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Date: 12.03.

2010
WTG: VENSYS 77
Rated power 1500 kW
Cut-in wind speed: 3,0 m/s
Cut-out wind speed: 22,0 m/s
Wind speed at hub heigt: (10 min average)
Rotor blade: LM37.3p
Rotor diameter 77.1 m
Main supply 690 VAC

About the Vensys Direct Torque Control System (DTC) and its performances
The WTGs manufactured by Vensys are equipped with DTC to control both rotor flux R and the
electromagnetic torque Te. Where Te will be given as an output from the UDC-Control loop. Further the DTC
will be able to assure a high power factor by controlling the reactive power. As there are many types of drive
control, the applied principle in the AR is Direct-Torque-Control (DTC) without position sensors. It stands in
contrast to the widely applied Vector Control which had been first presented in 1968 by K. Hasse, Darmstadt,
Germany. The DTC was invented in 1985 by Manfred Depenbrock who at that time worked at Brown, Boveri
& Cie (BBC), Mannheim, Germany, and who was the team leader of Vensys Research Team till 2001From a
historic point of view, DTC has been implemented in WTG area very late, by Vestas (1994, prototype) and in
Germany by Vensys in 1997.
Features of DTC are:
Stator flux and electromagnetic Torque are controlled directly
Reduced torque oscillations (claimed)
Excellent torque dynamics (claimed)
No fixed switching frequency
Reduced number of switching actions
No coordinate transformations needed

For internal use Only

Fig. 1.4. Vensys Block structure of the rotor-side frequency converter controlled by modified DTC with active
crowbar

VENSYS Elektrotechnik GmbH Dieselstrae 12 49 356 Diepholz Phone: (+49) 5441 92630-0 fax: (+49) 5441 92630-11

The reason for choosing this specific type of controller was the ability to control the generator with a high
pole-number in speed-sensorless operation as this requires highly developed estimation methods in drive
control. Both, vector control and DTC rely on a space-phasor model of an electric machine. In space phasor
theory the three stator phases are being transformed into a model with two phases. Applying the right
equations the controlled parameters _R and Te can be estimated by measuring generator phase voltages and
phase currents. Most common for DTC schemes is a tolerance-band control that will point the error value to a
look up table. From that on the references and real values are compared. As for example the flux can be a
function of the voltage, the right voltage vector is chosen out of the table. According to various control
schemes there can be a variety of look-up tables in such DTC drives.
The DTC give an ability of the WYG to remain connected to the electric power system and run at mechanical
speed close to the speed corresponding to the actual system frequency after being subjected to a
disturbance.

Voltage vectors of a 6-pulse inverter

Possible switching sequence

The Reactive Power Compensation Scheme


A 110/35 kV transformer transfers the power from the wind farm to the grid and is equipped with an on-load
tap changer with >10 steps to be able to control voltage between 90% and 110% at the wind farm step-up
substation. The Vensys transformer rating is more than sufficient to transfer full power from the wind farm and
is considered to have sufficient capability to maintain required voltage level. A set of shunt capacitors have to
be installed at the 35 kV bus-bar at the wind farm step-up substation, a 4.012 MVar appears to be the
common practice for a 15 MW wind farm reactive power compensation scheme in a local grid of 110 kV.
We presume that the wind farm will have some impact on the voltage regulation of the grid connection station.
According to the load flow result presented in the many other reports, the wind farm can not be running at
lagging power factor when the voltage at the grid connection substation reaches maximum, and can not be
running at the leading power factor when the voltage at the grid connection substation reaches minimum. It is
also reported under certain circumstance, some WTG units may have to be disconnected due to voltage
limits. However, such scenarios are expected to be avoided by introducing active network management
during wind farm operation. Furthermore, with proper control of the shunt capacitors and wind turbines, it is
also practical to achieve the desired power factor in order to minimize the impact on the system voltage.
The dynamic simulation flow in the power system simulation tool PSS/E is presented in Fig. 7.6. As depicted
in the figure, the dynamic simulation is started by incorporating the dynamic model data into the simulator:
The Vensys DTC System have a dc-link braking resistor, which is also known as a dc-link chopper, is
provided in the dc-link bus to dissipate excess energy in the dc-link capacitor during a grid fault. The
arrangement consists of a resistor and an electronic switch, usually an IGBT. Several units of dc-link braking
resistors can be arranged in parallel to increase energy dissipation capacity. A further description of the dclink braking resistor can be found in section 7.7.1 where its application in a full power converter wind turbine is
discussed.

VENSYS Elektrotechnik GmbH Dieselstrae 12 49 356 Diepholz Phone: (+49) 5441 92630-0 fax: (+49) 5441 92630-11

For internal use Only

The wind farm dynamics can be clearly seen in the interface feeder measurement due to the following
conditions:
No influential dynamics of the load occurred during the fault, i.e. the load can be treated as a constant
impedance.
The line impedance connecting the wind farm to the substation is relatively small.
Therefore the influence of the load current response on the voltage at the point
of measurement is marginal.

Fig. 7.6. Active and reactive power responses of fifth-order induction generator model and two-mass drive
train model without mechanical damping (black) compared with measurement data (grey)
A long-term voltage stability study for DTC System applied on Vensys 77 WTG has give an induction
generator model with a bottom limit for a fixed-speed wind turbine model to be used for a stability study:

Fig. 7.7. Active and reactive power responses for Vensys 77 with DTC
The long term frequency stability studies had give us a value for temporary frequency deviation of maximum
5% with a medium wind power penetration (less than 20%).
There is a slight diference in the magnitude of active power between the simulation and the measurement
data at the substation feeder measurement point after t = 1.4 s This is because a constant mechanical input
power was assumed in the model, while in reality there may be power fluctuations due to variations in wind
speed. The slight difference in oscillation frequency was likely due to inaccurate mechanical parameters used
in the simulation. The dynamics of the load may also contribute to this discrepancy, although not significantly.

For internal use Only

There is a good accordance between the measured and the simulated reactive power, despite a small shift in
the reactive power after the disturbance. This shift could be due to the disconnection of some compensating
capacitors as a result of the disturbance. However, this event was not recorded, so it is not possible to
confirm this supposition. 50 Hz oscillations are apparent in the active and reactive power output due to the
presence of a dc-offset in the voltage measurement data.
From our experience all Vensys wind farms are properly connected to the power grids, and there is no major
constraint identified regarding the power output from the wind farms to the grid connection substations. All

VENSYS Elektrotechnik GmbH Dieselstrae 12 49 356 Diepholz Phone: (+49) 5441 92630-0 fax: (+49) 5441 92630-11

equipment is rated appropriately, and the reactive power compensation schemes are sufficient to provide
necessary support to maintain voltage level and power factor correction.

Fig. 9.0. Voltage sensitivity of PQ curve for Vensys 77 WTG

For internal use Only


VENSYS Elektrotechnik GmbH Dieselstrae 12 49 356 Diepholz Phone: (+49) 5441 92630-0 fax: (+49) 5441 92630-11

Fig. 9.5. Reactive power compensation & APFC at 50/150 kVar & 175KVAR

Table 10.1. Diagram of Measured Generator Efficiency (%)

Net Power Factor after compensation :


100%
0.97

75%
0.99

50%
0.99

25%
1

Bibliography
General Specification Vensys77 - 1.50 MW Vers. I & II, Vensys, Jan. 2005.
A. D. Hansen, P. Srensen, F. Blaabjerg, and J. Bech, Dynamic modelling of wind farm grid
interaction,"Wind Engineering", vol. 26, Issue 4, 2002, pp. 191-208.
Siemens Power Generation, Available online: http://www.powergeneration.siemens.com, accessed June
2008, Siemens A.G.

VENSYS Elektrotechnik GmbH Dieselstrae 12 49 356 Diepholz Phone: (+49) 5441 92630-0 fax: (+49) 5441 92630-11

For internal use Only

Anca D. Hansen and Gabriele Michalke, Fault ride-through capability of DFIG wind turbines, Renewable
Energy, Volume 32, Issue 9, July 2007, pp. 1594-1610.

Dynamic Response to Voltage Sags


This section has the objective to briefly describes the dynamical behaviour of Vensys 77 WTG to symmetrical
voltage sags. It is assumed that the converter is large enough to handle excess currents. This has been done
in order to study the behaviour of DFIG and not the influence of the converter. Still, the rotor voltage in the
simulations is, anyhow, limited to 1 p.u. In Fig. 3.4. a diagram of a symmetrical voltage sag (at 0.05 s) down
to 0.25 p.u. can be seen. For more details of dynamic modeling of the DFIG see [8]. Before the voltage sag
the DFIG is running at rated power and a rotor speed of 1.3 p.u. The dc-link capacitor was chosen to be 0.5 F.
The duration of the voltage sag in this simulation is 102 ms and 92 ms.

Fig. 3.4. Maximum rotor current and dc-link voltage for three different operating conditions. Solid line corresponds to rated
power and a rotor speed of 1.3 p.u. Dotted line corresponds to 23% of rated power and a rotor speed of 1.0 p.u. Dashed
line corresponds to 11% of rated power and a rotor speed of 0.7 p.u.
a) Maximum rotor current.
b) Maximum dc-link voltage.

For internal use Only

Fig. 3.5. Maximum rotor current and dc-link voltage for three different operating conditions with returning voltage at the
worst instance around 50 ms. Solid line corresponds to rated power and a rotor speed of 1.3 p.u. Dotted line corresponds

VENSYS Elektrotechnik GmbH Dieselstrae 12 49 356 Diepholz Phone: (+49) 5441 92630-0 fax: (+49) 5441 92630-11

to 23% of rated power and a rotor speed of 1.0 p.u. Dashed line corresponds to 11% of rated power and a rotor speed of
0.7 p.u.
a) Maximum rotor current.
b) Maximum dc-link voltage.

Dip.-Ing. J. Herbrandt
Expert in Charge

Dip.-Ing. F. Santjer
Head of Electrical System Group

For internal use Only

VENSYS Elektrotechnik GmbH Dieselstrae 12 49 356 Diepholz Phone: (+49) 5441 92630-0 fax: (+49) 5441 92630-11