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Volume 2013, Article ID 296185, 8 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/296185

Research Article

On the Kronecker Products and Their Applications

Huamin Zhang1,2 and Feng Ding1

1

Key Laboratory of Advanced Process Control for Light Industry of Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University,

Wuxi 214122, China

2

Department of Mathematics and Physics, Bengbu College, Bengbu 233030, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Feng Ding; fding@jiangnan.edu.cn

Received 10 March 2013; Accepted 6 June 2013

Academic Editor: Song Cen

Copyright 2013 H. Zhang and F. Ding. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution

License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly

cited.

This paper studies the properties of the Kronecker product related to the mixed matrix products, the vector operator, and the vecpermutation matrix and gives several theorems and their proofs. In addition, we establish the relations between the singular values

of two matrices and their Kronecker product and the relations between the determinant, the trace, the rank, and the polynomial

matrix of the Kronecker products.

1. Introduction

The Kronecker product, named after German mathematician

Leopold Kronecker (December 7, 1823December 29, 1891), is

very important in the areas of linear algebra and signal processing. In fact, the Kronecker product should be called the

Zehfuss product because Johann Georg Zehfuss published a

paper in 1858 which contained the well-known determinant

conclusion |A B| = |A| |B| , for square matrices A and B

with order and [1].

The Kronecker product has wide applications in system

theory [25], matrix calculus [69], matrix equations [10, 11],

system identification [1215], and other special fields [16

19]. Steeba and Wilhelm extended the exponential functions

formulas and the trace formulas of the exponential functions

of the Kronecker products [20]. For estimating the upper and

lower dimensions of the ranges of the two well-known linear

transformations T1 (X) = X AXB and T2 (X) = AX

XB, Chuai and Tian established some rank equalities and

inequalities for the Kronecker products [21]. Corresponding

to two different kinds of matrix partition, Koning, Neudecker,

and Wansbeek developed two generalizations of the Kronecker product and two related generalizations of the vector

operator [22]. The Kronecker product has an important role

in the linear matrix equation theory. The solution of the

Sylvester and the Sylvester-like equations is a hotspot research

area. Recently, the innovational and computationally efficient

principle for the generalized Sylvester matrix equations [23

25] and coupled matrix equations [10, 26] were proposed by

Ding and Chen. On the other hand, the iterative algorithms

for the extended Sylvester-conjugate matrix equations were

discussed in [2729]. Other related work is included in [30

32].

This paper establishes a new result about the singular

value of the Kronecker product and gives a definition of the

vec-permutation matrix. In addition, we prove the mixed

products theorem and the conclusions on the vector operator

in a different method.

This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 gives the definition of the Kronecker product. Section 3 lists some properties based on the the mixed products theorem. Section 4

presents some interesting results about the vector operator

and the vec-permutation matrices. Section 5 discusses the

determinant, trace, and rank properties and the properties of

polynomial matrices.

the Kronecker Product

Let F be a field, such as R or C. For any matrices A =

[ ] F and B F , their Kronecker product

is defined by

11 B 12 B 1 B

[ 21 B 22 B 2 B ]

]

[

A B = [ ..

..

.. ]

[ .

.

. ]

[1 B 2 B B]

A B = [ B]

11 B 12 B 1 B

[ 21 B 22 B 2 B ]

[

]

()()

= [ ..

.

..

.. ] F

[ .

]

.

.

[1 B 2 B B]

and the matrix multiplication, we have

(1)

matrices is a diagonal matrix and the Kronecker product of

two upper (lower) triangular matrices is an upper (lower)

triangular matrix. Let A and A denote the transpose and

the Hermitian transpose of matrix A, respectively. I is

an identity matrix with order . The following basic

properties are obvious.

Basic properties as follows:

(1) I A = diag[A, A, . . . , A],

(2) if = [1 , 2 , . . . , ] and = [1 , 2 , . . . , ] , then,

= = F ,

11 I 12 I 1 I

B 0

[ 21 I 22 I 2 I ] [ 0 B

][

[

=[ .

..

.. ] [ .. ..

[ ..

.

. ][. .

[1 I 2 I I ] [ 0 0

0

0]

]

.. ]

d .]

B]

= (A I ) (I B) ,

11 B 12 B 1 B

[ 21 B 22 B 2 B ]

[

]

A B = [ ..

..

.. ]

[ .

.

. ]

[1 B 2 B B]

B

[0

[

= [ ..

[.

[0

0

B

..

. d

0

11 I 12 I 1 I

0

[ 21 I 22 I 2 I ]

0]

]

][

.. ] [ ..

..

.. ]

]

[

.

.

.

. ]

B] [1 I 2 I I ]

= (I B) (A I ) .

A B = [A B].

(3)

From Theorem 1, we have the following corollary.

(5) (A + B) C = A C + B C,

A B = (A I ) (I B) = (I B) (A I ) .

(6) A (B + C) = A B + A C,

(4)

matrices A and B.

(7) A (B C) = (A B) C = A B C,

(8) (A B) = A B ,

products theorem.

(9) (A B) = A B.

Theorem 3. Let A = [ ] F , C = [ ] F , B F ,

and D F . Then

Property 7 shows that A B C is unambiguous.

(A B) (C D) = (AC) (BD) .

Proof. According to Theorem 1, we have

(A B) (C D)

This section discusses the properties based on the mixed

products theorem [6, 33, 34].

Theorem 1. Let A F and B F ; then

= (A I ) (I B) (C I ) (I D)

= (A I ) [(I B) (C I )] (I D)

= (A I ) (C B) (I D)

A B = (A I ) (I B) = (I B) (A I ) .

(2)

= (A I ) [(C I ) (I B)] (I D)

(5)

According to Corollary 4, we have

= [ (AC) I )] [I (BD)]

= (AC) (BD) .

(6)

= 1, 2, . . . .

(7)

= (U W)

Corollary 4. If the following matrix products exist, then one

has

(1) (A1 B1 )(A2 B2 ) (A B ) = (A1 A2 A )

(B1 B2 B ),

(2) (A1 A2 A )(B1 B2 B ) = (A1 B1 )

(A2 B2 ) (A B ),

(3) [AB][] = A[] B[] .

A square matrix A is said to be a normal matrix if and only

if AA = AA. A square matrix A is said to be a unitary

matrix if and only if AA = AA = I. Straightforward

calculation gives the following conclusions [6, 7, 33, 34].

Theorem 5. For any square matrices A and B,

(1) if A1 and B1 exist, then (A B)1 = A1 B1 ,

(2) if A and B are normal matrices, then A B is a normal

matrix,

(3) if A and B are unitary (orthogonal) matrices, then A

B is a unitary (orthogonal) matrix,

Let [A] := { 1 , 2 , . . . , } denote the eigenvalues of A

and let [A] := {1 , 2 , . . . , } denote the nonzero singular

values of A. According to the definition of the eigenvalue and

Theorem 3, we have the following conclusions [34].

Theorem 6. Let A F and B F ; and are positive

integers. Then [A B ] = { | = 1, 2, . . . , , =

[B] = {1 , 2 , . . . , }.

Theorem 3, for any matrices A and B, we have the next

theorem.

Theorem 7. Let A F and B F . If rank[A] = ,

[A] = {1 , 2 , . . . , }, rank[B] = , and [B] =

{1 , 2 , . . . , }, then [A B] = { | = 1, 2, . . . , , =

1, 2, . . . , } = [B A].

Proof. According to the singular value decomposition theorem, there exist the unitary matrices U, V and W, Q which

satisfy

A = U[

0

] V,

0 0

B=[

0

] Q,

0 0

0

0

] V} {W [

] Q}

0 0

0 0

= (U W) {[

A[+1] := A[] A = A A[] ,

A B = {U [

(8)

0

0

][

]} (V Q)

0 0

0 0

(9)

0

] 0]

0 0

(V Q)

0

0]

[ [

[

= (U W) [

0

] (V Q) .

0 0

diag[1 1 , 1 2 , . . . , 1 , . . . , ], this proves the theorem.

According to Theorem 7, we have the next corollary.

Corollary 8. For any matrices A, B, and C, one has [A B

C] = [C B A].

the Vec-Permutation Matrix

In this section, we introduce a vector-valued operator and a

vec-permutation matrix.

Let A = [a1 , a2 , . . . , a ] F , where a F , =

1, 2, . . . , ; then the vector col[A] is defined by

a1

[ a2 ]

[ ]

col [A] := [ .. ] F .

[.]

[ a ]

(10)

(1) (I A)col[B] = col[AB],

(2) (A I )col[C] = col[CAT ].

Proof. Let (B) denote the th column of matrix B; we have

A

[0

[

(I A) col [B] = [ ..

[.

[0

0

A

..

. d

0

(B)1

0

[ (B)2 ]

0]

]

][

.. ] [ .. ]

]

[

. ]

.

A] [(B) ]

A(B)1

(AB)1

[ A(B)2 ] [ (AB)2 ]

] [

]

[

= [ .. ] = [ .. ] = col [AB] .

[ . ] [ . ]

[A(B) ]

[(AB) ]

(11)

Similarly, we have

equivalent; that is,

(A I ) col [C]

11 I 12 I 1 I

(C)1

[ 21 I 22 I 2 I ] [(C)2 ]

][

]

[

=[ .

..

.. ] [ .. ]

]

[ ..

[

. ]

.

.

[1 I 2 I I ] [(C) ]

[

[

=[

[

21 (C)1 + 22 (C)2 + + 2 (C)

..

.

=1 =1

]

]

]

]

(e e ) (e e )

=1 =1

C(A )1

(CA )1

[ C(A ) ] [ (CA ) ]

[

[

2]

2]

]=[

] = col [CA ] .

=[

..

..

] [

]

[

] [

]

[

.

.

C(A

(CA

)

)

[

[

]

]

=1 =1

(12)

(13)

=1 =1

=1 =1

=1 =1

= (C I ) col [AB]

(19)

= [e (e e ) e ]

=1

=1

[

]

= (C I ) (I A) col [B]

= [(C I ) (I A)] col [B]

= [e I e ]

= (C A) col [B] .

=1

(14)

Theorem 10 plays an important role in solving the matrix

equations [25, 3537], system identification [3854], and

control theory [5558].

Let e denote an -dimensional column vector which has

1 in the th position and 0s elsewhere; that is,

e := [0, 0, . . . , 0, 1, 0, . . . , 0] .

e1

]

e2 ]

]

I

[

[I

:= [

,

]R

[ ..

]

[ .

[I e ]

I e1

]

[

]

[

[I e2 ]

=[

]

]

[ ..

]

[ .

[I e ]

= P .

(15)

have the following conclusions.

(16)

(1) P = P ,

(2) P P = P P = I .

(e e ) (e e ) .

=1 =1

= (e e ) (e e )

= [e (e e ) e ]

= (e e ) (e e )

= (e e ) (e e )

(18)

the Kronecker product, we have

(e e ) (e e ) = P .

(17)

5

I e1

basic properties of the Kronecker product, we have

I e1

P P

]

[

]

[

[I e2 ]

=[

]

]

[ ..

]

[ .

[I e ]

= I [e e ]

=1

= I I

= [I e1 , I e2 , . . . , I e ]

= I .

e1 e1 e1 e2 e1 e

(22)

]

[

]

[

[ e2 e1 e2 e2 e2 e ]

=[

]

]

[

..

..

..

]

[

.

.

.

[e e1 e e2 e e ]

Theorem 12. If A F and B F , then one has P (A

B)P = B A.

e1 e1 e2 e1 e e1

]

[

]

[

[ e1 e2 e2 e2 e e2 ]

=[

]

]

[

..

..

..

]

[

.

.

.

e

e

e

e

[ 1

2

B1

B2

..

[ B ]

1, 2, . . . , , and = 1, 2, . . . , . According to the definition of

P and the Kronecker product, we have

I e1

P (A B) P

]

[

]

[

[ I e2 ]

=[

]

]

[

..

]

[

.

[I e ]

= P ,

(20)

I e1

[

]

[

]

[ I e ]

=[

1

2

[

]

..

[

]

.

[

]

[I e ]

(A)1 B1 (A)2 B1 (A) B1

[ (A)1 B2 (A)2 B2 (A) B2 ]

]

[

=[

] P

..

..

..

]

[

.

.

.

P P

I e1

]

[

]

[

[I e2 ]

=[

] [I e1 , I e2 , . . . , I e ]

]

[ ..

]

[ .

e

I

[

]

I (e1 e1 ) I (e1 e2 ) I (e1 e )

[

]

[

]

[I (e e ) I (e e ) I (e e )]

2 1

2 2

2 ]

=[

[

]

..

..

..

[

]

.

.

.

[

]

(e

e

)

I

(e

e

)

(e

e

)

1

2

]

[

I 0

[ 0 I

[

= [ .. ..

[. . d

[ 0 0

[

]

[

]

[I e2 ]

= [I e1 , I e2 , . . . , I e ] [

]

[ ..

]

[ .

]

[I e ]

0

0]

]

.. ]

.]

A B1

[ A B2 ]

]

[

= [ . ] [I e1 , I e2 , . . . , I e ]

[ .. ]

[A B ]

A11 A12 A1

[ A21 A22 A2 ]

]

[

=[ .

..

.. ]

[ ..

.

. ]

[A1 A2 A ]

= B A.

(23)

I ]

= I ,

(21)

B A = P (A B) P = P [(A B) P2 ] P . (24)

That is, [B A] = [(A B)P2 ]. When A F and

B F , one has B A = P (A B)P . That is, if A and B

are square matrices, then A B is similar to B A.

Matrix of the Kronecker Product

In this section, we discuss the properties [6, 7, 34] of the

determinant, the trace, the rank, and the polynomial matrix

of the Kronecker product.

For A F and B F , we have |AB| = |A| |B| =

|B A|. If A and B are two square matrices, then we have

tr[A B] = tr[A] tr[B] = tr[B A]. For any matrices A and

B, we have rank[A B] = rank[A] rank[B] = rank[B A].

According to these scalar properties, we have the following

theorems.

Theorem 15. (1) Let A, C F

and B, D F

(25)

and :

(, ) = ,

,=1

(A, B) by the formula

(A, B) = A B .

(34)

{ 1 , 2 , . . . , } and [B] = {1 , 2 , . . . , }, then the matrix

(A, B) has the eigenvalues

= 1, 2, . . . , , = 1, 2, . . . , .

(35)

(I A) = I (A),

(A I ) = (A) I .

(27)

sum [7, 34]. The Kronecker sum of A F and B F ,

denoted as A B, is defined by

A B = A I + I B.

Theorem 19. Let A F , and B F . Then

exp[A B] = exp[A] exp[B],

(28)

cos(A B) = cos(A) cos(B) sin(A) sin(B).

6. Conclusions

(29)

rank [ (A, B)] = (rank [A] , rank [B]) .

(33)

function and (A) exists, then

. Then

, , F,

(26)

A[] B[] , where , are positive integers, one has the following

conclusions.

1

|B| .

(A, B) = |A|

(32)

,=1

rank [(A B) (C D)] = rank [(AC) (BD)]

= 1, 2, . . . , .

=1

= tr [CA] tr [DB] .

and B F

( ) = ,

( , ) = ,

(1) Let A F

are

[34].

= |AC| |BD| .

= tr [AC] tr [BD]

(31)

=1

. Then

(A) = A

,=1

If [A] = { 1 , 2 , . . . , } and () = =1 is a

polynomial, then the eigenvalues of

(30)

products and the vec-permutation matrix. A new presentation about the properties of the mixed products and the

vector operator is given. All these obtained conclusions make

the theory of the Kronecker product more complete.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science

Foundation of China (no. 61273194), the 111 Project (B12018),

and the PAPD of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.

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