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ChennaiPetroleumCorporationLimited

(AGroupcompanyofIndianOil)

Refining Process, Refinery Configuration


& Design Aspects

Slide1

PRESENTATION PLAN
REFINERY PROCESSES
REFINERY CONFIGURATION
PROJECT DESIGN ASPECTS

Slide2

REFINERY PROCESS - Overview


STEPS IN REFINING PROCESS
SEPARATION PROCESS
CONVERSION PROCESS
FINISHING

Slide3

REFINERY PROCESSING STEPS


Crude oil
Objective

Examples

Separation

Breaking up a
mixture into its
components

Distillation/
fractionation
Extraction

Finishing

Conversion
- Fundamentally changing
the chemical structure
of a product by:
Breaking down
molecules
Combining
molecules
Rearranging
structure

Coking
Cracking
Alkylation (combining)
Isomerization
(rearranging)

Improving the
qualities of
products by:
Blending products
of different
qualities to get an
optimal mix
Treating products
(typically with
hydrogen) to
remove impurities
Gasoline blending
Hydro-treating

Slide4

SEPARATION PROCESS

Slide5

DISTILLATION COLUMN

Slide6

DISTILLATION PRINCIPLE
Separation of components from a liquid/vapor mixture via
distillation:
Depends on the differences in boiling points of the
individual components
Depends on the concentrations of the components
present
Hence, distillation processes depends on the vapour pressure
characteristics of liquid mixtures.

Slide7

DEW POINT , BUBBLE POINT AND RELATIVE VOLATILITY


The Dew-point is the temperature at which the
saturated vapour starts to condense.
The Bubble-point is the temperature at which the liquid
starts to boil.
Relative volatility is a measure of the differences in
volatility between 2 components, and hence their boiling
points. It indicates how easy or difficult a particular
separation will be.

Slide8

MAIN COMPONENTS OF DISTILLATION


Column
Column internals
Trays
Packing

Reboiler
Condenser
Reflux Drum

Slide9

OPERATING VARIABLES
Temperature
Pressure
Draw off and reflux rates
Pump around
Stripping steam rate

Slide10

CRUDE- FEED PREPARATION


Effect of Bottom, Sediments & Water:

Deteriorates equipment performance


Shorter run length
High Energy Consumption
This can be achieved only by proper feed preparation.
Impurities in crude:

Inorganic salts
Acids
Desalting helps to remove these impurities

Slide11

PREHEAT TRAINS & FURNACE


Pre-heat trains:
Utilize the heat available in the products and PA
Reduces the fuel consumption in the furnace

Furnace:
Natural draft
Forced Draft
Balanced Draft

Slide12

ATMOSPHERIC DISTILLATION

Slide13

VACUUM DISTILLATION

Slide14

VACUUM DISTILLATION

Vacuum distillation can improve a separation by:


Prevention of product degradation
Reduced mean residence time especially in columns using packing
rather than trays.
Increasing capacity, yield, and purity.
Reduced capital cost, at the expense of slightly more operating cost.

Slide15

CRUDE DESALTER

Slide16

CRUDE FURNACE

Slide17

CRUDE ATMOSPHERIC COLUMN

Slide18

Lube Oil Base Stocks

SPINDLE
LIGHT NEUTRAL
INTERMEDIATE NEUTRAL
500 NEUTRAL
HEAVY NEUTRAL
BRIGHT STOCK

Slide19

LUBE PROPERTIES
Properties /
Components

Viscosity

Viscosity
Index

Pour Point

Paraffins

Low

High

High

Naphthenes

Medium

Medium

Medium

Aromatics

High

Low

Low

Slide20

LUBE PROCESSING STAGES


S.NO

PROCESS

Vacuum Distillation

Solvent Extraction/

Solvent Dewaxing / IsoDewaxing


Hydrofinishing

PROPERTY
CONTROL
Viscosity,
Flash Point
Viscosity Index
Pour Point
Colour / Oxidation
Stability

Slide21

LUBE PROCESSING BLOCK


Crude

Furfural
Extraction
Unit

Atm.Distl
Column

Extract

Raffinate

RCO

Vacuum
Distillatn
Column

DWO

Lube
HyFi
Unit

LOBS

NMP
Extraction
Unit

Vac. Distl

DAO

Vac.
Residue

MEK
Dewax
Unit

PDA
Unit

Extract

Slack Wax

Pitch
Slide22

WAX PROCESSING
INERT GAS
NH3
REFRIGERATION

FILTERS

FEED

SOLVENT
RECOVERY
FROM WAX

HY.FI
UNIT

PRODUCT
STORAGE

CHILLING

SOLVENT
RECOVERY
FROM
FOOTS OIL

DEOILED WAX
STORAGE

FOOTS OIL

Slide23

CONVERSION AND TREATING PROCESS

Slide24

CONVERSION AND TREATING PROCESS

Conversion Process:
Thermal processes
Catalytic processes

Treating Process
Catalytic processes
Chemical treating process

Slide25

THERMAL (VISBREAKER UNIT)

Mildthermaldecomposition(visbreaking)
Reductionofviscosity&pourpointoffeed
DesirableReaction Cracking
Somepolymerizationcondensationreactionalsooccurs
Cokeformation

Slide26

THERMAL (VISBREAKER UNIT)


GAS

0.95 kg/cm2
160 c

GAS

96 c

9.8 kg/cm2

39
26

210 c

Stabiliser

STABNAPHTHA

GO

STEAM

130 c
426 c

25 mmhg

GAS+SLOPS

7.7 kg/cm2
LVGO

300 c

HVGO

380 c

VISBREAKER

440 c

FEED

HEATER

STEAM

SOAKER

FRACTIONATOR

300 c

VACUUM
FLASHED
CRACKED

VACUUM RESIDUE
FLASHER
Slide27

(Thermal) Delayed coking

Slide28

CATALYTIC (REACTORS)
Reactor Design
Better performance and operational flexibility can be
achieved:
Choice of catalyst
Choice of feed
Operating conditions
Reactor configuration
Synergy with other units
Better internals
Slide29

REACTOR INTERNALS
Inletnozzle
Distributornozzle

Debrisbasket

Catalyst

Alumina
balls

Catalystunloading
nozzle
Outletnozzle

Screen

Slide30

REACTOR INTERNALS
Inletnozzle
Distributornozzle

Debrisbasket

Catalyst

Alumina
balls

Quench
Catalyst

Catalystunloading
nozzle
Outletnozzle

Screen

Slide31

CATALYTICREFORMING
CHEMISTRY:
Dehydrogenation
Isomerisation
Dehydro cyclization
Hydrocracking

Slide32

CATALYTICREFORMING
DEHYDROGENATION:
C7H14
Methylcyclohexane

RON:

73.8

>C7H8+3H2
Toluene

119.7

ReactionishighlyEndothermic
Promotedbylowpressureandhightemperature
Occuronmetalsite(Platinum)
FastestreactioninReforming
Slide33

CATALYTICREFORMING
ISOMERISATION:
Naphthene

Naphthene

Aromatic

Methy Cyclo Pentane


RON - 89.3

+
Cyclo Hexane
RON - 110

3H2

Benzene
RON - 120

Reaction is mildly Exothermic


Occur on acid site(Al2O3 and HCL)
Second fastest reaction in Reforming.

Slide34

CATALYTICREFORMING
DEHYDROCYCLISATION:
Paraffin

Aromatic

-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-

RON

n-Heptane
0.0

3H2

Toluene
119.7

Reaction is Endothermic
Promoted by low pressure and high temperature
Occur on acid and metal site
Slowest reaction in Reforming
Slide35

Naphtha Hydrotreating & Cat. Reforming

Naphtha
Impurities: S,N,
Metals
Risk of poisoning
CCR catalyst

Naphtha
Hydrotreating

Hydro treated
Naphtha
Impurities:
Nil or low
No Risk of
poisoning
CCR catalyst

Reformate
High Octane
Number: 102

Hydrogen
Rich gas

Low octane
number
Continuous
Catalytic
Reforming

Slide36

NHT CCR

Slide37

CCR REACTOR-REGENERATOR

Slide38

NHT ISOM
NHT Section - Main reactions
Hydrorefining reactions
removal of impurities
Desulfurization
Denitrification
Hydrogenation reactions
saturation of the olefins and diolefins
Demetallation reactions
removal of metallic impurities

ISOM Section - Main reactions


Benzene hydrogenation to form cyclohexane
Isomerization (eg. N-pentane to i-pentane)

Slide39

NHT ISOM

C16

LPG Product
C29

Heavy Isomerate

LPG Separator

C22

Deisohexanizer

Light Isomerate
Storage

Isom
Stabilizer

C19

C17

C13

Heart cut Naphtha


Splitter

K1A/B
Make-up H2 compressor

R3

Recycled H2
To R1

C4
NHDT Stripper

Second Isomerization
Reactor

R4

NHDT
Separator

Feed Dryer

Feed
Heater

K2 A/B

H2 Dryer

Surge Drum

C2

LPG Stripper

Feed
Naphtha

F1
HDS Reactor

C1

R2

First
Isomerization
Reactor

Diene Reactor

R1

To FCC
C5/C7+ Cut
C30

To Isomerate Storage

Slide40

HYDROCRACKER BLOCK
Reaction Chemistry
Hydro-treating Reactions
a) Demetallization
b) Desulfurization
c) Denitrification
d) Olefins Saturation
e) Aromatics Saturation
Hydrocracking Reactions
CnH2n+2

+ (x-1) H2

Catalyst (Ni3S2)

x C n/xH2n/x +2

+ Heat

Slide41

HYDROCRACKER
Recycle gas
compressor
(RGC)

Make-up H2.

VGO
feed

from HGU

Quench
H2

Recycle gas

Feed
preheating
and
filtration

Make-up H2

Amine
treating

Furnace

Gas

Make-up H2
compressor

Reactors

HP

172.5 Kg/cm2

gas separator

3780C

Liquid hydrocarbon

Off-gas to PSA
(for
H2 recovery)

LP
gas separator

Fuel gas (to header)

Light end
recovery
section

Lighter hydrocarbons

Product

LPG (to storage)


Light Naphtha (to MS pool / HGU)
Heavy Naphtha (to Diesel pool / CRU)

Lighter hydrocarbons

stripper
Heavier
hydrocarbons

3600C

Furnace

Kerosene / ATF

Fractionator
Diesel..
UCO (to FCCU)

Slide42

CPCL HYDRO CRACKER

Slide43

Products to
Main Column

FLUIDCATALYTICCRACKINGUNIT
Flue
Gas
680C

Reactor
500C
Flue Gas
Slide Valve

Stripping
Steam
Regenerator
650C

Spent Catalyst
Slide Valve

Air
43000
nm3/hr

Regenerated Catalyst
Slide Valve
Catalyst circulation
10 MT/min

Raw OiL
120 m3/hr
370C

Slide44

FINISHING PROCESS

Slide45

DHDT UNIT (Hydrodesulphurization)

Slide46

DHDT REACTOR

Parameters

SOR

EOR

Reactor Inlet Pressure, kg/cm2g

77.7

79.6

Reactor Inlet Temp, C

331

375

Reactor Outlet Temp., C

351

388

Reactor Outlet Pressure,


kg/cm2g

75.0

75.0

Reactor

Dimensions

Height,m

31.3

Width,m

4.4

Slide47

SULFUR RECOVERY UNIT


Chemical Reactions
Step 1:
H2S + 1 O2 SO2 + H2O + Heat
Step 2:
2H2S + SO2 3/n Sn + 2 H2O + Heat
Overall reaction of Claus Process
3H2S + 1 O2 3/ n Sn + 3 H2O + Heat

Slide48

Sulphur Recovery Block

Sulphur Recovery Unit

Lean amine
Tail Gas
Treating

Thermal
Converter

Acid Gas

rich amine to ARU

Amine
Regn.
(ARU)

rich amine from


process units
lean amine

Catalytic
Converters
Sulphur

2-stage
SWS
Unit

Sour water from


process units
stripped
water

Slide49

CPCL SRU

Slide50

PRESENTATION PLAN
1.

REFINERY PROCESSES

2.

REFINERY CONFIGURATION

3.

PROJECT DESIGN ASPECTS

Slide51

Refinery Configuration
Key Considerations & Available Options

Slide52

A TYPICAL REFINERY CONFIGURATION


GAS
CRUDE
OIL
STORAGE

Ref.Fuel
GasSystem

Amine
Treating

LPG

Amine
Regeneration

Amine/Merox
Treating

Atmospheric
Distillation

Naphtha(4590C)

Naphtha
Splitter

Sulphur
Recovery

H2

HexanePlant
Hydrogen
Generation

Naphtha(90130C)

MS

Hydrogen(H2)
NAPHTHA
Catalytic
Reforming

HY.NAP
ATF

PROPYLENE
PBFS/MEKFS

HEXANE

Isomerate

NHT/ISOM
LT.NAP

LPG

Reformate
ATF

ATFTreating

SK
Diesel

SK
DHDS/DHDT

Long
Residue

H2

LUBEDistillates

Extraction

Dewaxing

LUBEOIL
BASESTOCKS

Short
Residue

VGO

LCO/HCO

VBVGO/HCGO

CokerNaphtha

VBNaphtha

LPG
Treating

LPG

FO

Propylene
Recovery

FCCU
MeroxTreating

Cracked
Gasoline

ASPHALT

SULPHUR
Visbreaking
Biturox Unit

DelayedCoking
LCGO

PARAFFIN
WAX

Hydrocracker

LCGO/VBGasOil

Vacuum
Distillation

WaxDeoiling&WaxHydrofinishing

UCO

DIESEL

LubeHDT

HCGO

COKE

Slide53

Global Economic Downturn & Recovery

Slide54

Global Oil Outlook

Slide55

India - Net Oil Import Dependence

Reference: IEA WEO 2009

Slide56

Projects Classification

Slide57

Drivers for New Projects Identification


Supply Demand Balance
Change in the market scenario
Impact of products Slate / demand (Zero FO export, Dieselization,
etc.)
Stringent Product Specifications
Environmental improvement / regulations
Profitability through capacity expansion
Diversification into new areas
Achieving overall economics of scale in operations
Slide58

Impact of Product Demand


Global Product Demand 2009 to 2030

Reference: OPEC WOO 2010

Slide59

Stringent Product Specifications


GASOLINE

Euro-III

Euro-IV

Euro-V

Sulphur, ppm

500

150

50

10

RON, min

88

91

91

95

MON, min

81

81

85

RVP (max), Kpa

60

60

60

60

Benzene (max), vol%

5/3

42

35

35

21

21

18

Euro-III

Euro-IV

Euro-V

Aromatics (max), vol%


Olefins (max), vol%
DIESEL
Sulphur, ppm

500

350

50

10

Cetane Number

48

51

51

51

95% recovery, C

370

360

360

360

35

35

60

Flash Point (Abel), C

Product Spec Changes Mean More Complex Refineries


Slide60

Drivers for Revamp Projects Identification


Capacity Expansion
Quality Improvement of products
New Technology Implementation

Slide61

Crude Feed Selection


High Sulphur Crudes (Dubai-Brent crude spread)
Heavy Crudes
High TAN crude
High nitrogenous / mercuric crude
Tar Sands, Oil Shales

Slide62

Trend in Crude Processing


Heavy/Sour Crudes
Over half of worlds oil supply is heavy & sour crude
New refineries built with capability to handle heavy crudes.
Marker Crude Dubai rose higher than Brent in Dec 08 due to
Rise in demand for sour crude
OPEC production cuts, etc.

Not only is sour crude seeing more demand growth, it also


outstrips light, sweet crude in production growth.
Share of sour, heavy crude is likely to increase vis-a-vis light,
sweet crude.
Slide63

Processing of Opportunity Crudes


High TAN Crudes

The Total Acid Number (TAN) is the amount of potassium hydroxide in


milligrams that is needed to neutralize the acids in one gram of oil

TAN >1.0 leads to NAC (naphthenic acid corrosion)

Share of High TAN crude in overall oil production


Current - 20%
In next five years - 25%

Acidic Crudes Characteristics


Yield low S Gas Oil
Low Cetane value

Handling of Acidic Crudes


Blending with non-acidic crudes & Specialized Metallurgy & Chemical
Injection for corrosion abatement

E.g.) Penglai (Australian), Duri (Indonesian), Marlim (Latin America), etc.


Slide64

Processing of Opportunity Crudes


High Pour Crudes
High Pour Crudes need to be blended with normal crude for
pipeline transportation.
Pricing benchmark of these crudes need to be considered for
economic viability.
Processing of high pour crudes also require Coker facilities
within the refinery.
For example: Handil (Indonesian), Rajasthan crude

Slide65

Types of Refineries
Topping Refinery
Skimming Refinery
Cracking (hydro/catalytic) Refinery
Coking refinery
Integrated Refinery
Lube Refinery
Slide66

Processing Units in Oil Refineries


Primary Processing Units
Distillation
Blending

Secondary Processing Units

Catalytic Cracking
Hydro-cracking
Catalytic Reforming
Isomerization / Alkylation, etc

Bottom Upgradation Units


Visbreaking
Delayed Coking

Treating Units
Hydrotreating

Slide67

BORL Configuration, Bina, M.P

Units

Capacity (MMTPA)

Crude / Vacuum Distillation Unit


(65% Arab Light and 35% Arab Heavy)
Full Conversion Hydrocracker
Diesel Hydrotreater
Delayed Coker Unit
Hydrogen Unit
Naphtha Hydrotreater
CCR Reformer Unit

1.95
1.63
1.36
0.07
1.0
0.5

Isomerization Unit

0.3

Sulphur Recovery Unit

6.0

2 x 180 MTPD

Slide68

Refinery Configurations
Cases Studied
S.No

SECONDARYUNITS

RESIDUNITS

VGOHDT+PetroFCC

DCU

OHCU+ConvFCC

DCU

FullConv.HCU+DHT(Integrated)

DCU

VGOHDT+PetroFCC

SDA+SlurryHCU
(50%DAO)

OHCU+PetroFCC

SDA+SlurryHCU
(50%DAO)

FullConversionHCU

SDA+SlurryHCU
(50%DAO)

ConventionalFCC

DCU

FullconversionHCU

DCU

VGOHDT+PetroFCC

SDA+SlurryHCU
(60%DAO)

10

OHCU+PetroFCC

SDA+SlurryHCU
(60%DAO)

11

FullconversionHCU

SDA+SlurryHCU
(60%DAO)

Slide69

Sample Block - VGO HT + PFCC + DCU


LPG
ALKYLATION
PPU
POLYPROPYL
ENE
NHT/CCR/ISOM
EuroIV
GASOLINE
CDU/
VDU

EuroV
GASOLINE

DHT
VGO
HDT

KERO

EuroIV
GASOIL

DCU

EuroV
GASOIL

FCCPC
FCCNap.Splitter

BITUMEN
COKE

Slide70

Sample Block - FC HCU + DHDT + Slurry HCU


LPG
ALKYLATION

NHT/CCR/ISOM
EuroIV
GASOLINE
CDU/
VDU
DHT

EuroV
GASOLINE

KERO

EuroIV
GASOIL
HCU

SDA

Slurry
HCU

EuroV
GASOIL

BITUMEN
COKE

Slide71

Refinery Power & Utilities

Raw water & Drinking water system


Compressed air system
Fuel gas system
Fuel oil system
Condensate Recovery system
Nitrogen System
Cooling towers
DM water treatment plants
Generation & Distribution of steam
Generation & Distribution of Power
Flare system
Slide72

Slide73

Refinery IntegrationBenefits
Supply

Processing
Treating

Products

Distribution

Environmental
Concerns

Asset
Utilization

Slide74

Integration with Petrochemicals


Petrochemical Sector: 13% annual growth projected
Major Petrochemicals : Ethylene, Propylene, Butadiene, PVC, HDPE, BTX, etc.

Crude Oil
Associated Gas
Ethane

LPG

Naphtha

Methane

Olefins

Ethylene Propylene

Naphtha

Aromatics

C4s

PyGas

Benzene Toluene Xylene

Slide75

Integration with Petrochemicals


Cases Studied
Case-1: VGO HDT, FCC-PC, DCU, AC and PC
Case-2: OHCU, FCC-PC, DCU,AC and PC
Case-3: OHCU, DCU, AC and PC (in this case OHCU bottoms are
routed to Naphtha Cracker)
Case-4: VGO HDT, FCC-PC, LC Fining, AC and PC
Case-5: Part MRDS, DCU, FCC-PC, AC, and PC
Slide76

Integrated Refinery with Aromatics complex


HY.
CDU / FCCU /
OHCU / DCU

LT. REFORMATE

NAPHTHA

HEAVY NAPHTHA
HDT

SULFOLANE EXTRACTION UNIT


BENZENE TOLUENE EXTRACTION

REFORMER
SPLITTER

CCR

BENZENE

340 TMT

TRANS ALKYLATION
HY. REFORMATE

XYLENE FRACTIONATION UNIT


XYLENE ISOMERISATION

PARA XYLENE 800 TMT

PARA XYLENE SEPARATION


Slide77

Integrated Refinery with Petrochemical Block


VGO
Vac. GASOILS /
Crk. GASOILS

Syn. Diesel/

DHDT

Naphtha

UNIT

ETHYLENE
CRACKER
UNIT

CPCL NAPHTHA
ETHYLENE
SWING UNIT

PART DIESEL
FROM DHDT
HY. NAPHTHA
FCC OFF GAS
PROPYLENE
668 TMT

1200 TMTPA
LLDPE / HDPE
362 TMT

HDPE UNIT

HDPE
400 TMT

MEG UNIT

MEG
700 TMT
DEG
135 TMT
Slide78

FCC Unit with Petrochemical Block


FCCU PC

PROPYLENE
RECOVERY UNIT
CRACKED LPG

PROPYLENE
432 TMT

POLY
PROPYLENE UNIT

POLY
PROPYLENE
1120 TMT

PROPYLENE EXCRACKER
668 TMT

Slide79of64

Slide79

Refinery Power Integration


Gasification: A commercially proven process that converts
hydrocarbons such as heavy oil / petroleum coke, and coal into
hydrogenandcarbonmonoxide(synthesisgas).

4 CH + 2 H2O + O2
(Fuel)

(Water)

(Oxygen)

Gasification Technology

4 H2

4 CO

(Hydrogen) (Carbon Monoxide)

Syngas

Competitive with unconventional & alternative resources


Extensive commercial application
Generate value added products
Feedstock and product flexibility

Slide80

Gasification MultipleSegment
Options
Fuels by F-T
Synthesis
Power
Syngas

PetCoke/
Coal

Sulphur

Slag

Hydrogen /
Power / Steam
Chemicals
SNG thru
Methanation

Slide81

Refinery Power Integration


Coke from Coker Unit can be Gasified to produce Syngas & Power / Hydrogen

Slide82

Project Execution Methodology


Phase-I
Conceptualization of Project
Project Formulation
Preliminary Feasibility
Report (PFR) Stage

Phase-II
Project Completion
Carry out PGTR
Unit Start-up & Stabilization

Licensor Selection

Pre-Commissioning &
Commissioning stage

Process Package Preparation

Mechanical Completion of the unit

Detailed Feasibility Report (DFR)

Project Implementation Phase

Final Investment Approval from Board


Slide83

Phase-II Breakdown Structure


PFD REVIEW
P&ID REVIEW
ENGINEERING KICKOFF
HAZOP & 3D MODELING

FLUSHING/
LEAK TEST

ORDERING/FABRICATION

P&ID
CHECK/INERTING
1ST DRYOUT

ERECTION/CONSTRUCTION
P&ID CHECK/INSPECTION

CAT. LOADING
2ND DRYOUT
FINAL INERTING

PRE-COMMISSIONING

FEED CUT-IN

START-UP & PGTR


Slide84

Parameters Studied during the Project Evaluation


Various Refinery Configurations will be evaluated based on
Economic Feasibility
Capex & Opex of projects
Yield of Distillates
Refinery Margins
Plot Plan Availability
Financial Appraisal
Net present value
Internal Rate of Return

Slide85

Financial Appraisal
Financing Assumptions
D/E ratio, interest rate, repayment tenor, moratorium period, etc.
Macro-economic assumptions
The net GRM for the project worked out by deducting
Operating Costs
Net incremental cash flows to the project worked out by deducting
Tax Outgo
Capital investment
Net working capital from the net benefit
Financial viability of the project established by computing posttax IRR and NPV
Net Incremental Cash Flows = [ Incremental GRM ] less [ Opex +Income Tax +
Core Capital Investment + Increase in Net Working Capital ]
Slide86

PRESENTATION PLAN
1.

REFINERY PROCESSES

2.

REFINERY CONFIGURATION

3.

PROJECT DESIGN ASPECTS

Slide87

PROJECT DESIGN ASPECTS

Slide88

Design Aspects
Unit/Equipment Design Philosophy (Margin & Turndown)
Battery limit philosophy for units
Vacuum Design
Instrumentation Philosophy
Metallurgy of Equipments (e.g. DSS for Water Coolers)
Piping Material Specifications
Energy efficiency / integration systems
Adherence to Standard Design & Codes
Slide89

Codes & Standards


BIS

Bureau of Indian standards

ASME

American Society for Mechanical Engineers

API

American Petroleum Institute

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

AISI

American Iron and Steel Institute

AWWA

American Water Works Association

SSPC

Steel and Structure Painting Council

MSS-SP

Manufacturer Standardization Society - Standard Practice

NACE

National Association for Corrosion Engineers

BS

British Standard Specification

Slide90

Codes & Standards


ASME Codes
For Mechanical devices such as pressure vessels, boilers
(e.g.) ASME Section 8, B 31.3 : Standards of process piping
API Standards
Designed to help users improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness
of their operations
(e.g.) API 610 : centrifugal pumps
(e.g.) API 682 : mechanical seals
(e.g.) API 6D : Pipeline Valves
(e.g.) API 560 : Fired Heaters
(e.g.) API 616 : Gas Turbines
(e.g.) API 617, 618 : Compressors

Slide91

Other Codes & Standardscontd.


IS (Indian Standard) Codes
For civil works and construction
(e.g.) IS-456 for Plain & Reinforced Concrete
TEMA Standards
For Heat Exchangers

Slide92

Meteorological Design Data


Sl#

Parameter

(A) METEOROLOGICAL DATA


1
Elevation above mean sea level, m
2

Barometric pressure, mbar

3
4

Ambient temperature, C
Relative humidity, %

Rainfall data (mm)


(a) for 1-hour
period
(b) wind
for 24-hour
Wind data (a)
velocityperiod

Minimum

Normal /
Average

Maximum /
Design

3.5
tmin =18

tnor = 35
@ tmin

@ tnor

(b) wind direction


(B) DATA FOR EQUIPMENT DESIGN
1
Design dry bulb temperature, C
2
Design wet bulb temperature, C
3
Low ambient temperature for MDMT, C
4
Design air temperature for air cooled exchangers
where followed by water cooling, C
5
Design air temperature for air cooled exchangers
where not followed by water cooling, C
6
Coincident temperature and relative humidity for Air Blower / Air Compressor
design.
7
Min. Design temperature for equipment

tmax =45
80% @ tmax

100
450
180 km/hr (as per
IS:875 Part-III).
North East & South
West
38
29
NA
40
42
80 % at 45 o C
65 o C

Slide93

Plant Life
Default plant operating life as 15 years with 5% salvage value will
be considered for economic calculations.
The default plant equipment design life shall be taken as follows:
a) 30 years for heavy wall reactors and separators
b) 20 years for columns, vessels, heat exchanger shells and similar
services.
c) 12 years for piping, furnace tubes, High Alloy exchanger tube bundles.
d) 5 years for Carbon Steel / Low Alloy heat exchanger tube bundles.
e) 15 years for reactors removable internals

Slide94

Utility Conditions @ Unit Battery Limits


Sl

Parameter

Minimum

Normal

Maximum

Mech Design

VERY VERY HIGH PRESSURE (VVHP) STEAM


Pressure, kg/cm2g
Temperature, oC

90

95

95

104/FV

495

505

505

505

VERY HIGH PRESSURE (VHP) STEAM

2
Pressure, kg/cm2g
Temperature,

oC

44.8

48

54.9

58.0/FV

379

425

435

440

HIGH PRESSURE (HP) STEAM


Pressure, kg/cm2g
Temperature, oC

29.5

30.5

32.5

36.0/FV

270

280

290

300

MEDIUM PRESSURE (MP) STEAM


Pressure, kg/cm2g
Temperature,

oC

9.5

10.5

12.5

15.0/FV

200

220

240

280

LOW PRESSURE (LP) STEAM

5
Pressure, kg/cm2g

2.7

3.5

4.0

7.0/FV

Temperature, oC

Saturated

170

190

240

CONDENSATE RETURN
Pressure,

kg/cm2g

Temperature, oC

5.0

13

140-150

210

6.0

10.5

Amb.

65

SERVICE WATER

7
Pressure, kg/cm

2g

Temperature, oC
COOLING WATER

8
2g

4.5

8.0

Return Pressure, kg/cm2g

2.5

8.0

Supply Pressure, kg/cm

oC

33

65

Return Temperature, oC

45

65

Supply Temperature,

DEMINERALISED WATER

9
Pressure,

kg/cm2g

Temperature, oC

7.0

8.0

9.0

14..0

Amb.

Amb.

Amb.

65

Slide95

Utility Conditions @ Unit Battery Limits


Sl
10

Parameter

Minimum
Normal
BOILER FEED WATER (MP/HP)

Pressure, kg/cm2g
Temperature, oC
11

Maximum

Mech Design

19.0/38.0

29.0/55.0

105-110

150/150

PLANT AIR
Pressure, kg/cm2g

5.0

6.0

6.5

10.0

Temperature, oC

Amb.

Amb.

Amb.

65

12
kg/cm2g

Pressure,
Temperature, oC
13

Pressure, kg/cm2g
Temperature, oC
14
Supply Pressure, kg/cm2g
Return Pressure, kg/cm2g
Temperature, oC
15

INSTRUMENT AIR
5.0
6.0
Amb.
Amb.
FUEL GAS
2.5
3.0
40
REFINERY FUEL OIL
10.0
2.5
80
165-200

10.0
65
3.8

7.0
65

12.0

17.5

220

250

SURFACE CONDENSATE (EX TURBINE)


kg/cm2g

6.0
40

Pressure,
Temperature, oC
16

kg/cm2g

Pressure,
Temperature, oC

NITROGEN
5.0
Amb.

6.0
Amb.

15.0
100
7.0
Amb.

9.5
65

Slide96

WATER SYSTEMS
Backflush arrangement shall be provided for
All cooling water consumers
Only overhead condensers
Cooling water consumers with water line sizes greater than

NB.

Back flush lines to be provided with same size as main cooling water line when main line size is 6. One size lower to be provided for main
line size > 6 For much higher line sizes e.g 14 and above to be decided based on case to case basis

Slide97

Water Quality
l

Parameter

PH

Cooling Water
make up ( from
TTP of ETP)

Cooling Water

DM
Water

BFW

7.2-7.5

7.2-7.7

6.8-7.2/8.3-8.5

8.5-9.5

Turbidity, NTU
Total suspended solids,
Total dissolved solids,
Conductivity micro mho/cm

<2
< 10 mg/l
850-1050 mg/l
1200-1600 at 250C

<=30
<=30 mg/l
2500-3000 mg/l
<=5000 at 250C

Ca Hardness as CaCO3,
Total Hardness as CaCO3,

130-210 mg/l
250-360 mg/l

500-750 mg/l
850-1200 mg/l

20-25 mg/l
340-400 mg/l

100-125 mg/l
800-1000 mg/l
0.3-0.6 mg/l
<500 mg/l
3-4 mg/l

Total cation/anion asCaCO3,


Total Silica as SiO2,
Chlorides as Cl,
Free chlorine,
Sulphates as SO4,
Organophosphates as PO4, mg/l
Dissolved oxygen
Total Iron as Fe,
Copper + Iron,
Lead as Pb, microgram/l
Mg , Hardness
Zinc as Zn,
Chromium as Cr, mg/l
Polymeric dispersant,
Zinc Sulphate as Zn,
Dissolved Fe, mg/ l
Oil content,
KmnO4 value at 100 oC,
Hydrazine (residual),
Morpholine (residual),

Nil

< 0.3 at 25oC

0.3 max at 250C

Nil mg/l

Nil ppm

< 0.02 mg/l

<0.02 ppm

0.005 ppmv
0.01 mg/l

<=1.0 mg/l

Nil mg/l
0.01 max

120-150 mg/l
1.0-1.5 mg/l
20-25 mg/l

<10 mg/l
<30mg/l

Nil mg/l
Nil mg/l

Nil ppm
0.02 ppm
1(approx) ppm

Slide98

Water Qualitycontd
l

Parameter
PH
Turbidity, NTU
Total suspended solids,
Total dissolved solids,
Conductivity micromho/cm
Mo Alkalinity,
Ca Hardness as CaCO3,
Total Hardness as CaCO3,
Total cation/anion asCaCO3,
Total Silica as SiO2,
Colloidal Silica as SiO2, mg/l
Sodium as Na,
Potassium as K, mg/l
Chlorides as Cl,
Free chlorine,
Sulphates as SO4,
Poly phosphates as PO4,
Nitrates as NO3,
Total Iron as Fe,
Copper + Iron,
Mg , Hardness
Zinc as Zn,
Zinc Sulphate as Zn,
Boron, mg/l
Dissolved Fe, mg/ l
Oil content,
KmnO4 value at 100 oC,
Hydrazine (residual),
Morpholine (residual),

Treated Raw Water as DM water


Make up

Desalinated water as DM water


make up

7 - 7.8
15

7-7.8
NA

NA mg/l
NA
240 (as CaCO3)mg/l
176 mg/l

350
493
2.9 (as CaCO3)mg/l
1.3 mg/l (as Ca)

608
40

NA
0.1

344 (as CaCO3) mg/l

135.3 (as CaCO3) mg/l

172 mg/l

142-220 mg/l

121 mg/l

12.5 mg/l

NA mg/l
0.3 mg/l

0.2 mg/l
NA

NA mg/l

4.5 mg/l

NA

1 mg/l

20 mg/l

NA

Slide99

Compressed Air & Nitrogen System


Sl

Parameter

Dew Point at atmospheric pressure

Oil Content, ppm

Sl
Parameter
1 Dew Point at atmospheric pressure

Plant Air

Instrument Air

water-free

(-)40oC

nil

nil

Inert Gas

Nitrogen
(-) 100oC

2
3

Oil Content, ppm


Nitrogen purity, vol%

nil
99.99

Oxygen content, vol ppm

3 (max)

Carbon dioxide content, vol ppm

1 (max)

Carbon monoxide content, vol ppm

nil

Slide100

Refinery Fuel Systems


Liquid fuel system for the project shall be one of the following.
No liquid fuel system applies to the project.
Existing liquid fuel system in Refinery III shall cater to the project,
After Augmentation, if required. Alternately, new liquid fuel system
shall be provided.
Fuel gas system for the project shall be one of the following.
No fuel gas system applies to the project.
Existing fuel gas system in Refinery III shall cater to the project,
After Augmentation, if required.
New fuel gas system for the total project:
(a) Integrated to existing facility
(b) Independent of existing facility

Slide101

Fuel Systems
Burner turndown requirements have to be met at liquid fuel pressures at burner
not less than the normal anticipated return header pressure. The fuel oil system
shall be designed for a recirculation rate of 2:1.
Fuel gas liquid knockout drums and tracing for piping shall be separate for
each process unit.
In-line strainers in burner piping are recommended for each unit. These shall
be located not more than 20 meters upstream of the burner manifold and shall
be 1 on-line + 1 spare strainer with mesh sizes 100 for Fuel Oil, Fuel Gas and
atomising steam.
In-line strainers for FO, FG and atomising steam to be provided on common
header supplying to all heaters within each unit.
Hot liquid fuel temperature shall be assumed to drop by 5oC between unit
battery limits and burner manifold.

Slide102

Fuel Oil Specifications


Sl

Parameter

Case-1

Case-2

Case-3 (Note-C)

PG VR

BH
VR+VAC.DIESEL

UCO+VR

930 - 1030
4 (Note-1)
3700

978
0.84
1000 (max.)
18
5
12
<1
1.9

852-857
0.27
300
3
11

Name

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Crude stock
Density @ 15oC, kg/m3
Sulfur content, wt%
Nitrogen content, wppm
Nickel content, wppm
Vanadium content, wppm
Sodium content, wppm
Copper content, wppm
Iron content, wppm
Water content, wppm
Flash Point, oC
Pour Point, oC
Viscosity @ 50 oC, cst
Viscosity @ 100 oC, cst
Viscosity @ 200 oC , cst
Temperature, oC required for 20 cst

18
19

Initial Boiling Point @ 1atm, oC


Conradson Carbon Residue, wt%

17 - 22

13.6

20
21
22
23

Ash content, wppm


Hydrogen: Carbon ratio, wt:wt
LHV, kcal/kg
Sediment

0.2
0.128
10000
-

0.12
0.124
10425

0.1
0.124
10000

200
80

traces*
66 (min)
66
7500
700

900 @ 90 oC
50 @ 120 oC

5.0 @ 80 oC
3.36

Slide103

Fuel Gas Specifications


COMPONENT
MOLE %

H2O

Case A

Case B

Normal
Operation

Case C

Case D

Case E

Case F

Case G
Max FG
production

Refinery Start
up case

0.81

0.13

0.43

0.31

0.69

H2

35.35

80.1

0.0 0.86

45.49

34.48

74.96

25.63

C1

29.43

8.01

0.0

25.95

26.35

11.41

32.6

0.45

0.24

0.0

0.0

0.79

0.18

0.32

16.08

4.04

9.43

15.06

13.29

6.23

20.64

PROPYLENE

1.21

0.64

0.0

0.0

2.11

0.47

0.85

C3

7.96

2.59

44.08

6.06

8.53

3.09

9.44

IC4

1.99

0.93

9.09

1.48

3.06

0.76

2.23

1BUTENE

0.50

0.26

0.0

0.0

0.87

019

0.35

NC4

3.22

1.63

36.07

2.59

5.36

1.24

5.43

1C5

06

0.17

0.04

0.77

1.05

0.13

0.27

NC5

1.32

0.79

0.0

0.94

2.31

0.57

0.87

C6+

0.78

0.31

0.0

0.78

0.83

0.34

0.5

H2S

Note-1

Note-1

Note-1

Note-1

Note-1

Note-1

Note-1

NH3

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.00

N2

0.30

0.16

0.0

0.0

0.53

0.12

0.00
0.21

TOTAL

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

MW

20.004

8.2533

48.79

16.717

22.537

8.9845

22.66

KGM/HR

354.51

667.9

0.353

275.5

203

914.7

507.4

KG/HR

7091.5

5512

17.2

4605

4575

8218

11498

LHV, Cal/kg

11798

14544

10964

12184

11648

14120

11613

ETHYLENE
C2

1.29

Slide104

Refinery Flare system


Flare systems for the project shall be:
Existing Refinery flare system will be used, if found adequate.
Alternately, new flare header shall be provided for the project.
Single flare for all released streams
Normal flare for hydrocarbons and Acid gas flare for released acid gases
Separate high-pressure flare header for flared hot, hydrogen rich
gases
Hydrocarbon drain from the Flare K.O. drum will be routed by gravity flow
to the
CBD. In addition, pump-out facility will be provided for
the Flare K.O. drum.
Philosophy of relieving flammable vapors shall be:
Vapor releases of all molecular weights to be connected to flare system
Vapor releases below molecular weight of vented to atmosphere
Hot hydrogen-rich gases (>300C) vented to atmosphere
Other:
For adherence to OISD standard # 106, individual units shall be provided with a flare
knock-out drum whenever significant liquid relief is anticipated from the pressure
relieving devices, apart from the main knock-out drums at the flare stack. Unit
designer / contractor shall specify a horizontal unit flare KOD, sized to separate out
liquid droplets down to a size of 400 .
Slide105

Refinery Flare system


Maximum flare backpressure shall be considered for sizing of pressure
relief devices
#

1
2
3

Flare system

Built- up back
pressure,
kg/cm2g

Normal flare
Acid Gas flare
High Pressure flare

0.2
0.2

Superimposed back
pressure at unit
battery limits,
kg/cm2g
default = 1.5
default = 0.5

Built-up back pressure


at PSV outlet,
kg/cm2g
default = 1.7
default = 0.7

Overpressure (as percentage of set pressure) for sizing relief valves


#

Contingency

Low pressures
< 70 kg/cm2g
5%
(as per IBR)
20%

High pressures
> 70 kg/cm2g
5%
(as per IBR)
as per designer

1
2

Steam generating / consuming equipment


under IBR
Fire case

Thermal relief

25%

as per designer

Operational failures

10%

as per designer

Slide106

Liquid Pumpout & Drain Systems


Non-congealing hydrocarbon drains:
Buried Closed Blowdown drum shall be:
Standard size of 10m3 to cater to only residual drains.
Individually sized for each unit for single largest equipment inventory.
Provided with cooling coil
Connect equipment to closed blow down (CBD) network leading to a CBD drum.
CBD drum will be located in a pit
and the same will be sand filled. Design CBD system for 200oC.
Congealing hydrocarbon drains:
Combined with non-congealing hydrocarbon drains.
Provided with combined cooling and heating coil
Steam generator blowdown drains:
Flash MP and HP blowdowns for recovery of LP Steam. The LP steam vessel
liquid to be cooled in a CW exchanger to 40 deg C and route to Cooling tower sump through
cooling water sump/pumps.
Caustic drains:
All bulk caustic inventory drains shall leave process unit under own pressure or be pumped out.
For residual caustic drains such as unpumpable vessel bottoms, level gage drains, etc., one of the
following shall be adopted:
Provide underground caustic CBD system with buried vessel and pumpout.
Collect residual drains by temporary facility like drums and jars.
Provide caustic drains to nearby neutralization pit outside the unit area.

Slide107

Liquid Pumpout & Drain Systems


Acidic drains:
(a) Amine systems
Bulk amine drains shall be only lean amine, displaced to amine storage tank. All
rich amine streams shall be routed to amine regeneration section under own pressure
or under inert gas pressure or displaced with water.
Residual amine drains shall be connected to a buried amine closed blowdown
system located in the Amine Regeneration section. Amine-bearing drains from Amine
Wash sections shall be routed to this buried vessel or collected through temporary
facilities.
Individual units handling amine will be provided with separate buried amine
closed blowdown system from where amine stream will be pumped to regeneration
unit.
(b) Sulphuric acid systems
When consumed only in non-process areas, temporary facilities will be defined.
Sulphuric acid storage and unloading facilities near cooling tower (existing).
(c) Process sour waters
1.
Process sour waters shall normally be routed to identified sour water strippers.
Residual drains or during intermittent situations where unavoidable, these may be
drained to oily water sewer. The effluent treatment plant designer shall be advised to
incorporate provisions to receive the single largest parcel of such sour water.
2.
Flare water seal drum sour water to be sent to sour water stripper.

Slide108

FLUSHING OIL SYSTEMS


Normal flushing oil (FLO)
No flushing oil tank and pumps will be provided in outside battery limits.
OSBL flushing oil header will be provided with mainly CDU/VDU Gas oil, which will have hot
or cold gas oil to the header. The main header also will have alternate source of FLO.
For external flushing of pumps API seal plans, or for purging instruments in congealing
service, the FLO pressure will be boosted. For this purpose, a separate vessel with (1+1) screw
pumps will be provided independently with in the respective unit. The connection for make up
flushing oil to vessel will be provided from maintenance Flushing oil header.
Heavy flushing oil (HFLO)
Straight run Vacuum Gas Oil from CDU/VDU will be taken as Heavy Flushing Oil for external
flushing of hot, heavy fluid handling pumps API seal plan. To maintain the temperature of VGO
about 80-110 C, the separate vessel with steam coil will be provided with in the unit. A separate set
of screw pumps (1+1) will be provided to pump the flushing oil to necessary pressure level for pump
seal flushing.

Sl#

1.
2.

Stream

Flushing Oil (Gas Oil)


Heavy Flushing Oil (VGO)

Operating condition
P,
kg/cm2g
6.0-16.0
4.0-6.0

Mechanical Design

T, oC

P, kg/cm2g

T, oC

40-103
70-80

27.0
27.0

141
100

Slide109

Energy integration
Improvement in overall energy efficiency shall call for unit-level and total plant-level
optimization of energy. Designer of a particular unit shall indicate the following at
the outset of design activities:
(a)The total energy consumption expressed as equivalent fuel oil (Btu/bbl or FOE
(b)The preferred temperatures for hot feeds and products from an energy
(c)integration standpoint, if these are significantly different from that stipulated in
unit BEDB.
(c)Energy shall be preferentially recovered into process streams. Steam generation
shall be considered thereafter to recover excess available energy. Steam
generation levels shall be chosen to preferably match the corresponding steam
level demand within unit.
(d) Low-level energy recoverable for external consumption, say, for Boiler Feed
Water preheat serving other units.

Slide110

Vacuum Design
Vacuum design conditions shall be stipulated for:
(a) Equipment operating normally under vacuum conditions
(b) Equipment that are subjected to vacuum conditions during start-up,
shutdown, regeneration or evacuation.
(c) Liquid full vessels that can be blocked in and cooled down
(d) Distillation columns and associated equipment that can be subjected to
vacuum conditions through loss of heat input.
(e) All steam users consuming steam during normal operation.
(f) Pressure vessels containing liquids having vapor pressure at minimum
ambient temperature less than atmospheric pressure.
Vacuum design conditions are not to be specified for the eventuality of blocking
in after equipment steam-out or operator maloperation.
Slide111

EQUIPMENT DESIGN PHILOSOPHY


%turnup
Process Towers (atmospheric or above)
Process Towers (vacuum)
Fired Heaters (potentially coking services)

10%
10%
15%*

Fired Heaters (clean services)


Heat exchangers (fouling service): overdesign on duty

15% *
10%

Heat exchangers (fouling service): overdesign on flow

10%

Heat exchangers (clean service): overdesign on duty

10%

Heat exchangers (clean service): overdesign on flow

10%

Tower overhead exchangers: overdesign on flow &


duty and reboilers
Pumparound exchangers: overdesign on flow

20%

Recycle compressors
Make-up compressors

10%
10% minimum

Pumps in general
Reflux and pumparound pumps
3-phase separators (in and out flowrate)
2-phase separators(in and out flowrate)
Crude preheat exchangers

10%
20%
10%
10%
15%

%turndown

20%

Slide112

Selection Of Mechanical Design Conditions


Equipment and piping systems shall be designed for the most stringent
coincident temperature and pressure conditions, accommodating the maximum
expected working pressure and temperature without causing a relieving
condition
A pressure system protected by a pressure relief device connected to the flare
system, shall have a mechanical design pressure, calculated at the location of
the relieving device, as the higher of the following:
I)For operating pressures above 70 kg/cm2g, mechanical design pressure
shall be as per designer, subject to a minimum of 77 kg/cm2g.
II)For operating pressure up to and including 70 kg/cm2g, design pressure
shall be the highest of the following:
Maximum operating pressure (kg/cm2g) x 1.1
Maximum operating pressure + 2.0 kg/cm2
Vessels operating under vacuum shall be, in general, designed for an external
pressure of 1.033 kg/cm2abs and full internal vacuum, unless otherwise
specified
Slide113

Selection Of Mechanical Design Conditions


For a full liquid system at the discharge of a centrifugal pump, the
mechanical design pressure shall be as under:
Pdes
=
Pmax suction + Pmax
where,
Pmax suction
=
Maximum pressure at suction vessel bottom
during suction system relieving conditions (as per 8.2.1.2)
Pmax
=
Pump differential pressure at pump shutoff head
with maximum operating density. If not known:
Pmax = 1.2 x H x max
: constant speed pump
Pmax = 1.1 x 1.2 x H x max: variable speed pump
: high head multistage pump
Pmax = 1.3 x H x max
For a full liquid system at the discharge of a positive displacement pump,
the mechanical design pressure shall be the higher of:
Pdes
Pdes

=
=

Prated discharge + 2 kg/cm2


1.1 x Prated discharge
Slide114

Selection Of Mechanical Design Conditions


For shell-and-tube heat exchangers, the low pressure (LP) side shall be
preferably specified with a design pressure at least equal to 10/13 of high
pressure (HP) side design pressure, in order to avoid having to install a
pressure relief device on the LP side
For systems operating at or above 0oC, the mechanical design temperature
shall be the higher of the following:
Tdes
=
65C
=
Tmax + 20C
Tdes
Tdes
=
Trelief (excluding fire relief temperatures)
For systems operating below 0C, the mechanical design temperature shall
be equal to the lowest anticipated operating temperature.

Slide115

Furnace - Design Aspects

Slide116

FURNACE
TYPES OF FURNACE
Cylindrical furnace
Low plot space
Low cost
Higher heat flux
For clean services
Box furnace
High plot space
High cost
Even heat flux
For fouling services
Slide117

FURNACE
TYPES OF FURNACE
Natural Draft
Air for combustion enters due to pressure difference
Forced Draft
FD fan is used to supply air, usually air gets heated up in
convection zone.
Balanced Draft
FD fan is used to supply air and ID fan is used to suck the flue
gas and heat is exchanged between air and flue gas through an
external heat exchanger (APH)

Slide118

FURNACE
TYPES OF FURNACE
Single fired heater
Common pattern in heaters
For low fouling / sensitive fluid
Peak flux >80% of average flux
Double fired heater
For high fouling service
Low residence time
Fire on both side of coil
Uniform heat flux & peak flux < 20% of average flux

Slide119

Fired Heaters
Selection of fuel
Fired heaters shall be designed for continuous operation with:
100% firing on either fuel oil or fuel gas or any combination of both,
unless constrained to reject use of fuel oil from reasons of process or acid
gas dew point.
100% firing on fuel gas for heaters less than 1.5 MMKcal/hr.
Target efficiencies
Achievable fired heater efficiencies depend on service, furnace heat duty,
process temperatures and quality of fuel. Highest target efficiencies shall be
pursued by a unit designer, as found economically justified. Options such as
cast tube and glass tube air preheaters, steam generation and superheat, etc.,
shall be evaluated.
Target efficiency shall be:
92% on fuel gas fired heaters only
90% on combination firing heaters (with either fuel oil or fuel gas or dual fuel
mode)
Excess Air
Natural Draft
Forced Draft

Fuel Oil
25 %
20 %

Fuel Gas
20 %
15 %
Slide120

Fired Heaters
Heater stack
Stacks shall be individually mounted on each heater unless there are
considerations such as grade-mounted APH or combined APH system for a
group of heaters.
Minimum fired heater stack heights shall be the higher of indicated heights in
respective unit BEDB Part-A documents or as calculated from the formula
below:
H = 14 (Q)0.3
(Minimum stack height as per TNPCB / MoE&F to be provided, SOx
/ NOx nozzles to be provided)
where, H: stack height, metres
Q: total SO2 emission, kg/hr

Slide121

HEX - Design Aspects

Middle of Radiant Section

Convection Section

Furnace Burner

Slide122

FURNACE
OPERATION
Draft inside the furnace
Air ingression
Arch pressure slightly positive Stack damper
Combustion air control thro Air registrars
Excess air : 5-10% for gas and 10-15% for fuel oil
Monitored & controlled by Arch zone O2 analyser
Skin temperature
Stack temperature
Slide123

FURNACE
INTERLOCKS

SPECIAL OPERATION

Process fluid low / no flow

Economiser

Fuel oil / gas - ring pressure


low

Steam Soot blowing


Steam air Decoking

Arch pressure high

Steam spalling

APH interlocks

Temperature cycling

FD fan trip
ID fan trip

Coke burning
Convection water wash

Arch pressure high


Slide124

Standard fired heater piping & instrumentation


(a) Low-low fuel oil supply pressure shuts down fuel oil supply and return
(b) Low-low fuel gas pressure shuts down fuel gas supply but keeps pilots running.
(c) Low-low heater pass flow shuts down fuel oil and fuel gas but keeps pilots running.
(d) Low Low pilot gas pressure shuts down the pilot gas supply
(e) Low-low differential pressure between atomising steam and fuel oil shuts down fuel oil
supply and return.
(f) Emergency shutdown shuts down fuel oil and fuel gas as well as pilots.
(g) Emergency coil steam, manual or automated, depending on criticality.
(h) Draft gage connections at:
Burners Below convection Above stack damper Below stack damper
(i) Flue gas sampling connections at:
Below convection section Below stack damper
(j) On-line analysis with location as per (g), connections mounted at the same plane:
O2 analyser NOx analyser SOx analyser SPM analyser CO analyzer HC
analyser
(k) Temperature measurement connections below convection section, below stack
damper, at hearth level.
(l) Skin thermocouples shall be considered for measuring temperature of furnace tubes.

Slide125

HEX - Design Criteria


Material selection
Thickness Calculations
Shell, Channel, Covers, Tube sheets
No of shell passes
Velocity of the fluid
Pressure Drop
Tube Pattern
Consideration of Fluids through Tubes
Easy maintenance
Tube size, U- Tube, Cover header, Fluid choice

Slide126

HEX Material of Selection

Tube
Metallurgy
with Carbon
steel

Tube MOC
with Stainless
Steel

Slide127

HEX - Codes & Standards

Typical TEMA Type


Heat
Exchangers

Slide128

Codes & Standards


Which type of TEMA Heat Exchanger?

Slide129

HEX - Design Aspects


Criteria for selection of TEMA Type
Shell side
Fouling Resistance

Tube side Fouling


Resistance (Hr-m2-C/kcal)

TEMA type

> 0.0002

> 0.0002

Floating head

0.0002

> 0.0002

Floating Head

> 0.0002

0.0002

U tube bundle

0.0002

0.0002

Fixed tube
sheet/ U-tube
bundle

Preferred Sizes for Shell && Tube HEX


Tube Metallurgy

CS / Low Alloy

High alloy/SS/Brass

Tube Diameter

25 mm

25 mm

Tube Thickness

2.5 mm

2.0 mm

Tube Length

6.0 m
Slide130

HEX - Design Aspects


Tube Pitch Selection

Pitch
Pattern

Pitch
Angle

ShellSide
Fluid

Flow
Regime

Triangular

30

Clean

All

Rotated
Triangular

60

Clean

Rarelyused

Square

90

Fouling

Turbulent

Rotated
Square

45

Fouling

Laminar

Slide131

HEX Sample Datasheet (Pg 1/2)

Slide132

HEX Sample Datasheet (Pg 2/2)

Slide133

PUMPS
DESIGN
Selectionoftypeofpumps
Sparingofpumps
# Operating pumps

Rated capacity per pump

Spare pumps

50% of total normal flow

33% of total normal flow

25% of total normal flow

Specificationofpumpseals
Specificationofdrives
Minimumflowbypass(MFB)provisions&controls

Slide134

Steam Turbine drives


When to select a steam turbine drive?
Steam turbine drives shall be specified in extremely critical services where even
short-term failure of a drive can result in a shutdown from where an operational
recovery is difficult, time-consuming or has a large economic penalty, such as
irreversible catalyst poisoning.
Steam turbine drives shall also be specified for the following drives, that, among
other considerations, shall ensure that a power failure does not automatically
lead to a steam failure:
(a) Cogeneration / Steam generation plant BFW pumps
(b) Cogeneration / Steam generation plant FD Fan
(c) Cooling water pumps
(d) Compressor lube oil & seal oil pumps
(e) Hot well pumps
(f)Emergency evacuation pumps

yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes

no
no
no
no
no
no

Slide135

PUMPS Sample Datasheet

Slide136

IBR Requirements
Scope of IBR
Steam generators / steam users shall meet IBR regulations. Major IBR
requirements are summarized below:
a) Vessels: Any closed vessel exceeding 22.75 litres (five gallons) in
capacity which is used exclusively for generating steam under pressure and
include any mounting or other fittings attached to such vessels, which is
wholly or partly under pressure when steam is shut-off.
b) Piping: Any pipe through which steam passes and if:
i) Steam system mechanical design pressure exceeds 3.5 Kg/cm2 g OR
ii) Pipe size exceeds 254 mm internal diameter
c) The following are not in IBR scope:
i) Steam Tracing
ii) Heating coils
iii) Tubes of tanks
iv) Steam Jackets
d) All steam users (heat exchangers, vessels, condensate pots etc.) where
condensate is flashed to atmospheric pressure i.e. downstream is not
connected to IBR system are not under IBR and IBR specification break is done
at last isolation valve upstream of equipment.
e) All steam users where downstream piping is connected to IBR i.e.
condensate is flashed to generate IBR steam are covered under IBR
f)
Deaerator, BFW pumps are not under IBR and IBR starts from BFW
pump discharge.
Slide137

INSTRUMENTATION

InstrumentationPhilosophyforallequipments&pipelines

E.g.)PackedTowers
ForcolumndifferentialpressureindicationtwoseparatePTshallbeprovided
anddifferentialpressureshallbederivedinDCS.

Localdifferentialpressureindicationforeachbed:
Localdifferentialpressureindicationfortotalsection:
ControlRoomdifferentialpressureindicationforeachbed:
ControlRoomdifferentialpressureindicationforcriticalbeds:
ControlRoomdifferentialpressureindicationfortotalsection:
1+1Basketstrainersinlinesgoingtopackedbeds:
Singlebasketstrainersinlinesgoingtopackedbeds:

yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes

no
no
no
no
no
no
no

Slide138

Utility Line Instrumentation


UTILITY

local
PI

DCS
PI

PAL/
PAH

local
TI

DCS
TI

TAL/
TAH

DCS
FI

FAL/
FAH

DCS
FQ

MP STEAM
LP STEAM
Condensate
CW supply
CW return
Instrument Air

PAL

Plant Air
Inert Gas
Fuel Gas
Fuel Oil
DM Water
Service Water
Flare
Slide139

Block & Bypass Valve Size for Control Valve Manifold


Line
Size

Block & By paas


Valve

Control Valve Size


0.5

0.75

1.5

10 12 14

0.5

Block
Bypass

0.5
0.5

0.75

Block
Bypass

0,75
0.75

0.75
0.75

Block
Bypass

1
1

1
1

1
1

1.5

Block
Bypass

1.5
1.5

1.5
1.5

1.5
1.5

1.5
1.5

Block
Bypass

2
2

2
2

2
2

2
2

Block
Bypass

2
2

2
2

3
3

3
3

Block
Bypass

3
3

3
3

4
3

4
4

Block
Bypass

4
4

6
4

6
6

Block
Bypass

6
6

6
6

8
6

8
8

10

Block
Bypass

8
8

8
8

10 10
8 10

12

Block
Bypass

14

Block
Bypass

12 14 14
10 12 14

16

Block
Bypass

14 16
12 14

16

Notes:
1.All sizes are nominal sizes in
inches.
2.Bypass pipe diameter shall
be same as bypass valve.
3.Bypass valve will be globe
valve upto 8" size and gate
valve above 8".

10 10 12 12
10 10 10 12

16
16

Slide140

Control Valve
Sample Datasheet

Slide141

PIPING & INSULATION

Insulationthicknessforheatconservation,personnelprotection,electrically
tracedlines&coldinsulation
MaterialUsage
CellularGlassforprocesstemperaturesupto350C.
RockWoolforprocesstemperatureupto550C
CalciumSilicateforprocesstemperaturesfrom551 760C.
AdherencetostipulationsofOISDstandard#118formin.interequipment
spacingandinterdistancebetweenprocessunitandoffsites
Steamtracingforpipinghandlingcongealingservicesshallbe:
Steamtracingwithinunitbatterylimits,electrictracingforoffsitesupto
150C
Steamtracingwithinunitbatterylimits,electrictracingforoffsitesupto
250C
Steamtracingforbothbatterylimitsandforoffsites
LPSteamuptovacuumgasoils,MPSteamforheavyresidues
MPSteamforallcongealingservices
Slide142

Environmental Parameters

Sulphur Recovery for reduced sulphur emissions

Flare gas recovery unit to recover hydrocarbons

Usage of low sulfur fuel in all process heaters/boilers

Incorporation of Low NOx Burners/DeNOx Technology

Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring & Stack Monitoring

Segregated collection of solid wastes.

Oil sludge treatment is done through chemical, mechanical and


bio-remediation routes.

Slide143

Environ Impact
Assessment Study

144

Slide144

IsoplethsShowingMeasuredSPMConcentrations
Scale

-15000
15000

-10000

-5000

5000

10000

15000
15000

1000

2000 m

Pollutant: SPM
Unit: ug/m3

Y Direction (North) Distance, m

10000

10000
300

5000

5000
250
34
29
28
35
36
30
32
31
39
41
40
33
27
21
22
23
26
38
37
25
24
13
1
2
15
16
17
18
3
14
4
7
12
9
8
10
5
20
11
6
19

200

150

-5000

-5000
100

-10000

-15000
-15000

-10000

-10000

-5000

5000

10000

-15000
15000

50

X Direction (East) Distance, m


145

Slide145

Ambient Air Quality Data


Min
Sl.No.

Parameter

Max

Avg

g/m3

SPM

18

287

70 234

RSPM

15

147

34 70

SO2

40

7 12

NOx

15

37

H2S

23

14

NH3

57

6 34

HC and VOC

10

14

Fugitive Emissions from the Work Zone Area of MRC Benzene < 1 ppm
(OSHA)
146

Slide146

Environment Noise & Water


Parameter

Residential

Commercial

Industrial

Inside the
Plant Area

Noise levels
(dBA)

46 - 82

72 - 79

66 - 79

77 - 84

Standard
(dBA)

55

65

75

85

Water Environment
Surface Water
Ground Water
Bacteriological Quality

147

Slide147

Risk Analysis Study

37.5kW/m2
(315m)

12.5kW/m2
(591m)

4.0kW/m2
(1032m)

HeatRadiationEffectsduetoBLEVE(CDUVDU)
148

Slide148

Risk Analysis Study


Individual & Societal Risk Factors due to that project are studied &
analysed

Slide149

Slide150