation for the tril with the 400 and 5 fingers of the right hand. N°6. 7 (8) To obtain the good results which we promise those who study this work, it is indispensable to lay daily, at least once, the exercises already learned, No7. (2-4-8) Exercise of the greatest importance for the 3% ath and 5tb fingers, 7. Ageegsaa| teres eas | 4 ore ¥ of Ser NOB. (4-2-2-4-5) Very important exercise for all fixe fingers. 8. erences a vs 10 mr Extension of the 48 and Sth, and general finger-exercise eLirLe! f ne? MEerest? oa = = 7’ ote sieetete ;hent 1 Ne 10. -4) Preparation for the trill, for the Bt! and 41M fingers of the left hand in ascending (D; and for the rd and AUN of the right, descending ted Neu. Another preparation for the trill, for the 4th and 5! fingers I Sasa Sr Pre N12, ee Extension of 1-5, and exercise for 3-4-5, (6-4) Another proparation for the trill, for the 8% and 4th fingers prep: Be 14. serPrerr werr 16 Extension of 1-2, and exercise for all 5 fingers: Season. Serres Freres Extension of 8-5, and exercise for 3-4-5 18 Extension of 1-2, 2-4, 4-5, and exercise for 3 — 17. ‘he 2 Sree ter srl fe err ley Fe Toe : es Salus galt J tJ 5, er * Stee [getet aa Tate > 8 =; Pe 7 Sar al Extension of 24, 4-5, and exercise for 2.34 20. Frere re = End of Part I. After having mastered this First Part, play it through once or twice daily for some time before commencing the study of the Second transcendent”) Part; by so doing, one is sure to obtain every possible advantage that this work Promises, Complete mastery of Part 1 gives the key to the difficlties found in Part Il trast = as The Virtuoso-Pianist. Part II Transcendent Exercises for Preparing the Fingers for the Virtuoso Exercises. Observe, that the ‘work done by the 84 4th and Sth fingers of the left hand in the first beat of each meas- lure yn ropeated inversely by the same fingers of the right hand in the third beat of the same measure @) ( J = 60 0 108) C.L.HANON Practise the exercises in Part Ml like those in Part 1, with the metronome at 80; similarly practise all the follow ing exercises where the tempo is aot indicated, and gradually increase the speed to 108. Wherever a different tempo ‘required, it Will be indicated at the head of the exercise 28 Having fly: mas tered this exercise, 0 on to the next without stopping on this note == 4 Same object as N°21. (3-4-5) Practise the exercises of this Second Part as we directed for Part I (top of p.4); thus, in playing throogh the exercises, stop only on the last notes on pp. 24, 28,88, 37, 41,44, 48, end 49. 26 Peostrotts warren a ee eee 28 29 30 wees) oo =) : eas | as eee 33 34 (t2-a-4.s): Prepares the 4!8 and 51D fingers for the till given Further on 3 ss é f £ issn siptetren tte 33 sisters 36 38. (4-2-a-4-5) Preparation for the ‘rill, for all five fingers 39 40 ‘Trill alternating between 1-2 and 4-5. a t and extensions) Turning the thumb under. Turning the thumb under the 244 finger. Mw. d = store Repeat this 82. teperereter: | eS cI So Speerreerer: 9 Perererere 43 ‘Turning the thumb under the 4th finger. M.M.d = Goto 08. = Repeat this meas 10 times = 34. op ae 46 ‘Turning the thumb under the 5th finger. This exercise is of the highest importance Mat, J sao tore Fpreseero fetsaser so forbs : A gisazerese a7 Another example of turning the thumb under. ee Sees Special exercise for turning the thumb under. this whoke exercise with he two thimbs only £ a IE : 6 = == 37. aie a = 4 4 (4) Hota down these three notes with each hand without striking them, while executing these 12 measures. 48 Preparatory exercise for the study of scales. a9 so The 12 Major Scales, and the 12 Minor Scales. Each major scale is followed by its relative minor. There are two ways of playing the minor scale; we thought it best to give them here after each major scale, leaving it to the instructor to teach them as he sees fit, We mark by a figure 1 the first (modern) minor scale, also termed the “harmonic minor scale,” and by a figure 2 the second (ancient) minor scale, also termed the “melodie minor scale.” We know, that the modern or harmonic minor scale has a minor sixth and the leading. note both a- scending and’ descending; whereas the ancient or melodie minor scale has a major sixth and the leading note is ascending, and a minor seventh and minor sixth in descending. MM. J =60 t0 120. 1 € maior F major. 2. D minor, e = ower Eb major. c 2 8 se 2.C minor, Sa | - 4 Ab major 57 B major. 1, G#minor. 2. G#minor, el T <=" 2 ee E major. 1. C# minor. 2 — erL et! He i ht * + | ra 60 D major. — 7 2.B minor, G major. 1. E minor. Chromatic Seales. stot te gitar Spbaaya seyeren Ie $5 é bans gph bap sbaba TeMnnee Dry ¢ ameatTT Tes a? Th xan main, begining on he nr hid \ | ore ae Sel eee ee \ Pernt Caenemen sate coe ts. In cogtrary motion, ginning on the major third 7 eee Saba shs thks aps aya a \ hea ‘Reiyrecontend or feene poses. 4. datea tales — Tega ona wt gy Patistetdie she ah tabenhe Arpeggios on the Triads, in the 24 Keys. 4 P t Extension (tretching) of the fingers w in chords of the diminished seventh, in arpeggios. Mat, J 60 tor20, 0 A times, (fe [om foo 4 times. == bate tea A times, 4 times, End of Part It, f Parts I and I of this work being the key to the difficulties in Part III, it is evidently very important that they should be thoroughly mastered before commencing the virtuoso studies contained in Part Ill. ie The Virtuoso-Pianist. Part I Virtuoso Exercises, for Obtaining a Mastery over the Greatest Mechanical Difficulties. Notes repeated in groups of three. Lift the fingers high and with precision, without raising hand or wrist, As soon as the first four meas ures are well learned, take up the rest of the exercise. C.L.HANON pM. devo wen agiagnersar Peteiseses F ‘simile cerceroor rm oe 4 Notes repeated in groups of two, by all five fingers. Study the first fingering until itis thoroughly mastered;- practise similarly each of the five following finger ings then play through the whole exercise without stopping. Accent the first of each pair of slurred notes. 4M. d= 60 40 408 simile 45. 19 Fingering PTET S simile 40 fingering 76 The Trill for all five fingers. tell. Where the sind 60 to 108) \ 46. - (pen : bs ey pa meres gress ‘Thalberg's trill, 5 Fe 8 Notes repeated in groups of four. Lift the fingers high and with precision throughout this exercise, without raising hand or wrist, When the first line is mastered, and not before, take up the rest of the exercise. sotat.d= 60 to 180) - sagan ( Wrist - exercise. a Detached Thirds and. Sixths Lift the wrists well after each stooke, holding the arms perfectly quiet; the wrist should be supple, and’ the fingers firm without stiffness. Practise the first four measures until an easy Wristomovemen 18 Ottained, then take ap the rest of the exercise LM, d =40 t0 84) PEE tsinite 4 : 232 2 simile 3 simile so Detached Sixths. Same remarks as for the thirds IMS Ea cone) ‘sesesses seeazene ea2t eect al Stretches from the 18 to the 4M fingers, and from the 24 to the Sth, in each hand. Very useful for increasing the stretching. capacity of these fingers. Ghat. 260 to 108) ear £5 2 £ Continuation of the preceding exercise Matas 60 tot Legato Thirds study of this exercise, as ‘Thirds occupy a wealy and very distinctly important place in diffi Scales in Legato Thirds. It is indispensable to practise scales in legato thirds. To obtain a. smooth le= gato, keep the fitih finger of the right bind foran instant on its note while the thumb and 34 finger are passing over to the ext third; in the left hand, the thumb is. similarly held for an instant. Notes to be feid are indicated by half- notes. Proceed similarly ia thecheormatic scale further on, and in all scales in Thirds dig 8 ise eaves ab Te 84 Preparatory Exercise for Scales in Octaves. ‘The wrists should be very supple, the fingers taking the octaves should be held firmly but without stiffness, and the unoccupied fingers’ should assume a slightly rounded position, AU fivst repeat these tyre first lines slowly until a good Wrist- movement is attained, and then accel~ erate, the tempo, continuing the exercise without ineerpption. Af the write become fai: play more Sfovinal Ue’ Gellng satu haw asappeared, and then gradually acestrate up the fs tempo See remarks to. NO Scales in Thirds, in the Keys Most Used. 87 Play these scales legato, and very evenly; it is highly important to. master them thoroughly. See remarks to 250, © major. MAL. 4240 t0 83, Scales in Octaves in the 24 Keys a First practise each of these scales until it can be exeeuted with facility; then play through all 24 with cout interruption. We cannot too strongly insist on the absolute necessity of a proper wrist-movem of exeruting octaves without stiffaess, and with suppleness, vivacity and energy. ‘See he explanations for NOS 48 and Bt itis the only means Moat ds a0 tos & C major, > major. G minor, VS abes @ Im alt scates in Octaves, the black keys are to be taken with the 4th finger of either hand. Ab major. F minor. D> major. BS minor. s , Epminor, Ge, minor. E major, C# minor. 4 A major, - aeets aes? For ou Prd D major, B minor. af ger a G major. 95 ‘The Fourfold Trill in Thirds, for all five fingers. Execute this exercise very smoothly and evenly, striking each Third very clearly att de a0 toe) Same remark as for N m4 Meat. ds a0 to ‘disses bei nlartath * © 97 bs : jen marcato | = = — Ss 98, Special fingerings for the fourfold Trill Iegnto. Anse e eee anather Tingering. Scales in Broken Octaves, in the 24 Keys. Play them through without stopping. ‘This highly important exercise Tkewise prepares the wrists for the study of the tremolo, major. id A minor, Bb major. 7 G minor. see © Thooghout this exercise, take the black Keys with the 4th finger of each hand, 100 E> major. a € ce = C minor, as Ab major, pears D> major. Bb minor, 8 major. pene? Pine weg BE Lao iet 101 B minor, 8. fi G@ major. 103 Broken Arpeggios in Octaves, in the 24 Keys. To begin with, practise the first arpegkio in C. which must be played cleanly and distinctly, with a good wrist-movement, before passing to the next in minor. Similarly practise each of the 24 arpeggios; then play th MoM. d= 40 1078 C major 2 8. Aminor. 2, a all through without interruption, ) Throughout this exercise, take the black keys with the 4th finger of each hand. 104 F minos Ab major. bbe G) major. Pea G4 minor, Waites @ As this arpeggio, and the next one in Eb minor, aro on black keys alone, it makes no difference whether the 4th or Bth Finger’ he employed. CE minor E major. Amajor___&. yt e Brinn, a 9 = TT D major. a = nO a G@ major. 108 Sustained Octaves. accompanied by detached notes, Strike the octaves vigorously without lifting the wrists, and hold them down while deftly executing the in- termediate notes with a good finger-movement MM ds 60 to 99, ten. simile. 58. ‘Dom a 107 nae Fourfold Trill in Sixths, for the combination of the Ist and 4th, and 2nd and Sth,fingers of each hand. Neither hand nor wrist should he moved in the least while playing this exercise. OM, dea to 4a) Repeat this measure 4 times (ata, d =40 to #4) 8 g simile 4 simile g simile The Tremolo To properly execute the tremolo, it shoold be played with the same rapidity as the coll on the drum Fracive. slowly af fir then gradually accelerate the fempo nil the movement indicated. (3M-Md#78) is reached.” Finally, by oncllations of the wrists, the rapidity is fill forther augmented up fo the tempo of the rum-rol, This etude is long and dificolte but the excellent result will flly repay the planst forthe teow. bie and fatigue encountered, Stoibelt made his hearers. shiver by his execbtion of the tremolo. de antore) & a tenpo pp et et ere perdendost us Concluding Remarks. Now that the student has practised this entire volume, he is acquainted with the chief mechanical diffi culties: but, if he would enjoy the fruit of his toil, and hecome a real Virtuoso, he ought to play this entire book through every day for a certain times only in this way can he familiarize himself with these great dif- ficulties. An hour is required to play the book through The greatest artists find it necessary to repeat daily exercises for several hours, merely to “keep up th playing.” We should not,therefore,be accused of exaggerating the matter when we require of a student aspiring to true virtuosity, that he should play these exercises through every day.