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A.

Connecters
1. Join the following sentesces. Use and , but , or , so or because as
connecters.
a. The jar is inside a box. The box is inside a bag.
=> The jar is inside a box and the box is inside a bag.
b. Returnable bottles carrying a deposit are often used forty times. Non
returnable bottles are used only once.
Retunable bottles carrying a deposit are often used forty times
but non-returnable bottles are used only once.
c. Glass is valuable. Old glass makes new glass.
=> Glass is valuable because old glass makes new glass.
d. There are two kinds of rubbish. They are both nasty.
=> There are two kinds of rubbish and they are both nasty.
e. Non returnable bottles are used only once. That is waste.
=> Non-retunable bottles are used only once and that is waste.
f. Consumers only want the product. Packaging creates a problem for
them.
=> Consumers only want the product but packaging creates a
problem for them.
g. Packaging that is thrown away is called litter. Manufacturers argue
that it is not their responsibility.
=> Packaging that is thrown away is called litter but manufacturers
argue that it is not their responsibility.
h. Packaging is big business. Everything we buy is wrapped.
=> Packaging is big business and everyhing we buy is wrapped.
2. Join the following sentesces. Use which as connecter. Decide in each
case whether it refers to the whole of the previous sentesces or
clause or only to the last word on noun group before it.
a. There is a product on the market that is sold in a jar. The jar is
inside a box.
=>
b. One kind of rubbish is thrown into dustbins while another is rubbish
thrown anywhere else. This second kind is called litter.
=>
c. Retunable bottles are often used forty or fifty times while nonretunable bottles are used only once. This is waste.
=>
d. The British use 20 million paper bags every day. This may surprice
you.
=>
e. Retunable bottles carry a deposit. This is repaid when the customer
brings the bottle back.
=>
3. Rewrite the fourth paragraph of the passage, using any of the
connecting words mentioned above in Exercises 1-3. You must write

only two sentences. the second sentences should begin Glass is


valuable .
B. Struktural Conversion
1. Compare these sentences:
Manufacturers who defend non-retunable, throw-away bottles,
for example, argue that litter is not their responsibility.
Manufacturers defending non-retunable, throw-away bottles...
Retunable bottles that carry a deposit are often used forty of fifty
times.
Retunable bottles carrying a deposit....
Rewrite the following sentences, replacing the part in italic type with
the present participle (-ing) form.
A. Consemers who buy products are only interested in the contents.
=> Consemers buying product are only interested in the contents.
B. Experts who have studied the problems packaging creates have
realised the seriousness of the problem.
=> Experts studying the problems packaging creates have
realised the seriousness of the problem.
C. The posters that decorate the room were supplied by the British
Travel Association.
=> The posters decorating the room were supplied by the British
Travel Association.
D. People who work for Goverment departements are often over
worked and underpaid.
=> People working for Goverment departement
E. The people who bring problems to them usually think they are
underworked and overpaid.
=> The people bringing problems to them usually think they are
underworked and overpaid.
F. The events that are going to take place tomorrow afternoon will be
televised.
=> The events are go to taking place tomorrow afternoon will be
televisied.
G. The questions that are being raised may affect the smooth
progress of the legislation through parliament.
=> The questinos are be raising may affect the smooth progress
of the legislation through parliament.
H. The man who is being interrogated is suspected of murder.
=> The man is being interrogated is suspected of murder.
2. Compare these sentences:
There is a product on the market that is sold in a jar.
There is a product on the market sold in a jar.
Non returnable bottles, which are used only once, are thrown
away.
Non returnable bottles, used only once, are thrown away.

Rewrite the following sentences, leaving out the words in italic type.
a. Valuable materials that are reclaimed in waste separation and
recycling plants can be used again.
=> Valuable materials reclaimed in waste separation and recycling
plants can be used again.
b. These problems, which are created by packaging, are not admited
by the manufacturers.
=> These problems, created by packaging , are not admited by the
manufacturers.
c. Our standard of living, which is measured at present by
consumption, may one day be measured in terms of rubbish.
=> Our standard of living measured at present by consumption,
may one day be measured in terms of rubbish.
d. Workers who are paid by the hour often find it convenient to do
overtime.
=> Workers paid by the hour often find it convenient to do
overtime.
e. The pyramid of cheops, which was constructed nearly 4000 years
ago, is still an architectural marvel.
=> The pyramid of cheops constructed nearly 4000 years ago, is
still an architectural marvel.
3. Compare these sentences and note the form and word order.
They are both nasty.
Both of them are nasty.
They have all become useless.
All of them have become useless.
Change the construction in each of the following sentences from one
to the other.
a. They are both students.
Both of them are students.
b. All of them work hard.
They all work hard.
c. Both of them can play the piano.
They both can play the piano.
d. They all come to class when there is a test.
All of them to class when there is a test.
e. They were both born in India.
Both of them were born in India.
f. We have all studied this before.
All of we have studied this before.
g. Both of you will have to go.
You will both have to go.
h. All of us will help you.

C. Present and Timeless Time

Complete the following sentences with suitable verbs in the correct


tense. Where more than one form is possible, decide why this is so
and whether it makes any difference to the meaning (in 9 and 10).
1. Manufacturers sometimes . . . . . irresponsibly.
2. What are you doing? Im cooking a cake.
3. I . . . . . always . . . . . colds. Its such a nuisance.
4. I always . . . . . colds when I . . . . . out without a coat.
5. I never understand a word she . . . . .
6. I (negative) . . . . . what you . . . . .about. It (negative) . . . . . sense.
7. He . . . . . a novel while he . . . . . with us. But today he . . . . . a rest.
8. I usually to work by car but I . . . . . the rain this week because my
cars in for a check.
9. He drink's too much. At this rate, hell end up as an alcoholic.
10.
He .. . . . a gay life while his wifes away.
D. Use and omission of the
Study the following. Then complete the exercise below by putting
the in the spaces where it is necessary.
There is a product on the market that 8is sold i8n a jar. The jar is
inside a box.
Packaging is big business.
Valuable materials can be reclaimed from rubbish in waste separation
and recycling plants. That saves time, energy and resources. The public
dont seem to be aware of this. (The) manufacturers dont, either. But
(the) experts have begun to recognise the problems packaging creates.
The British use 20 million paper bags a day.
The blind, the rich, the old.
The Earth, the sun, the Moon.
Mathematics, physics, chemistry, operational research.
Golf, tennis, football.
The violin, the piano, the flute.
The Amazable. the Pyrenees, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, Mount
Everest.
......life in ......modern world is easier in some ways than...... life our
grandparents lived. Advances in......technology have made it more
comfortable. We have only to compare the convenience of......traveling
by.....air to......long, dangerous journeys on......land and on....sea which
were common a hundred years ago. In particular.....medical science has
done a great deal to combat.......disease......terrible problems of

.......childbirth, for example, are almost a thing of....past. But.....life we


lead today has its disadvantages, too....present generation
of.....parents has grown up in...shadow of......atomic bomb and we all
share......growing concern......experts feeel about.....pollution
and......rapid disappearance of......worlds natural resources......modern
parents are worried that..........young, their children, will not inherit.....
perfect world without....war....disease and.....economic hardship
that.....optimists of..... technological revolution prophesied at......turn
of.......century. In..... situation that faces us, its no use.....
playing......fiddle while.....Rome burned, as......Nero did, or
playing.....golf at.......weekend, while..... people starve, which is......
modern equivalent in.....Western society. We have to work together to
build....kind of......future that our children should have....... building it
will probably require.... sacrifice and...... unselfishness on...... part
of...... richer nations of..... world, as well as.... intelligence
and.....ingenuity.
E. Idiomatic Usage
1. Compare the following sentences:
Here comes my daughter now!
Here she comes now!
Now change each of following sentences to the alternative form.
a. There goes Uncle Fred!
=> There he goes.
b. Here comes the bus!
=> Here it comes.
c. Here comes the children!
=> Here they comes
d. There he goes! (the next president)
=> There goes the next president.
e. Here she comes! (The bride)
=> Here comes the bride.
f. There it goes! (my last pound)
=> There goes my last pound.
2. Study these sentences:
My daughters always telling me about the bargains there.
Prices are always going up these days.
We use this form when we want to express annoyance at things
that happen too frequently for our liking and as a reaction
againts advice we have heard too often and do not want to
accept. Make sentences of your own of this type from the
information supplied below.
a. She tells me that Im too fat.
b. My doctors tells me that smoking is ruinning my health.
c. The goverment frequently pust the taxes up.

d. You have an irritating habit of leaving things around for me to


pick up.
e. He often grumbles and it gets on my nervers.
3. Compare these sentences:
I expect she is on her way home with them now.
Shell be on her way home with them now, I expect.
Change the form of the sentences below to the second one listed
above.
a. I suppose hes out having lunch.
b. I imagine theyre at home, watching television.
c. I expect hes in his office.
d. I imagine your parents are wondering where you are.
e. I expect hes in the garden, mowing the lawn.
4. Now compare these sentences:
She ofen spends all morning gossipping with the neighbours.
SheII spend all morning gossipping with the neighbours.
Both forms suggest a habit, but the second may sound more
critical than the first. Convert the following sentences to this
form.
a. They often turn up without an invitation.
b. He often asks me out and then forgets all about it.
c. They often spend all evening together without saying a word
to each other.
d. He often stays out all night and neve tells us where hes been.
e. He often borrows money and doesnt pay it back.
5. Study the context in which the following phrases appear and
decide what they mean-Id run out; thats a bit steep; make both
ends meet; shes keeping well; she only does mornings.