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Korea Communication Review


Q2 2015

Leaders

FEATURED: Korean Companies on MWC 2015

KT
SK Telecom
LG U+
Samsung
HFR
KMW
Dasan
Contela

Technologies

Netmanias.com

LTE-H
LTE-U
LTE-B
LTE-M
LTE-TDD

Publisher/Editor
Dr. Harrison J. Son | son@netmanias.com
Associate Editor
Dr. Michelle M. Do | misun.do@netmanias.com
Advertising Sales
Ho-Young Lee | hylee@netmanias.com | +82-2-3444-5747
Business Development
Steve Shin | cm.s.shin@netmanias.com | +82-10-2884-8870

mmWave
IoT
7.55Gbps
TDD
Fronthaul
SDN/NFV

Macro
Hetnet
Femto
WiFi
Cryptography

Table of Contents | April 2015

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Articles
04-05 | LTE/LTE-A commercialization by South Koreas big 3 operators as of April 1, 2015
18-23 | Unified mobile fronthaul & backhaul solutions for LTE-A Hetnet: HFRs flexiHaul solution
24-26 | Why do we need antenna-integrated RRH?
56-57 | 6 things you should know about enterprise WLAN

Netmanias Interview with Korean Companies at MWC 2015


30-33 | KT's demonstrations of LTE-H and LTE-U
34-36 | KT's demonstrations of LTE-TDD (9-carrier CA, LTE-UL/DL CA and triple mode
femto)
38-42 | SK Telecom's demonstrations of Pre-5G/5G Technologies at MWC 2015 - fast data
platform: T-PANI and APOLLO
43-43 | SK Telecom showcased 5G quantum cryptography system
16-16 | SK Telecoms weather information system caught the visitors' eye at MWC 2015
09-10 | Contela integrated small cell technology into in-building DAS
12-13 | HFR presented its newest in-building DAS, C-RAN fronthaul and carrier Ethernet
solutions at MWC 2015
16-16 | Juni-Korea, with Korea's innovative small cell technologies, knocking on the door
of the global market
17-17 | Kisan Telecom introduced Korea's advanced repeater technologies in the world
market
17-17 | Infomark, to expand into IoT market with the launch of a wearable device

IoT services available from


Korean operators
B2C IoT services available
from Korean operators
27-28 |

B2B IoT services available


from Korean operators
29-29 |

Korea ICT Statistics


44-46 |

Broadband

47-49 |

IPTV

50-55 |

Mobile

Korea ICT News | 6-17


CEOs of Korea's Big 3 took different stances on 5G. Why?
KT CEO Hwang Chang-Gyu gave keynote speech for The Road to 5G session at the
MWC 2015
SK Telecom developed 'P-LTE (Private-LTE)', a new intelligent network control
technology
KT, with Samsung and Qualcomm, to reveal the world's first LTE-H at MWC
DASAN Networks, introduces next-generation fiber network solutions in Europe
Samsung's virtualized core solution chosen to support SK Telecom's nationwide IoT
network
Samsung presented C-RAN 2.0 solution at MWC 2015
SK Telecom and Nokia Networks announce worlds first commercialization of eICIC
KT to build GiGA IoT-based traffic signal control communication service
MODACOM announced the development of interworking technology between
oneM2M and AllJoyn platforms
DAVOLINK introduces enterprise WLAN controller and 802.11ac AP at 2015 CeBIT in
Hanover
Finedigital unveiled a radio signal monitoring technology

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Korea Communication Review April 2015

LTE/LTE-A commercialization by South Koreas big 3 operators as of April 1, 2015


LTE
LTE-A
Wideband LTE
Wideband LTE-A
Tri-band LTE-A
Tri-band LTE-A

10MHz
10+10MHz
20MHz
20+10MHz
20+10+10MHz
20+20+20MHz

Max 75Mbps
Max 150Mbps
Max 150Mbps
Max 225Mbps
Max 300Mbps
Max 450Mbps

SK Telecom

x4
x6

KT

MWC 2015 Demonstration

MWC 2015 Demonstration

- DL CoMP (Dynamic Point Selection)


- DL 256QAM (400Mbps)

1 Launched 3-band LTE-A (300Mbps)


(available for all subscribers)

Launched 3-band LTE-A (300Mbps)


(available for all subscribers)

Launched 3-band LTE-A (300Mbps)


(available for all subscribers)

20MHz (1.8GHz) + 10MHz (850MHz)


+ 10MHz (2.1GHz)
1

20MHz (2.6GHz) + 10MHz (850MHz)


+ 10MHz (2.1GHz)

20MHz (1.8GHz) + 10MHz (900MHz)


+ 10MHz (2.1GHz)

15

12 Launched 3-band LTE-A (300Mbps)


(available for 100 subscribers only)

20MHz (1.8GHz) + 10MHz (850MHz)

6 Launched Wideband LTE-A


(225Mbps)

20MHz (2.6GHz) + 10MHz (850MHz)

Launched Wideband LTE-A


(225Mbps)

Launched unlimited LTE data plan

LTE subscribers: 14.9 M (53.1%)


3 Expanded Wideband LTE to
metropolitan cities
MWC 2014 Demonstration

LTE subscribers: 7.5 M (68.6%)


Expanded Wideband LTE to
metropolitan cities
MWC 2014 Demonstration

- 3-Band CA (20+20+20MHz, 450Mbps)


- LTE-A CA Femtocell
- FDD-TDD LTE CA

1
12 LTE subscribers: 13.5 M (49.3%)
11

13
9

Wideband LTE-A (20+10MHz,


225Mbps) demonstration
LTE subscribers: 12.3 M (45.1%)

10MHz (850MHz) + 10MHz (1.8GHz)


1

LTE subscribers: 1.8 M (6.7%)

VoLTE (Worlds first)


1
Multi-Carrier (Worlds first)
LTE subscribers: 1.8 M (15.5%)

LTE subscribers: 634 K (2.4%)

LTE subscribers: 557 K (5.9%)

10MHz (850MHz)

HD 4Mbps streaming
- eMBMS (KT+Samsung+Quacomm)

LTE subscribers: 4.1 M (43.1%)

7 Launched LTE (75Mbps) service

10MHz (850MHz)

Launched LTE (75Mbps) service

12

6
4

14

1
12
11

LTE subscribers: 6.8 M (41.8%)


Launched Wideband LTE (150Mbps)
9
Launched LTE-A (150Mbps)
3
Multi-Carrier
8
10MHz (1.8GHz) + 10MHz (900MHz)

10MHz (850MHz) + 10MHz (2.1GHz)

- 3-Band CA (20+20+20MHz, 450Mbps)


- LTE-A CA Femtocell
2
- FDD-TDD LTE CA
1
- LTE-A + Giga Wi-Fi

MWC 2013 Demonstration

VoLTE (Worlds first)


Multi-Carrier (Worlds first)

Launched unlimited LTE data plan


LTE subscribers: 8.6 M (52.4%)
Expanded Wideband LTE to
metropolitan cities
MWC 2014 Demonstration

- CA (10+10MHz, 150Mbps)

12 LTE subscribers: 7.5 M (27.9%)


8
7
3
1
12

Worlds first 4 CH multi-view


Launched LTE-A (150Mbps)

MWC 2013 Demonstration

10

20MHz (1.8GHz)

Wideband LTE Spectrum Auction


Worlds first full HD streaming

15

20MHz (1.8GHz) + 10MHz (900MHz)

Launched Wideband LTE-A


(225Mbps)

20MHz (2.6GHz)

LTE subscribers: 6.5 M (61.1%)

Launched eMBMS (Worlds first)


LTE subscribers: 7.1 M (65.2%)
LTE subscribers: 7.9 M (47.9%)
Launched Wideband LTE (150Mbps)

Launched Wideband LTE (150Mbps)

6 Launched LTE-A (150Mbps)


2

- 3-Band CA (20+20+20MHz, 450Mbps)


- Uplink CoMP
- LTE + Giga Wi-Fi Femtocell

20MHz (1.8GHz)

- mmWave System (28GHz, 7.5Gbps)


- LTE-HetNet (LTE+WiFi, 600Mbps)
- LTE-Unlicensed (450Mbps)
- Triple Mode Femto

4 Launched unlimited LTE data plan

11

x3

Commercialized (by SKT/LG U+ in 2011 and by KT in 2012)


Commercialized (by all 3 in 2013)
Commercialized (by all 3 in 2013)
Commercialized (by all 3 in June 2014)
Commercialized (by all 3 in January 2015)
As of Apr. 1, 2015
To be commercialized (2015 later)

- mmWave System (28GHz, 7.5Gbps)


- NFV/SDN Orchestration
- Fast Data Flatform
- Quantum Cryptography System
Launched eICIC 1
1

12

x2
x2

LG U+

MWC 2015 Demonstration

14

x1

7
6
2

LTE subscribers: 3.9 M (23.6%)

12

VoLTE

10

10MHz (1.8GHz)

LTE subscribers: 351 K (2.1%)


Launched LTE (75Mbps) service
1
2

Worlds first
Worlds second
Worlds third
3

13

8
7
3
1
12
7

12

11

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Korea Communication Review April 2015

LTE/LTE-A commercialization by South Koreas big 3 operators as of April 1, 2015

n Carrier aggregation services in Korea (April 1, 2015)


Operator

# of band

Carriers

Bandwidth (DL)

Max. rate (DL) Launched

SK Telecom

2-band
3-band

1.8 GHz (B3) + 850 MHz (B5)


1.8 GHz (B3) + 850 MHz (B5) + 2.1 GHz (B1)

30 (20 + 10) MHz


40 (20 + 10 + 10) MHz

225 Mbps
300 Mbps

2014. 06
2015. 01

LG U+

2-band
3-band

2.6 GHz (B7) + 850 MHz (B5)


2.6 GHz (B7) + 850 MHz (B5) + 2.1 GHz (B1)

30 (20 + 10) MHz


40 (20 + 10 + 10) MHz

225 Mbps
300 Mbps

2014. 06
2015. 01

KT

2-band
3-band

1.8 GHz (B3) + 900 MHz (B8)


1.8 GHz (B3) + 900 MHz (B8) + 2.1 GHz (B1)

30 (20 + 10) MHz


40 (20 + 10 + 10) MHz

225 Mbps
300 Mbps

2014. 06
2015. 01

Uplink

Downlink
Nation

850 MHz
Band 5

Nation

Nation Nation

SKT LG U+

SKT LG U+

829

839

849
225
Mbps

300
Mbps

Major

900 MHz
Band 8

874

KT

Nation

1800 MHz
Band 3

SKT
1715 1725

2100 MHz
Band 1

Nationwide

Nationwide

KT

SKT

KT

1745

1755

Major

Major

1810
Major

LG U+ SKT

225
Mbps

KT

1940

1930

1960

1820

1830

1840

MHz

150
Mbps

960

Nation

1920

2600 MHz
Band 7

950

225
Mbps

Major

Major

LG U+ SKT
2110

1970

225
Mbps
300
Mbps

1850

150
Mbps

MHz

894 150
Mbps

300
Mbps

KT

915

SK
KT
T
1735

Major

225
Mbps

905

884

2120

2130

MHz

Major

KT
2150

2160

225
Mbps

Metro: Metropolitan areas


Major: Major cities
Nation: Nationwide

Nationwide

Nationwide

LG U+

LG U+

2520

2530

2540

UE

2640

2650

MHz

2660

Carrier Aggregation (CA)

UE Category

Max. Speed

Operator

Max. Speed

Category 4 2-band 20 MHz: [B1]10 + [B5]10

150 Mbps

B5-B7

30 MHz: [B3]20 + [B5]10


Category 6 2-band 30 MHz: [B5]10 + [B7]20

225 Mbps

KT

B3-B8

30 MHz: [B3]20 + [B8]10

SKT

B1-B3-B5

40 MHz: [B1]10 + [B3]20 + [B5]10

LG U+ B1-B5-B7

Category 9 3-band 40 MHz: [B1]10 + [B5]10 + [B7]20

Category 3 100 Mbps (Wideband LTE, 20 MHz)

LG U+

B1-B5

Category 4 150 Mbps (Wideband LTE, 20 MHz)


150 Mbps (LTE-A, 2-band CA, 10+10 MHz)

SKT

B3-B5

LG U+

Category 6 225 Mbps (Wideband LTE-A, 2-band CA, 20+10 MHz)


Category 9 300 Mbps (Tri-band LTE-A, 3-band CA, 20+10+10 MHz)

UE Category CA Type BW: CA Combination

KT

B1-B3-B8

40 MHz: [B1]10 + [B3]20 + [B8]10

The Big 3 launched Wideband LTE-A service using 2-band CA in June 2014, offering max. 225 Mbps (20 + 10 MHz)
The Big 3 launched Tri-band LTE-A service using 3-band CA in January 2015, offering max. 300 Mbps (20 + 10 + 10 MHz)

LTE Frequency Commercialization Status (as of April 1, 2015)

300
Mbps

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Korea ICT News & Articles

CEOs of Korea's big 3


took different stances on
5G. Why?
03/ 05 | By Yun Sang-ho (crow@ddaily.co.kr)

SK Telecom and LG U+ to create more


customer value, and KT to lead
technology innovation through
standardization
5G era is arriving soon, probably by 2020
as planned, and is promising 100 times
faster speeds than current LTE.
Then, what benefits can customers get
from it? What values can it bring to
customers, and how?
CEOs of Korea's big 3 operators, SK
Telecom,
KT and LG U+, shared
differing stances on 5G at press
conferences held in Barcelona, Spain on
March 2nd and 3rd.
SK Telecom and LG U+ placed more
weight on the future while KT did on the
present. SK Telecom and LG U+ seemed
to put 'customers' first while KT did
'technology' first.
SK Telecom CEO Dong-hyun Jang
noted, "The industry are talking more
about what technology evolution 5G can
achieve than about what 5G can bring to
customers." He added, "When there is a
new network evolving, we have to think
of what to do with it from the initial stage
of the network's evolution, to develop
service that can create customer value.
This is what I learned when LTE was
arriving."

KT's demonstrations of
LTE-H and LTE-U
03/ 30 | By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

At Barcelona's Mobile World Congress


(MWC) 2015, KT demonstrated a variety
of new 5G, Hetnet and IoT technologies
and services (see table 1). Of all those
presented, we will focus on our most
interested topics, WiFi-related pre-5G
technology, LTE-Hetnet (LTE-H) and LTEUnlicensed (LTE-U), and see how they
were demonstrated.
Read the full article (page 30-33). n

CEO of SK Telecom

CEO of KT

CEO of LG U+

Dong-hyun Jang

Chang-gyu Hwang

Sang-chul Lee

The CEO of KT, Chang-gyu Hwang,


said, "5G is apparently a challenging
technology for platform manufacturers
as well as operators." He also pointed
out, "That's why we proposed
standardization of the Internet of Things
(IoT)."
CEO Sang-chul Lee at LG U+
emphasized, "With IoT just emerging in
5G, anyone who can offer bettercustomized customer value will become
the winner in the market."
The different stances by the CEOs
seemed to result from different
situations they are in as a CEO.
Obviously, they all have different time
and paths behind and ahead.
SK Telecom's Dong-hyun Jang took
office in last December and had
previously worked as the COO of SK
Planet until then. So, with the
experience that he have had in both
communication and platform fields, he
is laying out a plan to produce profit.

KT's demonstrations of
LTE-TDD: 9-carrier CA,
LTE-UL/DL CA and triple
mode femto
03/ 30 | By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

KT, in cooperation with Samsung,


implemented LTE-B that aggregates 9
LTE-TDD carriers, achieving 1Gbps (
9x110Mbps) at the event. 3GPP has
defined in Rel. 10 that up to 5 carriers
across up to 5 bands can be aggregated,
and now it is working on CA
enhancements to expand LTE CA up to
32 carriers in Rel. 13

is laying out a plan to produce profit.


KT's Chang-gyu Hwang is in his
second year as CEO, with only one year
to go. It is easier and faster to get the
result through standardization than
through building a new profit model.
CEO Sang-chul Lee at LG U+ was reelected last year. His leadership in LTE
business was recognized, but now he is
under pressure to come up with a new
profit model such as IoT soon.
There is no standards defined for 5G
yet. All three CEOs promised to make
efforts for successful implementation of
5G, and claimed to have the best
technology. Standardization of speeds
and frequencies is not likely to be
finalized until 2018. n

32 carriers in Rel. 13 that is currently


under review.
Earlier in January, KT commercialized
3-band CA that combines 3 LTE-FDD
bands (Band 1, 3 and 8), supporting up to
300Mbps. Now, with this demonstration,
the company proved itself capable of
supporting 1Gbps through TDD CA (as
claimed through its marketing brand
GiGA).
This time, multiple (9) carriers within
one TDD band were aggregated (intraband CA).
Read the full article (page 34-36). n

Korea Communication Review April 2015

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Korea ICT News & Articles

KT CEO Hwang Chang-Gyu gave keynote speech


for The Road to 5G session at the MWC 2015
03/04|By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

Through his keynote speech on 5G


network services, KT CEO Hwang
Chang-Gyu showed a wonderful glimpse
of the future at the MWC 2015, held in
Barcelona, Spain.
As the primary speaker for The Road
to 5G session, CEO Hwang stated, In
the era of the Internet of Things (IoT),
where all devices are connected through
a network, an ultra large 5G network
with real-time hyper speed is a must. He
went on to state, The upcoming era of
IoT that is 5G can be realized sooner
with cooperation from global operators.
CEO Hwangs keynote speech during
the 5G session at the MWC 2015, the
industrys largest annual gathering, can
be viewed

SK Telecom completed
construction of 26,000 3band LTE-A base stations
03/ 31 | By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

SK Telecom on March 31 announced that


it has completed construction of 26,000
2.1GHz base stations across the nation for
3-band LTE-A service provision.
Now SK Telecom users can enjoy 3-band
LTE-A service in 85 major cities of Korea,
including Seoul and 6 metropolitan cities.
The company plans to build additional
5,000 base stations by August to make
sure it has the nation's largest 3-band LTEA coverage, providing a wider service area
for users.

be viewed as confirmation that KTs


technological skill is being recognized
on a global level.
In CEO Hwangs keynote speech titled,
5G and Beyond, Accelerating the
Future, CEO Hwang presented a video
of a self-driving car that aroused
excitement from the participants. In the
video, the year is 2020 and CEO Hwang
gets into his self-driving vehicle and
speaks the words, Office, upon which
afterwards, the self-driving vehicle
calculates the most optimal route using
a 5G network and begins to move.
While the vehicle is driving itself, CEO
Hwang has a video conference meeting
with executives in the United States,
China and Spain. During the video
conference meeting, all documents and
verbal communication is interpreted and
translated in real-time. The video ends
with CEO Hwang watching his
granddaughters hologram play the
violin.

for users.
SK Telecom has also upgraded its
repeaters deployed across the nation to
ones capable of supporting 3-band LTE-A,
to offer the 4-times faster 3-band LTE-A
service nationwide, even in areas with
poor reception like inside buildings or
underground.
The company noted that, in building the
3-band LTE-A base stations, it used TPANI and APOLLO, which were
presented as big data-based intelligent
operation platforms at Mobile World
Congress 2015 held at Barcelona, Spain in
early March.
Using the two solutions, the company:
(1) determined the best locations to build
2.1G base stations, and

China and Spain. During the video


conference meeting, all documents and
verbal communication is interpreted and
translated in real-time. The video ends
with CEO Hwang watching his
granddaughters hologram play the
violin. When the video concludes, CEO
Hwang states that in the future, we will
no longer need a drivers license and our
vehicle will turn into our office.
CEO Hwang went on to explain that
one self-driving vehicle will need the
capability to process 1 GB of
information per second. He continued
by stating that billions of self-driving
vehicles operating simultaneously while
sending and receiving information is
simply impossible with the current LTE
network. Additionally, he stated that a
new 5G network will be needed to
handle the massive data traffic that will
be a reality in the future. n

2.1G base stations, and


(2) will be providing the best network
service not only to users subscribing to 3band LTE-A service, but also those
subscribing to conventional LTE services
like wideband LTE-A service, by analyzing
and automatically optimizing the network
conditions in real time. n

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Korea ICT News & Articles

SK Telecom developed 'P-LTE (Private-LTE)',


a new intelligent network control technology

What is even better is that, not only the


private network users but also public
LTE network users can benefit from this
low latency. Because data sent by the
private network users do not travel
through the packet core equipment of
the public LTE network, data congestion
in the packet core equipment can be
alleviated.
With introduction of P-LTE, the
company hopes to begin and lead the
network innovation at a global level.
Also, ETSI has recently initiated the
standardization procedure of Mobile
Edge Computing (MEC), a technology
that processes cloud and various
intelligent
services,
reflecting
an
increasing interest in intelligent service
across the world. Given that, SK
Telecom, now with P-LTE, should be
able to position itself as a global leader
in the intelligent service field.
Mr. Jin-hyo Park, the Head of Network
Technology R&D Center at SK Telecom,
said "With the successful development
of P-LTE, we are ready to offer services
for private networks through the
intelligent base stations in our recentlybuilt LTE high-speed network. We will
continue to make every effort to develop
more innovative intelligent networkbased technologies." n

02/04/2015|By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

SK Telecom announced on the 4th that it


has developed a new base station-based
intelligent mobile network control
technology called 'P-LTE (Private-LTE)'.
The new technology is known to be
capable of separating private networks
from public LTE networks.
The key element of P-LTE is that it can
separate private mobile networks from
public LTE networks by using an
intelligent network control. Previously, a
company who wants to build its own
private mobile network for intranet, etc.
had to have dedicated network
equipment and frequency, and also had
to invest tremendous amount of time and
money. SK Telecom claimed that P-LTE
can easily solve this problem.
The greatest strength of P-LTE is the
fact that its users can utilize their internal
data in a private enterprise network while
still using public LTE networks (RU, DU)
as well.
With P-LTE, an enterprise, hospital,
stadium, public institution, etc. can
transmit their internal data to their
enterprise servers directly through base
stations,

stations, without having to send them


through the Internet (see the illustration
above).
This new scheme will:
- allow traffic and service to be managed
in a way that only authorized users
within the private network can have
access to them
- prevent external users from accessing
the network
- help its users to manage their work
efficiently through intranet operation
within the private network, or by
offering services like smart office,
virtual meetings, etc.
SK Telecom expects that, once
commercialized, P-LTE will serve as a
foundation for mobile smart work
environments soon to be built by many
institutions or enterprises.
In addition, separated from public LTE
network and public Internet, the private
LTE network can support real-time data
processing with lower latency by having
data sent by its authorized user
transmitted through the shortest path
possible.

Enterprise
Enterprise
Servers
Access to enterprise

Access
to enterprise
private network
private network
Packet Core (S/P-GW)
P-LTE System
Enterprise
User

Non-Enterprise
User

Internet
RU

DU
Private-LTE
Server

Access to public network (Internet)

Korea Communication Review April 2015

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Korea ICT News & Articles

Contela integrated small


cell technology into inbuilding DAS
03/04|By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

Contela, a leading small cell solution


provider based in Korea, introduced its
new small cell solutions at MWC 2015.
The company has provided SK
Telecom, a Korean network operator,
with LTE Femtocell solutions through
years of cooperation with SK Telecom.
At MWC, Contela presented three
wireless access units to be embedded in
LTE small cell solutions: Indoor Home/
Enterprise small cell AP, Outdoor small
cell AP, and small cell In-building
Solution (SIS). Especially, SIS drew
attention from lots of MWC attendants.
"SIS" is designed to cover wide areas
like in-building areas by combining
conventional small cell APs and DAS.
Mr. Hong Kweon Kim, Team Manager
of System 2 Team at Contela, explained,
"SIS is an upgraded small cell unit that
has a combined form of a small cell AP
and a DAS repeater system. There are 3
major components of SIS: (1) DU
connected to Backhaul network, (2) RUs
(with built-in antennas) installed within
in-building coverage areas, and (3) OEU
that relays signals between DU and RUs.
These components are interconnected
through an in-building DAS infra, just
like neurons in our body are
interconnected through a neural
network.
He also highlighted that, "Because SIS
enables a DU to distribute small cell
radio signals to RUs installed within inbuilding
coverage
areas
without
degradation, it ensures stable small cell
radio coverage even in the in-building
areas that are actually located far away
from the DU. Plus, because DU and RUs
as well as OEU and RUs can be
connected using UTP cables that have
been commonly used in LAN networks,
now building an in-building wireless
network can be more efficient and less
expensive than building one using
conventional RF cables."
In addition to SIS, Contela's Home/
Enterprise small cell units - not the
latest, but still powerful solution - also
attracted lots of attendants at MWC.

KT, with Samsung and Qualcomm, to reveal the


world's first LTE-H at MWC
03/02/2015|By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

KT, in collaboration with Samsung and Qualcomm, demonstrated the world's first
'LTE-WiFi Link Aggregation' (AKA 'LTE-H (HetNet)') that combines two
heterogeneous networks - LTE and WiFi - at Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2015
held in Barcelona. LTE-H does not merely combine frequency bands like the current
LTE-A Carrier Aggregation (CA) technology, but also combines links in different
radio access networks (Link Aggregation). It will serve as the core technology for
merging 4G and 5G as the evolution to 5G continues.
Because the new technology uses both LTE and WiFi networks at the same time, it
supports up to 600 Mbps - combination of 150Mbps of broadband LTE and 450
Mbps of GiGA WiFi speed.

450Mbps

Ethernet
Samsung

Samsung

CPRI

Qulacomm

600Mbps

150Mbps
Samsung

Source: KT
Unlike the conventional software-based LTE-WiFi combination transmissions, LTEH enables LTE base stations to directly control Wi-Fi access for the first time in the
world. So, it is more transmission-efficient and easier to use.
Especially, base stations detect signal strength between user devices and WiFi AP,
and automatically control on/off function to allow/deny access to Wi-Fi. So, users
can enjoy uninterrupted and seamless service even when they are moving, which
has been an issue in WiFi.
By taking advantage of its extensive WiFi networks, KT plans to pilot the new
LTE-H network providing giga-class speeds at hotspots across South Korea in the
first half of 2016. n

Home/Enterprise small cell units are


designed to provide high-speed LTE
data service indoors - at home,
enterprise,
etc.
Though
not
presented at MWC, the company's
outdoor small cell solutions are
useful for enhancing the coverage
capacity of the conventional macro
cells or improving small hotspot
coverage. Demand for this solution
is expected to grow.

Contelas Small Cell In-building (SIS) Solution

10

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Korea ICT News & Articles

Samsung's virtualized core solution chosen to


support SK Telecom's nationwide IoT network
02/05/2015|By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

Contelas Small Cell Portfolio


He also said, "Because small cell
equipment interworks with the LTE core
network through public Internet, network
security between the two is one of the
most important requirements. For
enhanced security, dedicated security
equipment like SeGW (Security Gateway:
IPsec) is embedded in the solution."
Ms. Eun Hwan Lim, deputy general
manager at global business team of the
company,
noted,
"The
technical
excellence and reliability of our small cell
solutions have been highly recognized.
In fact, we have been supplying our
FD-LTE-enabled
solutions
to
SK
Telecom, and also plan to develop TDLTE-enabled solutions to supply to
KDDI in Japan." n

Samsung Electronics today announced that it has been selected as the sole vendor
for SK Telecoms nationwide Network Function Virtualization (NFV) deployment. As
part of the agreement, Samsung will provide its AdaptiV Core solution for the
operators dedicated mobile IoT (Internet of Things) network.
We are delighted to collaborate with Samsung on our NFV solution for SK
Telecoms IoT services, said Jong-bong Lee, Executive Vice President and Head of
Network Division at SK Telecom. SK Telecom is preparing for the IoT era through
active business collaboration. Through the application of virtualized network
technologies, we are confident that we can deliver a truly consistent and innovative
network as well as superior service quality.
The IoT network, driven by Samsungs AdaptiV Core, is scheduled to go live in the
first half of 2015, and will see initial applications targeting package delivery tracking,
CCTV monitoring and city-wide sensor monitoring.
We are honored that SK Telecom has selected Samsung as the sole vendor to
support SK Telecoms sophisticated mobile network, said Youngky Kim, president
and head of networks business at samsung electronics. He added NFV is one of the
core technologies of next-generation mobile networks and will play a critical role in
helping telecom operators in terms of network deployment, management and
operation as well as service efficiency and rapid scalability. n

The AdaptiV EPC pulls


together software-based
virtualized network
functions (VNFs) running on
a KVM hypervisor, and can
use standard Commercial
Off The Shelf (COTS) generalpurpose hardware, or
specialized purpose built
Samsung servers, depending
on the operator's specific
requirements.

DASAN Networks,
introduces nextgeneration fiber network
solutions in Europe
02/11 | By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

DASAN Networks, a global network


solution provider in Korea, is pushing its
FTTx business forward to Europe and
the Middle East.
DASAN Networks participated at
FTTH Conference 2015 in Warsaw,
Poland on the 11th and 12th of Feb to
introduce its next-generation fiber
network solutions, with its European
partner, FIBRAIN, one of the European
leaders in distribution and production of
the components used to build fiber optic
networks and structural cabling systems.
The main solutions include NG-PON
which provide up to 40Gbps download
speeds, 10G-EPON for 10Gbps speed on
fiber infrastructure, and G.Fast solutions
that enables up to 1Gbps Internet speed
on the existing phone line (copper).

Source: Samsung
.
Particularly, the G.Fast solution allows service providers to deliver higher bandwidth
services in areas with old buildings that only have telephone lines and also the legacy
areas where, due to preservation, it is difficult to go through major construction (e.g.
historical sites).
According to Alfred Song, an executive director of DASAN Networks Global Business
Division, at the Conference The market is heading toward a more cost efficient solution
utilizing the existing infrastructure as a way of expanding bandwidth for todays data
traffic growth. Introducing DASAN Networks next-generation fiber solutions in the
Conference, we consolidated our plans to expand new businesses in the European and
Middle Eastern markets.DASAN Networks has recently been selected to supply network
solutions for Vietnam and Taiwans network constructions. Such global expansion was
possible due to DASAN Networks active R&D investment, which again allowed DASAN
Networks to provide products to 60 companies at 25 different countries around the
world. DASAN Networks currently operates R&D centers in India, Vietnam and China,
and also has Sales Offices located in the US, Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam and India. n

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Samsung presented
C-RAN 2.0 solution
at MWC 2015
03/ 05 | By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

Samsung, a leading provider of mobile


broadband networking solutions, showed
its C-RAN 2.0 solution an enhanced
Centralized RAN (C-RAN) platform
designed
for
radio
performance
enhancement as well as additional cost
savings for operators at MWC 2015.
C-RAN 2.0 builds upon Samsung's
successful C-RAN solution which
relocates baseband units (BBUs) the
equipment used to process transmission
signals from each base station to one
or more centralized locations. Major two
new innovations of C-RAN2.0 are
baseband capacity pooling and baseband
clustering.
Baseband pooling represents a new
line of defense against data spikes that
are often the result of large gatherings,
such as concerts, festivals or sporting
events. It works by allowing the network
to efficiently aggregate its baseband
resources across a large cluster of cells
and introducing dynamic capacity
management.
This is made possible by Samsung's
newly developed C-RAN switch, which
enables dynamic routing of traffic
between cell sites (remote radio units)
and the centralized BBUs. The C-RAN
switch also provides significant

Smart Scheduler
l DU (BBU) Pool
l Inter-DU Switch
l

C-RAN Switch

switch also provides significant energy


savings by de-activating BBUs during
times of low network load. As a result, it
brings critical value to operators in
terms of network reactivity, flexibility
and scalability.
The second new innovation, baseband
clustering, enables very fast and efficient
coordination between BBUs, improving
cell edge performance and facilitating
the introduction of advanced scheduling
features, such as coordinated multipoint (CoMP) and inter-site carrier
aggregation.
http://www.samsung.com/global/
business/networks

Inter-DU
Switch
DU Pool
C-RAN Switch

RRH (Cell Site)

RU (RRH)

In a typical network with carrier


aggregation, a user device can connect
to multiple frequencies, or carriers, but
only from a single cell site. In many
situations, however, the coverage
patterns and signal propagation of these
frequencies may be different, potentially
leading to sub-par performance.
C-RAN
2.0's baseband clustering
enables
Samsung's
Best
Cell
Aggregation feature, which allows a user
device to select the best signals
available, even across multiple cell sites.
For users, this results in a more
consistent mobile experience as they
move through the network.
"Samsung's C-RAN 2.0 is well-suited for
city deployments where there are
constraints in site procurement despite
continuing demand for improved
network coverage and performance,
Joonho Park, Senior Vice President and
head of Global Sales & Marketing,
Networks Business. "In these situations,
densification is a high priority, and CRAN is optimally designed to enable
rapid deployment with a significantly
smaller footprint that a traditional
distributed base station. C-RAN2.0 adds
another level to this by introducing
significant and competitive capability
enhancements
to
the
C-RAN
architecture. n

11

12

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HFR presented its


newest in-building DAS,
C-RAN fronthaul and
carrier Ethernet
solutions at MWC 2015
03/12 | By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

HFR, a Korean specialist in optical and


radio
Networking
technologies,
presented its newest in-building DAS, CRAN fronthaul and carrier Ethernet
solutions at Mobile World Conference
(MWC) 2015.
In-building DAS
HFR unveiled uRadioTM (DRS product),
an upgraded version of its precedent Inbuilding DAS at MWC, generating a lot
of interests among network operators
who attended the event.
In-building DAS is a system designed to
evenly distribute and deliver radio
signals from base stations to shadowed
areas in large complexes like tall
buildings, shopping malls, subway, etc.
In a conventional in-building DAS
system, units are connected in order of
and eNB (or RRH), MU, HU, antenna
and UE. eNB (or RRH) and MU can be
located in an MDF room in buildings.
HUs are usually mounted onto the walls
on every or every few floors of a building
while antennas are mounted onto the
ceilings of rooms, conference rooms
inside a building (see the figure above).
For connection between eNB/RRH and
MU, and between MU and HU, fiber
cables are used while RF coaxial cables
are used for connection between HU and
antenna.
In a conventional DAS system, radio
signals from eNB (or RRH) are delivered
through fiber and RF coaxial cables to
the antenna in a building near UE, but
are radiated over the air from the
antenna to UE. That is, instead of going a
very long way directly from eNB (or
RRH) to UE, signals travel securely
through wired cables up to the antenna the last point possible on wire, and the
closest point to UE - but over the air
from the antenna to UE. This minimizes
the over-the-air travel distance of the
signals, consequently resulting

HFRs uRadioTM In-Building DAS Solution


signals, consequently resulting in better
signal quality. And this way, the entire
building can work as a cell itself, offering
excellent signal quality (like there is no
wall or ceiling that blocks signals).
Unfortunately, however, there is a
critical issue with this system. It costs
too much and takes too long to install,
build and maintain indoor cablings,
wireless infra (especially antennas), etc.
To compensate for these issues, HFR
introduced uRadioTM.
HFR's Sales VP Peter Cho explained,
"New Remote Antenna Units
(RAUs) that replace the existing
antennas in DAS system come with
built-in antennas and useful
features that support radio network
optimization-related functions (e.g.
remote signal measurement and
control function). And this
eliminates the need to work
manually and individually when
building and maintaining an inbuilding wireless infra, drastically
reducing costs and time required."

HFRs uRadioTM Solution (DRS product)

He also added, "Other benefits of


uRadio would be that, because it uses
UTP-type data cables which are
relatively cheaper than conventional RF
coaxial cables, cabling costs can be
reduced. Plus, because the new solution
alone can accommodate not only LTE
but also the existent WCDMA, it can
further lower costs of building and
maintaining a wireless infra."
The uRadio solution has been run in
some network sites of a Korean
operator, SK Telecom, since its adoption
in 2014. The company is currently
working hard on global marketing,
targeting markets in the US and Europe.

Fronthaul
In C-RAN (Centralized and Cloud RAN),
BBUs and RRHs, located in different
places separated from each other, are
connected using fiber-based "Fronthaul"
network such as "Dark Fiber". But, the
problem with the dark fiber is that it
would only work for those who already
have plenty of fiber cables, and others
including most operators would need a
higher CAPEX/OPEX for leasing them.
HFR's Fronthaul WDM solution
(flexHaulTM) is capable of aggregating
(fronthauling) CPRI traffic from LTE
BBUs and RRHs, and aggregating
(backhauling)
GPON/GE
backhaul
traffic from legacy base station, compact
base station (pico), and Wi-Fi traffic APs
to a single aggregation network.

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13

Korea ICT News & Articles

Small Cell

Macro Cell Site

Central Office

EPC Site

CPRI Fronthaul

Small RRH

Ba
seb
an
dI
/Q
str
eam

Macro LTE RRH

HSN 8300

8300
TM

CPRI
net
Ether

e
fram
/GE
GP O N

flexHaul
Solution

8300
HSN 8300
GE

HSN 8100

BBU Pool
CPRI
GE
HSN 8500

8500
GE

SAE-GW

01/28|By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)


IP/MPLS
SAE-GW

8100

Small BS
with Wi-Fi

ls : CPRI traffic
ls : Ethernet traffic

Ethernet Backhaul

HFRs flexiHaulTM Mobile Fronthaul Solution


In addition, the solution helps operators
to build a more-efficient and flexible
mobile network, and also to keep their
CAPEX and OPEX low.
When asked to name actual cases of
deploying their solutions, Mr. Cho
answered, "We have been supplying
Fronthaul solutions to SK Telecom For
large deployment, and also to Chunghwa
Telecom (CHT), a Taiwanese operator,
who is expected to have growing
demand for large-scale commercial
network
soon.
Especially,
CHT
recognized the technological excellence
and high reliability of our solutions, and
so we were selected as its sole vendor.
Currently, we are aggressively carrying
out overseas sales activities in Europe,
the Americas, Asia, and so on."
Carrier Ethernet
HFR presented its carrier Ethernet
switch, HA-800 series at MWC. HFR has
achieved certification of CE 2.0
compliance of its HA-800 series (Carrier
Ethernet switch). This switch is a small
form factor that supports 10Gbps
Ethernet speeds, and also gives the high
scalability to allow

HFRs CE Solution (HA-800 Series)

SK Telecom and Nokia


Networks announce
worlds first
commercialization of
eICIC

scalability
to
allow
users
to
economically respond to the soaring
data traffic of these days. Last year,
Telecom Malaysia selected HFR as a
supplier of Carrier Ethernet solution for
its mobile backhaul network.
The follow-up interview after MWC
Can you tell us about the coverage range
of DRS solution? How many RAUs can be
connected to a single MU?
DRS has a multi-level structure (MU-HURAU). Each MU can have 16 HUs under it,
and each HU can have 16 RAUs under it.
So, if you do the math, there are 256
RAUs under each MU.
How is the new DRS solution different
from the conventional DAS system? And
what are the greatest benefit that it can
give?
Unlike the conventional DAS, the DRS
solution uses UTP cables to connect to
RAU, a radio antenna unit.
So, it gives you an advantage of less
costs of materials and cabling installation.
The actual costs of installation vary
depending on countries and regions, but
in general installing the DRS solution in a
new building will cost only about 30% of
the costs of installing the conventional
DAS solution.
Tell us more about RAU.
Sure. RAU is a all-in-one device that works
as a wireless transmission and control
module AND an antenna. Especially, the
built-in control module allows MU to
remotely monitor the wireless link status,
making it easy to efficiently manage inbuilding wireless networks. In addition to
that, thanks to POE technology, RAU does
not require separate power supply, which
can be convenient for installation and
operation. n

SK Telecom announced that it, together


with Nokia Networks, commercialized a
core
LTE-A
technology
called
Enhanced
Inter-Cell
Interference
Coordination (eICIC) for the first time
in the world.
eICIC is a technology that controls
signal interference between macro and
micro base stations to enhance the
quality of the LTE-A network. With the
deployment of eICIC, SK Telecom
expects to provide its customers with
enhanced experience by reducing intercell interference by 15% in traffic
congested areas where macro and micro
cells are concentrated.
SK Telecom has applied eICIC to its
LTE-A network located in Gwangju
Metropolitan City and plans to apply the
technology to the rest of its nationwide
LTE-A network by the first half of 2016.
The two companies said that, with the
commercialization of eICIC, they have
also moved a step closer to realizing the
next generation network (5G) as eICIC
will be an essential technology in the era
of 5G where heterogeneous networks
will become more complex.
Together with SK Telecom, we have
achieved an important milestone in
advancing the mobile network through
the development of eICIC. By using
eICIC, SK Telecoms customers can
utilize their existing LTE devices with no
need to buy new smartphones said
Tero Peltola, Vice President of FDD
LTE, Nokia Networks.
SK Telecoms partnership with Nokia
has led to the achievement of the
worlds first commercialization of eICIC,
a powerful technology that will further
improve our customer experience, said
Park Jin-hyo, Senior Vice President and
Head of Network Technology R&D
Center at SK Telecom. n

14

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Korea Communication Review April 2015

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KT to build GiGA IoT-based traffic signal control communication service


03/16/2015|By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

Traffic Signal
Control Center
(Local government)
Traffic Signal
Control Server

Traffic information
center monitor room

KT VPN Server

KT VPN Server

KT GiGAIoT Service

KT announced on March 16th that it will be building a


GiGA IoT-based traffic signal control system that can
control and monitor traffic signals remotely.
The new system, the first of this kind in Korea, will be
able to monitor the status of traffic signal controllers
every second through KT's LTE network.
Installing 100 new conventional traffic lights required
2~3 months of excavation and cabling construction
because traffic lights were connected, through a wired
network, to traffic signal control centers.
However, the new system requires no construction. All
it takes to remotely control traffic signals in real time is
simple installation of a dedicated communication
modem.
This not only can save installation and operation costs,
but also can minimize the failure duration when traffic
lights are not working, effectively preventing congestion
in advance. Also, it does not cause any damage to streets
or sidewalks, nor discomfort to pedestrians because
again it requires no excavation or cabling construction at
all. Also as a preventative measure against illegal
hacking, KT already enhanced its security by integrating
a security solution called Secure Sockets Layer Virtual
Private Network (SSL VPN), capable of encrypting
communication data, into the traffic signal control

KT Mobile
Network

WCDMA
(Backup)

LTE

If LTE network fails,


WCDMA can back up.
Traffic Lights

KT LTE/WCDMA
dual modem
(IoT node)
Traffic status data
updated every second
Standard Traffic
Signal Controller

Sites
(Local government)

Source: KT

system. n

KT's GiGAtopia

Future Convergence Services


Smart Energy (Smart Integrated Safety
Grid, Building Energy (Disaster, Public
Mgt.)
Safety)

Connectivity
Key Requirements

Networked

(ITS, Smart Car)

Next Generation
Media (UHD, 3D
Hologram)

Life-Enhancing
Care (Remote
Healthcare)

Connectivity

Capacity

Capacity

Transportation

Connectivity

IoT
New Media
Telco Cloud Big Data Analysis

GiGA Platform

Backbone
(IP/MPLS)

GiGA Infrastructure

IoT

Mobile Access

Wired Access

n
n

EPON/10G-EPON

Control Data

Wi-Fi AP

LTE-WiFi CA
Multi-band CA

New Spectrum (mmWave)


New RAT
n Massive MIMO
n
n

GiGA
Wire

GiGA
UTP

GiGA
FTTH

500M

1Gbps
500M

1Gbps
500M

Blue: Commercialized in 2014


Red: Planned

GiGA
WiFi

GiGA
Path

GiGA
LTE-A

300M 600M (2015) 450M (2015)


450M (2015) 300M (2015)
225M

D2D

Dense Hetnet

GiGA Wireless(5G)
dozens of Gbps (2020~)

(See Korea big 3, getting


ready for 5G, KCR Jan.
2015)

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15

Korea ICT News & Articles

MODACOM announced
the development of
interworking technology
between oneM2M and
AllJoyn platforms
03/ 05 | By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

MODACOM announced the worlds first


development of interworking technology
between oneM2M and AllJoyn IoT
platforms and introduced it in Mobile
World Congress(MWC) 2015 held in
Barcelona, Spain during 2-5 March 2015.
The AllSeen Alliance made a significant
impact at Mobile World Congress 2015
which culminated in the all-day Partner
Programme track on Wednesday, March
4th to demonstrate Alliance thought
leadership at the intersection of mobile
communications and the Internet of
Things.
Sixteen member companies participated
in thought leadership sessions throughout
the day. Over 350 people attended the
Partner Programme which was standing
room throughout much of the day.
Dr. Yongjin KIM, CTO and EVP of
MODACOM, chaired a technical session
entitled Standards and Interoperability:
Creating a whole that is bigger than the
sum of the parts at the AllSeen Partner
Programme track. At the session he also
introduced the interworking technology
between AllJoyn and oneM2M platform
and showed how to amplify the synergy
effects by combining the two technologies
in IoT industry.
AllJoyn platform has been becoming
popular in IoT market but its
communication area is limited in proximal
connectivity environment. By the way,
oneM2M platform as an international
global standard IoT platform, has remote
monitoring, management and control
functionalities. However, oneM2M devices
are not shown in the market yet because
oneM2M specifications were published
recently.
The interworking technology developed
by MODACOM makes it possible for
AllJoyn enabled IoT devices to be
managed and controlled remotely by using
oneM2M platform technology.
MODACOM has been a member of
oneM2M and ETSI since 2011 for leading
the international standardization activities

Dr. Yongjin KIM, CTO and EVP of MODACOM,


chaired a technical session of AllSeen Partner
Programme, MWC15, and introduced
interworking technology

the international standardization activities


on M2M and IoT. In particular,
MODACOM
has
introduced
the
interworking technique between AllJoyn
and oneM2M at the 15th oneM2M
technical plenary meeting held in Miami,
USA on January 2015 and was welcomed.
MODACOM has a plan to produce IoT
gateway devices with the AllJoyn and
oneM2M interworking technology in the
market this year. n

DAVOLINK introduces
enterprise WLAN
controller and 802.11ac
AP at 2015 CeBIT in
Hanover

airtime
fairness,
especially
when
considering the difficulties that existed in
providing WiFi during the 2014 CeBIT
due to signal interference between APs
and increased traffic amongst users.
In addition, Davolink showcases the
performance of its 802-11.ac based Giga
WiFi product at this years CeBIT. Despite
interference caused by various APs within
the expo, Davolink was able to achieve
download speeds of over 900Mbps on a
notebook and received great reviews from
audiences.
Davolink system technology team
assistant general manager Kang, Chang
Sik, who attended the conference,
explained the advantages of the product
by saying that within large expos like
CeBIT, stable WiFi is difficult due to the
cross signal interference caused by the
numerous APs installed by the event
sponsors and participating companies.

WLAN Controller (SC-2000/400)

03/27 | By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

Davolink has introduced the its smart


802.11ac-based WLAN Controller and
Access Point at the 2015 CeBIT under the
brand name of SmartAirTM.
As society enters the BYOD era, more
and more individuals are using three or
more mobile devices, including mobile
phones, smart pads and notebooks, which
has significantly increased the number of
terminals accessing one AP from 10
terminals in the past to currently
approximately 40~50 terminals.
Within the KOTRA Korean booth in
CeBIT, Davolink installed the companys
SC-400 Controller and three units of
DVW-4038 APs to receive great reviews
by providing high-speed WiFi service freeof-charge to the 34 participating
companies (150 participants). The
company achieved a significant PR effect
by stably providing WiFi services
equipped with the companys exclusive
technologies, AP load balancing and
Airtime Fairness,

802.11ac Access Point

DAVOLINKs WLAN Controller


& 802.11ac Access Point
Even
within
such
a
wireless
environment,
APs
equipped
with
Davolinks exclusive SmartAir wireless
management feature were able to provide
stable WiFi service at speeds of
700~900Mbps.
During the expo, Davolink also
showcased a system management feature
that allows real-time remote monitoring of
operational conditions (number of
terminals, wireless interference level, AP
malfunction level) of WiFi sites in Korea
within the CeBIT site

16

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Korea ICT News & Articles

SK Telecoms weather information system caught the visitors' eye


at MWC 2015
03/16/2015|By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

SK Telecom presented a
variety of fascinating IoT
services at MWC 2105. But,
the most fascinating of all was
Weather Pong.
Weather Pong is a real-time
weather information service
that installs dedicated weather
monitoring sensors and
communication modules (IoT
GWs) at cell sites, collects all
weather information (i.e.
precipitation, temperature,
humidity, atmospheric
pressure, wind direction, wind
speed, etc.), and provides it to
customers like Korea
Meteorological Administration,
etc.
Every minute, weather
information collected by the
sensors at cell sites is sent to
IoT platforms, via the mobile
network.
Today, there are over 1,100
weather sensors, located 1~3

3G

IoT GW(3G)
3G

Weather
Information
API

Cell site 1

Mobile
Network
Weather sensors Cell site

IoT Platform

Weather Information
Server (e.g. Korea
Meteorological
Administration)

Cell site 1,100


Weather Information
SK Telecom

km apart, across the cell sites


in Seoul metropolitan area,
collecting weather information
of higher precision and
accuracy than the Korean
Meteorological Administration
(KMA), which has only about

within the CeBIT site using the companys


Smart Tunnel technology.
With regards to business references and
marketing, assistant manager Kang, Chang
Sik displayed strong confidence by stating
that as of March 2015, our company has
over 50 controller-based wireless solution
references in Korea as well as a customer
who has developed a system utilizing more
than 1100 APs. In the future, we will use
Italy as our base to aggressively market to
new European customers while cultivating
new markets in over 30 countries
globally. n

400 observation stations.


Unlike KMA, SK Telecom
has already had tens of
thousands of cell sites
nationwide, and thus requires
much less costs of leasing
installation sites.

Juni-Korea, with Korea's


innovative small cell
technologies, knocking
on the door of the global
market
03/31 | By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

Small cell technology is starting to shape


up as a very attractive next-generation
income source in the LTE system market.
While many small cell vendors are fiercely
competing with each other, some Korean
vendors are drawing attentions from
many operators, with their extensive
experience in meeting comprehensive and
demanding technical requirements of
Korean telecom operators.
Juni-Korea, one of such vendors,
introduced its three main products at
MWC 2015: home small cell (JL-514),
enterprise small cell (JL-620) and outdoor
small cell (JL-740).

In that regard, weather


information service would be
the IoT service that is best
suitable for mobile operators.
n

The
home/enterprise
small
cell
products are designed to provide a high
speed LTE data service indoors, like home
and enterprise office. The outdoor Small
cell solutions are intended to enhance the
coverage capacity of the conventional
macro cells or a small hotspot coverage.
What is interesting with Juni-Korea is
that it does not supply small cell gateway
(GW) itself, but

Juni-Koreas Outdoor Small Cell

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

17

Korea ICT News & Articles


(GW) itself, but instead provides
compatibility between its small cell
equipment and the GW systems from other
leading vendors, that are already used in
operators' LTE networks.
Serigio Domingo, Sales Director of JuniKorea, said, "We have already completed
interoperability tests with the small cell
gateway system of major LTE vendors
such as Ericsson, Samsung, NSN, Huawei.
We Have been recognized for our
excellent
product
reliability
and
compatibility, by many operators. And we
have supplied our small cell products to
KT in Korea, Telefonica in Latin America,
and Telstra in Australia. Currently, we are
checking with US Cellular in US for
possible sales opportunities." n

Kisan Telecom
introduced Korea's
advanced repeater
technologies in the world
market
03/27 | By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

Despite the recent trend of capacity-driven


network paradigm (such as small cell),
repeater solutions, such as In-building DAS
and RF/ICS repeater, have been
continuously playing a large part in radio
network infrastructure, from 2G/GSM to
LTE.
Particularly,
Korean
telecom
operators have preferred to deploy their
radio network infrastructure with a large
number of repeater systems across the
nation, to win the coverage/service battle.
And the fierce battle has apparently
made Korean repeaters more competitive
than those from other countries, in terms
of product reliability and practical
performance.
Kisan Telecom, one of the well-known
repeater vendors in Korea, introduced its
flagship solutions at MWC 2015: Inbuilding DAS, RF Repeater, and WiFi
products.

Kisans Giga WiFi AP Portfolio

building DAS, RF Repeater, and WiFi


products.
There are two types of In-building DAS
solutions available from Kisan Telecom
depending on antenna cabling types (RF
coaxial or UTP cable): UTP-based and RF
coaxial-based in-building systems.
The person who presented Kisan's
solutions at the event noted that, of the
two, the UTP-based in-building solution is
more attractive because it can utilize
inexpensive UTP cables and POE (Power
over Ethernet) in connecting Antenna
Units (AUs) with a built-in module, which
are to be installed instead of conventional
in-building antennas.
Kisan Telecom has supplied for
Softbank Mobile (SBM) in Japan, and is
currently contacting KDDI and NTT
Docomo to expand its client base in
Japan.
Repeater is another type of radio
equipment. It repeats the radio signals
received from external base stations, and
delivers them to outdoor shadow areas
around buildings or small in-building
shadow areas. The presenter explained
that since RF repeater relays signals in the
same frequency, it is very important to
minimize the processing time (delay time)
of RF repeater to eliminate chances of
signal interference issues (ISI/ICI).
He also said that they made the repeater
system more enhanced by minimizing
processing time (reducing by nearly half),
from 4.7us (reference value for LTE radio
service) to 2.5us.
Kisan's WiFi products exhibited at MWC
2015 were an indoor Giga WiFi AP and
long-range WiFi backhaul equipment,
both complying with IEEE 802.11ac
technology. Unlike a typical WiFi AP, the
indoor Giga WiFi AP supports three
frequency bands - one 2.4GHz band and
two 5GHz bands - and is used for traffic
capacity upgrade in urban areas with high
traffic. Kisan has been supplying this
indoor Giga WiFi AP domestically and
globally (e.g. SBM in Japan).
The outdoor WiFi backhaul solution is
designed for a long-range backhaul
connection, to serve remote areas that
require low capacity, like islands. The
company confirmed that the backhaul
product operates as a couple between
end-points, and it has been tested over
40km distance. n

Infomark, to expand into


IoT market with the
launch of a wearable
device
03/27 | By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

Infomark, generally well-known as "LTE/


WiMAX Mobile Router(Egg) vendor", is
transforming into an IoT device vendor,
supplying their new wearable devices to
SK Telecom..
At MWC 2015, the company introduced
a new wearable device for kids, called
"Kids phone Joon", which caught the
attention of MWC attendants. Kids phone
Joon allows parents to check the
whereabouts of their children, use other
voice call features to assure their safety,
and more. Currently Infomark is supplying
it to SK Telecom in Korea for its IoT
service, and the company is trying to
expand into global markets. Because of
the promising outlook of IoT market,
these types of wearable devices are
expected to get a spotlight globally.
In the meantime, Infomark will continue
to work on marketing/promoting of its
previously released LTE/WiMAX mobile
router that allows WiFi users to share
Internet connections around the mobile
router. The company has so far supplied
the mobile routers to over 30 countries,
and is expected to provide its LTE version
mobile routers to some major US telecom
operators in the second half of the year.

Finedigital unveiled a
radio signal monitoring
technology
03/27 | By NETMANIAS (tech@netmanias.com)

At MWC 2015, Finedigital introduced a


portable RF monitoring system (RIM-430)
that analyzes ultra-wide frequency bands,
interfacing with smart devices like
smartphone, laptop, etc. The eye-catching
point of the system is that RF field
engineers can utilize it in conjunction with
the GPS module built in the system and a
geographical map DB, to locate the
corresponding source, find the directionof-arrival of signal, and outline the
coverage of mobile communication
services. n

Unified Mobile Fronthaul & Backhaul Solutions for LTE-A Hetnet


HFRs flexiHaul Solution

Macro cell Fronthauling

CPRI

GPON

GE
WDM

Small cell Fronthauling


Small Cell Backhauling

S.M. Shin (smshin@hfrnet.com ) and Dr. Michelle M. Do (misun.do@netmanias.com)

The past few years have seen


smartphones rapidly gain popularity and
become one of the most loved daily
essentials, especially with all of their everadvancing multimedia processing
features. Due to these advanced
technologies behind mobile devices, the
size of contents (video, music, picture,
etc.) that users can enjoy on the devices
are growing bigger and bigger every day
(e.g. for videos, resolution SD (480p)
HD (720p) now Full HD (1080p), and
encoding rates, 500Kbps 1Mbps
2Mbps now 4~8Mbps).
Because of this growth, data traffic in
mobile operators' network is soaring, and
will do even more so from now on. To
handle soaring data traffic, operators have
been making macro cells smaller, and this

Centralized/Cloud RAN (C-RAN)

Distributed RAN (D-RAN)

AC

CPRI Traffic

BBU
RRH
IP traffic

Base
Station 2

RRHs
(Outdoor)

RRHs
(Outdoor)

Base Station 1

Power
(UPS)

has apparently left the operators with


more cells to build and operate. To save
costs in building and operating cell sites, a
new architecture called C-RAN was
introduced. It is also known as
Centralized RAN or Cloud RAN. With
this C-RAN, operators can simply leave all
RRHs in their cell sites, but move only
BBUs to a centralized location at central
offices or master cell sites.
C-RAN has drastically lowered the cell
site cost (Capex/Opex), and has
maximized the effects of CoMP and eICIC
of LTE-A. This helps to improve not only
the service quality, but also the LTE-A
network performance. So, many
operators have been actively employing
C-RAN in their networks.
Now that RRHs and BBUs are

CPRI Traffic
RRHs

RRHs

CO

CO

CO

AC

P2P
(Active WDM,
Passive WDM)

Power
(UPS)

BBU
Base Station 3

RRHs

Ring
(Active WDM)

RRHs

BBU

AC
Power
(UPS)

Backhaul
BBU, RRH, A/C, UPS (power),
transport, etc. are all installed at cell
sites (located in leased spaces)
High costs of lease, installation,
utilities, and maintenance
IP traffic aggregated by backhaul
network

Fronthaul (Dark Fiber)

Fronthaul (WDM Network)

In C-RAN, BBUs at cell site are moved to A centralized location (e.g. CO).
C-RAN has drastically lowered the cell site cost (Capex/Opex), and has
maximized the effects of CoMP and eICIC of LTE-A.
A new fronthaul network was required to deliver a huge volume of baseband
I/Q streams between BBUs and RRHs over CPRI or OBSAI interfaces.

Figure 1. LTE RAN Trends: Migration to C-RAN and Fronthaul

remotely separated in C-RAN, a new


network was required in order to deliver
a huge volume of baseband I/Q streams
between the two across CPRI or OBSAI
link. Previously, both RRHs (Remote Radio
Heads) and BBUs (Base Band Units) were
located in eNBs, and the transport
network between them eNBs and EPC
was called backhaul. Now in C-RAN, these
new CPRI and OBSAI networks are called
fronthaul.
The fronthaul network should be able
to satisfy requirements under LTE layer
protocol operation and under the CPRI
specification. First of all, ultra-high
transmission capacity (as high as 2.5
GMbps~10 Gbps) for delivering baseband
I/Q data is required, and latency caused
within equipment in the fronthaul
network should be minimized to a few
secs to maximize the distance between
BBUs and RRHs.
In C-RAN, RRH traces clock and removes
jitter from I/Q streams received from BBU
to generate the clock (CPRI/sampling/
carrier frequency. etc) to be used in RRH
system. So, the RRH system performance
varies depending on the quality of the
recovered clock. Thats why jitter has to
be minimized in the fronthaul network,
and the CPRI specification defines the
maximum frequency accuracy budget as
0.002 ppm. Also, to guarantee the time/
phase synchronization required in LTE-A
(eICIC, CoMP), the CPRI time/phase
synchronization should be strictly
ensured in the fronthaul as well. So, we
can say ensuring low latency and
synchronization between BBU and RRH
are the most important and demanding
jobs for the fronthaul.
There have been several ways to satisfy
such demanding technical requirements.
The best option would be using dark
fiber. But the problem with this option is
that it would only work for those who

Unified Mobile Fronthaul & Backhaul Solutions for LTE-A Hetnet: HFRs flexiHaul Solution | S.M. Shin and Dr. Michelle M. Do

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Passive WDM (No wavelength conversion, transparent)


Colored SFP

TX
RX
TX
RX

1
2
3
4
5
6

...

TX
RX

Port

1
2
3
4
5
6

...

TX
RX

N
MUX/De-MUX
(Optical filters)

RX
TX
RX
TX
RX
TX
RX
TX

MUX/De-MUX
(Optical filters)

Active WDM (Wavelength conversion)


Transponder

TX
RX

RX
TX

TX
RX

TX
RX

RX
TX

TX
RX

RX
TX

TX
RX

RX
TX

TX
RX

RX
TX

TX
RX

RX
TX

TX
RX

Muxponder

TX
RX

1
2
3
4

5
6

5
6

...

TX
RX

1
2
3
4

...

Colorless SFP

N
MUX/De-MUX
(Optical filters)

Transponder
RX
TX

TX
RX

RX
TX

RX
TX

TX
RX

RX
TX

RX
TX

TX
RX

RX
TX

Muxponder

RX
TX

MUX/De-MUX
(Optical filters)

TX
RX

RX
TX

TX
RX

RX
TX

TX
RX

RX
TX

Figure 2. Passive WDM vs. Active WDM

already have plenty of fiber, and others


including most operators would have to
lease it. And obviously this can cost a lot.
For example, a network with LTE Carrier
BW of 20MHz, 2x2 antenna, 3-sector, 2
Bands would require 6 RRHs in each cell
site, which means 6 leased fibers in each
cell site.
The practical option is WDM. With
WDM, just one or two fibers can cover
tens of CPRI channels. So, fiber costs can
be lowered, and high-volume transmission
is possible. There are two types of WDM,
passive and active (Figure 2). The best part
of passive WDM is that it is inexpensive,
and requires no power supply. Besides,
little latency or jitter is caused, and so the
distance between BBU and RRH can be
maximized, without affecting LTE/LTE-A
performance much.
Active WDM is bidirectional (single
fiber). So, dark fiber costs can be lowered.
And by using Muxponder, the number of
required s can be minimized, which can
further lower the fiber costs. Whats even
better, operators can even monitor the
quality of the fronthaul network by
running a self loopback test on WDM
units. But, one thing to note is that active
WDM may cause latency and jitter, which

should be kept under certain levels.

HFR's WDM Solutions for mobile


fronthaul and backhaul
HFR provides both passive WDM and
active WDM solutions. Passive WDM
enables operators to build a high capacity
of C-RAN fronthaul with less cost. HFR
also provides active WDM solutions called
flexiHaulTM. What Our flexiHaul solutions
do is to fronthaul CPRI traffic and
backhaul Ethernet traffic to a single
aggregation network.

Passive WDM Solution

Colored SFP
RT

19

Passive WDM does not contain any active


components like transponder, but instead
is consisted of passive components such
as Add/drop filter, splitter. So, it is
inexpensive and requires no power
supply. Due to the lack of active
components, passive WDM seldom
causes any processing latency (excluding
cable propagation delay) and jitter. Thus,
it can maximize a cable distance between
BBU and RRH, not affecting on the
performance of LTE/LTE-A network.
Consequently, operators can remove no
need to perform interoperability tests
with base station vendors.
Passive WDM multiplexes optical input
signals over a single fiber through WDM
MUX, not converting a wavelength of an
optic signal. An optic transceiver (i.e.,
SFP/Small Form Factor Pluggable) to be
plugged into the customers equipment
like LTE BBU/RRH should be tuned to the
unique optical wavelengths (unit: nm) for
TX and RX port respectively, referring to
the pre-assigned wavelength/channel
table.
HFRs passive WDM solution fully
supports various features and options
such as CWDM or DWDM, single fiber or
fiber pair, protected or unprotected. In CRAN, a physical failure like Fiber cut is
likely to occur because BBU and RRH are
placed tens of Kms away from each other.
Inherently, passive WDM is consisted of
passive components, so it cannot perform
any switching function in itself. In order
to complement the limitation, HFR
provides a small optical switch as an
optional part.
The optical switch is attached to the
forehead of passive WDM at RT(passive
WDM at remote sites) in external or builtin type, providing two input ports (West,
East) connected to COT respectively. The
optical switch determines a route from RT
to COT among the east and west
direction. In addition, passive WDM also
utilizes OTDR which can monitor a signal
quality of optic cable by allocating a
additional wavelength (1,625nm) for
OTDR use.

Colored SFP

RT

Optical
Switch

COT

BBU

COT

BBU

COT

BBU

OTDR
RT

Figure 3. HFR's Passive WDM solution

Active WDM Solution


Basically, active WDM is also based on
the passive components used in passive
WDM, but unlike passive WDM it has the
active components like transponder,
muxponder, etc. added to the passive
components. So, active WDM is relatively
expensive compared to passive WDM and

Unified Mobile Fronthaul & Backhaul Solutions for LTE-A Hetnet: HFRs flexiHaul Solution | S.M. Shin and Dr. Michelle M. Do

20

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Small Cell

Macro Cell Site

Central Office

EPC Site

CPRI Fronthaul
Ba
seb
an
dI
/Q
str
eam

Small RRH

Macro LTE RRH

HSN 8300

8300
TM

CPRI
net
Ether

e
fram
/GE
GP O N

flexHaul
Solution

8300
HSN 8300
GE

BBU Pool
CPRI
GE
HSN 8500

SAE-GW

8500

IP/MPLS
SAE-GW

GE

HSN 8100
8100

Small BS
with Wi-Fi

ls : CPRI traffic
ls : Ethernet traffic

Ethernet Backhaul

Figure 4. HFR's Active WDM solution (flexiHaulTM)

requires a power supply for operation.


Active WDM can convert a wavelength of
optic signal by O-E-O conversion and then
multiplex optic signals over a single fiber
through WDM MUX. Unlike passive WDM,
active WDM removes the need for the
colored optic transceiver (i.e., SFP) tuned
according to the pre-assigned
wavelength/channel table for WDM
transmission, utilizing a common colorless
optical transceiver for customers
equipment (i.e., LTE BBU/RRH).
HFRs active WDM solution is
flexiHaulTM. What Our flexiHaul series do
is to aggregate (fronthauling) macro/
micro/small RRH (CPRI) traffic, and
aggregate (backhauling) legacy base
station, compact base station (pico), and
Wi-Fi traffic with this single aggregation
network.
Our flexiHaul solution consists of the
HSN series (HSN 8500/8300/8100/8110).

HSN 8500 (5U)

HSN 8500 models are installed in BBU


pool sites, and support 40 s and 88 CPRI
ports. These models support the three
CPRI service cards, i) transponder card
that supports four CPRI ports (option
3/5/7), ii) Muxponder card that supports
four CPRI ports (option 2/3), and iii)
Muxponder card that supports two CPRI
ports (option 5). And all three CPRI cards
have been deployed in SK Telecoms
commercial network.
Muxponder cards use one per card.
So, fewer s are required. And that allows
HSN 8500 to aggregate RRHs at the
maximum level. HSN8300/8100/8110
models are RTs installed at cell sites. You
can find their specifications in figure 5.
The flexiHaulTM solution is a fronthaul
solution using WDM, so has no capacity
issue. One HSN 8500 RT can deliver CPRI
traffic up to 180 Gbps. It has many
excellent technical features we have

HSN 8300 (3U)

HSN 8100 (1U)

HSN 8110

HSN 8500

HSN 8300

HSN 8100

HSN 8110

Dimension (WxDxH )

483x435x220

483x435x134

483x435x44.6

Outdoor solution

WDM

CWDM/DWDM

CWDM/DWDM

CWDM/DWDM

CWDM

No. of services cards

22

Outdoor solution

Max CPRI Ports

88

36

CPRI

Option 2-7

Option 2-7

Option 2-7

Option 2-7

OBSAI

3.072/6.144Gbps

3.072/6.144Gbps

3.072/6.144Gbps

3.072/6.144Gbps

Ethernet

4 GE ports

4 GE ports

4 GE ports

G-PON OLT

4 GPON ports

4 GPON ports

4 GPON ports

developed to minimize latency and jitter


which can affect LTE/LTE-A. So, for
example, in a ring with COT and RTs, a
fronthaul end-to-end latency excluding
fiber latency can be kept under 1sec,
and jitter can be kept under a few nsecs.
More than 4,000 flexiHaulTM units are
currently running in many commercial
LTE/LTE-A networks.
HFRs flexiHaulTM solution offers
extremely low latency and jitter. So, it can
maximize the performance of LTEAdvanced features such as CoMP and
eICIC, eventually improving the LTE-A
service quality and network performance.
These days operators are in fierce
competition to attract customers. With
HFR's solution, operators can prevent
customer churn and attract new
subscribers by providing better service
quality than other competitors.
HFR's ring protection within 50 msecs
feature ensures any link failure is
recovered instantly to minimize LTE
service interruption. Not only that,
operators can monitor the quality of the
fronthaul link through BER and CV (Code
Violation) of CPRI data that is being
monitored in real time.

Implementing Mobile Fronthaul/


Backhaul with HFR's WDM
solutions
Every operator has their own RAN
architectures/scenarios they want,
depending on their needs and resources
(available infrastructure, future roadmap,
etc.). Thats what our flexiHaul solution is
for. Because it supports many different
RAN and fronthaul architectures. Table 1
depicts the fronthaul architectures
presented by HFR. BBU pool is located at
CO for the Full Fronthaul architecture,
while it is distributed onto the master
macro cell sites for Hybrid BH/FH
architecture. In Integrated BH/FH
architecture, HFR's WDM network
aggregate both CPRI traffic form RRH and
Ethernet traffic from 3G nodeB, small BS,
or Wi-Fi AP.
Operators should determine a proper
WDM technologies and network
architecture, considering available dark
fibers, a holding and planning frequency
for LTE, cell sites and COs, network
evolution strategy, TCO and so on.

Figure 5. Components of HFR's Active WDM solution (flexiHaulTM)


Unified Mobile Fronthaul & Backhaul Solutions for LTE-A Hetnet: HFRs flexiHaul Solution | S.M. Shin and Dr. Michelle M. Do

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Table 1. HFR's WDM solutions for various fronthaul architectures

active WDM fronthaul or mixed


configuration with active and passive
WDM [Figure 6].

Fronthaul Architecture

Small Cell

Macro Cell

HFR Solution

Full Fronthaul Architecture

Small RRH

Macro RRH

Active, Passive, Mixed

Hybrid BH/FH Architecture

Small RRH

Macro RRH + BBU Active, Passive

Integrated BH/FH Architecture Compact BS, WiFi Macro RRH

Full Fronthaul Architecture


In Full Fronthaul architecture, the BBUs
are centralized at CO, RRHs (macro RRHs
and small RRHs) at cell sites are connected
to the BBU pool over CPRI interfaces. In
this architecture, hundreds of RRHs are
processed by a BBU pool, so the pooling
effect is maximized.

Hybrid BH/FH Architecture


In Hybrid BH/FH architecture, the BBUs
are centralized at master macro sites,
RRHs (macro RRHs and small RRHs) at cell
sites are connected to the BBU pool over
CPRI interfaces. In this architecture, tens
of RRHs are processed by a BBU pool. This
concept describes the fronthaul network
that is built from macro RRHs and small
RRHs extending the macro D-RAN. The
existing backhaul network to macro site is
still utilized, and new fronthaul network is
built based-on the D-RAN macro site.

Active

effect is maximized. It is an optimal


architecture to process LTE-A features
such as CoMP and eICIC.
HFR's active and passive WDM
solutions enables the operators to
implement various full fronthaul
networks - all passive WDM fronthaul, all
active WDM fronthaul or mixed
Cell Sites

CPRI Connectivity

CO/MTSO

Macro Cell
RRH
RU
RU

Small cell
(Small RRH)

CPRI

RT

8300

RRH
RRH
RU
RU

Small RRH
RRH

Passive WDM

Small
Cell

Fronthaul
CO

Small RRH
RRH

BBUs

EPC Site

RRH
RU
RU

Small RRH

Macro
cell
Marco
RRHs

21

COT

Macro RRH

8300

BBU Pool

Active WDM

SAE
GW

8500
CPRI

Access Router
Backhaul

RRH
RU
RU

8300

RT

RRH
RU
RU

Backhaul
flexiHaul HSN 8500: Up to 88 RRHs

...

RRH

...

RRH

Full FH Architecture

8500

CPRI Fronthaul

Ethernet Backhaul

Figure 6. Full Fronthaul Architecture mixed with active and passive WDM solutions
Cell Sites

CPRI Connectivity

EPC Site

Macro Cell

Master
Macro Cell

RRH
RU
RU

Macro cell
Marco
RRHs

CO/MTSO

Small cell
(Small RRH)

Small RRH CPRI 8100


RRH

RRH
RU
RU

Active WDM

Fronthaul

8300

BBU Pool

Small Cell

BBUs

CO

Small RRH
RRH

Access
Router

SAE
GW

Backhaul

RRH
RU
RU

8110

Backhaul

flexiHaul HSN 8300: Up to 36 RRHs

Hybrid BH/FH Architecture

RRH
RRH

...

Master Macro Cell

8300

CPRI Fronthaul

Ethernet Backhaul

Ethernet Backhaul

Figure 7. Hybrid BH/FH architecture (Active WDM case)


Unified Mobile Fronthaul & Backhaul Solutions for LTE-A Hetnet: HFRs flexiHaul Solution | S.M. Shin and Dr. Michelle M. Do

22

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Cell Sites

CO/MTSO

EPC Site

in a small cell area, operators can connect


small cells by accessing microwave
devices through the GE interface of HSN
series. Our flexiHaul series aggregate
(fronthauling) macro/micro/small RRH
(CPRI) traffic, and aggregate (backhauling)
legacy base station, compact base station
(pico), and Wi-Fi traffic in Integrated BH/
FH architecture.

Compact BS
Legacy
3G BS

Compact BS
GPON
Legacy
3G BS
GE
GPON

GE

RRH
RU
RU

Macro RRH
(LTE)

8300

Macro RRH
RRH
RU
RU
(LTE)

BBU Pool
Active WDM

8300

GE

CPRI
8500

Access Router

GE

SAE
GW

Wi-Fi
8300

GE

RRH
RU
RU

Case Study - SK Telecom's


fronthaul architecture & HFR's
WDM solutions deployed

Ethernet Backhaul
Legacy 3G BS

Wi-Fi
Ethernet Backhaul
CPRI Fronthaul

Figure 8. Integrated BH/FH architecture implemented with HFR's flexiHaul solution

The fronthaul network can be deployed


with either active WDM or passive WDM
solutions. Figure 7 shows an example of
fronthaul network built from HFR's active
WDM solutions (HSN 8300/8100).

stations in its cell sites. Our flexiHaul RT


units (HSN 8300/8100) accommodate 3G
BSs through the GE interface, and
connect LTE RRHs through the CPRI
interface. That way, they can
accommodate the two access networks in
a single network.
GE and GPON cards connect small cells
(pico) or Wi-Fi APs. If no fiber is available
in a small cell area

Integrated BH/FH Architecture


When a legacy operator builds an LTE
network, there are already legacy 3G base
stations in its cell sites.

LTE

Rooftop

CPRI

RRH

MAX 30 RRH
Per RT

LTE

Macro
RRH RRH
RU
CPRI RU

1. Small Cell BS (Pico/Femto)


2. Wi-Fi
GPON
LTE
Wi-Fi

# of CO 400
# of BBU Marco Cell 300
# of RRHs 180,000

Legacy Macro Cell Sites C-RAN

Small Cell

BS

Small Cell Backhaul


(planned)

BS

GE

GPON

WDM
RT

C-RAN was initially proposed by Chinas


CM. But, it was Korean operators (e.g., SK
Telecom) who actually commercialized it.
And a fronthaul network, which made CRAN work, was also commercialized by
Korean operators for the first time in the
world. HFR have deployed the flexiHaul
solution in SK Telecoms network since
2012, helping SK Telecom to build its
nation-wide fronthaul network, in 84
major cities. 80% of the fronthaul
networks were built with active WDM,
and 50% of the units deployed were our
flexiHaul. n

RRH
RU
RU

C-RAN: Centralized/Cloud RAN


BBU: Baseband Unit
RRH: Remote Radio Head
SCAN: Smart Cloud Access Network

CO
(SK Telecoms office building)

WDM
RT

EPC

Tens of BBUs
(connecting hundreds of RRHs)

CPRI BBU

Fronthaul: Active WDM COT


RRH
RU
RU

BBU
BBU
...
BBU

Traffic
from GPON

GE
Multi-10GE

SAE
GW

IP/MPLS

WDM
RT

Master Marco Cell


RRH

(Macro cell site with


centralized BBUs)

CPRI

Rooftop

RRH
RU
RU
CPRI

RRH
RU
RU

RT

A few
RRHs

Macro
RRH RRH
RU
RU
Fronthaul:
RT

1. Small Cell BS
(Pico/Femto)
2. Wi-Fi

BS
BS

Active WDM

GPON
Small Cell
Backhaul
(planned)

GPON

RRH
RU
RU
WDM
RT

Fronthaul Technology of SK Telecom: Active WDM


BBU Macro Cell
Backhaul

Deployed HFR Solution: HSN Series

A few BBUs

CPRI
COT
WDM

Deployed Fronthaul Vendor: HFR

HSN 8500 (5U)

(connecting
tens of RRHs)

BBU
...
BBU

10GE (Ring, P2P)

GE
Traffic from
GPON

IP/MPLS Router
(ALU, Cisco, Juniper)

HSN 8300 (3U)

HSN 8100 (1U)

VERY LAST MILE

LAST MILE

CPRI Fronthaul (Active WDM COT &RT: HFR HSN 8500/8300/8100)


IP/MPLS/Ethernet Backhaul

Figure 9. The fronthaul architecture of SK Telecom and HFR's WDM solutions deployed in SK Telecom
Unified Mobile Fronthaul & Backhaul Solutions for LTE-A Hetnet: HFRs flexiHaul Solution | S.M. Shin and Dr. Michelle M. Do

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

23

HFR have been stabilizing and optimizing systems in


real commercial networks, and have accumulated
technical know-how for many years. And those
experiences and know-how are our biggest assets that
can make us ready to work any time. Our solutions are
not in the proof of concept (POC) step, but are fully
proven, ready to use. Thats what really put us ahead
of everyone else. We are the ONLY one who can
achieve the best time-to-market with the least trial
and error in building a fronthaul network.

The interoperabilIty with leading RAN vendors has


been proven by field and/or lab. Tests in Korea, Japan,
China, Taiwan, Russia, Indonesia, etc.

Approximately 145,000 RRHs (80% of all LTE RRHs) are


connected to C-RAN fronthaul since 2011, and more
than 60% of the SK Telecom fronthaul is connected to
flexiHaul.
- Number of systems: about 4,000
- Number of 10G sub-rate muxponder cards: about
24,000

HFR have been supplying Fronthaul solutions to SK


Telecom for large deployment, and also to Chunghwa
Telecom (CHT), a Taiwanese operator, who is expected
to have growing demand for large-scale commercial
network soon. Especially, Chunghwa recognized the
technological excellence and high reliability of our
solutions, and so HFR were selected as its sole vendor.

- Ericsson LTE system


- Nokia LTE and 3G system
- Samsung LTE system
- Huawei LTE system
- ZTE LTE system

HFRs flexiHaulTM Solution !

About HFR (www.hfrnet.com)


HFR has been actively responding to the Cloud RAN market under LTE environment. We expect that our front-haul solution will
become representative product in global equipment market. Also, HFR has been leading the high-speed internet equipment with the
development for Giga Internet service area. Based on its competitive solutions in the wire and wireless communications fields, HFR is
determined to become Koreas leading network equipment company.
l Location and Contact Information

5th floor, Hana EZ tower,10, 43gil, Seongnam-daero, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
TEL 82-31-712-7768 | FAX 82-31-712-7948 | E-MAIL resonant@hfrnet.com
l For more information, please visit us at http://www.hfrnet.com

Unified Mobile Fronthaul & Backhaul Solutions for LTE-A Hetnet: HFRs flexiHaul Solution | S.M. Shin and Dr. Michelle M. Do

24

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Why do we need antenna-integrated RRH?


In-Ho Kim, Head of AAS group, KMW (inghoo@kmw.co.kr)

Background of Antenna-Integrated
RRH
Mobile data traffic has been soaring ever
since smartphones were first introduced
and spread throughout the world. The
traffic increase gave rise to faster
introduction of 4G - well maybe too fast
because now operators are having a hard
time lowering costs of building and
operating networks. In response, mobile
base stations are being transformed
accordingly. RRHs are more commonly
used because they can minimize radio
transmission loss by allowing radio parts,
which used to be installed indoor, to be
placed closer to antennas.
Most RRHs and antennas today are
placed pretty close to each other on a
building's rooftop, tower, etc., but they
still need a 2~3-meter-long connection
cable between them to exchange signals
with each other. As RRHs are moved out
of a building and onto a rooftop, where
only antennas used to be placed,
operators are facing new challenges securing space for a variety of products
from different manufacturers that are run
by different operators for different
frequency bands, and achieving reliability
of the frame structures where those
products are mounted.

Particularly installing RRHs and antennas


on building rooftops or small towers in
big cities can be not only undesirable
from an aesthetic point of view, but also
an obstacle in building a network from
operators' point of view.
To solve these issues in distributed cell
sites, antenna-integrated RRH solution
was introduced.

Features of Antenna-Integrated
RRH
In 2012, Ericsson introduced AntennaIntegrated Radio (AIR), the first of this
type, soon followed by our Remote Radio
Antenna (RRA), Huawei's Active Antenna
Unit (AAU), etc. These types of antennaintegrated RRHs have the following four
characteristics:
Less signal transmission loss between
antenna and RRH
In a conventional cell cite, an antenna
and RRH are connected usually with a
2~3-meter-long connection cable, and
this contributes to transmission loss of
about 0.6~0.7 dB. An antenna-integrated
RRH solution however can eliminate this
loss, resulting in more energy savings.
Antenna-integrated RRH solutions from
other developers may minimize the

length of connection cables, but still need


a connection cable, short or long, to
work. However, our Multi Semi Blind
Mating (MSBC) solution can literally
eliminate the necessity of a connection
cable, consequently minimizing the
transmission loss. Also it is the only
solution that allows only the defective
RRH to be replaced on the site.
This RRH-replaceable solution is
particularly helpful to RRHs that are
intended to support multi-band
frequencies (e.g. dual band, tri-band).
For instance, let's say there is an all-inone dual band RRH that supports both 1.8
GHz and 700 MHz. If 1.8 GHz RRH fails,
then not only the failed RRH, but also the
other working 700 MHz RRH has to be
replaced.
For this reason, some operators in
Japan or Europe prefer onsite-replaceable
solutions. We are currently developing a
solution that will allow for onsite
replacement of only the failed RRH. With
this solution, any failed RRH can be easily
replaced on the site without using any
tool in just 3 steps. The key factors of this
solution (Fig. 2) are :
Development of compact and light RRH
(2T4R, 12L, 12kg)
Multi Semi Blind Connection (MSBC)
solution
Special latch design

Antenna

RRH

Jumper Cable

Figure 1. Antenna, RRH and jumper cable


at cell site

Figure 2. RRA (antenna-integrated RRH solution by KMW)


Remote Radio Antenna (RRA) is a brand name of antenna-integrated RRH by
the author's company

Why do we need antenna-integrated RRH? | In-Ho Kim (inghoo@kmw.co.kr)

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Less CAPEX/OPEX burden on operators


In conventional structures, antennas and
RRHs have to be installed separately,
which means higher installation costs and
more space to lease. On the other hand,
an antenna-integrated RRH Gives
operators advantage of lower costs of
installation and space lease because it
only takes one installation of an antenna.
So it is a very cost-efficient option when
we think about the money that can be
saved throughout the entire leasing
period. Also, it is a smart space-saving
solution to overcome limited lease space
issues.
We dont have
space on the
tower anymore
(T-Mobile)
We have
difficulties of
site build
(France Telecom)

Reduction of physical load on frame


structures
Frame structures on towers or rooftops of
a building are affected not only by weight
of the installed products, but also by wind
loads. Because our new solution RRA
allows RRHs to be attached right to the
back of an antenna, wind loads on the
face of RRHs can be eliminated. This can
help to install more RRHs in limited space
on towers or rooftops of buildings.

Figure 3. RRA tower (less wind load in


the back of antenna)

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Development of eco-friendly structure


and improvement of Passive Intermodulation Distortion (PIMD) quality
One of the most common cell site
structures that we find on rooftops or
small towers of buildings in cities consists
of antennas, RRHs and cables that
connect the two. I personally believe
these eco-friendly structures should be
modified to be, at least, without any
connection cable. What has satisfied this
need the most so far would be Ericsson's
AIR.
Probably because Ericsson cooperated
with a professional design consulting firm
from the initial stage of the development,
the company could end up with AIR - with
a nicer and simpler design. Not much
impressive reliability or price
competitiveness, though.
Connecting an antenna with RRHs in a
tower is a pretty demanding and
dangerous job that can be done by only
those with experiences. Improper
connection by a less-experienced person
can cause poor PIMD and waterproofing
issues. When more than two frequencies
are combined, a new unwanted
frequency can be generated as a result of
the synthesis of fundamental and
harmonic waves of the two original
frequencies. This distortion is called
PIMD. Distorted signals detected within
the receiving frequency band can affect
the receiving performance of system. This
is why PIMD is considered as an
important factor in RF products. So, if we
can just skip this whole troublesome
connecting process, there will be no
problem to take care of at all.

Figure 4. Connecting antennas and RRHs


(not an easy job!)

25

As discussed so far, the antennaintegrated RRH solution certainly offers


features that can take care of the issues
the distributed cell sites have. However,
the concept of the integrated solution
moving RRHs next to an antenna, where
replacement of failed RRH(s) can be tricky
- has been a concern, particularly to
operators who tend to be conservative
unavoidably. Operators have once had a
similar concern. During the transition
from the conventional cell site to the
distributed cell site structure, they were
worried about moving radio parts (filter +
amplifier) up to towers, again where
replacement can be tricky.
Today, RRHs are commonly used in LTE
networks, and the Mean Time Between
Failure (MTBF) issue has also been
improved as more advanced production
technologies and parts have become
available.

Outlook for the AntennaIntegrated RRH Market


Figure 5 shows the EJL Wireless
Researchs forecast of the antennaintegrated RRH market. The market is
expected to continue to grow after 2015.
KMW is also planning to supply our
products in the US market starting 2015.

Figure 5. Antenna-integrated RRH


(Semi-Active Antenna) market forecast

Why do we need antenna-integrated RRH? | In-Ho Kim (inghoo@kmw.co.kr)

26

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Installation Issues in the Small Cell


Market
Discussion on installation of small cell
base stations (except DAS), as well as
macro cell stations, has also begun. While
macro base stations can be installed in
towers or on rooftops, small cell base
stations are usually installed in places that
can be easily spotted, like on street lights,
bus stops, 2nd Or 3rd floor of buildings,
etc. And the number of small cell base
stations to be installed is likely to be
greater than that of macro cell base
stations.

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

The biggest benefit of these solutions is


that they can improve street landscape by
minimizing the appearance of all these IT
equipment and eliminating all the messy
cables (CCTV option available in Green
Cell).
There are some challenges facing these
solutions as well. Installing new street
lights with small cells is a quite expensive
procedure. Besides, the solutions and
their installations have to satisfy all the
conditions under the relevant laws and
regulations. Given that, it would take
some time until they can be finally

Figure 6. Street light-integrated small cell solutions


To address this, lots of converged/
integrated solutions are being introduced.
The two most noteworthy solutions are
KMW's Green Cell and Ericsson's Zero Site,
both of which features a small cell base
station that can be installed on a pole with
energy-saving LED street lights.

implemented. Nevertheless, if we can


somehow make them run on renewable
energy, which happens to be one of my
research areas, independently from the
central energy source, they can actually
be a feasible and useful idea in future
urban planning.

A number of feasible ideas on small cell


solutions have been shared. I personally
believe that the No. 1 priority in small cell
solutions should be design or
convergence. That's because people do
not like to see untidy and messy cables
hanging off street lights or buildings, and
thus operators are likely to face more
challenges and restrictions when
installing small cell base stations than
when installing macro cell base stations.
Anyway, the most practical approach
for now would be an all-in-one solution
similar to macro cell, which would not be
easy due to limited installation spaces for
the foregoing reasons. A Japanese
operator has requested for a solution to
this issue.
Another possible approach would be
installing RRHs somewhere that cannot
be easily spotted, like behind signs or
frame structures. However judging from
my own experiences of conducting ecofriendly researches, it is less likely that
operators would love the idea because of
high costs required for product lineup,
installation and management.
For me, the keywords are naturalness
and convergence. With a simpler design
and softer light, we can make the small
cell hardware platform not look like a
typical communication device.
Furthermore, we can add more features
like street light, CCTV, beamvertising,
etc., transforming it from a conventional
mono-function platform into a useful
multi-function platform. More interesting
ideas can be brought up to help operator
to build up a positive brand image. n

In-Ho Kim
(inghoo@kmw.co.kr)
Head of AAS group
KMW
(http://www.kmw.co.kr/
eng/index.html)

Figure 7. Radio Bank (KMW Small Cell Hardware Platform)

A Head of Active Antenna System (AAS)


Group at KMW's RF Research Center for
R&D of antenna and RF radio
Research/development fields: Active
Antenna System, RF Radio (Antenna, RRH)
Research interests: Beam forming
Calibration, Small-cell, Massive MIMO,
Thermal and Light Weight material
architecture

Why do we need antenna-integrated RRH? | In-Ho Kim (inghoo@kmw.co.kr)

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

27

B2C IoT services available from Korean operators (right green box: commercialized service)
Category

Services

Description

SK Telecom
Health

Life

Entertainment

Safety

Telecare

Remotely monitors activities of the elderly living alone or the severely disabled by using
HD cameras, and sends alerts in case of fire, gas detection, emergency calls, etc.

Smart Band

Wearable watch that notifies users of incoming calls, SMS/MMS, emails and SNS
updates, but also provides fun features like physical exercise and health-care for users.

Smart Hearing Aid

Bluetooth earset that provides basic earset features plus a four-channel hearing aid
feature for people with hearing loss

T-Car

Provides T-car service users (drivers) with vehicle-related information on their


smartphone for easier maintenance using a wireless modem (3G, LTE) and a controller
C
built into vehicles. The users can start their car remotely using T-Car app downloaded on
their smartphone.

Eggo-mate

Personal assistant service that arranges/organizes events, meetings and schedules and
even sends messages on behalf of a user.

Smart Shopper

Allows users to just scan the barcodes of desired items using a scanner instead of
actually putting them in a cart, and pay at once at a kiosk. Extra service like home
delivery of purchased items may be available too.

Smart Stamp

Allows users to get electronic coupons or have reward cards stamped on their
smartphone, and use them just like real printed coupons and cards.

Smart Creditcard

Saves information of many credit cards onto one *BLE-enabled electronic card so that
card holders can make payment using the card without having to carry all the cards.

Shopkick

Provides shoppers with various shopping information related to nearby stores (like
coupon, discount, rewards) on their smartphone as they pass by.

Smart Home

Remotely switches on/off and cOntrols all home appliances/devices through the IoT
platform/network (1. Air-purifier/air-conditioning/refrigerator, 2. Boilers/door-locks/
dryers)

Smart Furniture

Users can use the Internet, listen to the radio, search for news or recipes, food prices
and the weather, and even make a phone call using the touch screen on their furniture,
such as dressing tables and cabinet doors.

Smart Mirroring

Mirrors smartphone or tablet screen onto TVs or larger screens using Wi-Fi network.

Bike solution (LBS)

Provides IoT-based integrated bike management services, including i) theft/loss


prevention service, and ii) registration/management service, through a built-in Beacon
sensor.

Play With
(Ballpark)

Provides smartphone users in a ballpark with various location-based information on


events at the ballpark, promotions at shops, etc. in real time, by using Beacon devices
installed at the ballpark and related IoT platforms.

Solar skin

Solar-powered smartphone charging case that uses light to generate electric current to
charge a smartphone battery.

Smart Audio Linkage


(FLAC)

Portable Wi-Fi speaker capable of supporting a high quality music files such as Free
Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC)

Smart Beam HD

Small sized projector built with laser technology to project a high definition and brighter
image

T kidsphone Joon

Allows parents to check the whereabouts and safety of children through the information
transmitted from the wearable 3G phone of their children. Offers child safety-related
C
features like emergency calling, SOS notification, real-time location tracking and Safe
Zone setting.

Electronic Anklet

Keeps track of sex offenders' whereabouts in real-time via an anklet with built-in sensor
they are wearing.

PointCam

Monitors CCTV footages recorded at remote sites in real-time via smartphone or PC.

28

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

B2C IoT services available from Korean operators (right green box: commercialized service)
Category

Services

Description

KT
Health

Life

Home Fitness

Checks and provides statistics on speed, distance, and calories burned, by using sensors
built into sportswear, sports shoes, training machines, etc., and connectivity options like
IPTV set top box, smartphone.

Smart Air

Monitors indoor air pollution levels and sends pollution alerts through interworking with
an external IoT big data platform. Controls the IoT enabled air-cleaning system
accordingly.

Yodoc

Portable self-diagnosis urine analyzer for self-checkup at home.

Smart Doorlock

Unlocks a door using an NFC-enabled smartphone that has a mobile key stored into the
USIM card. Apps for issuing mobile keys are available from operators at charge.

Home IoT

Remotely switches on/off and controls lights and plugged-in appliances using the IoT
platform at or away from home. Helps to conserve energy over time by preventing
unnecessary power usage.

Smart Mirror

Senses IoT users' movement through D2D technology, and displays various information
(weather, temperature, traffic and etc.) on the mirror by interworking with an IoT
platform. Can also displays personal digital albums (photo/video) and SMS messages as
well.

Tap sign

Unlike conventional E-commerce, this service allows a credit card company to


authenticate an e-commerce transaction on a smartphone (NFC enabled), simply by
placing a "Tap Sign" credit card (RF IC chip inside) on the smartphone.

Entertainment Giga Sound

Qualcomm's "Allplay" technology-based music service. It enables an IoT based wireless


speaker to play the music (supporting FLAC) that is being played through a music app.
on smartphone (e.g Genie service) via a wireless IoT network

Safety

U secure service

Alerts parents or caregivers if a child leaves the designated safety zone.

Emergency safety
care services

Sensors installed at home detect any emergency situation of the elderly living alone or
the severely disabled, sending alerts to their designated caregivers as needed.

LG U+
Health

Smart Healthcare

IoT-based spiral health care solution (posture control, correction, etc.)

Life

Home manager

Remotely switches on/off and controls lights and plugged-in appliances using the IoT
platform/network (interworking home appliances: Gas lock, Smart bulb, smart plug,
Door lock, door view, Air-conditioning, refrigerator)

Life

Magic Mirror

Precisely diagnoses skin conditions through the magic mirror equipped with a special
camera and display, offering various skin care solutions

Life

Car Link

Displays services and features on smartphone in the display/screen in a vehicle


(Connected car)

Safety

LTE Blackbox

In case of accidents, LTE blackbox installed in a vehicle of a nursery/kindergarten


automatically sends recorded data to LG U+'s control server through LTE network, while
alerting an related administrator and parents.

Safety

Home CCTV Momca

Remotely monitors children's academic and daily activities at nursery/kindergarten in


real-time through CCTV.

Safety

Gas Lock

Remotely checks and turns off the gas valve from anywhere using a smartphone, and
also features overheat alert, automatic lock, timer setting, etc.

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

29

B2B IoT services available from Korean operators (right green box: commercialized service)
Category

Services

Description

KT
B2B

B2G

LTE Drone

Performs HD video transmission and real-time control using LTE modem-equipped


drones : Broadcasting, Fire, Military area

LTE CCTV

Monitors activities at remote sites in real-time on CCTV through LTE network

Digital
Tachograph(DTG)

Records and sends driving information of a vehicle, such as location, distance to the
control center, etc., by using DTG (Digital Tachograph) system and a wireless modem in
the vehicle.

MOS

Remotely monitors and controls the status of facilities and equipment in a big building
complex, factory, plant, etc.
*MOS: Monitoring, Maintenance and Management Operating System

Smart energy

Measures, analyzes and manages the amount of energy consumed by corporate or


individual person.

Bus stop shelter

Provides bus passangers with various information and advertising service through media
C
outlets at bus stop shelters (partnered with KT media hub)

Eco Food Bin

Keeps track of the amount of waste discharged in an individual RFID built-in container,
and delivers the information to the main system of Korea Environment Corporation
(KECO) for billing.

Traffic Signal Control


Communication
Service

Monitors the system status information of the traffic signal controllers remotely through
C
a built-in LTE modem, minimizing traffic jams caused by traffic system errors.

Smart Voting

Issues voting papers for remote voters through smart voting terminals installed by the
Election Authority.

SK Telecom
B2B

B2G

Smart DTG

Remotely collects and transmits DTG (Digital Tachograph) information of vehicles


through a wireless communication module (GPS-embedded).

Smart Eco-driving

Offers cost-efficient driving solutions for commercial vehicles (cargo, bus, etc.),
supporting features such as real-time location/operation reporting, DTI, eco-driving
information, travel route/tracking.

T Smart Farm

Provides diverse remote control features for indoor/outdoor farms through IoT/M2M
infrastructure (open/close water, turn on/off heater, pesticide application, CCTV
footages).

Smart Fish Farm

Monitors the growth and health of fish (eels), measuring the quality of water in the eel
fish tank.

Location-based
(Beacon+Glass)

The Beacon-based LBS helps workers to easily trace accurate locations items/products,
and the Smart Glass transmits videos captured at sites to the control center, by
combining Beacon with Smart Glass platform.

CLOUD BEMS

Monitors/analyzes/manages energy usage in building facilities through a cloud-based


BEMS (Building Energy Management System) for energy-saving

Wireless ATM service

Provides the existing ATM service with a wireless connection using LTE router

Weather Planet

Provides high-resolution weather information collected by AWS (Automatic Weather


Stations) located at SKTs base station sites.

Lake water
monitoring

Monitors the quality of lake water and sends the collected data through a wireless
modem.

LG U+
B2B

Smart Locker

Enables operators to check the conditions and status of the automated locker systems in
C
subway stations in real time, by using LTE router device. Also, the systems can be
upgraded and managed effectively through wireless connection.

30

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Netmanias Interview with KT at MWC 2015 (1)

KT's Demonstrations of LTE-H and LTE-U


Dr. Michelle M. Do and Dr. Harrison J. Son (tech@netmanias.com)

LTE-Hetnet (LTE-H)

LTE-H (LTE-Hetnet)
EPC

5GHz
(Unlicensed)

Samsung

CPRI

GE

BBU
Samsung

Macro RRH
Samsung

s
bp
0M TE
L
15

KT successfully demonstrated LTE-H, LTE-WiFi


Link Aggregation, for the first time in the world, by
using Samsung's LTE base station and WiFi AP,
and Qualcomm's modem chip for mobile devices.
As seen in Figure 1, the new LTE-H achieved a
speed higher than 600Mbps.
LTE-H is a link aggregation technology that
combines two different radio access technologies
(RATs) - LTE and WiFi - while the conventional
carrier aggregation (CA) in LTE-A combines
multiple LTE carriers. This new technology enables
a device to use both LTE and WiFi networks
simultaneously, and so it can significantly enhance
speeds by combining two networks' best achievable
rates.
In the demonstration, a total of 600 Mbps - 150
Mbps from LTE and 450 Mbps from WiFi AP - was
achieved.
With LTE-H, a base station collects from AP the
information on the signal received strength
between a device and WiFi AP, and automatically
controls (i.e. turns on/off) WiFi connection. That is,
whether to use both LTE and WiFi or just LTE is
the network's decision, not a user's decision.
[Network environment demonstrated] KT's demo
was run in cooperation with Samsung and
Qualcomm. The architecture of KT's commercial
RAN is Centralized-RAN (C-RAN) architecture.
So, in the demonstration, the same C-RAN
architecture was used for the base station,
separating Baseband Unit (BBU) and Remote Radio
Head (RRH) from each other.
An 802.11ac-based GiGA WiFi AP is also used.
BBU and RRH are connected through Common
Public Radio Interface (CPRI) interface, whereas
BBU and WiFi AP are connected through gigabit
Ethernet interface, which seems pretty interesting.
The 1.8GHz RRH operates with 20MHz and the

5GHz WiFi AP operates with 40MHz. The mobile


device can simultaneously receive data from LTE
RRH as well as WiFi AP.
In the LTE-H demonstration, link aggregation
was performed between BBU and UE on Packet
Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) layer. On BBU's
PDCP layer, PDCP scheduler classifies PDCP
packets into two groups - destined for RRH and for
WiFi AP. Those destined for RRH are delivered
through CPRI interface as conventionally done,
whereas those destined for WiFi AP are delivered
through Ethernet.
Unlike conventional APs, the WiFi AP used in the
demonstration is aware of PDCP.

20MHz@1.8GHz LTE

modem

0M
45

s
bp

80
2.
11

At Barcelona's Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2015, KT


demonstrated a variety of new 5G, Hetnet and IoT technologies
and services (see table 1, p. 33). Of all those presented, below we
will focus on our most interested topics, WiFi-related pre-5G
technology, LTE-Hetnet (LTE-H) and LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U),
and see how they were demonstrated.

Wi-Fi

modem

Wi-Fi AP
Samsung
40MHz@5GHz

600Mbps

Device Qualcomm

Wi-Fi: 477.5Mbps
LTE: 146.6 Mbps

Figure 1. KT's LTE-H demonstration at MWC 2015

KT's Demonstrations of LTE-H and LTE-U | Dr. Michelle M. Do and Dr. Harrison J. Son (tech@netmanias.com)

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Korea Communication Review April 2015

RLC
Adap.
MAC
PHY

PDCP-aware

BBU
PDCP scheduling

450 Mbps

802
.11
ac

PDCP
LTE 2 1
RLC
MAC
PHY

L TE

I/Q stream
CPRI

600Mbps

20MHz@1.8GHz
150 Mbps

Link aggregation
WiFi

UE
5 4 3
5 4 3 2 1

IP

EPC

WiFi

IP packets
GE

PDCP

5 4 3 2 1

Wi-Fi AP
(802.11ac ) 40MHz@5GHz

RLC
Adap. RLC
MAC MAC
PHY
PHY

User IP packets

5 4 3

31

2 1

LTE

RRH

Figure 2. Link aggregation by LTE-H demonstrated at MWC 2015


So it can convert PDCP packets received from BBU
into 802.11 frames and forward them to UE. The
UE, upon receiving PDCP packets from both RRH
and WiFi AP, aggregates the PDCP packets on
PCDP layer and forwards user IP packets to the
upper layer.
According to a person from KT who conducted the
demonstration, although link aggregation was
demonstrated only on PDCP layer this time, the
company is currently considering possible link
aggregation on RLC level as well. He also confirmed
that many different deployment scenarios,
including macro/small RRH, are being reviewed
now.
Of all Korean big 3 operators, KT has the most
extensive hotspot WiFi sites, and it has also built a
dedicated backhaul network that connects all GiGA
WiFi APs installed at each site with 1GE. KT plans
to operate a trial LTE-H network that supports
giga-class speeds at its hotspots across the nation
through interconnection between the LTE-H
network and its extensive WiFi network, by the first
half of 2016.
[Issue 1. Once LTE-H is commercialized, will WiFi
service remain free?] Today, WiFi service is free but
LTE service is a pay-per-packet (volume-based
charging) service. In case of LTE service, P-GW is
in charge of packet accounting by user. But with
LTE-H, if a user downloads some data, then the
amount of data downloaded through WiFi should
not be charged because it is free. To determine the
amount of data to be charged, P-GW must know

whether each packet is to be delivered through WiFi


or LTE, which is practically impossible. The only
possible way would be for BBU, which determines
whether packets go through WiFi or LTE, to do
packet accounting and inform P-GW or charging
server.
However, there is no standard concerning this,
yet. So quite a lot of technological and policyrelated issues can be encountered when actually
commercializing LTE-H and determining WiFi
packet charging policy.
[Issue 2. How do we connect DU and WiFi AP?]
BBUs are mostly located at major Central Offices
(COs) while APs can be anywhere (typically,
hotspots). Then how can we connect them? (where
the GE lines are required)

LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U)
Another new aggregation technology KT showcased
with Samsung and Qualcomm was LTE Unlicensed
(LTE-U, or Licensed-Assisted Access (LAA) as
defined in 3GPP). LTE-U is LTE CA between LTE
licensed and unlicensed bands. As seen in Figure 3,
LTE-U achieved almost 450 Mbps at the
demonstration site.
[Network environment demonstrated] As in LTEH, KT showcased LTE-U in cooperation with
Samsung and Qualcomm. The LTE base station was
provided by Samsung, and the modem chip for the
mobile device was provided by Qualcomm.
Again, the architecture of the LTE base station used
in the demonstration is C-RAN architecture, and
hence BBU and RRH are separated from each

KT's Demonstrations of LTE-H and LTE-U | Dr. Michelle M. Do and Dr. Harrison J. Son (tech@netmanias.com)

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Korea Communication Review April 2015

BBU

Link aggregation

RRH

5GHz (20MHz) Unlicensed LTE

I/Q stream
CPRI
5G

5GHz (20MHz)

RRH
I/Q stream
CPRI

LTE

5 4 3 2 1

IP

1.8GHz(20MHz)
Licensed LTE

Figure 4. KT's LTE-U architecture demonstrated at MWC 2015

LTE-U (LTE-Unlicensed)
5GHz
(Unlicensed)

EPC
Samsung

CPRI

CPRI

BBU
Samsung

Macro RRH
Samsung

20MHz@1.8GHz

s
bp
0M TE
L
15

other. BBU is connected to two LTE RRHs (licensed


1.8GHz RRH and unlicensed 5GHz RRH) through
CPRI interface.
The 1.8GHz RRH operates with 20MHz and the
5GHz RRH operates with 40MHz (2x20MHz). So
the mobile device can download data at up to
450Mbps through total 60MHz obtained by
aggregating 3 carriers.
LTE-U aggregates LTE carriers just like the
conventional LTE-A CA does, but it is different
from the conventional LTE-A CA in that:
i) it uses the unlicensed 5GHz band.
ii) the cell that uses a licensed band always works
as a primary cell, and the one(s) that use an
unlicensed band work as secondary cell(s).
That is, mobile devices are always connected to
licensed bands, and unlicensed bands are used
supplementary only when SCells become activated
by PCell.
What makes LTE-U different form LTE-H is that
it uses LTE instead of WiFi in unlicensed bands.
The strong growth in LTE subscription/traffic has
imposed the burden on operators of acquiring
additional LTE frequency. Given the circumstance,
LTE-U is very attractive to operators because i)
unlicensed bands are free, and ii) LTE is more
frequency-efficient and more robust to interference,
compared to WiFi. But at the same time, there still
is an issue to be solved. BecauSe WiFi has long been
using unlicensed bands almost exclusively, the
question of how LTE co-exists with WiFi is left
unanswered [1]. Especially, as WiFi is now handling
more and more voice/video services, there is an
inevitable, growing concern about possible
degradation in delay performance to be caused by
co-existence of LTE and WiFi. 3GPP Rel.13,

LTE

modem

30
LT 0M
bp
LT E
s
E

EPC

1.8G 5G

5 4 3 2 1

LTE
LTE

UE

PDCP
RLC
MAC
PHY PHY PHY
5G 5G 1.8G

User IP packets

PDCP
RLC
MAC
MAC
PHY PHY PHY

32

Small RRH

LTE

20+20MHz@5GHz

Samsung

modem

450Mbps

Device Qualcomm

Figure 3. KT's LTE-U demonstration at MWC 2015


currently working on establishment of LAA
standards, is putting efforts to have Listen Before
Talk (LBT) supported when LTE uses unlicensed
bands, for peaceful co-existence of LTE and WiFi. n

[1] See Debates on LTE-Unlicensed and WiFi in Netmanias KCR (Jan. 2015 issue)

KT's Demonstrations of LTE-H and LTE-U | Dr. Michelle M. Do and Dr. Harrison J. Son (tech@netmanias.com)

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Korea Communication Review April 2015

33

Table 2. Comparison of link level Carrier Aggregation technologies (LTE-A CA, LTE-H and LTE-U)
Category

LTE-A CA

LTE-H

BBU

Licensed band

LTE Network

Unlicensed band
WiFi band (5 GHz)

SCell

LTE
modem

Macro Cell

E
LT
LTE
modem

SCell

SCell

1
2.1
80 5 GHz

LTE
modem

LTE
modem

Wi-Fi
modem

Macro Cell
Wi-Fi AP
LTE-WiFi Link Aggregation

Small Cell

LTE Network
PCell

E
LT

SCell

WiFi Network

PCell

E
LT

L
LT TE
E

PCell

E
LT

LTE Band 5 (850 MHz)

PCell

BBU

BBU

LTE Network

LTE Band 3 (1.8 GHz)

LTE-U

TE
LLT 5 GHz
LTE
modem

Macro Cell

Small Cell

CA Type

CA using licensed LTE bands

CA using licensed LTE and unlicensed WiFi

CA using licensed LTE and


unlicensed LTE

RAT

Single RAT (LTE only)

Multi-RAT (LTE and WiFi)

Single RAT (LTE only)

Licensed

Licensed

Licensed

CA band

PCell

2. Link aggregation by LTE-H demonstrated


at MWC
2015
Licensed
Unlicensed
(5GHz)
SCellFigure

CA level

Link level (MAC layer)

Table 1. KT @MWC 2015


Category

Link level (PDCP layer)

Unlicensed (5GHz)
Link level (MAC layer)

Technology/Service

Partner

LET-HetNet (LTE-H)
LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U)

Samsung & Qualcomm


Samsung & Qualcomm

LTE-Beyond (LTE-B)

Samsung

LTE-MTC (LTE-M)

Nokia

LTE-DL/UL CA
Triple Mode Cell

Nokia
Broadcom

5G Innovation

mmWave Sytsem

Samsung

5G Infra

5G Backhaul

10GiGA Internet

ubiQuoss

GiGAtopia

5G UDN
GiGA Home

Ultra-Dense Network
Smart Air Care Service

Ericsson
Woogjin Coway

Smart Home
Olleh GiGA home-fitneww

EunSung Healthvill

5G Access

5G Pre-stage

GiGA sound

KT Music

IoT G/W

Qualcomm

GiGA Shop

Smart mirror
Smart Shop Window (LET D2D)

Samsung
Samsung

GiGA Vote

TapSign (IC chip card NFC payment)


Voting System

VP Inc., BC card
NEONEXSoft, MEHUS

Yodoc (smart analysis)

NEONEXSoft, S-connect

beTOUCH

Anyractive

ChattingCat

ChattingCat

GiGA School

KT's Demonstrations of LTE-H and LTE-U | Dr. Michelle M. Do and Dr. Harrison J. Son (tech@netmanias.com)

34

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Netmanias Interview with KT at MWC 2015 (2)

KT's Demonstrations of LTE-TDD

9-carrier CA, LTE-UL/DL CA and triple mode femto


Dr. Michelle M. Do and Dr. Harrison J. Son (tech@netmanias.com)

At Barcelona's Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2015, KT


demonstrated a variety of new 5G, Hetnet and IoT technologies
and services (see table 1, p. 33). Of all those presented, below we
will focus on our most interested topics, LTE TDD-related pre5G technology, LTE-B (9-carrier CA), LTE DL/UL CA and triple
mode femto, and see how they were demonstrated.

LTE-Beyond (LTE-B)
KT, in cooperation with Samsung, implemented
LTE-B that aggregates 9 LTE-TDD carriers,
achieving 1Gbps ( 9x110Mbps) at the event. 3GPP
has defined in Rel. 10 that up to 5 carriers across up
to 5 bands can be aggregated, and now it is working
on CA enhancements to expand LTE CA up to 32
carriers in Rel. 13 that is currently under review.
Earlier in January, KT commercialized 3-band CA

LTE-B (LTE-Beyond)
20MHz LTE Carrier x 9 = 180MHz

TDD
Band
1Gbps
Device
Samsung

(LTE-TDD)

Intra-band CA

20MHz
20MHz
20MHz
20MHz
20MHz
20MHz
20MHz
20MHz
20MHz

that combines 3 LTE-FDD bands (Band 1, 3 and 8),


supporting up to 300Mbps. Now, with this
demonstration, the company proved itself capable
of supporting 1Gbps through TDD CA (as claimed
through its marketing brand GiGA).
This time, multiple (9) carriers within one TDD
band were aggregated (intra-band CA). But, once
capable RF transceivers become available in the
market, multiple carriers can be aggregated across
multiple TDD bands (inter-band CA).
CA certainly is the most effective way of
improving user speeds and system capacities
through extension of radio transmission
bandwidth. The only downside is that it requires
more frequency to give higher speeds and better
capacities.
So far in Korea, LTE service has been
commercialized using FDD frequencies only. But,
over the next few years (by 2018), not only FDD
frequencies but also TDD frequencies are scheduled
to be allocated. Given that, the demonstration
seemed to serve well as an opportunity for KT to
show its readiness for provision of giga-class service
through TDD frequencies as well.

LTE DL/UL CA

RRH
Samsung

Figure 1. 9 intra-band CA demonstrated by KT and


Samsung

KT also showcased LTE-DL/UL CA, another LTETDD technology, capable of aggregating not only
downlink (DL) but also uplink (UL). This
demonstration, conducted in cooperation with
Nokia (China), was the world's first "UL" CA
demonstration.
Unlike FDD, LTE-TDD system uses only one
carrier for both UL and DL transmission. The ratio
of UL to DL transmission in one radio frame
(UL:DL) is determined based on ratio
configurations. For example, in case of 20 MHz
bandwidth:
with configuration 1, UL:DL=2:2 and max. UL/
DL speeds are about 20/80 Mbps.
with configuration 2, UL:DL=1:3 and max. UL/
DL speeds are about 10/110 Mbps.
In the demonstration, two 20 MHz carriers in 2.3
GHz (Band 40) were aggregated (intra-band CA),
doubling maximum speeds in both UL and DL,
compared to one carrier transmission (UL: 40
Mbps, DL: 220 Mbps).

KT's Demonstrations of LTE-TDD | Dr. Michelle M. Do and Dr. Harrison J. Son (tech@netmanias.com)

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Configuration 1
20MHz
20MHz

Device
Nokia

2.3GHz Band
(LTE-TDD)

20MHz
20MHz

Intra-band CA

freq.

BS
Nokia

LTE-TDD Throughput
Config. 1 (UL:DL=2:2) Config. 2 (UL:DL=1:3)
TDD, 20MHz
DL Speed
~ 80 Mbps
~ 110 Mbps
UL Speed
~ 20 Mbps
~ 10Mbps
CA applied (demonstrated), 40MHz
DL Speed
~ 160 Mbps
~ 220 Mbps
UL Speed
~ 40 Mbps
~ 20Mbps

U 40 Mbps

160 Mbps

35

f1: 20MHz @2.3GHz

f1

D D U U D D U U ...

f2

D D U U D D U U ...
f2: 20MHz@2.3GHz

time
Configuration 2

220 Mbps

freq.

U 20 Mbps

f1: 20MHz @2.3GHz

f1

D D D U D D D U ...

f2

D D D U D D D U ...
f2: 20MHz@2.3GHz

time

Figure 2. LTE-TDD DL/UL CA demonstrated by KT and Nokia

In general, TDD has an advantage in that it allows


for optimized frequency utilization through
efficient handling of load balancing by dynamically
controlling UL-DL ratios. So, it can be very effective
especially when there is traffic burstiness, or when
providing service of which DL ratio is quite higher
than UL.
It seems KT through this demonstration wanted
to make itself become more responsive to traffic
variation by taking advantage of TDD CA in case
LTE-TDD frequency is acquired.

Triple Mode Femto


The other LTE-TDD technology demonstrated was
triple mode cell. The triple mode cell, showcased in

cooperation with Broadcom, was the world's first


femto cell that can support LTE-FDD, LTE-TDD
and WiFi access all at the same time.
In the demonstration, the triple mode cell
operated with 20 MHz of FDD in 1.8 GHz, 20 MHz
of TDD in 2.3 GHz and 20 MHz of 802.11 WiFi in 5
GHz, allowing the mobile device to get download
speeds of 150 Mbps, 110 Mbps and 450 Mbps,
respectively through the three radio access modes.
Because it takes only one chipset to support three
different access modes, the triple mode cell
certainly has its merits: i) it is a space-saving
solution, and ii) it allows mobile devices with
different radio access modes to be served all at
once. Once TDD frequency is secured, the triple

FDD: 20MHz@1.8GHz
TDD: 20MHz@2.3GHz
WiFi: 20MHz@5GHz

LTE-TDD
Triple mode femto

LTE-FDD

LTE FDD: 77.8 Mbps


LTE TDD: 54.2 Mbps
Wi-Fi: 100.5 Mbps

.8 M
77

Broadband

Wi-Fi

LTE-FDD

s
bp

LTE-TDD

54.2 M
bps

10
0.5

Mb
ps

WiFi

Triple mode femto


Broadcom

Figure 3. Triple Mode Femto Cell (LTE-FDD, LTE-TDD and WiFi) demonstrated by KT and Broadcom
KT's Demonstrations of LTE-TDD | Dr. Michelle M. Do and Dr. Harrison J. Son (tech@netmanias.com)

POC

Analyze trends, technologies and market


Report
Technical documents
Blog
One-Shot gallery

Training

Networks

Analysis
Concept Design
DRM

eMBMS

LTE
IMS
Infrastructure Services

Consulting

CDN
Transparent
Caching

Ever since the LTE-FDD service (with 10MHz)


launch in July 2011, Korea, with the highest LTE
penetration rate in the world, has been leading
development of LTE technology/service, for
example, through the world's first
commercialization of three new services: LTE-A
(10+10MHz), Wideband LTE-A (20+10MHz) and
Tri-band LTE-A (20+10+10MHz) services.
However, due to lack of available frequency, all
Korean big 3 operators have had a hard time
developing more advanced LTE technology with
enhanced speeds and service quality.
To address this issue, the Korea Communications
Commission (KCC) and the Ministry of Science, ICT
and Future Planning (MSIP) announced the
National Mobile Broadband Plan for allocation of
additional frequencies. As the plan includes
additional allocation of not only FDD but also TDD
frequency, LTE service is expected to be
commercialized through TDD as well.
Therefore, for continuous development of more
advanced LTE technologies, efforts to get ready for
LTE-TDD as well as LTE-FDD should be made. In
that context, KT seemed to make such effort
through its demonstrations using LTE-TDD. n

protocols

Wi-Fi

mode cell is expected to be commercialized right


away, enhancing indoor radio communication.
KT has been trying to convert the purpose of its
2.3GHz band from WiBro (Mobile WiMAX) to LTETDD. If everything goes well, KT will be able to
acquire LTE-TDD frequency. The demonstration
seemed to reflect KT's keen desire to expedite the
process of converting WiBro into LTE-TDD
purpose.

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

IP/MPLS

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Carrier Ethernet

36

Future

NETMANIASTM
We design the Future

NMC Consulting Group Co., Ltd.


2F, Namyeong Building
730-13, Yeoksam-dong, Gangnam-gu,
Seoul 135-921, Korea
3832 NE 88th Street
Seattle, WA 98115
USA
e-mail: tech@netmanias.com

KT's Demonstrations of LTE-TDD | Dr. Michelle M. Do and Dr. Harrison J. Son (tech@netmanias.com)

Wi-Fi Total Solution


leading future mobile networks world
New WLAN standard 802.11ac, GIGA WiFi
802.11ac,Giga WiFi
2.4GHz/5GHz dual band

Main function
Management to 802.11ac AP as well as 802.11a/b/g/n AP
L2/L3 Seamless Roaming for mobility
WLAN resource management with AP
- Auto channel configuration, Auto power control
- Coverage hole detection, Self healing
- Load banacing, Band steering(5GHz priority selecting)
Security & QoS
- Protection from wireless threat (DoS attack, TCP SYN flooding)
- Bandwidth control by service, SSID and station
System Redundancy (1+1, primary/secondary or 1:N)

SC-300

SC-400

SC-2000

512

256

4096

Self Authentication

RF resource management

Self Healing

Fast Roaming

802.11ac support

HA cluster

Security (wireless DoS attack protection)

Flexible ACL/QoS policy

PoE PSE (802.3at)

7 Port

Section
The number of managed APs

Product
Model

Brief
Description

Ethernet
Ports(1Gbps)

Wireless
Standards

Transmit
Power

Antennas

Power
Sources

Remarks

Maximum
power consumption

DVW-412X

Indoor dual-band AP,


Normal transmit power,
175(H) x 175(W) x 45(D)mm

802.11a/g/n
80211ac

17dBm

2X2 MIMO
External/Internal

802.3af or
PoE 12VDC

15W

DVW-402XH

Indoor dual-band AP,


High transmit power,
225(H) x 225(W) x 45(D)mm

802.11a/g/n
802.11ac

23dBm

2X2MIMO
External/Internal

802.3at or
PoE 12VDC

20W

DVW-403XH

Indoor dual-band AP,


High transmit power,
225(H) x 225(W) x 45(D)mm

802.11a/g/n
802.11ac

23dBm

3X3 MIMO
External/Internal

802.3at or
PoE 12VDC

24W

DVW-4034XH

Outdoor dual-band AP,


High transmit power

802.11a/g/n
802.11ac

23dBm

3X3 MIMO
External

802.3at
PoE

24W

DVW-504XH

Dual-band Indoor/Outdoor AP
supporting 802.11ac
wave-2 technology
High transmit power

802.11a/g/n
802.11ac
(wave-2)

23dBm

4X4 MIMO
External/Internal

802.3at or
PoE 12VDC

30W

*`DVW-504XH is available in 4Q 2015

DAVOLINK Inc.

112, Beolmal-ro, Dongan-gu, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 864-7, Korea


TEL +82-31-387-3240 www.davolink.co.kr

38

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Netmanias Interview with SK Telecom at MWC 2015

SK Telecom's Fast Data Platform: T-PANI and APOLLO


Demonstrations of Pre-5G/5G Technologies at MWC 2015
Dr. Michelle M. Do and Dr. Harrison J. Son (tech@netmanias.com)

SK Telecom at the Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2015


demonstrated its newest network operation platform for 5G
called Fast Data Platform, using two big data-based intelligent
operation platforms: T-Packet Analytics & Network Intelligence
(T-PANI) and Analytics Platform for Intelligent Operation
(APOLLO).
The company regards "Big Data + Real-time
Analytics" as the two key words of Fast Data. The
new platform not only efficiently processes big
data constantly generated in the network, but also
analyzes and optimizes them in real time,
addressing service degradation experienced by
users fast. So, it is expected to allow for user-level
optimization.
Then, let's find out what the background of Fast
Data Platform is? As of Q4 2014, monthly data
usage per SK Telecom subscriber increased by 36%,
compared to the last year. To catch up with the fast
growing high speed data usage, the company
launched 3-band LTE-A service in January 2015,
opening up a new era of 300 Mbps transmission.
SK Telecom should be able to expand to 5-band
once additional frequencies are acquired, and is
currently planning to commercialize a 5G network,
which will easily offer 1 Gbps speeds to its users

anywhere, by 2020.
To accommodate the ongoing drastic data traffic
growth, and ultra-high speed data transmission
expected in 5G, changes in network operating
systems have become inevitable. What if operators
cannot keep services that need different QoS
requirements, or the enormous traffic under proper
control? What if cells, which have become smaller
to ensure faster data transmission, cannot respond
to the fast-increasing traffic variation in the cells
quick enough? Apparently, the quality of user
experience will be degraded, and also network
operation can be at risk.
So, now a network operation platform should be
able to:
1. process the enormous amount of big data, which
has not been actually used much so far (big data
process)
2. analyze service quality that each user is
experiencing, in real time (real-time analytics)
3. efficiently control network resources for each
user to avoid quality degradation (user-level
optimization)

3-band LTE-A service uses CA across three bands


two conventional LTE bands, Band 3 (20MHz)
and Band 5 (10 MHz), and one '3G-converted-LTE'
band, Band 1 (10 MHz).
As of March 31, SK Telecom has 26,000 Band 1
(2.1 GHz) base stations nationwide, offering 3band LTE-A service to 85 major cities in the
nation. And if everything goes as planned,
another 5,000 base stations will be ready to
operate by August, further expanding the service
coverage.

Figure 1. Growth in monthly LTE data usage per


subscriber (source: SK Telecom)

T-PANI and APOLLO have already been playing a


large role in determining service coverage of the
current 3-band LTE-A (i.e. in deciding on locations
of 2.1 GHz base stations). These two platforms
are expected to be fully leveraged in operating
LTE-A/5G networks as well.

SK Telecom's Fast Data Platform: T-PANI and APOLLO | Dr. Michelle M. Do and Dr. Harrison J. Son (tech@netmanias.com)

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Korea Communication Review April 2015

cSON

39

Analytics using cell information


Cell level optimization
e.g., neighbor list optimization

Cell information 1

eNB configuration
Resource status
Uplink interference
Handover report
etc

neighbor cell list


max Tx power
etc

1 Cell data collection

Cell 1
Cell 2

BBU
Cell 3

Cell optimization parameters

2 Analytics & cell optimization


3 Optimization provisioning

CO (RAN)

Figure 2. Conventional network operation and management platform - cell optimization based on O&M
data

Conventional network operation and


management

Network operation and management for


5G: Fast Data Platform

Conventionally, network operation and


management have been focused on optimizing
performance of base stations. Network optimization
has been performed at cell level, by using vendorprovided statistics of each cell. When O&M data is
generated from base stations, a vendor-provided
EMS collects it, processes it into statistics for
individual cells, and sends them to the centralized
Self-Organizing Network (cSON) server. Then the
cSON server uses them in optimizing the network
(EMS is not shown in the figure for simplified
illustration).
Data process is delayed while O&M statistics is
being generated. Because of such delay, the cSON
server can perform network optimization not in real
time, but only regularly or as scheduled.
Optimization in the conventional way is performed
at 'cell level', which makes 'user-level' QoE
management difficult. Besides, operators cannot
identify any QoE problems, which a user might be
facing, in time until the user calls the operator's
customer service complaining about it. So,
technically real-time QoE management is also
impossible, let alone user-level optimization.
SK Telecom has been operating cSON that it
developed, since its commercialization in 2012.
Mostly, cSON is used in neighbor optimization and
power control, and other cSON features, though not
very popular now, are expected to be used more
often in the near future.

In contrast to the conventional platform, Fast Data


Platform allows for 'user and service-oriented'
network operation and management, and network
optimization as well. Network optimization using
the new platform is three-fold, and includes: i) big
data collection, ii) analysis of the data and user/
service-oriented optimization by T-PANI and
APOLLO, and iii) enforcement of optimization
through cSON.
Big data can be collected from UE, RAN (base
stations), and core network. At UE, all events that
are occurring at UE are collected through an
application called "DIAG on Device (DoD)"
installed on the UE. At base stations, cell-level data,
signaling data exchanged between base station and
UE, and instantaneous variations (e.g. radio
measurements at UE) are collected. And finally at
core network, data relating to user bearer/service
are collected.
For example, RRC messages exchanged between
base stations and UE alone are more than tens of
TB every day. And this massive data have been left
unused so far. The beauty of the new platform is
that, it can analyze this big data to identify
abnormality and problems, decide what to optimize
(e.g. service, user, cell, etc.), and perform
optimization on them. And then improvement
measures based on the optimization results are
enforced to base stations through cSON.

SK Telecom's Fast Data Platform: T-PANI and APOLLO | Dr. Michelle M. Do and Dr. Harrison J. Son (tech@netmanias.com)

40

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Korea Communication Review April 2015

T-PANI

Automatic Network Optimization


Customer Experience Management
App/Service Analytics
Network Monitoring

UE1: Service and Performance Info


UE2: Service and Performance Info

APOLLO
2

1 Big Data Collection


2

Real-time User/Service Level Optimization


Analytics using big data (from UEs, BBUs, core
network)

3 Optimization Provisioning
UE1: RRC signaling, Radio measurements
UE2: RRC signaling, Radio measurements
Cell information

UE1: Performance Info


UE2: Performance Info

cSON
call drop ratio...

Cell 1:
Cell 2: ...

Optimization
Enforcement

RSRP, RSRQ,
CQI...

Successful calls...

UE1: DoD data

H/O failures,...

Dropped calls...

UE2: DoD data

UE1: Performance Info


UE2: Performance Info

UE1

BBU

Cell 1

UE2

CO

Cell 2

EPC
Core servers
(P-GW, MME,
HSS, etc)

IMS
Service
servers

Cell 3

UE

Radio Access Network

Core Network

User Services

Mobile Network
Figure 3. Fast Data Platform: optimized customization based on real time analytics of big data
Even for users at the same cell, at the same location
or route, optimization is customized for each user
depending on their subscriber class, or the service
subscribed. This means, network resources are
more efficiently used, in a way that can improve
QoE of more users.
The optimization procedure by Fast Data Platform
can be summarized as follows:
1) Big data collection
The platform collects big data from UE, RAN, and

core network. Just to name a few, big data includes:


Data collected from core network: bearer/service
data
- Network performance info: link utilization,
call drop ratio
- Call attempts, successful calls and usage index
per application
Data collected from RAN (base stations)
- Base station/Cell information: eNB
configuration, Resource status, Interference,
Handover report, Fault status
- Signaling data exchanged between base

SK Telecom's Fast Data Platform: T-PANI and APOLLO | Dr. Michelle M. Do and Dr. Harrison J. Son (tech@netmanias.com)

Korea Communication Review April 2015

station and UE: RRC messages for


connection establishment and handover
- Radio measurements at UE: RSRP, RSRQ,
CQI
Data collected from UE
- Call events: out of service, dropped calls
(HD voice) , etc.
- Mobility events: handover failure, cell
reselection failure, etc.
At UE, 'DoD' app is installed, and it reports all call/
mobility events occurring as well as quality of
received radio signals at the UE. According to a
presenter from SK Telecom at the event, as this
application, running in the background, requires
very little power, it has a minimal impact on service
quality on the user side, and also is most effective in
problem analytics. Because DoD became available
only on the relatively recent models like Galaxy S5,
G3, etc., DoD data has been gathered from not
many users, yet. But, as more and more devices
come with DoD these days, user-level optimization
will become more convenient and efficient in years
to come.
2) Real-time analytics and optimization:
T-PANI and APOLLO
T-PANI and APOLLO analyze the collected big data
in real time, identify problems to be handled,
decides what to optimize, and finally perform
optimization.
T-PANI: T-PANI manages networks, customers
and services systematically. It measures Customer
Experience Index (CEI), monitors app/service
status, and analyzes CEI and app/service status for
each service and region in real time. In case of CEI
degradation or service failure, any service quality
problem or system fault can be identified within
less than one minute from an E2E perspective. TPANI then provides CE and service status
information to APOLLO so that it can perform
user-level optimization. T-PANI consists of
following modules:
Network Topology: supports network operation
Application Service: responds to external threats
through monitoring and analyzing service status
Customer Experience Management (CEM):
analyzes CEI and manages quality of customer
experience
- CEI per service (e.g. Data, HD Voice, CSFB)
- Nationwide CEI map
- Bad CE level in regions
- Customers with bad CE

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

41

APOLLO: APOLLO collects and analyzes base


station-originated raw big data in real time, and
optimizes the performance of each base station (or
cell) and user. It processes raw data to obtain
statistics every 10 seconds, and automatically
detects abnormality based on history log, allowing
for real-time optimization as well as user-level
optimization utilizing QoE information. And it,
capable of predicting traffic variation and base
station performance, helps to minimize degradation
in base station and user performance. Followings
are some features of APOLLO and their intended
effects:
real-time interference monitoring automatic
interference avoidance
detecting abnormality in fronthaul and radio
unit automatic recovery
real-time analytics of call flow and radio
environment optimization of call processing
parameters
3) Optimization Provisioning and
Enforcement
Once APOLLO determines what to optimize
through problem analysis, and completes
optimization, improvement measures based on the
optimization results are enforced at base stations
through cSON. cSON offers the interfaces between
SK Telecom's Fast Data Platform and base stations.
When optimization provisioning by APOLLO is
completed, cSON enforces it into base stations to
adjust the operation parameters running on the
stations, so that the stations can operate with the
newly adjusted parameters from then on.

The greatest strength of Fast Data Platform is that it


can finally take advantage of quality measurement
data provided by UE (DoD app. to be accurate),
which has been unobtainable in the conventional
network operation and management system. To us,
DoD application works as a radio network quality
measurement tool added to UE, just like Speedtest,
Chariot, XCAL, etc. installed on UE. It enables
operators to collect i) quality of received radio
signals, ii) quality of download speeds, and iii)
quality of services (e.g. VoLTE) at individual UEs in
real time.
The size of cells is getting smaller, and the number
of base stations is increasing. As these trends
continue, measuring the operation quality of
increasing base stations using its current manpower
and measurement equipment will impose a greater
burden of operating cost on SK Telecom. Besides, as

SK Telecom's Fast Data Platform: T-PANI and APOLLO | Dr. Michelle M. Do and Dr. Harrison J. Son (tech@netmanias.com)

42

Korea Communication Review April 2015

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more and more small cells are working indoors, measuring radio quality indoors will be another challenge
for operators. Given the circumstance, DoD can be a great solution for this challenge. With DoD
application, the company will be able to obtain radio network quality data from DoD UEs everywhere (Just
imagine there are 20 million DoD UEs across the nation, all constantly collecting DoD data.
DoD application will help the company to not only improve users' QoE through user-level optimization,
but also remotely detect any faults in the company's radio network in real time, by making the most of the
data collected by UEs, allowing for precision management of the network. The presenter from the
company noted, "After the Fast Data Platform deployment in our network, time required for detecting and
handling faults at cell sites has been drastically reduced." n

Figure 4. T-PANI screenshot

Figure 5. APOLLO screenshot

Figure 6. DIAG on Device (DoD) App


SK Telecom's Fast Data Platform: T-PANI and APOLLO | Dr. Michelle M. Do and Dr. Harrison J. Son (tech@netmanias.com)

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

43

Netmanias Interview with SK Telecom at MWC 2015

SK Telecom showcased 5G Quantum Cryptography System at MWC 2015


Chris Yoo (tech@netmanias.com)

At Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2015, SK Telecom showcased


Quantum Cryptography System (QCS) it had developed for
secure data transmission in ultra-capacity, ultra-high-speed
networks of 5G era.
Unlike the traditional cryptography system that is
based on mathematics, QCS is based on quantum
physics. So it is 100% effective in preventing any
eavesdrop attempts as it generates secret keys using
photons.
Figure 1 shows QCS prototype consisting of a
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) server and 2channel encryptor. QKD enables one party to
produce a secret key at 10Kbps, share it with the
other party at the other end of the network (up to
50km away), and update the key if any eavesdrop
attempt is detected. An encryptor, with 2 channels,
can encrypt transmitted data at 20 Gbps (that is, 10
Gbps per channel) with less than 10 usec of
processing delay. This system allows for up to 800
Gbps data encryption using 40 stacked QCSs.
QKD uses photons, elementary particles of a
quantum, to share secret keys. When optic fiber
signal is on, there exist 9 trillion photons. QKD can
generate secret keys by using some of the photons,
specifically one photon per user. The sender of data
generates a secret key based on information on the
polarization and phase of single photon, and sends
it to the receiver to share. So, any eavesdrop
attempt will cause a state change in the photon
embedded in the key, making eavesdropping

impossible.
Traditional cryptosystems are based on
mathematics (e.g. RSA), and thus data encrypted
using traditional cryptosystems are inevitably
vulnerable to hacking. On the contrary, if encrypted
using QCS, it is virtually impossible to hack, or even
unlawfully access, the encrypted data. Mr. Seung
Hwan Kwak, Team Head of QKD Development at
SK Telecom, noted that now cryptosystems rely
more on physics, rather than mathematics.
In the demonstration, SK Telecom used a
prototype designed for backbone (high-capacity
QKD), which is scheduled to be commercialized in
late 2015. In addition to high-capacity QKD, lowcapacity QKD to be used between LTE RAN and
Core network is under development as well.
In addition to QKD that operates at network level,
the company is also working on development of
True Random Number Generation (TRNG) chips
that generate true random numbers at application
level (not demonstrated at the event, though). So
far, random numbers have been generated based on
SW, and thus they were pseudo. However, this HWbased TRNG chip generates true random numbers
based on quantum mechanics. SK Telecom has
been making efforts to develop small-sized,
affordable TRNG chips. Thanks to its excellent
versatility, the TRNG chips can be used anywhere
that requires cryptography, and thus is expected to
be attractive in the fields such as IoT, smart grid,
etc., soon. n

Encryptor (10Gbps 2-channel)

Cryptography, now
relies more on physics,
and less on
mathematics.
Mr. Seung Hwan Kwak, Team
Head of QKD Development at
SK Telecom

Figure 1. Quantum Cryptography System (QCS)


SK Telecom showcased 5G Quantum Cryptography System at MWC 2015 | Chris Yoo (tech@netmanias.com)

44

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Korea Communication Review April 2015

Broadband subscribers in Korea (Q1 2005 Q4 2014)


n Broadband penetration rate (% of household)
Subscribers [Million]
20

Q4 2014: 104.0%
18

# of Households
16

Broadband subscribers: 19.2 M

Q4 2010: 100%

# of Households: 18.4 M

14

Population: 50.4 M
Penetration rate (% of household): 104.0%

12

Broadband subscribers

Penetration (% of population): 38.1%

10

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

2013 2014

2012

2013

2014

10 Years

Q4 2014

The broadband subscription rate in Korea has been steadily increasing, reaching 76.6% in Q1 2005, 100% in Q4
2010, and 104.0% in Q4 2014.

n Broadband subscribers trace by access technology


Subscribers [Million]
8

LAN (UTP)

5.7M
(29.9%)
FTTH

HFC

4
3
2

4.5M
(23.5%)

XDSL

FTTH

19.2M
Broadband
subscribers
in Korea
(Q4 2014)

HFC

LAN (UTP)
XDSL

1
-

1.6M
(8.5%)

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

10 Years

2011

2012

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q3

7.3M
(38.0%)

2013 2014
2013

2014

Q4 2014

Since its launch in 2006, FTTH service subscribers have continued to increase. As of the end of December 2014,
5.7M (29.9% of the total broadband subscribers) are subscribing to this service. Different FTTH technologies have
been adopted by the big 3 operators E-PON by KT, G-PON by SK, and E-PON by LG U+ but they all support 100
Mbps/1000Mbps in UL and DL.

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Korea Communication Review April 2015

45

Broadband subscribers in Korea (Q1 2005 Q4 2014)


n Broadband subscribers by operator (Q1 2005 Q4 2014)
Subscribers [Million]

8.1 M
(42.3%)

3.2M
(16.4%)

KT

Cable
Operators

7
6

SK

5
4

19.2M
Broadband
subscribers
in Korea
(Q4 2014)

3.0M LG U+
(15.7%)

Cable operators

LG U+

KT

SK

1
0

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

4.8M
(25.1%)

Q4

2013 2014
2013

2014

10 Years

Q4 2014

As of the end of December 2014, Korea has 19.2M broadband subscribers, and 42.3% of them (i.e. 8.1M) are
KT users, which makes the company the unrivaled No. 1 in the countrys broadband market.

n Broadband subscribers by operator - per access technology (December 2014)


Subscribers [Million]
9

8.1M
8

XDSL
1.26

XDSL

HFC (Cable)

LAN (UTP)

FTTH

Home

CO

ONT
PON

FTTH

LAN

OLT

6
2.88

FTTH

0.35

3.0M

3.2M

LAN

OLT
L3 SW

UTP

UTP

1.91

PON

UTP

HFC
1.19

ONU

4.8M

Edge &
Backbone

L2 SW

0.88

3.99

2.40

UTP

L3 SW

1.78

0.35

0.03
0.69
0.04

LG U+

MSO

1.37

KT

SK

Last mile line


FTTH: Optical fiber (ONT at home)
LAN: UTP cable (from L2 switch or ONU)

Korea has 5.7M FTTH subscribers, and 69.4% of them (i.e. 3.99M) are KT users, making the company the No. 1
FTTH service provider in the country.

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Korea Communication Review April 2015

Broadband subscribers growth in Korea by operator (Q1 2005 Q4 2014)

BROADBAND SUBSCRIBERS TRACE BY OPERATOR: BREAKDOWN BY ACCESS NETWORK


As of Q4 2014, Korea has 5.7M FTTH subscribers, and 69.4% of them (i.e. 3.99M) are KT
users, making the company the No. 1 FTTH service provider in the country.

20
14

Subscribers [Million]
9

Q4

46

8
7
6

FTTH

4.0

LAN (UTP)

2.9

XDSL

1.3

5
4
3
2
9
1
8
7

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

6
5
4

FTTH

1.4

LAN (UTP)

2.9

XDSL

0.3
1.6

9
3
8
2
7
1
0
6

HFC
Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

2005

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

2006

2005

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

2007

2006

Q2

Q3

Q4

2008

2007

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

2009

2008

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

2010

2009

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

2011

2010

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

2012

2011

Q2

Q3

Q4

2013

2012

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

2014

2013

2014

5
4
3

FTTH

0.4

LAN (UTP)

1.8

0.9

HFC
0

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

2005
2005

Q1

Q2

Q3

2006
2006

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2007
2007

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2008
2008

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2009
2009

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

2010
2010

Q1

Q2

Q3

2011
2011

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2012
2012

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2013
2013

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2014
2014

Q4

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Korea Communication Review April 2015


Pay TV subscribers in Korea
n Pay TV subscribers trace
Subscribers [Million]
18

14.4%

Cable

16

Satellite

14

29.7M
Pay TV
subscribers
in Korea
(Q4 2014)

12

IPTV

10

2006

IPTV

Cable

49.8%

35.8%

Satellite

2
0

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Q4 2014

The number of IPTV subscribers is increasing fast. It exceeded 10M in Q4 2014. This was an increase of 210,000 a
month on average. With this growth rate, it is expected to exceed the number of cable subscribers this year.

n IPTV subscribers trace by telco


Subscribers [Million]
7

KT: 5.86 M

18.3%

55.1%

LG U+

SK: 2.83 M
3

SK

10.6M
IPTV
subscribers
In Korea
(Q4 2014)

KT

LG U+: 1.95 M

Q1

Q2

Q3

2006
2006

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2007 2008
2007

2008

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2009
2009

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2010
2010

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2011
2011

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2012
2012

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2013
2013

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2014
2014

26.6%

Q4

Q4 2014

Growth in Koreas IPTV market has been mostly driven by KT. As of Q4 2014, the company has 5.86M IPTV
subscribers, which is 55.1% of the countrys total. SK recorded 26.6% market share with 2.83 million subscribers
while LG U + recorded 18.3% with 1.95 million. IPTV operators in the market are in fierce competition with each
other as well as with cable operators.

47

48

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Korea Communication Review April 2015


IPTV subscribers in Korea (Q4 2014)
n IPTV penetration rate
[Million]

19.1 M Broadband subscribers in Korea

20

18.4 M Households in Korea


16.0 M Broadband subscribers of Telco

(KT, SK, LG U+)

15

10.6 M IPTV subscribers of Telco


10
10

11

(KT, SK, LG U+)

9
8
7

KT

5
5

SK

+ LG U+

3
2
1
-

Q1

Q2

Q3

2005
2005

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2006
2006

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2007
2007

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2008
2008

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2009
2009

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2010
2010

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

2011
2011

Q2

Q3

2012
2012

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

2013
2013

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

2014
2014

IPTV penetration rate (% of household): 57.6%


As of Q4 2014, the number of IPTV subscriptions in Korea reached 10.6 million, accounting for more
than half (57.6%) of the total households in the nation.
IPTV subscription rate (% of broadband subscriber): 66.7%
The combined broadband subscription of all the big 3 reached 16.0 million, and 66.7% of them are
IPTV subscribers.

n KTs IPTV subscribers growth (Q3 2016 Q4 2014)


Subscribers [Million]

9
KT Broadband Subscribers: 8.1 M (Q4 2014)

IPTV subscription rate = 72.1%

KTs IPTV subscribers = 5.9M (Q4 2014)

5
4
3

KT

1
0

Q12006
Q3 Q12007
Q3 Q1
Q3 Q1
Q3 Q1
Q3 Q12011
Q3 Q12012
Q3 Q12013
Q3 Q12014
Q3
2008
2009
2010
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
As of Q4 2014, KT has 8.1 million Internet subscribers and 5.9 million IPTV subscribers, with 72.1% of IPTV
subscription rate (% of IPTV out of Internet subscription).

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Korea Communication Review April 2015

49

IPTV subscribers in Korea (Q4 2014)


n SKs IPTV subscribers growth (Q3 2006 Q4 2014)
Subscribers [Million]

SKs broadband subscribers = 4.8M (Q4 2014)

4
IPTV subscription rate = 58.8%

SKs IPTV subscribers = 2.8M (Q4 2014)

SK

Q1

Q3

2006
2006

Q1

Q3

Q1

Q3

2007
2008
2007
2008

Q1

Q3

2009
2009

Q1

Q3

2010
2010

Q1

Q3

2011
2011

Q1

Q3

2012
2012

Q1

Q3

2013
2013

Q1

Q3

2014
2014

As of Q4 2014, SK has 4.8 million Internet subscribers and 2.8 million IPTV subscribers, with 58.8% of IPTV
subscription rate (% of IPTV out of Internet subscription).

n LG U+s IPTV subscribers growth (Q3 2016 Q4 2014)


Subscribers [Million]

LG U+ Broadband Subscribers: 3.0 M (Q4


2014)

IPTV subscription rate = 64.7%

LG U+s IPTV subscribers = 1.9M (Q4 2014)

Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4

LG U+

2006
2006

2007
2008
2007
2008

2009
2009

2010
2010

2011
2011

2012
2012

2013
2013

2014
2014

As of Q4 2014, LG U+ has 3.0 million Internet subscribers and 1.9 million IPTV subscribers, with 64.7% of IPTV
subscription rate (% of IPTV out of Internet subscription).

50

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Korea Communication Review April 2015

Mobile statistics in Korea (Q4 2014): Smartphone


n Mobile subscribers in Korea
LTE penetration rate (% of population): 71.4%

Mobile penetration rate (% of population): 113.5%


Smartphone penetration rate (% of population): 80.4%

70

LTE subscription rate (% of mobile subscriber): 62.9%

[Million]

Q4 2014
60

57.2 M: Mobile subscribers

52.3 M

50.4 M: Population

50

50.0 M

40.6 M: Smartphone subscribers

40

36.0 M: LTE subscribers


30

20

21.3 M

10

0.7M
0
11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

2012
2012

2011

2013
2013

2014
2014

n Smartphone subscribers in Korea


Smartphone penetration rate (% of population): 80.4%
Smartphone subscription rate (% of mobile subscriber): 70.9%

Subscribers [Million]

Q4 2014: 57.2 M

60.0

57.2M Mobile Subscribers in Korea

50.0

Subscribers [Million]
45

40.0

Smartphone
(70.9%)

40

Smartphone

40.6 M

30.0

35
30
25

20.0

Feature phone
(28.1%)

20
15

Feature phone

10.0

16.1 M

10
5

Smart Pad
11

12

2012

0.6 M
8

2012
2012

10

11

12

2013
2013

10

11

12

2014
2014

10

11

12

Smart pad
(1.0%)

Q4 2014

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Mobile subscribers by access networks (2G/3G/4G) in Korea


n Mobile subscribers in Korea - split per network (2G/3G/4G)
Subscribers [Million]

Q4 2014: 57.2 M

60

Start LTE

57.2M Mobile Subscribers in Korea

50

4G LTE

40

LTE
(63.4%)

40

36.0 M

35
30

30

25

20

20

15

3G 14.9 M

10

10

2G

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

2012
2012

2013
2013

2G
(11.2%)

6.3 M

2011
2011

3G
(26.2%)

Q4 2014

2014
2014

n Mobile subscribers, in Korea, by technology generation (Q1 2007 Q4 2014)


Subscribers [Million]
45

2G Peak
40

4G

3G Peak
35
30
25

The number of 2G (CDMA)


subscribers reached 41 million,
the highest on record, in Q2 2007
while 3G (WCDMA) reached its
highest level, 35 million, in Q4
2011.

20

As of Q4 2014, 4G LTE service


launched in July 2011 has 36.0
million subscribers, which
accounts for 63.4% of the total
mobile subscriptions.

15
10
5
0

Q1

Q2

Q3

2007
2007

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2008
2008

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2009
2009

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2010
2010

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2011
2011

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2012
2012

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2013
2013

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2014
2014

Q4

51

52

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Korea Communication Review April 2015


LTE Traffic Statistics in Korea

* Data: Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning

n Mobile data usage - per access technology

n Monthly traffic - per device type


3.312 GB

113.2 PB
(94.9%)

4G Smartphone

3G
(Feature phone +
Smartphone)

4G LTE

9 11 1

2012

9 11 1

2013

1.064 GB

2G & 3G Feature phone

0.004 GB

6.1 PB
(5.1%)
1

3G Smartphone

0
1 3 5 7 9 11 1 3 5 7 9 11 1 3 5 7 9 11

9 11

2014

2012

As of Q4 2014, the LTE traffic reached 113.2 PB,


which is 19 times higher than 3G traffic.
LTE traffic represented 94.5% of Koreas total
mobile traffic (Verizon: as of Q3 2014, about 79% of
total data traffic currently on 4G LTE network)

2013

2014

As of Q4 2014, 4G smartphone, 3G smartphone and


2G/3G feature phone users generate 3.312 GB, 1.064
GB and 4 MB of traffic on average per month.

n Subscriber traffic distribution by Application


100%

90%
80%
70%

4.8%

5.2%

4.1%

7.9%

6.9%

7.6%

9.8%

11.2%

10.4%

13.5%

14.6%

13.1%

4.7%
5.7%
8.5%

16.0%

The chart above presents the results of


analysis of data traffic using DPI
equipment introduced by the Korea's big
3 operators. In the analysis, only 4G LTE
traffic was included and 3G traffic was
excluded. However, given the fact that as
of Q4 2014 the volume of LTE traffic is
19.0 times larger than that of 3G, the
results can sufficiently serve as references
for the entire mobile traffic. The chart
shows the distribution of data traffic by
application. We can see, the volume share
of video traffic reached 55.5%, proving
the surge in mobile traffic has been driven
by video traffic.

4.8%
3.6%
7.7%

14.5%

13.90%

60%
19.3%

18.9%

18.1%

45.1%

44.3%

45.2%

Q4 2013

Q1 2014

Q2 2014

50%

16.2%

40%
30%
20%

48.9%

55.5%

10%
0%

Video

Web

SNS

Multimedia (Music, etc)

Q3 2014

Q4 2014

Market Download

Etc.

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Korea Communication Review April 2015

SK Telecoms mobile subscribers growth (Q4 2011 - Q4 2014)


n SK Telecoms mobile subscribers split per network (2G/3G/4G)
Subscribers [Million]

30.0

Source: SK Telecom, MSIP

Dec. 2014: 28.6M

25.0

2G
(12.3%)

4G LTE 16.7 M

20.0

15.0

4G LTE
(58.6%)

10.0

3G WCDMA 8.4 M

28.6M
SK Telecom
Mobile
Subscribers
(Q4 2014)

3G
(29.2%)

5.0

2G CDMA 3.5 M
0.0

11

12

10

11

12

2012

2011

10

11

12

2013

2012

10

11

12

2014

2013

2014

3 Years

Q4 2014

Since its launch in 2011, SK Telecoms LTE subscribers have continued to increase. As of Q4 2014, 28.6M
(58.6% of the SK Telecoms total 28.6M mobile subscribers) are subscribing to the LTE service.

n SK Telecoms mobile subscribers split per device type

Dec. 2014: 28.6M

Subscribers [Million]

30

Source: SK Telecom, MSIP

25

Smartphone 19.5 M

20

15

10

Feature
phone
(31.1%)

28.6M
SK Telecom
Mobile
Subscribers
(Q4 2014)

Smart
phone
(68.1%)

Feature phone 8.9 M


Smart pad 0.2 M
11

12

2011

2012
2012

10

11

12

2013
2013

3 Years

10

11

12

10

11

12

2014
2014

Q4 2014

As of Q4 2014, 19.5M subscribers, which is 68.1% of the total 28.6M SK Telecoms mobile subscribers, are
smartphone users.

53

54

Korea Communication Review April 2015

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KTs mobile subscribers growth (Q4 2011 Q4 2014)


n KTs mobile subscribers split per network (2G/3G/4G)

Source: KT, MSIP

20.0

Subscribers [Million]

Dec. 2014: 17.3M

18.0
16.0
14.0

4G LTE 10.8 M

12.0
10.0

4G LTE
(62.4%)

8.0

17.3M
KT Mobile
Subscribers
(Q4 2014)

3G
(37.6%)

6.0
4.0

3G WCDMA 6.5 M

2.0
0.0

11

12

10

11

12

2012

2011

10

11

12

2013

2012

10

11

12

2014

2013

2014

3 Years

Q4 2014

Since its launch in 2012, KTs LTE subscribers have continued to increase. As of Q4 2014, 10.8M (62.4% of the
KTs total 17.3M mobile subscribers) are subscribing to the LTE service.

n KTs mobile subscribers split per device type

Source: KT, MSIP

20.0

Subscribers [Million]

18.0

Dec. 2014: 17.3M

16.0
14.0

Smartphone 12.4 M

12.0
10.0
8.0

Feature
phone
(25.4%)

17.3M
KT Mobile
Subscribers
(Q4 2014)

Smart
phone
(71.7%)

6.0
4.0

Feature phone 4.6 M

2.0
0.0

Smart pad 0.3 M


11

12

2011

2012
2012

10

11

12

2013
2013

3 Years

10

11

12

10

11

12

2014
2014

Q4 2014

As of Q4 2014, 12.4M subscribers, which is 71.7% of the total 17.3M KTs mobile subscribers, are smartphone users.

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Korea Communication Review April 2015

LG U+s mobile subscribers growth (Q4 2011 Q4 2014)


n LG U+s mobile subscribers split per network (2G/3G/4G)
12.0

Subscribers [Million]

Source: LG U+, MSIP

Q4 2014: 11.3 M

10.0

4G LTE 8.5 M

8.0

11.3 M
LG U+
Mobile
Subscribers
(Q4 2014)

6.0

4.0

2G CDMA 2.8 M

2.0

0.0

11

2011

2012
2012

11

2013
2013

11

2014
2014

2G
(24.9%)

LTE
(75.1%)

11

3 Years

Q4 2014

Since its launch in 2011, LG U+s LTE service subscribers have continued to increase. As of the end of Q4 2014,
8.5M (75.1% of the LG U+s total 11.3 M mobile subscribers) are subscribing to this service.

n LG U+s mobile subscribers split per device type


12.0

Source: LG U+, MSIP

Q4 2014: 11.3 M

Subscribers [Million]

10.0

8.0

Smartphone

8.6 M

6.0

4.0

11.3 M
LG U+ Mobile Smart
phone
Subscribers
(76.8%)
(Q4 2014)

Feature phone

2.0

0.0

Feature phone
(23.2%)

2.6 M
1112 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
2011

2012
2012

2013
2013

3 Years

2014
2014

Q4 2014

As of Q4 2014, 8.6M subscribers, which is 76.8% of the total 11.3 M LG U+s mobile subscribers, are smartphone
users.

55

56

Korea Communication Review April 2015

Netmanias Consulting www.netmanias.com

6 things you should know about enterprise WLAN


Jongmoon Choi (jmchoi@davolink.co.kr)

IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN (WLAN) technology,


commonly known as Wi-Fi, has been evolving
so fast, adapting to the constantly changing
mobile communication market.
Especially as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) is
becoming the growing trend in many
companies which value the network security
and stability, companies are deploying more
WLANs every year to ensure their employees
use smartphones and pads for work purposes
as well.
The most important job of an enterprise
WLAN solution is to provide secure and robust
wireless service to users. To do the job, we
have to first admit the fact that WLANs are less
secure by their nature than wired LANs. Wi-Fi
uses unlicensed bands that anyone can use
freely, and thus is inevitably vulnerable to
various interferences, which can lead to service
degradation. So, a good enterprise WLAN
Solution must feature functions and
technologies to address these issues and
supply the best wireless network service to
users.
In general, an enterprise wireless network
consists of three basic components - AP, AP
controller and authentication server. But an
additional component, WIPS (WIPS sensor and
server), can be included as needed, for
protection from wireless intrusion. The
following is a brief explanation of
functionalities and characteristics of the four
components:
Access Point (AP): AP is essential for a Wi-Fi
client to connect to a wired network (Internet
or intranet). A Wi-Fi client scans SSIDs
broadcasted from AP, selects an SSID and then
connects to the network through standard
authentication procedure.
AP Controller: AP controller is a
management system that controls all APs. It
collects information from individual APs and
analyzes them to ensure and maintain the
service quality of the entire wireless network.
Authentication Server (AAA): It provides
authentication service to Wi-Fi clients not only
by using user ID/password as conventionally
done, but also by using user information in
SIM/USIM of a smart device.
Wireless Intrusion Prevention System
(WIPS): It detects rouge APs or unauthorized
Wi-Fi devices in a WLAN and prevents them
from accessing or attacking the network. To
this end, WIPS sensors monitoring all the
packets that travel through all the Wi-Fi
frequency bands in real-time are placed
throughout the network.

Now we will find out what conditions should


be met and what specific features are needed
to be a good enterprise WLAN solution that
can satisfy high expectations in the enterprise
market as well as new requirements in the
future Internet of Things (IoT) era.

- EAP-PEAP/EAP-TTLS with user ID and


password
- EAP-TLS based on client Certification
Authority (CA)
- EAP-SIM or EAP-AKA using SIM/USIM chip in
smartphone

1. Distributed architecture is in and


centralized architecture is out
Until a few years ago, centralized architecture
had been preferred for enterprise WLANs.
Centralized architecture passes all AP traffic
from Wi-Fi clients to AP controllers (also
known as wireless switch) transparently. In
this architecture, APs have just a few simple
functions (this type of AP is called thin AP)
and thus all 802.11 frames from Wi-Fi clients
are simply passed to AP controllers. Then the
AP controllers take care of high level
functions, such as QoS, ACL, roaming, etc.,
leading to enhanced control over WLANs.
However, as WLAN technologies improved
to use broader bandwidths through
standardizations of 802.11n in 2009 (450
Mbps, 3x3 antenna) and 802.11ac in 2013 (1.3
Gbps, 3x3 antenna), it became virtually
impossible for an AP controller to process all
traffic of Wi-Fi clients, as initially intended in
the centralized architecture.
Recently APs, upgraded to perform better,
have become capable to process traffic
control, QoS, ACL and firewall per Wi-Fi
station and service, allowing AP controllers to
focus on just managing distributed APs (this
type of AP is called fat or intelligent AP).
This so called distributed or bridged WLAN
architecture is dominant these days.
Accordingly, the distributed architecture is
expected to impose a lesser burden on AP
controllers, helping them to manage more
APs, compared to the centralized architecture.

Another common method is web-based


authentication (also known as captive portalbased authentication), which is used mainly
for guest authentication. With this
authentication method, a Wi-Fi client can use
Internet/intranet service only after going
through an additional authentication process,
where user credentials (e.g., user ID/
password) must be entered on the web server
even after WLAN standard authentication,
such as Pre-Shared Key (PSK) with AP, is
completed. The web-based authentication
enables an AP to redirect HTTP packets (TCP
port 80) of a Wi-Fi client to the AP controller
or external web server.

2. Secure network connection and various


authentication services
User data encryption and secure
authentication are essential for safe WLAN
connection and use in enterprise WLANs.
Encryption and security issues in the air link of
WLANs seem to have been perfectly taken
care of by IEEE 802.11i standards approved in
the end of 2004.
No vulnerability issues have been reported
in relation to 802.11i WPA2/AES encryption so
far. IEEE 802.1x-based authentication is most
commonly used in enterprise WLANs, and it
supports three authentication modes:

3. AP with excellent functionalities and


performance is the key
A good enterprise wireless AP should be able
to meet high functionality and performance
standards to ensure a certain level of service
quality in the enterprise wireless network. An
AP must be able to do:
Supporting the latest WLAN standards
APs should support IEEE 802.11ac standards
approved in December 2013. Actually all
recently released Wi-Fi clients support
802.11ac. 802.11ac compatible devices show 5
times better throughput than the previous
802.11n devices.
Number of stations that can be served
concurrently
Usually dozens of Wi-Fi clients are connected
to one AP in an enterprise WLAN, and hence
an AP should be able to concurrently serve
more than 100 Wi-Fi clients at each radio
interface (2.4GHz and 5GHz).
Airtime fairness for each Wi-Fi device
Airtime fairness feature should be supported
to ensure fair and balanced distribution of
bandwidths to Wi-Fi clients that are using
wireless resources competitively. Especially,
APs should restrict bandwidth usage by slow
devices using old technology, 802.11a/b/g, to
prevent them from consuming radio resource
too much, and thereby degrading
performance of the enterprise WLAN.
Guaranteed QoS
APs should provide granular Quality of Service
(QoS), and bandwidth management
capabilities on a per application, per user or

6 things you should know about enterprise WLAN | Jongmoon Choi (jmchoi@davolink.co.kr)

Korea Communication Review April 2015

per SSID basis. QoS in the WLAN is controlled


according to the Access Category (CA) policy
defined in 802.11e.
Detection and protection from harmful traffic
APs should support a function to detect
harmful traffic coming from authorized Wi-Fi
clients. Wi-Fi clients may make a Denial-ofService (DoS) attack or generate harmful traffic
due to virus or worm. Sometimes CTS jamming
attack by an unauthorized Wi-Fi device results
in WLAN service quality degradation. In such
case, AP controllers should provide detailed
protection strategies and policies to APs.
4. What AP controller functionalities are
essential?
Control And Provisioning of Wireless Access
Point (CAPWAP) is the international standard
for AP and AP controller, published by IETF as
RFC-5415/5416. Using this protocol, AP
controllers can do AP control/management
and Wi-Fi client authentication. An AP
controller must be able to do:
Management of AP group configuration
information
Integrated management of configuration data
through grouping APs that provide the same
service is one of the most critical features of an
AP controller. If we have to access each AP and
change their configurations one by one, it
would be such a time-consuming hassle. This is
why this grouping can be so useful it groups
configuration information in the form of
profiles, making it easy to manage them.
AP auto configuration & provisioning
Plug & Play (PnP), also called auto provisioning,
should be supported. According to CAPWAP
standards, an AP should access an AP
controller, automatically downloads
configuration, and apply it to complete
provisioning. Of course, AP firmware
management should be supported as well.
Station authentication and roaming
An AP controller should manage the master
key (PMK) passed from AAA (authentication
server) after Wi-Fi client authentication
process is completed. When a Wi-Fi client is
roaming between APs, the client should be
able to skip the re-authentication process with
the AAA to minimize its roaming time. The AP
controller should pass the master key to the
new AP, and command it to skip the
authentication process with AAA when the
roaming client attempts to access the new AP.
RF resource control & management
In case of an AP controller used in an
enterprise WLAN with multiple APs, the fact
that one APs wireless traffic can actually work
as an interference signal to its neighbor APs
should always be considered. Therefore, to
maximize the quality of the entire WLAN
service, an AP controller should consider many
related factors when selecting Wi-Fi channels
of each AP, and should also have a feature that
controls APs individually. Some of the most
common features that serve such purpose are:
auto channel selection, dynamic transmit
power control, self-healing or coverage hole

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detection and auto-recovery, auto channel


switching with interference detection.
Load balancing and QoS guarantee
AP-based load balancing, also known as band
steering or band preference function,
makes sure AP loads are distributed to every
radio interface provided by an AP.
AP controller-based load balancing,
however, ensures traffic loads are evenly
distributed to each AP so that every client is
equally served. For even distribution of traffic
loads among APs, an AP controller monitors
signal strength and quality between AP and
Wi-Fi clients. Then when it detects an AP that
can better serve one of its Wi-Fi clients, it has
the client roam to the new AP.
HA clustering
An AP controller, if designed to concurrently
manage multiple APs with certain capacity
(e.g. 256 APs all at once), should support High
Availability (HA) clustering function.
5. Hidden cost of GUI-based management
console
A GUI-based management console is a kind of
EMS/NMS supporting Operation,
Administration and Management (OAM)
functions for network managers. So, if a
network manager wants to configure a
certain-sized WLAN, he should first consider
the extra cost for deploying a management
console in the new enterprise WLAN infra. A
management console must have following
features:
Map-based management of AP and Wi-Fi
clients
A management console should support userfriendly map-based location management of
AP and Wi-Fi client that can be easily used to
check signal strength and service coverage of
APs. Also a feature that provides roaming
paths of Wi-Fi clients on the map can be very
useful.
Profile-based configuration management
As noted above, when managing a good
number of APs, hierarchical approaching can
be very efficient. For example, a network
manager can configure profiles of radio
interface, SSID, security/authentication, VLAN
and QoS, and apply the profiles to AP groups
as needed.
Inventory management of AP and Wi-Fi
clients
A management console should have a feature
for managing a list of APs and Wi-Fi clients
information (e.g. user ID, IP address,
connection time, authentication status, etc.),
preferably with useful functions like column
filtering, searching and sorting for easier
management of many APs and Wi-Fi clients
Alarm and statistics management
Alarm and statistics features are the most
basic features of the management console
because network managers can monitor
service status by checking alarms and statistics
frequently. Not only that, if the diagnostic and
alarm features are available to monitor the
network connectivity between AP and AP

57

controller, it can help to detect network


failure and respond fast accordingly.
Scheduled/unscheduled reporting
Scheduled/unscheduled reporting is also
essential for a management console because it
allows network managers to keep track of
operation conditions in the WLAN through
email and/or SMS notifications sent regularly.
More detailed unscheduled reports should be
accessible through the management console.
Dashboard
Dashboard provides a page that shows the
general status of the entire network so that
network managers can instantly respond to
network issues detected.
Wizard function
Wizard function helps network managers,
even without sufficient knowledge on WLAN,
easily configure a complicated enterprise
WLAN by following step-by-step instructions.
6. Ready for the IoT era
WLAN technologies have their advantages in
that they give you broadband bandwidth and
wider service coverage than other competitive
technologies like Bluetooth, Zigbee, Z-wave,
etc. But, they also have their disadvantages.
They consume too much power, and thus it
seems impossible to configure a sensor
network where battery-powered IoT devices
are directly connected Wi-Fi networks.
However, most IoT hub devices are cablepowered, and thus can be easily connected to
Wi-Fi interfaces. And using a Wi-Fi network to
access the Internet is likely to be considered a
very popular option in an IoT service network
architecture. Especially, networks like Wi-Fi
mesh or bridge that connect Wi-Fi APs will
serve as a perfect backbone for IoT because
Wi-Fi networks can securely deliver a large
volume of traffic at a relatively low cost.
Therefore, what an enterprise WLAN solution
can do for the IoT would be one of the key
factors in selecting a network solution from
now on.
Closing
The past 10 or so years witnessed drastic
changes in mobile communication first the
release of smartphones, then Wi-Fi technology
innovation like 802.11ac, and the advent of
the IoT. These changes are now making
enterprise WLAN solutions evolve even more,
and faster. Enterprise WLAN solutions so far
have required AP and AP controller that
support the new technology, 802.11ac. But
the coming IoT ERA will require new solutions
that can easily accommodate, integrate and
manage the increasing number of IoT devices
and hubs. n
-------------------------------------------------------

About author

Jongmoon Choi
R&D Director, Davolink Inc.
- jmchoi@davolink.co.kr
- +82-31-387-3240

6 things you should know about enterprise WLAN | Jongmoon Choi (jmchoi@davolink.co.kr)

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well as cluster configuration.

High Performance

Flexible API

Unlike most of the other SDN controllers, BEEM is implemented in


C programming language, hence, closer to iron and able to squeeze
more out of the same hardware. BEEM is able to deliver best in class
performance in terms of throughput and latency of flow download
rates. It is designed for high performance and reliability which is the
need of the hour for deployment in mission-critical networks.

For the various application needs, BEEM provides three kinds of APIs
that enable network applications to be deployed on top of the network abstraction. The 'C' language bindings can be used for performance and latency sensitive apps. Python bindings can be utilized for
fast app development while RESTful APIs can be used by web apps.

KulCloud Inc. | Address : A-501 Innovalley, 253 Pangyo-ro, Bundang-gu Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea | MailTo : Contact@kulcloud.net | Homepage : www.kulcloud.com

NG-PON2 for Mobile Network


Midhaul Solution for Small Cell Backhaul

Fronthaul Solution

LTE inherently requires small cells for its high performance, typically needed
in dense urban areas or traffic centers. Small cells are a cost effective way
for Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) to improve the coverage and data
capacity for their mobile services. An issue with small cells, however, would
be connecting the small cells back into the network.
Most areas in need of small cells are metropolitan or hot spot zones which
require a large number of small cells to cover the whole area costing high.
Furthermore, data transport through CPRI or OBSAI is no longer enough to
cover todays advanced traffic bandwidth (LTE-A).
For this reason, DASAN Network Solutions introduced Midhaul solution, an
effective way of combining small cells and legacy macro cells with
WDM-PON.
WDM-PON technology is supported by DASAN Network Solutions NG-PON2
OLT providing a cost effective method to expand networks and higher
bandwidth. It removes traffic bottle-neck during data aggregation at base
stations with the use of fiber.
Reusing the existing PON network with close connectivity between macro
and small cells also helps MNOs reduce CAPEX and implement smooth
upgrades.
More importantly, DASAN Network Solutions NG-PON2 OLT delivers
different types of services using multiple wavelengths on a single fiber
carrying Mobile network (CPRI with a Point-to-Point WDM), FTTx (Gigabit
Ethernet with a PON), as well as Wi-Fi network.

Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) are looking for new solutions that help
reduce cost, simplify networks and share resources. DASAN Network
Solutions fronthaul solutions are based on Cloud-RAN (C-RAN) architecture,
where a Cloud BBU(Base-Band Unit) is shared by various stations,
improving CAPEX and OPEX, while also enabling mobile traffic offloads from
small cells to the mobile core network. As more subscribers demand higher
bandwidth, fronthaul solutions have become essential in delivering data
smoothly.
DASAN Network Solutions NG-PON2 OLT aggregates CPRI traffic from LTE
RU (Radio Unit), transfers to LTE BBU (Base Band Unit), which delivers
small cell offloading traffic to the mobile core. Moreover, the mixture of macro
cell and small cell solutions require a product with low latency and high
capacity covering legacy fiber infra-network. DASAN Network Solutions
NG-PON2 OLT can release the bottle-neck points on aggregation networks
using ODN (Optical Distribution Network) while reducing CAPEX and OPEX.
DASAN Network Solutions WDM solution is a verified solution among
Korean mobile operators, with a strong point of having small footprint.

Fronthaul
Backhaul

eNB

eNB

Mobile Network
(Trust)

S-G/W

eNB

BBU
POOI

CPRI

GE/10GE

CPRI

ePDG

RT

RT

GE/10GE

CPRI

RT

GE/10GE
TWDM-PON

WDM
Broadband

RT

GE/10GE

(Untrust)

CO RT
NG-PON2 OLT

Splitter
Splitter

CO : Central Office
RT : Remote Terminal
eNB : eNodeB
WDM : Wavelength Division Multiplexing
CPRI : Common Public Radio Interface
GE : Gigabit Ethernet
TWDM-PON : Time and Wavelength Division
Multiplexed Passive Optical Networks
BBU Pool : Base Band Unit Pool
S-G/W : Serving Gateway
ePDG : Enhanced Packet Data Gateway

RT

Splitter
n

TWDM-PON

RT

RT

TWDM-PON

RT

RT

n-1

Midhaul
RT

Fronthaul network
Backhaul network
Midhaul network

Small Cell

RT

GE/10GE

Small Cell

Wi-Fi

About DASAN Network Solutions


DASAN Network Solutions is a leading global network solutions provider that established end-to-end capabilities across the Carrier and Enterprise markets. The main solutions are
Fiber-to-the-home (FTTH), Mobile Backhaul, Ethernet Switch and Wi-Fi solutions. As a main supplier to KT, SK broadband and LG U+, DASAN Network Solutions has been continuously
expanding global business followed by the companys success in Japan, Taiwan and Vietnam.

For more information, visit DASAN Networks on http://dasannetworks.com/en.

16034SmallCellsAsiaAdvert_Layout102/04/201513:52Page1

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20 - 21 April 2015

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Singapore

Oering an unprecedented opportunity to hear how


Asian operators are rolling out some of the largest
Wi-Fi deployments in the world and what the next
steps will be

www.carrierwifiasia.com

Asia

Putting the spotlight on small cell deployments case


studies, technical development, unique deployment
scenarios and strategies, and monetizing small cells
through location based services and applications. In
exclusive partnership with the Small Cell Forum.

Asia

www.smallcellsasia.com

Putting the spotlight on small cell deployments case


studies, technical development, unique deployment
scenarios and strategies, and monetizing small cells
through location based services and applications. In
exclusive partnership with the Small Cell Forum.

Mobile

www.mobilebackhaulasia.com

Residential

Rural

Venues

Enterprise

Organised by

Urban

Research and Consulting Scope of Netmanias


99

Services

Mobile
Network

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

14

eMBMS/Mobile IPTV
CDN/Mobile CDN
Transparent Caching
BSS/OSS
Cable TPS
Voice/Video Quality
IMS
Policy Control/PCRF
IPTV/TPS
LTE/LTE Advanced
Mobile WiMAX
Carrier Wi-Fi
LTE Backhaul/Fronthaul
Data Center Migration

Wireline
Network

Carrier Ethernet
FTTH
Data Center
Metro Ethernet
MPLS
IP Routing

Visit http://www.netmanias.com to view and download more technical documents.

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About Netmanias (www.netmanias.com)
NMC Consulting Group (Netmanias) is an advanced and professional network consulting company, specializing in IP
network areas (e.g., FTTH, Metro Ethernet and IP/MPLS), service areas (e.g., IPTV, IMS and CDN), and wireless network
areas (e.g., Mobile WiMAX, LTE and Wi-Fi) since 2002.

Locations
Headquarter

Branch Office

2F, Namyeong Building


730-13, Yeoksam-dong,
Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-921,
Korea

3832 NE 88th Street


Seattle, WA 98115
USA

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