(PHYS1211)
January, 2015
http://www.sct.edu.om/
Page 1 of 110
Contents
Contents.........................................................................................................................................................................2
Outcomes.......................................................................................................................................................................3
Course Delivery Plan....................................................................................................................................................4
Chapter1 Magnetism................................................................................................................................................20
References................................................................................................................................................................29
Formulae..................................................................................................................................................................29
Subjective Questions...............................................................................................................................................30
Solved Numerical Problems...................................................................................................................................31
Multiplechoice questions.......................................................................................................................................34
Chapter:2 Electromagnetism....................................................................................................................................37
References................................................................................................................................................................49
Formulae..................................................................................................................................................................49
Subjective Question................................................................................................................................................50
Solved Numericals...................................................................................................................................................51
Multiplechoice questions.......................................................................................................................................54
Chapter3 Wave Motion............................................................................................................................................57
References................................................................................................................................................................66
Formulae..................................................................................................................................................................66
Subjective Questions...............................................................................................................................................66
Solved Numericals...................................................................................................................................................67
Multiplechoice questions.......................................................................................................................................70
Chapter4: Modern Physics......................................................................................................................................73
References................................................................................................................................................................80
Formulae..................................................................................................................................................................80
Subjective Questions...............................................................................................................................................80
Solved Numericals...................................................................................................................................................81
Multiplechoice questions.......................................................................................................................................84
Chapter5 Heat and Thermodynamics.....................................................................................................................88
References................................................................................................................................................................97
Formulae..................................................................................................................................................................97
Subjective Question................................................................................................................................................98
Solved Numericals...................................................................................................................................................99
Multiplechoice questions.....................................................................................................................................104
Chapter6: Optics.....................................................................................................................................................106
References..............................................................................................................................................................112
Formulae................................................................................................................................................................112
Subjective Questions.............................................................................................................................................113
Solved Numericals.................................................................................................................................................115
Multiplechoice questions.....................................................................................................................................117
Appendix1: SI System of Units...............................................................................................................................121
Prefixes...................................................................................................................................................................122
Appendix2: Physical Constants..............................................................................................................................123
Appendix3: Greek Alphabet...................................................................................................................................124
Appendix4: Mathematical Symbols.......................................................................................................................125
EnglishArabic Glossary..........................................................................................................................................126
EnglishArabic Phrase Glossary..............................................................................................................................130
References..................................................................................................................................................................134
Sample Question Paper: MidTerm......................................................................................................................135
Sample Question Paper: EndSem........................................................................................................................138
Page 2 of 110
Outcomes
Course Goals
Course Objectives
Course Learning Outcomes
1. Explain the behavior of the physical world around
1. Define, analyze and experimentally demonstrate
him/her by constructing a logical structure of it magnetic forces and fields
2. Apply the concepts of physics in his/her field of study
2. Define, construct and analyze LR, LC, and LCR
and everyday life
circuits
3. Relate the concepts of physics to the advancement
3 Define
of
and perform some basic applications of
technology
Maxwells equations
4. Understand and relate the different phenomena in
4. Define, analyze and experimentally demonstrate the
the world
concept of sound, light and electromagnetic waves
5. Control the physical aspects of the world beneficially
5. Define, analyze and experimentally demonstrate
geometrical optics
6. Approach problems, predict their results in advance,
6. Define, analyze and experimentally demonstrate the
and solve them in quantitative and qualitative manners
concepts of heat
7. Gain a broader understanding of other sciences 7. Define and analyze the concepts of thermodynamics
8. Define and apply the kinetic theory of gases
9. Define and apply the concepts of superposition and
interference of waves
10. Define and apply the concepts of wave guides and
optical fibers
11. Discuss some topics in modern Physics
12. Recognize and present real life examples of the
aforementioned concepts and interrelate some of them
13. Describe the link between physics and other sciences
14. Identify technological applications of some of the
aforementioned concepts
15. Describe how he/she can harness the benefits of some
of the aforementioned concepts
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Theory: 3 hrs
Contact hours: 5
Semester: 1
Sections: 114
Practical: 2 hrs.
Schedule of
the course
lecture
Day
Tel: Ext.084
12:0014:00
PHYL2
14:0016:00
PHYL1
8:0010:00
MOML
12:0013:00
PHYL2
Monday
Tuesday
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Place
Sunday
Coordinators
Time Table
Office hours
Time
MOML
12:0014:00
PHCL
14:0016:00
8:0010:00
MOML
12:0014:00
PHYL2
8:0010:00
PHYL2
14:0013:00
PHYL1
Wednesday
inquiries
am.appaji@sct.edu.om
Thursday
Page 5 of 110
Course Goals
Course Objectives
Page 6 of 110
Demonstrate and apply good interpersonal skills in team work and leadership roles
Graduate Attributes
Covered by the Course
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Page 8 of 110
Assessment Plan
1 Credit hour = 1 Theory Contact hour = 2 Practical Contact hours
Assessment Procedures to be followed:
Mixed
Courses
Course Work
Courses
Theoretical part
Practical part
MidTerm
Final
Exam
Total
Theory
Practical
Note:
2:1
30 (2 Quizzes)
20
50
100
20
40
100
100%
100%
100%
Total Marks
Theory
contact hrs
Practical
contact hrs
Practical
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Factors
Percentage
Procedure
10
Attendance
Submission on time
15
10
40
Total
100
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Coverage of outcome
Outcome No/s.
Reasons/Comments
Fully Covered
Partially Covered
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28
29
30
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Chapter1
Magnetism
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Magnet: Magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. It attracts iron, cobalt and
nickel.
Magnetic field is invisible. Magnetic field is responsible for the most notable property of a
magnet: a force that attracts other materials, such as iron, and attracts or repels other magnets.
Every magnet has two poles: North Pole and a South Pole.
Properties of a magnet:
1. A freely suspended magnet shows the north and south direction of the earth.
2. Like (same) poles repel each other and unlike (opposite) poles attract each other.
3. Magnetic poles always exist in pairs. (i.e.,) isolated magnetic pole does not exist.
4. The magnetic length of a magnet is always less than its geometric length.
(This is because the poles are situated a little inwards from the free ends of the
magnet. But for the purpose of calculation the geometric length is always taken as
magnetic length).
5. The force of attraction or repulsion between two magnetic poles is given by the
inverse square law.
Magnetic dipole: Two equal and opposite poles separated by a distance is called a magnetic
dipole.
Magnetic dipole moment (M): The magnetic dipole moment M is defined as the product of
the pole strength
Solved Example:
1. Calculate the magnetic moment of a magnet whose length is 9cm and pole strength is
12Am.
Solution: The magnetic moment, M m( 2l ) (12 Am)(0.09m) 0.108 Am 2 .
3. Horse shoe magnet: They are in the form of the shoe of a horse.
They have a definite area of cross section
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Page 16 of 110
scalar quantity.
B A BA cos
where is the angle which the normal to the surface makes with the
magnetic field B .
Magnetic Field ( B ):
Units:
Solved Example:
2. Calculate the magnetic field when the pole strength is 20Am and the force experienced is
0.6N.
Solution:
Force
0.6 N
Hang a bar magnet in air through a short string. The magnet swings, rotates and finally comes to
rest in a particular direction. This direction is the Earths magnetic field. The earths geographic
north pole is magnetic south pole and earths geographic south pole is magnetic north pole.
The Earths magnetic field near its surface is about 0.4Gauss 4 10 5 Tesla .
Magnetic Force (F): It is directly proportional to product of pole strengths of two magnets and
inversely proportional to square of distance between them.
F k
m1m2
,
d2
Solved Example:
3. A bar magnet of Npole strength 20Am and another bar magnet of Spole strength 40Am are
placed at a distance of 2cm. Calculate the force between the two magnets.
Solution:
F k
m1 m2 r 0 m1 m2
(10 7 )(20)(40)
7 m1 m 2
(
10
)
0.2 N ( Attractive) .
4 d 2
d2
d2
0.02 2
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Ferromagnetic
Strongly attracted by
Paramagnetic
Diamagnetic
magnets
Easily magnetized
Weakly magnetized
Cannot be magnetized
materials
materials
materials
arranged regularly
arranged regularly
randomly arranged.
into paramagnets
diamagnets
References
1. Raymond A. Serway and Jerry S. Faughn, College Physics 6th edition, Thomson
Book/Cole (USA 2003).
Page 19 of 110
B A BA cos
m1m2
d2 .
B A BA cos
Page 20 of 110
vector quantity along the axial line of a magnet from South Pole to the North Pole.
7. Write the properties of ferromagnetic materials with examples.
8. Write the properties of paramagnetic materials with examples.
9. Write the properties of diamagnetic materials with examples.
10. What is Curie temperature?
11. What are the differences between ferromagnetic and paramagnetic materials?
12. Give any two differences between Paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials.
Numerical Problems
1. If the magnetic dipole moment of a magnet of length 10cm is 2.4 Am 2 . What is the pole
strength of this magnet?
2. Calculate the force experienced by a magnet of pole strength 6 Am in a magnetic field of
200Gauss .
3. Calculate the magnetic field if there are 100 lines passing through an area of 2m 2 .
4. Find the magnitude of the force between two bar magnets of pole strengths 8Am and
6Am which are 5cm apart.
Solution:
F k
m1 m2 r 0 m1 m2
.
4 d 2
d2
m1 m2
(10 7 )(6)(8)
7 m1 m 2
F k
(10 )
1.92 10 3 N 0.00192 N
2
2
2
d
d
0.05
5. Two magnets of pole strengths 10Am and 20Am are separated by 4cm in air. Find the
force when their opposite poles are placed together. What is the nature of the force
between them?
6. If the distance between two poles with strength 5Am each is 10cm. Calculate the
magnetic force experienced, and the magnetic field acting by one of the poles.
Solution: F k
m1 m2 r 0 m1 m2
(10 7 )(5)(5)
7 m1 m 2
(
10
)
N 2.5 10 4 N .
2
2
2
2
4 d
d
d
0.1
Magnetic field,
B
Force
F
2.5 10 4 N
7. A force of 15 N acts between two magnetic dipoles. One has pole strength of 5Am.
Calculate the strength of the other pole if the distance between them is 4cm.
Solution: F k
m1 m2
Fd 2 (15)(.04 2 )
48,000 Am .
2
km1
d2
(10 7 )(5)
8. Two equal magnets have a force of 12.5N between them. Calculate the pole strength of
the magnets if the distance between them is 12cm.
Solution:
F k
m1 m2 km 2
Fd 2 (12.5)(.12 2 )
2
1.8 10 6 m 2 .
k
d2
d2
(10 7 )
1.8 10 6 1341Am .
Multiplechoice questions
1. The unit of magnetic pole strength is
a. A
b. Am
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c. Am2
d. Tesla
2. The unit of magnetic field is
a. A
b. Am
c. Am2
d. Tesla
3. A freely suspended magnet shows
a. North and South direction of the earth
b. East and West direction of the earth.
c. Only the North direction of the earth
d. All of the above.
4. The collection of magnetic lines of force has the other name
a. Magnetic current
b. Magnetic flux
c. Magnetic deflection
d. None of the above
5. Inside the magnet the magnetic lines of force go from
a. North to South
b. South to North
c. Both North to South and South to North
d. None of the above.
6. If you break a magnet, you will get
a. Iron bar
b. Two magnets
c. magnetism is lost
d. None of the above.
7. The magnetic field of a bar magnet is
a. More at the equator
Page 23 of 110
1 (B), 2 (D), 3 (A), 4 (B), 5 (B), 6 (B), 7 (C), 8 (A), 9 (A), 10 (B), 11 (A).
Page 25 of 110
Chapter:2
Electromagnetism
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Principle of Electromagnetism: When electric current passes through a wire, a magnetic field is
created around the wire. This is the basic principle of electromagnetism.
Electromagnet
1. It is a permanent magnet.
1. It is a temporary magnet.
attraction.
3. The strength of magnetic field
cannot be changed.
4.
Page 27 of 110
BiotSavart Law: The Magnetic Field ( dB ) at any point ( P ) due to a current ( I ) flowing
through an elemental length ( dl ) of a conductor is directly proportional to the product of the
current, the elemental length and the sine of the angle and inversely proportional to the square of
the distance between dl and the point P .
Introducing the proportionality constant
dB k
IdlSin
,
r2
7
2
where k r 0 / 4 . Here, 0 is the permeability of free space ( 0 4 10 N / A ) and
0 I
2 r
.
2. Magnetic field at point inside the circular coil:
Consider a circular ring or circular coil of
radius
r.
n turns and
0 nI
2r
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from the
nI
B . 0
L
Solved Example:
1. Calculate magnetic field at the centre of a circular loop with radius of 4cm and current of 20A.
Express your answer in Gauss.
Solution:
B
0 I (4 10 7 )( 20)
2. A circular coil of radius 4cm and having 100 turns carries a current of 2A. What is the
magnitude of the magnetic field at the centre of the coil?
Solution:
0 nI (4 107 )(100)(2)
10 3 Tesla 0.0031Tesla .
2r
2(0.04)
3. A closely wound solenoid of length 20cm has 400 turns. If the current is 2A, estimate the
magnetic field inside the solenoid. What is the field outside the solenoid?
Solution:
B
0 nI ( 4 10 7 )(400)(2)
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Consider a magnetic field B and conductor carrying current I inclined in an angle , then
the force between the magnetic field and the conductor is,
I
F I L B ILBSin
Solved Example:
4. A straight conductor of length 15cm is kept in a uniform magnetic field of 2 Tesla. The angle
between the conductor and the field is 30 . A current of 3A is passing through the conductor. Find
the force on the conductor.
F ILBSin (3 A)(0.15m)(2T )(0.5) 0.45 Newtons .
Solution:
I1
I2
0 I1 I 2
L
2 r
Nature of the Force: The force is attractive if the current is in the same direction. The force is
repulsive if the current is in the opposite direction.
Page 30 of 110
Solved Example:
5. Calculate the force between two long straight conductors of length 2m, separated by a distance
of 25cm and carrying currents 4A and 6A in same direction?
Solution:
0 I 1 I 2 L ( 4 10 7 )(4)(6)(2)
3.84 10 5 N ( Attractive) .
2 r
2 (0.25)
This phenomenon is called electromagnetic induction and the emf produced is called induced
emf. Note: emf is the abbreviation for Motional Electromotive Force. Units of emf are Volts.
This was discovered by Faraday in 1831.
Page 31 of 110
2 1
,
t
Transformer:
Vs < Vp
Ns < Np
Page 32 of 110
Primary
Secondary
Vs , I s , N s .
Vp , I p , N p .
Ns Ns
Ip
Vs
N
s
Vp
Np
Is
where
Vp
: Primary Voltage
Vs : Secondary Voltage
Ip
: Primary Current
I s : Secondary Current
Np
Solved Example:
6. A power transmission line feeds input voltage of 2500V to a stepdown transformer with
4000 turns in the primary and 400 turns in the secondary. What is the output voltage? If the
input current is 2A, calculate the output current.
Solution:
V
V
Vs
400 2500V
p Vs N s p
250V .
Ns N p
Np
4000
Is Ns I p Ns Is N p
Ip
Ns
4000 2 A
20 A .
400
Electric Motor:
Electric motor is a rotating device that converts electrical energy to
mechanical energy. Electric mortor is used as an important component in
electric fans, refrigerators mixers, washing machines, computers, etc.
Dynamo:
Page 33 of 110
Dynamo is a device that converts mechanical energy (rotational energy) into electrical energy. It
is also known as the electric generator. Mechanical energy is used to rotate a conductor in a
magnetic field to produce electricity.
Small dynamos can be found in the bicycles, used to provide small currents suffiecint for the
bicycle lights. Larger dynamos are driven by steam or water turbine systems, which provide
electricity to the cities.
Maxwells Equations:
Maxwell formulated a set of four equations involving electric and magnetic fields, and their
sources, the charge and current densities. The Maxwells equations contain all the known laws
of electromagnetism and form the basis of electrical engineering. Maxwell`s four equations
unified the two branches of Physics namely electricity and magnetism into Electromagnetism.
1.
E dA
It states that total electric flux through any closed surface is always equal to 1/o times the
net charge enclosed by the surface.
2.
B dA 0
It states that the magnetic flux crossing any closed surface is always zero. This means
that monopoles do not exist in magnetism.
3.
E dl
d B
dt
(Faradays Law)
This implies that the induced emf is (numerically) equal to the time rate of change of
magnetic flux through it.
4.
1 d E
B
d
l
0
c
c 2 dt
(AmpereMaxwell Law)
This implies that line integral of magnetic field along a closed surface is equal to the total
current
(sum of displacement and conduction currents) passing through that surface.
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AC Circuits:
Alternating Current (AC): The electric current, whose magnitude (value) changes with time
and direction reverses in a periodic manner, is known as alternating current. The value of current
at any time is given as:
I I o sin t .
2f . The value of emf (voltage) is also changing with time and is known as alternating emf
and is given by
V Vo sin t
Unsolved Example:
6.
If the maximum emf supplied by an AC power supply is 200V with a frequency of 53 Hz.
Calculate emf and current at time 2.3 seconds. Also calculate maximum current, given that
the resistance if the circuit is 300Ohms.
Page 35 of 110
1
.
C
Unsolved Example:
7. Calculate the reactance of a 4F operating at a frequency of 50Hz.
8. At a frequency of 60Hz, calculate the reactance of an 2mH inductor.
The combined opposition of the resistor, inductor and the capacitor is called as
impedance ( Z ). The impedance for a series circuit is
1
2
Z R 2 X L X C R 2 L
V
Vo sin t
, Io o
Z
Z
Page 36 of 110
The maximum value of the current occurs for the minimum value of the impedance Z ,
which occurs for a particular frequency, f r
1
2 LC
frequency.
Solved Example:
9. In the LRC circuit, (Vo = 220Volts, L = 20kH, C = 10 F, f = 50Hz, and R= 2000).
Calculate, Calculate, the resonant frequency (fr) and the Impedance (Z). Write the formula
for the AC current.
fr
Solution:
1
2
LC
1
2 ( 20 10 )(10 10
3
1
2 0.2
1
0.355 Hz
2.809
,
2 f 2 50 100Rad / s 314.15 Rad / s
X L L 2 f 2 (50)(20 10 3 ) 2 10 6 6283185.3 ,
XC
1
1
1
318.3 ,
C 2 fC (2 50)(10 10 6 )
R2 ( X L X C )2
4,000,000 6282867 2
Z
Z
6282867
Page 37 of 110
References
1. Raymond A. Serway and Jerry S. Faughn, College Physics 6th edition, Thomson
Book/Cole (USA 2003).
2. Online Textbooks of the National Council of Educational Research and Training
(NCERT), Delhi, India, http://www.ncert.nic.in/NCERTS/textbook/textbook.htm
3. Some Animations using JAVA,
http://www.physics.purdue.edu/academic_programs/courses/applets.shtml,
http://www.physics.purdue.edu/class/applets/phe/mfbar.htm
4. Interactive http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/index.html
5. Video Clip at YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Y4JSp5U82I
Formulae
1. BiotSavart Law: dB k
IdlSin
.
r2
I
0
2. Magnetic field of a straight conductor, B 2 r .
0 nI
.
2r
0 nI
.
L
F I L B ILBSin
I I
0 1 2
6. Force between two straight current carrying conductors, F 2 r L
7. Transformer,
N
Vs
N
I
s and s p .
Vp
Np
Ip
Ns
2 f
9. Inductive reactance, X L L
10. Capacitive reactance, X c
1
C
Page 38 of 110
11. Impedance, Z R 2 ( X L X C ) 2 R 2 L
1
2 LC
Subjective Question
1. What is the principle of electromagnetism?
2. What are the differences between a bar magnet and an electromagnet?
3. Explain the BiotSavart law with a diagram and the formula.
4. Write the Maxwells equations with their interpretation.
5. Draw the solenoid and write its formula.
6. Explain the Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.
7. What is a transformer? Draw its diagram. Write its formula.
8. Write about the dynamo with a diagram.
9. Write about the electric motor with a diagram.
10. Explain any two technological applications of Electromagnets.
11. Write the Maxwells equations with their interpretations.
Page 39 of 110
Numerical Problems
1. A long straight wire carries a current of 3A. What is magnitude of the magnetic field at a
point 20cm away from the wire?
Solution:
0 I
( 4 10 7 )(3)
3 10 6 Tesla 0.000003Tesla .
2 r
2 (0.2)
2. Calculate the force between two long straight conductors carrying a current of 3A and 2A
in the same direction and separated by 20cm. The length of the conductors is 1m.
3. In a series LCR circuit, R 300 , C 2 F and L 0.9 H . The power supply has the
maximum voltage of 100V and a frequency of 1000Hz. Calculate the current and the
resonance frequency.
Multiplechoice questions
1. Bar magnet is a
a. Permanent magnet
b. Temporary magnet
c. Unipole magnet
d. All of the above
2. Magnetic poles can be interchanged in
a. Barr magnet
b. Electromagnet
c. Cannot be interchanged
d. None of the above.
a. increases
b. decreases
c. remains same
d. None of the above.
4. Two straight conductors are carrying current in the same direction. The force between
them is
a. Attractive
b. Repulsive
c. Depends
d. None of the above.
5. The force experience by a straight conductor placed perpendicular to the magnetic field is
a. Zero
b. ILB
c. 2ILB
d. None of the above.
6. The force experience by a straight conductor placed parallel to the magnetic field is
a. Zero
b. ILB
c. 2ILB
d. None of the above.
7. Induced emf is produced when
a. Electric flux changes in a circuit
b. Magnetic flux changes in a circuit
c. When a current passes through a conductor
d. None of the above.
8. The principle of a transformer is
a. Mutual Inductance
b. Self inductance
Page 41 of 110
c. Mutual conductance
d. Conductance
9. The condition for step down transformer is
a. N p N s
b. N p N s
c. N p N s
d. None of the above.
10. The device which converts mechanical energy to electrical energy is
a. Motor
b. Dynamo
c. Magnet
d. None of the above.
11. The device which converts electrical energy to mechanical energy is
a. Motor
b. Dynamo
c. Magnet
d. None of the above.
12. The basic equations of electromagnetism are known after
a. Newton
b. Maxwell
c. Einstein
d. None of the above.
Key for Multiplechoice Questions:
1 (A), 2 (B), 3 (A), 4 (A), 5 (B), 6 (A), 7 (B), 8 (A), 9 (A), 10 (B), 11 (A), 12 (B).
Page 42 of 110
Chapter3
Wave Motion
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Page 44 of 110
Wavelength: The distance traveled by the wave between two crests or troughs
Wavelength ( ): The distance traveled by a wave during which a particle of the medium
completes one cycle of vibration is called wavelength. [Units: metres].
Frequency ( f or
1
T
[Units: s 1 Hertz ].
Time Period ( T ): The time period of a wave is the time taken by the wave to travel a distance
equal to (one cycle of vibration) its wavelength. [Units: seconds].
Speed of the wave: Speed is distance/time ( v / T ) So we have
v
f
T
The speed of the wave is given by the product of the frequency and the wavelength.
Examples:
1. A sound wave has a frequency of 5kHz. Find its wavelength.
Solution:
v
340m / s
0.068m
f
5000 Hz
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Where y = displacement
A = amplitude
Where the angular frequency, 2 f , where f is the frequency.
Solved Examples:
4. If the wave equation is y 20 sin(50t ) , find the amplitude frequency and the time
period.
Solution:
y A sin( t ) ,
we obtain
50 25
7.95 Hz
2 2
1
1
5. A wave has the amplitude of 25cm and time period of 2ms. Write its equation.
Solution:
1
1
500 Hz
T 0.002 s
2 f ( 2 )500 Hz 1000Hz
Page 46 of 110
Limiting Visibility of Human Eye: Human eye can see in the range 4000 to 7000.
Examples of Electromagnetic Waves: Light (visible to human in the range 4000 to 7000,
different wavelength have different colours); XRays (0.01 to 100); Gamma Rays; Radio,
Television and Mobile phones use specific wavelengths. The FMrange is about 100m. Lasers
are also EM waves but with additional properties.
Properties of electromagnetic waves:
1. The electromagnetic waves contain electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to each
other and also perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation.
2. Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves.
3. Electromagnetic waves can travel in vacuum.
4. The speed of the electromagnetic waves in vacuum is given by c= 3X108 m/s
5. The energy of the electromagnetic waves is given by the Planks relation
E=hf
6. Electromagnetic waves are not deflected by electric and magnetic fields.
7. Electromagnetic waves in the visible range (4000 to 7000) are called light.
Longitudinal Waves
Condensation or Compression: The high density area of the particles of the medium
Rarefactions: The low density area of the particles of the medium
Sound Waves: Sound waves are longitudinal mechanical waves that can travel though gases,
liquids and solids. They cannot travel through vacuum. The speed of sound is more in solids
than in liquids and gases.. The speed of sound depends on temperature and pressure.
Air (at 0C )
330 m/s
Water (at 0C )
1402 m/s
Aluminum
6420 m/s
Speed of sound in air and gases depends on the temperature by the relation
v2
v
1
T2
T1
Page 48 of 110
Solved Examples:
6. Express 30C in Kelvin.
Solution:
v2
v
v
1 v2 T2 1
T2
T1
T1
360.6m / s .
17.32
300
Limiting Audibility of Human Ear: The limiting audibility of the human ear is 20Hz to 20kHz. The
frequencies below the lower limit are called Infra sound waves and above the higher limit are called
ultrasound waves.
Page 49 of 110
Superposition of Waves:
The principle of superposition
When two waves meet, the resulting wave is found by adding together the displacements of both
the waves at that same location.
Page 50 of 110
Displacement of
Wave1
Displacement of
Wave2
+1
+1
Resulting Displacement
+2
1
1
2
+1
1
0
+1
2
1
Page 51 of 110
Interference is the superposition of two waves coming from two coherent sources.
Definition of Coherent Sources of waves: They produce waves of the same frequency
(f), amplitude (A) and in phase.
Constructive Interference: If two waves having the same frequency and amplitude and
are in same phase, the resultant wave has same frequency as that of each wave but two
times their amplitude.
The bright fringes (band) are regions where constructive interference occurs, whereas the
dark fringes (band) are regions of destructive interference.
Page 52 of 110
References
1. Raymond A. Serway and Jerry S. Faughn, College Physics 6th edition, Thomson
Book/Cole (USA 2003).
2. Online Textbooks of the National Council of Educational Research and Training
(NCERT), Delhi, India, http://www.ncert.nic.in/NCERTS/textbook/textbook.htm
Formulae
1. Frequency, f
1
.
T
2. Speed of a wave, , v
f .
T
y A sin( t ) A sin( 2 f t ) .
v2
v
1 .
T2
T1
y A sin( t ) A sin( 2 f t )
Subjective Questions
1. Define wave length and frequency for a wave?
2. Draw the transverse wave and indicate the Crest, trough and wavelength?
3.
4.
5.
Page 53 of 110
Solved Numericals
1. A saxophone is playing a steady note of frequency 266 Hz. Find its wavelength.
2. A hospital uses an ultrasonic scanner to locate tumors. What is the wavelength of sound
in a tissue in which the speed of sound is 1.7km/s. The operating frequency of the
scanner is 4.2MHz.
3. The limiting audibility of the human ear is 20Hz to 20kHz. Express them in terms of
the wavelength.
Solution:
v
340m / s
17 m
f1
20 Hz
v
340m / s
0.017m
f 2 20000 Hz
frequency?
Solution:
c
3 10 8
4.76 10 14 Hz
10
6300 10
5. The human eyes can sense the wavelengths from 4000. to 7000. Express these in
frequencies.
Solution:
c
3 10 8 m / s
7.5 10 14 Hz
1 4000 10 10 m
f2
c
3 10 8 m / s
4.28 10 14 Hz
2 7000 10 10 m
Page 54 of 110
6. The speed of sound in some gas at 25C is 340 m/s. Calculate its speed at 40C .
7. A transverse sinusoidal wave is represented by the equation y = 0.2 sin(20t). Find the
amplitude and the frequency of the wave.
8. Write the general wave equation of a sound wave propagating with 100Hz and 20cm
of amplitude.
Solution:
The equation is
y 20 sin(50 t ) .
Page 55 of 110
Multiplechoice questions
1. The unit of frequency is
a. Hertz
b. m/s
c. s
d. None of the above.
2. The distance between two neighbouring crests in a wave is called
a. Amplitude
b. Frequency
c. Wavelength
d. Time Period
e. None of the above.
3.
The time taken by a wave to travel a distance equal to its wavelength (one cycle of vibration) is
a. Time Period
b. Frequency
c. Wavelength
d. Amplitude
e. None of the above.
Page 56 of 110
Page 57 of 110
Page 58 of 110
Chapter4:
Modern Physics
Page 59 of 110
Introduction:
Modern Physics broadly refers to the physics developed in the early 20 th century. Modern
physics often deals with very small distances (of the order of an angstrom and lower) and high
velocities (comparable to the velocity of light,
Xrays
Matter waves
Photoelectric effect
Radio activity
Enlisted here are some of the commonly used terms in the study of Modern Physics
1. Speed of light in vacuum, c 3 108 m / s . Speed of light is maximum in vacuum.
2. Relation between frequency (denoted by the Greek letter nu, ) and the wavelength ( )
and the speed of propagation is c .
3. ngstrom () and Nanometer (nm): They both are the units of length, used for particles
of small sizes. For example size of an atom, size of nucleus, wavelength etc.
Their conversion relation is:
1 = 10 10 m 0.1nm
1nm= 109 m = 10
4. Charge of electron, e 1.6 10 19 C . The charge of proton has the same magnitude
but positive sign.
5. Electron Volt ( eV ) is a unit of energy, used in the study of atomic and subatomic
particles.
Its relation with Joule (J), the SI unit of energy is:
1eV 1.6 10 19 J .
Page 60 of 110
h
h
,
p mv
Solved Example
1. Calculate the DeBroglie wavelength of an electron moving with a speed of 5x105m/s.
Solution:
h
h
6.6 10 34
1.448 10 9 m
31
5
p mv (9.11 10 )(5 10 )
Page 61 of 110
XRays
XRays: XRays are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths in the range, 0.01 to 100. Xrays were discovered by Roentgen in 1895.
Production of Xrays:
The current heats the filament and electrons are emitted by it. These freed electrons are
accelerated under a high potential difference in a highly evacuated tube (called as the Coolidge
tube). The high speed electrons collide with the anode made of a hard metal like tungsten and
produce XRays.
XRay formula: The formula for the minimum wavelength of the XRays produced when
electrons are accelerated through a potential difference of V Volts is
min
hc
(6.6 10 34 )(3 10 8 ) 1.23 10 6
12400
m
.
19
eV
V [Volts ]
V [Volts ]
(1.6 10 )V
Properties of XRays:
1. Xrays are electromagnetic waves and travel at the speed of light.
2. The wavelength lies between 0.01 to 100
3. They cause ionization of gases.
Page 62 of 110
Solved Example
2.Write the XRay formula. What is the wavelength of the XRays produced when the
potential difference is 10kV?
Solution: min
12400
12400
[]
[] 1.24
V [Volts ]
10000[Volts ]
12400
12400
12400
[] V
[Volts ]
Volts 10000Volts 10kV .
V [Volts ]
min [ ]
1.24
Page 63 of 110
PhotoElectric Effect:
Photoelectric Effect
When light of a specific frequency falls on certain metallic surfaces,
electrons are emitted from the surface. This process of ejection of
electrons is called as the photoelectric effect
Ei= Eo + Ek
Emission Mechanism: In the photoemission process, if an electron within some material
absorbs the energy of one photon and acquires more energy than the work function (the electron
binding energy) of the material, it is ejected. The energy of the emitted electrons does not depend
on the intensity of the incoming light, but only on the energy or frequency of the individual
photons.
It is an interaction between the incident photon and the outermost electron.
Threshold frequency ( f 0 ):
For a given metal, there exists a certain minimum frequency of incident radiation below which
no photoelectrons are emitted. This frequency is called the threshold frequency.
For low speeds ( v c ) and the expression for the kinetic energy is Ek
Page 64 of 110
1
mv 2 .
2
Solved Example
4.The energy of incident radiations is 10eV fall on Sodium material surface (work
function is 2eV). Find the energy of photoelectrons and the velocity of photoelectrons.
Solution:
E i E 0 E k E k Ei E 0 10eV 2eV 8eV 8(1.6 10 19 ) J 1.28 10 18 J
2 E k 2(1.28 10 18 )
1 2
2
E k mv v
Radioactivity:
The alpha () are the nuclei of helium atoms and hence made of two protons and two
neutrons. So, they are positive.
The gamma (() are energetic electromagnetic waves. They do not carry any charge.
Page 65 of 110
Beta
They are fast moving
Gamma
Gamma rays are energetic
helium nuclei.
electrons.
photons.
Not electromagnetic.
Not electromagnetic.
waves.
They are the lightest among
alpha particles.
They have penetration
the three.
They have the highest
penetration power.
They have the highest
penetrating power.
Gamma rays have almost
ionizing power.
They travel at about 1/20th
ionizing power.
They travel at almost the
no ionizing power.
Gamma rays travel at the
speed of light.
Can be stopped by
speed of light.
Can be stopped by
aluminum.
concrete.
Nuclear Fission:
The process of division of one nucleus into two or more nuclei is
called Nuclear Fission .
For example: Atom Bomb and in Nuclear Reactor and in reaction
U235 + n
Page 66 of 110
Nuclear Fusion:
The process of addition (fusing together) of two or more lighter nuclei into a single heavier
nuclei is called Nuclear Fusion. Example: fusing of Deuterium and Tritium to form Helium with
a large amount of energy is shown in the figure below. For Example:
in Sun and in reaction:
H2 + H3
He 4 + n + Energy
References
1. Raymond A. Serway and Jerry S. Faughn, College Physics 6th edition, Thomson
Book/Cole (USA 2003).
2. Online Textbooks of the National Council of Educational Research and Training
(NCERT), Delhi, India, http://www.ncert.nic.in/NCERTS/textbook/textbook.htm
Formulae
1. Plancks formula, E hf
hc
.
2. De Broglie Wavelength, p mv .
3. XRay formula, min
hc
(6.6 10 34 )(3 10 8 ) 1.23 10 6
12400
m
.
19
eV
V [Volts ]
V [Volts ]
(1.6 10 )V
Subjective Questions
1. Write the Plancks formula.
2. Write the De Broglie relation.
Page 67 of 110
Derive the formula for the minimum wavelength of the XRays produced when electrons
are accelerated through a potential difference of V Volts.
7.
8.
Numerical Problems
1. What is the wavelength of the XRays produced when the potential difference is 20kV?
2. TV stations broadcast at a wavelength of about 3m.
corresponding photons.
corresponding photons.
Solution:
v 3 10 8 m / s
3 10 6 Hz
100
Page 68 of 110
4. Yellow sodium light from a sodium vapour lamp has the wavelength 5890. What is the
energy of the corresponding photons? Express your answer in electron volts.
Solution:
E hf
hc (6.6 10 34 )(3 10 8 )
( 3.36 10 19 )
19
3
.
36
10
J
eV 2.1eV .
5890 10 10
1.6 10 19
5. Mr. Ahmed has a laser diode that emits radiations of wavelength 5500. Mr. Salim bought
another laser with a wavelength 8800. The light from which laser is visible for humans?
6. The photoelectrons are emitted with a speed of 7 10 5 m / s from the surface when light of
time period 1.25 10 15 seconds falls on it. What is the threshold frequency of the surface?
fi
1
1
8 1014 Hz
T 1.25 10 15 sec
1
1
mv 2 (9.11 10 31 )(7 10 5 ) 2 2.3195 10 19 J
2
2
E i E 0 E k E 0 E i E k 2.960 10 19 J
f0
E0
4.48 1014 Hz
h
7. The photoelectrons are emitted with a speed of 6 10 5 m / s from the surface when light of
frequency of 7x1014 Hz falls on it. What is the threshold frequency of the surface?
Page 69 of 110
Multiplechoice questions
f /h
Page 70 of 110
c. Gamma particle
d. None of the above.
11. The condition for the production of the photoelectrons is
a.
fi f0
b.
fi f0
c.
fi f0
Page 73 of 110
Chapter5
Heat and Thermodynamics
Page 74 of 110
Heat: Heat is a form of energy, which causes change in state of matter. It melts a solid and
evaporates a liquid. SI unit of heat is Joule (J).
Temperature: It is the degree of hotness or coldness of a body.
Unit of Temperature: The SI unit for temperature is Kelvin (denoted by K). The conversion of
one scale to the other is given by
TC
T 32 TK 273
F
.
100
180
100
Celsius and Fahrenheit scales are used at homes to know the ambient temperatures.
Solved examples
1. Express 104 F in Celsius and Kelvin.
Solution:
Express 104 F in Celsius and Kelvin.
TC TF 32
T 32
104 32
72
TC TT
32 F
TF 32
104 32 40
72
100
100
100
F
C
T180
100
40
Solution:
C 100
100
180
180
180 100
100
180
180
180
180
T T 273 40 273 313
TK KTC C273 40 273 313
m (in grams) and the specific heat be s . Then the required heat,
Q msT
is:
Solved examples
2.Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 300g of water from
30C to 70C . Express your answer in Joules.
Solution:
Q msT 0.300 1000 (70 30) 0.2 40 12kcal 12 4180 J 50160 J .
Definition of Specific Heat Capacity ( s ): It is the amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of one kilogram of substance through 1 degree temperature. SI Unit of s is J/kg.K.
Another unit is kcal/kgoC.
s of water = 1kcal/kgoC or s of water = 4186 /kg K
Kilo Calorie (Kcal): It is a unit of energy. It is the amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of one kilogram of water through 1 degree temperature.
1kcal= 4186Joules
Thermal Expansion
Thermal Expansion of Solids: When substances are heated they generally expand. Their
dimensions (length, breadth, height, radius, etc) increase. Since the dimensions increase, the area
and volume also increase.
Page 76 of 110
Solved examples
3.A steel rod has length 2m at 30C . What is its length at 50C ? The coefficient of linear
expansion of steel is 12 10 6 / C
.
Solution:
Solved
2[examples
1.00024] 2.00048m
2.
3.
4.
5. The average kinetic energy of gas particles depends only on the temperature of the gas.
6.
7.
Thermodynamics
Laws of Thermodynamics:
1. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Two systems which are individually in thermal
equilibrium with a third one also in thermal equilibrium with each other.
2. First Law of Thermodynamics: The amount of heat energy supplied to a system is equal
to the sum of the change in internal energy of the system and the work done by the
system.
3. Second Law of Thermodynamics: It is impossible for a self acting machine unaided by
any external agency to transfer heat from a body at lower temperature to another body at
higher temperature.
4. Third Law of Thermodynamics: It is impossible for any substance to reach the absolute
zero of the temperature.
Adiabatic Process: The process in which pressure, volume and temperature changes but no heat
enters or leaves the system is called adiabatic process.
Thus in adiabatic process, the total heat of the system remains constant.
Isothermal Process: The expansion or compression of gas at constant temperature, is called
isothermal process.
Page 78 of 110
Carnot Cycle: According to the second law of thermodynamics no heat engine can have 100%
efficiency. The maximum efficiency,
Thot
(also called source) and Tcold (also called as sink) is given by the relation
e
Thot Tcold
T
1 cold .
Thot
Thot
In the above relation the temperatures need to be expressed in the Kelvin scale.
SOURC
E
SIN
K
Solved examples
4.A Carnot engine has an efficiency of 40% with the heat sink at 27 C . Calculate the
temperature at which the engine is operating.
Solution:
27C 300 K
Thot Tcold
T
40
300
300
1 cold
0 .4 1
Thot
500 K .
Thot
Thot
100
Thot
1 0 .4
References
1. Raymond A. Serway and Jerry S. Faughn, College Physics 6th edition, Thomson
Book/Cole (USA 2003).
2. Online Textbooks of the National Council of Educational Research and Training
(NCERT), Delhi, India, http://www.ncert.nic.in/NCERTS/textbook/textbook.htm
Page 79 of 110
Formulae
1. Temperature conversion,
TC
T 32 TK 273
F
.
100
180
100
L2 L1
L
.
L1 (T2 T1 ) L1T
Thot Tcold
T
1 cold .
Thot
Thot
Subjective Question
1. Define temperature.
3.
Draw a thermometer and label its parts. Explain the working of alcohol thermometer
and mercury thermometer?
5. Define calorie.
Page 80 of 110
Numerical problems
4. A surveyor uses a steel tape, which has a length 20.00m at 10C. What will be the length
of this tape on a day when the temperature is 35C. (Coefficient of linear thermal
expansion of steel = 11106 /C).
Page 81 of 110
5. Calculate the efficiency of a Carnot cycle working between the two temperatures 100 C
and 0 C .
Multiplechoice questions
Page 83 of 110
Chapter6:
Optics
Page 84 of 110
We shall consider two phenomenon in optics, namely the reflection of light and the refraction of
light.
Reflection of Light: Turning back of light in the same medium is called Reflection of light.
Laws of Reflection:
1. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal drawn to the reflecting surface at the
point of incidence, all lie in the same plane.
i=r
air
r
Page 85 of 110
gla
ss
Laws of Refraction:
1. The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the
same plane.
2. The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is a
constant for a pair of media
Sin(i )
Sin(r )
This law is known as the Snells law. The constant is called the refractive index. It is
also customary to use the symbol
n.
Refractive index: It is the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum (or air) to the speed of light in a
given medium.
1, 2
or
c
v
Air:
1.0003 ~ 1
Water:
1.33
Glass:
1.5 to 1.8
Diamond:
2.42
Solved examples
1.Light is incident on a glass surface of refractive index 1.5. If the angle of incidence is 30 ,
what is the angle of refraction reflection?
Solution:
Sin(i )
Sin(i ) sin(30) 0.5
sin( r )
0.3333
Sin(r )
1.5
1.5
Critical Angle
c : The angle of incidence for which the angle of refraction is 90 o, when going
Sin( c )
rarer
.
denser
Solved examples
2. Calculate the critical angle for glass .
Solution:
Sin ( c )
Page 87 of 110
Optical Fibres: The total internal reflection is the basic principle of working of optical fibre.
Optical fibres are cylindrical waveguides made of two concentric layers of very pure glass. The
core (the interior layer) with higher refractive index , while the cladding (the exterior layer) has a
lower refractive index
Optical fibers are used in medical and optical examination. They are also used to transmit
communication signals.
In the visible region of spectrum, the spectral lines are seen in the order from violet to red. The
colours are given by the word VIBGYOR (Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and
Red).
Optical
Page 88Lens
of 110
where
OR
uv
,
uv
u is the distance of the object from the lens, v is the distance of the image from the lens
v
u
Let AB represent an object placed at right angles to the principal axis at a distance greater than
the focal length f of the convex lens. The image A1B1 is formed which is real and inverted.
OA = Object distance = u
Page 89 of 110
Focal length is f u v
Solved examples
3. If an object is at 20cm from the lens and the image is formed on the screen kept at 30cm
from the lens. What is the focal length of the convex lens? Calculate the magnification.
Solution:
1 1 1
uv
20cm 30cm 600
f
cm 12cm
f
u v
u v 20cm 30cm
50
Magnification, m
v 30cm
1.5 .
u 20cm
References
1. Raymond A. Serway and Jerry S. Faughn, College Physics 6th edition, Thomson
Book/Cole (USA 2003).
2. Online Textbooks of the National Council of Educational Research and Training
(NCERT), Delhi, India, http://www.ncert.nic.in/NCERTS/textbook/textbook.htm
Formulae
1. Refractive index of light,
2. Snells formula,
1, 2
Sin(i )
.
Sin( r )
Page 90 of 110
or
c
.
v
uv
4. Lens Equation, f u v or f
.
uv
5. The magnification, m
v
.
u
Subjective Questions
6. What is the formula used in the lab, for calculating the refractive index of the glass slab?
12. Describe an optical fibre. Explain how light travels in an optical fibre.
1. The refractive index of glass is 1.5. Calculate the speed of light in glass.
Solution:
c
c 3 108 m / s
v
2 108 m / s
v
1 .5
2. The refractive index of diamond is 2.42. Calculate the speed of light in diamond.
3. A ray of light takes 5 10 10 s to pass through a glass slab. Calculate the Thickness of
the glass slab?
4. What is the time taken by light to travel through a glass slab of length 10cm and refractive
index 1.5?
Solution:
c
c 3 108 m / s
v
2 108 m / s
v
1 .5
time
dis tan ce
0.1m
5 1010 s
speed
2 108 m / s
Page 92 of 110
5. Light is incident on a diamond surface (refractive index 2.42). If the angle of incidence is
30 , what is the angle of refraction and reflection?
Sin( c )
2.42
7. If an object is at 30cm from the lens and the image is formed on the screen kept at 60cm
from the lens. What is the focal length of the convex lens? Calculate the magnification.
Multiplechoice questions
Page 93 of 110
4. Light is slowest is
a. air
b. water
c. glass
d. diamond
Page 94 of 110
Page 95 of 110
Page 96 of 110
Symbol
m
kg
s
A
K
mol
cd
Derived Units
S. No.
Derived Quantity
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
area
volume
speed
acceleration
mass density
surface density
current density
momentum
impulse
10
frequency
11
12
13
14
15
force
pressure
energy, work
power
electric Charge
16
electric field
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Symbol
A
V
square metre
cubic metre
metre per second
metre per second squared
kilogram per cubic metre
kilogram per square metre
ampere per square metre
kilogram metre per second
kilogram metre per second
OR
Newton second
v
a
A
j
p
,n
f
F
P
W
C
E
V
C
R
B
m
Name
or
Expression in terms
of base units
m2
m3
m/s
m/s2
kg/m3
kg/m2
A/m2
kg.m.s1
kg.m.s1
Hertz
s1
Newton
Pascal
Joule
Watt
Coulomb
Newtons/Coulomb
OR
Volts/metre
Volt
Farad
Ohm
Weber
Tesla
Ampere.metre
Henry
Joule/Kelvin
kg.m.s2
kg.m1.s2
kg.m2.s2
kg.m2.s3
A.s
Page 97 of 110
kg .m.s 3 . A 1
kg .m 2 .s 3 . A 1
kg 1 .m 2 .s 4 . A 2 .
kg .m 2 .s 3 . A 2
kg .m 2 .s 2 . A 1
kg .s 2 . A 1
A.m
kg .m 2 .s 2 . A 2
kg.m 2 .s 2 K 1
Prefixes
The International System of Units specifies the following SI prefixes
S. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Length
1cm = 10mm
1m = 100cm
1km = 1000m
1inch = 2.54cm
1feet = 12inches
Factor
1024
1021
1018
1015
1012
109
106
103
102
101
101
102
103
106
109
1012
1015
1018
1021
1024
Name
yotta
zetta
exa
peta
tera
giga
mega
kilo
hecto
deka
deci
centi
milli
micro
nano
pico
femto
atto
zepto
yocto
Symbol
Y
Z
E
P
T
G
M
k
h
da
d
c
m
n
p
f
a
z
y
Volume
cc = cubic centimeter
ml = milliliter
L = Litres
Energy
1eV 1.6 10 19 J
1cc = 1ml
1Litre = 1000ml = 1000cc
1m 3 1000 L 10 6 cc .
1Calorie 4.184 J
1 = 10 10 m 0.1nm
Pressure
Miscellaneous
180
1Pascal 1N / m 2
1Tesla 10 4 Gauss
Page 98 of 110
Name
Speed of Light in
vacuum
Planck constant
Planck hbar
Gravitation
constant
Boltzmann
constant
Molar gas constant
Avogadro's
number
Charge of electron
Permeability of
vacuum
Permittivity of
vacuum
Coulomb constant
Faraday constant
Mass of electron
Mass of proton
Mass of neutron
Atomic mass unit
StefanBoltzmann
constant
Rydberg constant
Bohr magneton
Flux quantum
Bohr radius
Standard
atmosphere
Wien displacement
constant
Symbol
Value
(in SI Units)
2.99792458 10 8 m / s
6.6260755 10 34 J .s
1.0545727 10 34 J .s
h / 2
Value
(in eV or MeV)
1eV 1.602 10 19 J
4.1356692 10 15 eV .s
6.582121 10 15 eV .s
6.67259 10 11 Nm 2 / kg 2
1.380658 10 23 J / K
8.617385 10 5 eV / K
8.3144621J / mol.K
NA
6.0221 10 23 mol 1
1.60217733 10 19 C
4 10 7 H / m
8.85 10 12 F / m
k 1 / 4 0
8.987552 10 9 Nm 2 / C 2
96485.309C / mol
9.1093897 10 31 kg
me
mp
1.6726231 10 27 kg
mn
1.6749286 10 27 kg
uB
0
a0
atm
b
1.6605402 10 27 kg
0.51099906 MeV / c 2
938.27231MeV / c 2
939.56563MeV / c 2
931.49432 MeV / c 2
5.67051 10 8 W / m 2 K 2
10973731.534m 1
9.2740154 10 24 J / T
2.067834 10 15 T / m 2
0.529177249 10 10 m
101325 Pa
2.897756 10 3 mK
Page 99 of 110
5.788382 10 5 eV / T
English
a
Beta
Gamma
Delta
Epsilon
Zeta
Eta
Theta
th
Iota
Kappa
Lambda
Mu
Nu
Xi
Omicron
Pi
Rho
Sigma
Tau
Upsilon
Phi
ph
Chi
ch
Psi
ps
Omega
Symbol
=
Meaning
is equal to
is not equal to
is defined as
or
>
<

equivalent to
is proportional to
is greater than
is less than
is approximately equal to
is on the order of magnitude of
is greater or equal to
less than or equal to
much less than
much greater than
congruence
infinity
parallel
perpendicular
implies
EnglishArabic Glossary1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
The term
Absolute
Acceleration
Acids
Action
Aim
Amount
Angular acceleration
Angular motion
Angular displacement
Angular velocity
apparatus
Applications
Ascent
Atom
Atomic mass
Atomic number
Attraction
Balancing
Base
Basic unit
Calculation
Catalyst
Charge
Chemical bonding
Chemical kinetics
26
Circuit Diagram
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
Combination
Compound
Concentration
Configuration
Constant or uniform
Coordinate system
Current
Decomposition
Density
Derived unit
Determinate
Direction
S. No.
The Meaning
Transliteration
Mutlaq
Tasaru'a
Hemdh
Fe'al
Alhadaf
Kemmeyah
Tasaru'a Zawwi
Harakah Zawweyyah
Ezaha Zawweyyah
Sur'aa Zawweyyah
Aladawat
AlTatbeeqat AlAmlyiah
Su'aood
Dharah
AlKutlah Aldharreyyah
Aladd AlDhari
Tajadhub
Mowaznah
Qa'aedah
Wehdat Qeyas
Hesab
A'amil Muhafez
Shohnah Kahrbaeyah
AlRabetah AlKemyaeah
AlKeemyia AlHarkeyah
Mukhatat l'dda'erah alkahraba'eiah
Etehad / Ertibat
Morakab
Al tarkeez
Tawzeea
Thabit / Mustamer
Nizam Ehdatheyyat
Tayyar
Tafakuk
Kathafah
Wehdat Qeyas Mushtaqqah
Haddid / Awjid
Ettijah
This Glossary was translated into Arabic by the Physics Lecturers, Ms. Zakiya Said Mahad AlAmri (now
pursuing PhD at the University of Bristol, http://www.bris.ac.uk/physics/people/zakiyasalamri/index.html) and
Ms. Ghadah Mohammed Shujaib.
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
Directly Proportional
Displacement
Dissent
Dissolve
Distance
Elasticity
Electrical Field
Electrolysis
Electrolytes
Elements
Energy
Equation
Estimation
Experiment
Extraction
Figure
Final
Force
Formula
Functional group
Funnel
Graph
Gravity
Horizontal
Horse Power
Impulse
Inert
Inference
Initial
Inversely Proportional
Ion
Isomerism
Isotope
Kinematics
Kinetic energy
Linear motion
Macroscopic system
Magnetic Field
Magnitude
Mass
Mean or Average
Measure
Measurement
Metals
Microscopic system
Mixture
85
Molarity
86
87
Mole
Molecular formula
Tanasub Tardi
Ezaha
Hoboot
Yuhalel / Yudheeb
Masafah
Muroonah
Majal Kahraba'ai
Tahleel Kahraba'ai
Mahlool Electroliti
Onsur
Taqah
AlMoa'adalah
Taqdeer / tahdeed
Tajrubah
Fasal / Estikhlas
Mukhatat
Niha'ai
Quwwah
AlSeeghah
AlMajmoo'aa Al Wadheefeah
Qoma
Rasm Biani
Jadhebeyya
Ufuqi
Qudrat Alhisan
Quwwat AlDaf'a
Khamel
Estidlal
Ebtida'ai / Awwali
Tanasub Aksi
Ayoon
AlMotashakelat
Nadha'er
Elm Alharakah
Taqat Alharakah
Harakah Khattia
Nidham Ayani
Majal Magnatisi
Qeemah Adadeyah
Kutlah
Mutawasit
Yaqees
qeyas
AlAnaser AlFelyziah
Nidham Mijhari
Makhloot
AlMoolariah ( Tarkeez Al()
Mahlool)
Moal
AlSaiqah AlJuzaieah
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
Molecular mass
Molecule
Momentum
Nature
Noble
Nonelectrolytes
Nonmetals
Observations
Order
Organic chemistry
Orthogonal
Oxidation
Parallel
Particle
Periodic table
Perpendicular
Polymerization
Potential Difference
Potential energy
Power
Practical
Precautions
prefixes
Preparation
Pressure
Principle
Procedure
Process
Projectile motion
Properties
Qualitative
Quantitative
Radical
Reaction
Reduction
Refining
Repulsion
Resistance
Resistivity
Result
Retardation
Revolution or rotation
Rule
Scalar
Series
Solubility
Solution
SpaceTime
Standard solution
Strong electrolytes
( )

( )
AlKotalah Aljozayiah
Jozay
Kemeyat Altaharuk
Tabee'ah
Nabeel
Maddah gair Mot'ainah
AlAnaser Allafelyziah
Moshahadah
Tarteeb
AlKemya AlOodweeah
Muta'amid / Amoodi
Ta'aksud
Mutawazi
Josaim
Aljadwal aldawri
Muta'amid / Amoodi
Balmarah
Farq Aljuhd
Taqat AlWadh'a
Qudrah
Amali
Ehtiatat
Lawahiq
Tahdheer
Aldhghd
Mabda'a
Khotowat al amal
Aaleyah
Harakat AlMaqdhofat
Khasa'es
naw'ee
Kammi
Gather hur
Rad Fe'al
Ekhtezaal
Tanqeaih / Tasfeyah
Tanafur
Muqawamah
Muqawamat AlMadah
Alnatejah
Tabatu'a
Dawrah Kamilah
Qanoon
Kammeyah Gai Muttajaha
Tasalsul
Aldhaebaih
Mahlool
FadhaaZaman
Mohllol Maloom AlTarkeez
Madah Motainah Qaweeah
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
Symbol
System
Temperature
Tetrahedron
Theory
Titration
Unit
Uses
Valency
Vector
Velocity
Vertical
Volume
Weak electrolytes
Work
( )
Ramz
Nidham
Darajat Alhararah
Haram Robai
Nadhari
Mo'aayarah
Wehdat Qeyas
Estekhdamat
AlTakaafu'a
Kemmeyah Muttajaha
Sur'aa Muttajaha
Amoodi
Alhajam
Madah Motainah Dha'eefah
Shugl
S.
No.
The Word/Phrase
The Meaning
Transliteration
Analyze/Analysis
\ Hallel/ tahleel
Applications of
Axioms
Brief about
Calculate
Characteristics of
10
Compare
11
Akmil attali
12
Conclude/Conclusions
\ Estantij/ estentajat
13
Deduce ...
14
Define
15
Derive
\ Eshtaq/ Athbit
16
Athbit alqanoon
17
Describe
18
Determine
19
\ Estantij/ estakhlis
Arrif
Siff
\ Hadded/ Awjed
..... Qarin bayn wa..
This Glossary was compiled by Sameen Ahmed Khan with inputs from all the Physics and
Chemistry Staff of Diploma First Year. It was rendered into Arabic by the Physics Lecturer,
Ms. Ghadah Mohammed Shujaib.
20
Eshtaq bennisbah le
21
Discuss
22
Distinguish between
23
Draw
24
Estimate
25
Explain
26
Eshrah amaleyyat
27
Eshrah intaj
28
29
Express
30
Emlaa alfaragh
31
Awjed almeqdar
32
Formula/Formulae
33
34
Give reasons
35
36
Give/Write examples
37
How many/much
38
Illustrate
39
Infer
\Estadel/ Estantij
40
Law/Laws
\ Qanoon/ Qwaneen
41
42
Mention
43
44
45
Numerical Questions
46
Objective Question
47
Principle
48
Production of
Naqish
\ Farreq/ qarin bayn
Ursum
\ Ehsib/ Qadder
Eshrah
\ Seeghah/seyagh
Min aljadwal attali
49
Properties of
Khasaes
50
Prove that
51
Reduce
52
Represent
53
Rules
54
Select
55
Show that
56
State
\Uktub/ Sarrih
57
Uktub qanoon
58
Subjective Question
Aselah maqaleyyah
59
True or False
Sah aw khata
60
What are
\ Ma/ matha
61
62
Ma estekhdamat
63
Ma almaqsood be
64
65
66
67
68
69
Write in detail
70
71
72
Athbit ann
\ \ Anqis/ekhtazil/ qallil
mathel
Qawaed
Ekhter
\ Athbit/ bayyen ann
differences
Axis
Mehwar
Diagram
Draw
Ursum
Figure
\ Shakl/ soorah
Image
Soorah
Map
Khareetah
Origin
Photograph
Picture
10
Plot
11
Range
Mada
12
Scale
Meqyas
13
Schematic Diagram
Rasm tawdeehi
14
Sketch
Rasm tawdeehi
Mukhatat tawdeehi
Noqtat alasil
Soorah Fotoghrafeyyah
\ Soorah/ Rasm
Ursum bayaneyyan
References
1. Raymond A. Serway and Jerry S. Faughn, College Physics 6th edition, Thomson
Book/Cole (USA 2003).
2. Online Textbooks of the National Council of Educational Research and Training
(NCERT), Delhi, India, http://www.ncert.nic.in/NCERTS/textbook/textbook.htm,
http://www.ncert.nic.in/
3. Online
encyclopedia
of
physics
http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/
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and
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